{\rtf1{\fonttbl

{\f2 Arial;}
{\f3 Arial;}
{\f4 Arial;}
{\f5 Arial;}
{\f6 Times New Roman;}
{\f7 Times New Roman;}
{\f8 Arial;}
{\f9 Arial;}
{\f10 Times New Roman;}
{\f11 Times New Roman;}
{\f12 Arial;}
{\f13 Arial;}
{\f14 Arial;}
{\f1000000 Times New Roman;}
}{\colortbl;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue255;
\red0\green0\blue255;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue255;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue0;
\red0\green0\blue255;
}\viewkind1\viewscale100\margl0\margr0\margt0\margb0\deftab80\dntblnsbdb\expshrt
n\paperw11900\paperh15860{\shp
{\*\shpinst\shpleft1080\shptop14800\shpright10700\shpbottom15000\shpwr3\shpfblwt
xt0\shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz296\shplid0
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip
ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101
01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0
001108000c025e03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001
02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221
31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829
2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a
838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6
c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003
0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407
05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015
6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859
5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6
a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea
f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef2fc7be3bf097c2ff0478bbe23f8f75b
b6f0df823c09e1cd63c5be2ef10de47732da689e1cf0fd84faa6b1aadcc56705cddc9058585b4f73
2a5b5bcf3b246445148e429fcedff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981f
f0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa
7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff0082
3f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004
c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e6
3e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff0
47f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981f

f477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981
ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207f
f31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c0
1ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff0
4c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63
e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def8
03ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83
fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1
401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff
0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c
01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f
41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc
40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1d
ef803ff047f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e8
3fe0981ff477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd
1401f981ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe
08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303
fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fa3f
e1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00ff00c11f
c40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0ff008260
7fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e6
07fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc
7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe0
8fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc130
3fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff9
8fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be0
0ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff8
2607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e
607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffc
c7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3
bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d
07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f881ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff
0098fa3fe1f41ff04c0ffa3bdf007fe08fe207ff0031f5fa7f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff477be00
ff00c11fc40ffe63e8ff0087d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff00823f881ffcc7d7e9fd1401f981ff000fa0
ff0082607fd1def803ff00047f103ff98fa3fe1f41ff0004c0ff00a3bdf007fe08fe207ff31f5fa7
f45007e607fc3e83fe0981ff00477be00ffc11fc40ff00e63e8ff87d07fc1303fe8ef7c01ff823f8
81ff00cc7d7e9fd1401f981ff0fa0ff82607fd1def803ff047f103ff0098fafbe7e12fc5bf873f1d
be1df863e2cfc25f14d8f8dbe1df8cad6eaf7c31e29d361beb7b1d5ed6cb52bdd22ea6b78752b4b1
be458752d3ef6d585c5ac2c5e0765568ca3b7a351401ffd9}}}}}
{\shp
{\*\shpinst\shpleft1080\shptop1180\shpright1260\shpbottom2800\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0
\shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz5\shplid0
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip
ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101
01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0
0011080066000b03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001
02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221
31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829
2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a
838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6
c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003
0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407
05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015
6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859
5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6
a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea

Griffith University. policy has been conceptualized \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charsca lex100 as a program of action. There is \line \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 now a considerable body of theoretical and empirical \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 work that views the nature of planning and p olicy devel-\line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 opment as \u8216?\u8216?far more complex. All rights reser ved. \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 (1997)\ul0\nosupers . 1992\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ) ha s been criticized by policy researchers \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 from different theoretical standpoints (e. usually a gove rnment or government \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 agency. dynamic.. Hong Kong. Traditionally. neolib-\line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex101 eral. QLD. This tidy linea r process in which policy pro-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 gresses from on e stage to another and where policy is \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 defin ed as whatever governments choose to do. or not to \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charsca lex100 do (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Dye. consciously articula ted by an \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 authoritative body. and interactive \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 than any of the traditional linear or staged models suggest\u8217?\u8217? \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex102 (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Walford. liberal.g. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 2005\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : xii).\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Taylor\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\ nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . for example\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f 7\fs20 Ball\u8217?s (1993. Australia \par\pard\ql \li1418\sb150\sl-184\slmult0 \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs16 ã 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Any policy has usually been pre-\line \up0 \expnd tw-1\charscalex100 sented as a \u8216?\u8216?rational plan. People\u8217? s Republic of China \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 M Pavlova. (1997)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 m odels.\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5911\colsr160\colno2\colw5689\ colsr160\ql \li1179\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1179\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \ par\pard\ql \li1181\sb178\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 \ul0\nosup ersub\cf4\f5\fs22 Introduction\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri140\sb237\sl-239\slmult0\fi 3 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 Planning and policy d evelopment in any organization \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 can be analyze d and understood through a number of \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 approac hes. Hong Kong Institute of Education. codified in tex t such as law or regulation which \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 articulate s clear expectations for behaviour\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Ba scia. The complexity of the process has \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal ex100 become an important feature of a number of well-known \line \up0 \expndtw4\charscalex100 frameworks for policy analysis.f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fefe28af28f8efff002457e2c7fd93cf17 ff00e98afabf19bc19ff0022d69bff006f9ffa5f75401fb33f1dff00e48afc58ff00b279e2ff00fd 315f57e337833fe45ad37fedf3ff004beeabf667e3bffc915f8b1ff64f3c5fff00a62beafc66f067 fc8b5a6ffdbe7fe97dd5007eccfc77ff00922bf163fec9e78bff00f4c57d5f8cde0cff00916b4dff 00b7cffd2fbaafd99f8eff00f2457e2c7fd93cf17ffe98afabf19bc19ff22d69bff6f9ff00a5f754 01fb33f1dffe48afc58ffb279e2fff00d315f57e337833fe45ad37fedf3ff4beeabf667e3bff00c9 15f8b1ff0064f3c5ff00fa62beafc66f067fc8b5a6ff00dbe7fe97dd5007eccfc77ff922bf163fec 9e78bfff004c57d5f8cde0cff916b4dffb7cff00d2fbaafd99f8efff002457e2c7fd93cf17ff00e9 8afabf19bc19ff0022d69bff006f9ffa5f75401fb33f1dff00e48afc58ff00b279e2ff00fd315f57 e337833fe45ad37fedf3ff004beeabf667e3bffc915f8b1ff64f3c5fff00a62beafc66f067fc8b5a 6ffdbe7fe97dd5007ef06ada4e9daee97a8e8babda457fa56ad6573a76a36338260bbb2bc89e0b9b 694295631cd0bbc6e0302558e083cd7995afc04f83b65025b5afc3fd020822dde5c4915c055deed2 3633704fcceecc79ea4d145007ffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg1}{\bkmkend Pg1}\par\pard\qj \li1416\sb0\sl-320\sl mult0 \par\pard\qj\li1416\sb0\sl-320\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1416\sb0\sl-320\slmu lt0 \par\pard\qj\li1416\ri2160\sb15\sl-320\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs27 Planning and Policy Development for Technical Vocati onal \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 Education and Training Systems \par\pard\qj \l i1418\ri3352\sb103\sl-220\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\c f2\f3\fs18 R Maclean. Brisbane. 2003\ul0\nosupersub\cf 5\f6\fs20 : 2). \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 1994)\ul0\nosupe rsub\cf5\f6\fs20 and the\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Taylor\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\ f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 .. or post-structural approaches). positivist.\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 .

or nonformal/informal \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscal ex100 learning as a leading criterion for classifications. For example. text (broadl y refer to \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the content of the policy). 1994)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs2 0 model of policy as \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 text and policy as a di scourse provides another way to \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 understand t he complexity of policymaking. is v alue-laden.\par\pard\ql \li6074\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li6074\s b0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li23\sb82\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex107 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs22 Complexity of TVET\par\pard\ql \li23\sb125\sl230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 Scope\par\p ard\qj \li20\ri1088\sb122\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosu persub\cf5\f6\fs20 The great diversity of TVET systems worldwide illustrate \lin e \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 a range of policy options that have been used and are \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 available to shape and reform them. Olssen\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\ f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . and it \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex1 00 results in unintended and intended consequences. 2006. 3). res earchers have considered a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 number of factors . and c onsequences (differences \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 in implementation). and political factors that give rise to an issue \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 emerging on the policy agenda).. Policy-\line \up0 \expndtw-4 \charscalex100 making for TVET is mainly a state activity and the state is \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 regarded as a complex and nonunitary entity of co mpet-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ing parts that adds an additional aspec t to any analysis.\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Bell and \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 Stevenson. princ iples. including place of learning (typically. In trying to classify \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 existing TVET systems.. \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex102 (2004)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 in developing Ball\u8217?s ap proach argue that: \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?Education p olicy must be contextualised both nationally \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 and globally as a transformative discourse that can have \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex100 real social effects in response to contemporary crises of \line \up 0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 survival and sustainability\u8217?\u8217? (p.g.\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Olssen. combinatio ns of these patterns across the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 above dimensi ons can be found in particular countries \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 and all these dimensions should be accounted for when \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal ex100 undertaking planning and policy development in particu-\line \up0 \expndtw -3\charscalex100 lar countries. and theoretical \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 justifications. Both frame-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 wor ks are widely used in the literature (e. 2004\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). in teracts with policies in other \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 fields. its i mplementation is never straightforward. type of regulation (government. scale. such as scope.g. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 social.\par \pard\qj \li1179\ri141\sb1\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Th e purpose of this article is not to analyze the differ-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\cha rscalex100 ences between the various approaches to policy develop-\line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex107 ment and policy analysis but to explore a number of \line \ up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 important considerations in terms of technical and voca-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 tional education and training (TVET) pol icy develop-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 ment. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 voc ational schools and the workplace/enterprise work-\line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscal ex100 shops). exists \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 in particular contexts.\par\pard\ql \li6074\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard . 1995\ul 0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ).\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Greinert. and tra-\line \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex101 dition. market.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1 089\sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi239 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 In reality. \line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscale x94 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . see e.. The point that we are making is that\par\pard\column \qj \li6071\sb0\sl-239\sl mult0 \par\pard\qj \li6071\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri1088\sb218\sl -239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 TVET policy is multidimensional.ub\cf5\f6\fs20 focus on three aspects of policy: context (economic. \ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Ball\u8217?s (1993.

provision of training \li ne \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 places. Systematic reform is built \line \up0 \expndtw-4\char scalex100 upon the assumption that changing most or all elements of \line \up0 \ expndtw-3\charscalex100 the system is more likely to lead to TVET improvement. assessment and \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 certifica tion for achievements.\ql \li6074\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li23\sb26\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex102 \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 Scale\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1087\sb 122\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 Ano ther component of complexity in policy formulation \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charsca lex100 for TVET can be related to the scale of the policy within \line \up0 \exp ndtw-1\charscalex100 (any) TVET system. \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex101 legislation. financing. \ par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone \ql \li10315\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li10315 \sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li10315\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li10315 \sb140\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 469 \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh15860{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1200\shptop800\shpright10800\shpbottom980\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz297\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}} {\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}} {\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0 001108000b025d03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001 02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221 31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829 2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a 838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6 c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003 0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407 05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015 6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859 5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6 a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef83c43ae59786340d73c4ba941ac5ce9 de1ed1f53d72fedbc3de1ed7fc5dafdc59693653dfdd41a1f853c29a66b5e29f13eb12c16f247a67 87bc35a36adafeb57ad069ba36997fa8dcdb5acbf2c7fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35 f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57 b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff 00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0 d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff 00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc1 8ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1 401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7e . such as qualification stan dards and specializa-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 tion. \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 improvements can b e made to the system as a whole which \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 is kno wn as a systematic reform. governance. methods of curriculum \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscal ex100 development. articulation with general education. labor-market analysis. institutional arr angements \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 for delivery. access and admission. Improvements within a TVET sys-\line \up 0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 tem can be carried out in terms of a particular eleme nt of \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 the system. information and guidance. Alternatively. special target groups. and.

public service employment and remunera-\line . \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 includin g general education policy (both school and uni-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex 100 versity). TVET is situated at the border \line \up0 \expndtw-1 \charscalex100 between education and work. \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 the soci al organisation of work and in the forms of \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charsc alex100 employer and trade union organisation\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6 \f7\fs20 Kraak. human resources \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 and [TV]ET agencie s of the state.VET System\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6025 \colsr160\colno2\colw5575\colsr160\ql \li1292\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l i1294\sb152\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\f s20 Coherence\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri141\sb121\sl-239\slmult0\fi3 \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex101 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 In planning TVET systems and in develo ping policies. To contribute successfully \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 to economic development TVET policy must outline: \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 \u8216?\u8216?coherent and integrated changes in a range of related \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 institutions. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 coherence across sectors such as the interests of different \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 institutions involved and different policies should be \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 0 taken into consideration. vocational \line \up0 \expnd tw-2\charscalex100 rehabilitation. adult education policy. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 3). youth policy. including the economic.df5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf 6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347f c370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7 edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00 a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f2 07fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35 f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57 b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff 00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0 d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff 00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc1 8ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1 401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7e df5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf 6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347f c370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7 edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00 a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f2 07fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f497817c6ba3fc44f0a693e32d02cfc5ba7e91ad25 d496767e3af00f8efe17f8ae15b3bebad3a61ab7813e25f873c25e38d01dee2ce592d63d77c3da6c 97d62f6baa592dc6997d657771d6d1401fffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg2}{\bkmkend Pg2}\par\pard\li1292\sb0\sl-207\slmult 0\par\pard\li1292\sb203\sl-207\slmult0\fi0\tx1947 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \ ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 470\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Vocational Educa tion and Training .\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri142\ sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 A coherent approach to TVE T policy development \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 needs to relate it to a range of other policies and issues. the labour market.

Welmond. many recent studies have shown that \line \up0 \ expndtw-2\charscalex100 globalization-driven policy developments are sometimes \ line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 so sharply modified by national contexts that the output \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 they promise would vary greatly ( \ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Rhoten.\par\pard\ql \ li6185\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li6185\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \ li22\sb69\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\f s22 Principles of Policy Planning\par\pard\qj \li20\ri975\sb237\sl-239\slmult0 \ . \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charsca lex100 2002. for the policy formulation. TVET policy shou ld be closely \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 linked with other policy areas and institutions. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and economic development. in particu-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 lar to those de aling with education.\par\pard\ql \li1294\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li129 4\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1294\sb33\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex105 \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 Globalization\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri143\s b121\sl-239\slmult0\fi3 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 The strategic direction of much of education policy is \line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex103 frequently justified as a means to enhanced economic \line \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex103 development leading to a more competitive economy. economy. the specific context \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 of a particular country should be tak en into account to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 identify an adequate respo nse to immediate and future \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 labor-market nee ds. economic policy. Astiz\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 .. the more opportunity there is for policy variation at \ up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 the local level\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\ f7\fs20 Bell and Stevenson. (\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f 11\fs18 Walker and Dimmock. 2000. \line \u p0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Therefore. and labor-mark et and employment policies \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 (\ul0\nosupersu b\cf6\f7\fs20 Kronner. and increased wealth. 2002\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ) if implemented in another context. What is required are \ up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the analyses of the state. . \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\ fs20 and the particular way in which restructuring at the\par\pard\column \qj \ li6185\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri973\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \ex pndtw-3\charscalex100 micro-level shapes policy development at an institutional \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 level\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 B ell and Stevenson. private-secto r and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 enterprise-promotion policies. It is important to \u8216?\u8216?identify that way \line \up0 \expndtw-7\cha rscalex100 in which global pressures have driven state restructuring\ul0\nosuper sub\cf8\f9\fs20 . Thus. policy and practice. employment. Thus a \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 relatively small number of scholars and policy makers \line \up0 \expndtw-2\cha rscalex100 representing less than 8% of the world\u8217?s population pur-\line \ up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 port to speak for the rest. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 greater productivity. work.\up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 tion conditions. . 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). indus trial development \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 policies. Investment \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 in education and training is believed to prov ide the key \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 to national competitiveness. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 30). and models of p olicy \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 development that recognize different cultural contexts. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 33). the more \up0 \ expndtw-1\charscalex100 \u8216?loosely-coupled\u8217? state structures \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex100 are. Glo balization processes and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 the pressures for gl obal uniformity have the tendency \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 to strength en the Anglo-American influence on policy \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 de velopment and raise concerns as to the appropriateness \line \up0 \expndtw-3\cha rscalex100 of such an occurrence:\par\pard\qj \li1531\ri381\sb116\sl-238\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs18 Anglo-American schol ars continue to exert a dispropor-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 tionate inf luence on theory. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?Generally. 2002\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs18 : 15)\par\pard\qj \ li1292\ri140\sb121\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 \ul0\nosupe rsub\cf5\f6\fs20 However.

including to the \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh15860{\s hp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1080\shptop800\shpright10700\shpbottom980\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz297\shplid2 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}} {\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}} {\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101 . p. 15)\par\pard\qj \li438\ri1214\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?Policy should be directed to ensuring high quality s o \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 as to exclude discrimination between the differen t \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 educational streams. technological \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 and socio-economic changes. if possible. p. \u8217?\u8217? (para 11. applying to all aspects \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 of technical and vocational education. Thi s planning should \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 also be coordinated with current and projected training \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 action and the evolution o f the world of work in both \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 urban and rural areas. The document states that policy should \line \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex108 be directed to both the structural and the qualitative \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 improvement of TVET. In this respect. training and education and vocational guidance. 16)\par\pard\qj \li438\ri1214\sb2\sl-238\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?In order to ensure quality. Scientific and \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex100 Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International \line \ up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex91 Labour Organization (ILO):\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs2 0 Technical and Vocational Educa-\line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex97 tion and Tr aining for the Twenty-First Century\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 (\ul0\nosupersub \cf6\f7\fs20 UNESCO \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 and ILO. economic and social trends. responsible national autho-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 rities should establish criteria and standards. subject to \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 periodic review and evaluation. principles for policy planning \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and a dministration have been established in the joint doc-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\chars calex100 ument by the United Nations Educational. The \line \up0 \expndtw-3 \charscalex100 UNESCO and ILO document presents five principles:\par\pard\qj \li 438\ri1213\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf 9\f10\fs18 \u8216?\u8216?Planning should respond to national and.up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 At the level of global policy. The partnership between the \line \ up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 government and the other interested partners must \ u8216?\u8216?create \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 a coherent legislative f ramework to enable the launching \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 of a nationa l strategy for change\u8217?\u8217? (para 9 a. 2002\ul0\nosupe rsub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex100 considering the provisions of modern information \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 technology in education regardless of whether these \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 activities take place within the system of formal educa-\line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 tion or outside it\u8217?\u8217 ? (para 13. 13). \ up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 regional. p. \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and for different types of skills and k nowledge in such \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 a way that technical and vocationa l education may \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 easily adapt to the evolving scient ific. p. to project ch anges \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 in demand for different classes of goods and services. 14)\par\pard\qj \li438\ri1213\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?Policies for the structural improvement of technical \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 and vocational education shoul d be established within \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 the framework of bro ad policies designed to implement \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the princi ple of lifelong education through creation of \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10 0 open. flexible and complementary structures of educa-\line \up0 \expndtw-1\cha rscalex100 tion. special ef forts \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 should be made to ensure that national techni cal and \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 vocational education seeks to meet interna tional stan-\line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 dards\u8217?\u8217? (para 14.

01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0 001108000b025e03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001 02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221 31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829 2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a 838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6 c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003 0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407 05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015 6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859 5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6 a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef77c4be20b0f0a787b5bf13ea906b775 a6f87f4abfd66fedbc35e1af11f8cfc437169a75b4977710e89e11f07e95aef8afc4daac9144c961 a1786f45d575bd52e4c765a669f797934303fcb7ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff4 34d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00 f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000d c3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7 d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84 afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007 c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff 00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84af daff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1f f0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff00 15edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f06 3fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45 007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015 edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe8 4afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff4 34d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff 00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000d c3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434 d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f1 5edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3 f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7 ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84af daff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c8 1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00 434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afda ff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0 dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015 edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063f e84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f4500 7c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015ed fb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84a fdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434 d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00 f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3 f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7 d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15e dfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f0 63fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff 00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afda ff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81f f0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff0043 4d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff 00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc 3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015ed .

16 )\par\pard\qj \li1597\ri381\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \u8 216?\u8216?National policy should foster research related to \line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex100 technical and vocational education. The high-skills thesis has caught t he \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 imagination of policymakers around the wo rld (p. and economic policies can be unde rpinned \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 by the theoretical arguments of the high-skills thesis. It \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 was developed through the wo rk of a UK team in the late \line \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex100 1980s and 1990s (see\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Finegold and Soskice. 31). \li ne \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 labor market. with particular \li ne \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 emphasis on its potential within lifelong learn ing. These principle s provide a useful \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 list of general rules that should be used creatively by \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 governments. This research should \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 be carried out at n ational and institutional levels. Brown\ul0\nosupersub\cf 7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . 1996. p. and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 directed to its improvement and rele vance to the pre-\line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 vailing socio-economic cont ext.\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri140\sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \e xpndtw-2\charscalex100 The idea of an alignment between education. 1988. They \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 argued that diversity and variability . Ashton and Green. training. p. which can be \l ine \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 achieved through structural change. com-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 bined with what is de scribed as the joined-up approach \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 (\ul0\nosu persub\cf6\f7\fs20 Brown. the level of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 effecti veness of their application will be different for \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscal ex100 different countries.\par\pard\qj \li117 9\ri142\sb119\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub \cf5\f6\fs20 These principles highlight the importance of national \line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex103 policies aimed at the quality of training. These prin ciples and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 approaches represent a traditional way of interpreting \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 policy as a rational pl an of action. with a state-guided \line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex102 labor market.. as \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 well as through individual initiative\u8217?\u8217? (para16. The first set of theories relates to the structural \l ine \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 reform/policy formulation and the second set t o the the-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ories that shape our understanding of how humans learn. Finegold. 16).fb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe8 4afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d2be09f18e91f103c2da478c342b3f1558693adc334f6569e36 f02f8dfe1a78a61482eee2cdd757f037c47f0f7853c6be1f99a6b691e1b7d7bc3fa6dc5c5ab5bdfd bc52d8dd5adc4dd551401fffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg3}{\bkmkend Pg3}\par\pard\li1815\sb0\sl-207\slmult 0\par\pard\li1815\sb203\sl-207\slmult0\fi0\tx10315 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 Planning and Policy Development for Technical Vocati onal Education and Training Systems\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 471\par\par d\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5911\colsr160\colno2\colw5689\colsr160\qj \li1179\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1597\ri381\sb126\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs18 greatest extent possible. 2001\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ) . Singapore might find these principles to \lin e \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 be more useful than other countries where the lab or \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 market is less regulated. therefore.. non-formal education\u8217?\u8217? (para \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 15.\p ar\pard\ql \li1179\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1179\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \p ar\pard\ql \li1181\sb93\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\nosuper sub\cf11\f12\fs22 Theoretical Frameworks\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb237\sl-239\ slmult0\fi3 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 This sectio n discusses a possible basis for theoretical \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 frameworks that could provide a foundation for TVET \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex104 policy formulation in both developed and developing \line \up0 \expndtw-3 \charscalex100 countries. 2001\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). \line \up 0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 1991.\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f 7\fs20 . For example.

\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 industrial. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 37).\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs 20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Thus.\ul0\no supersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Lauder and Brown \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 (2006) \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 identified four different types of labor market \li ne \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 structures. minimal stat e intervention in TVET. and labor \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 markets. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Any change of one variable without cor responding shifts \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 in the other institutional variables is unlikely to lead to \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 long-term c hanges in the social and economic system as \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 a whole.g. F inegold (1991) explores the concept of equilib-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1 00 rium in terms of the self-reinforcing nature of the institu-\line \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex100 tional networks that support the continuation of a given \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 skills-formation system and economic development path. where high general skills are \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 provided by TVET and specific skilling is undertaken \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 by corporations. An occupational labor market where education \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 and training are closely related to the labor market.. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1 00 Joining up is essentially an argument about the necessity \line \up0 \expndtw -4\charscalex100 for educational reforms to interlock with macroeconomic. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Finegold\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9 \fs20 et al. specific to Singapore where \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the state encourages high-end production and innovatio n \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 and matches skills to the demand of the mul tinational \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 corporations) market structure. incoherent \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 TVET policies.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1088\sb1\sl-239\slmult0\fi239 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 A high-skil ls policy has been the center of economic.in economic perfor-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mance are underpinned by social. an \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 internal labor market . 1988\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 22). and educational policies in many Western coun-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc alex100 tries. and the state-guided labor market \line \up0 \expndtw-2\c harscalex100 which is a demand-led (e. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 They included uncoordinated state policies. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 so cial. Using this concept. 2001\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ) demon\line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 strates that there is some presence of high skills in Britain. due to differences in context \u8216?\u8216?there is no \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 one recipe or blueprint for developing a hig h-skills econ-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 omy\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupe rsub\cf6\f7\fs20 Lauder and Brown. joined-up or crosssectoral policy coordination and \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 complementa rity are associated with a high-skills thesis. and historical \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 factors. cultural. However. Al l three types of labor \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 markets have in commo n a close integration of TVET and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 the labor m .\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 viewed Britain as being typical of an LSE\par\pard\column \qj \li6071\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri1087\sb1 34\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 society where \u8216?\u8216?the majority of enterprises are staffed by \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 poorl y trained managers and workers produce low quality \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charsca lex100 goods and services\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Finegold an d Soskice.. low educational le vel of the majority of \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 workers. LSE \line \up0 \expndtw-4\char scalex100 institutional factors identified by Finegold discourage and \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 constrain any movement toward a high-skill alternative . A nother analysis (see\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Brown. and labor-market reforms so that the c ombined \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 impact would influence the outcome i n a significant and \line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex97 positive way. Finegold identified two ideal \line \up0 \expndtw-5 \charscalex100 types of economic and education/training (ET) systems: an \line \ up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 institutional framework based on low-skills equilib rium \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 (LSE) and one based on high-skills equil ibrium (HSE).

Each type of labor market influences policy \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 develo pment in TVET and the type of skills that are \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 emphasized in the policy. traini ng and \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the labour market is often problemati c. bipolar \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 high-skills/lowskills society \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 (UK). The fourth type of market. however. If one accepts that the long-\line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex109 term aim of the economy is to achieve an HSE and \line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex100 capacity building. and hybrid and \par\pard\s ect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh15860{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1200\shptop800\shpright10800\shpbottom980\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz379\shplid3 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}} {\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}} {\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0 001108000b025d03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001 02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221 31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829 2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a 838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6 c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003 0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407 05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015 6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859 5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6 a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef83c43ae59786340d73c4ba941ac5ce9 de1ed1f53d72fedbc3de1ed7fc5dafdc59693653dfdd41a1f853c29a66b5e29f13eb12c16f247a67 87bc35a36adafeb57ad069ba36997fa8dcdb5acbf2c7fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35 f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57 b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff 00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0 d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff . and \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 the flexibil ity is numerical. for example. \u8216?\u8216?in which the fit between education.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1088 \sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi239 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 Each country can be co nceptualized within this \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 framework. then contributing to achieving such a \line \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 goal should be seen as an important function of TVET \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 policy development.arket. there is consider-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 able time spent in job s earch and work is insecure. Some authors are less critical of flexible labor \line \up0 \exp ndtw-2\charscalex100 market. a flexible \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 labor market. is characterized by a high degree of individ-\line \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 ualism. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5 \f6\fs20 : 39). there is agreement that more emphasis \lin e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 on the development of generic skills and good cr edential-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ing systems are important for this type of labor market to \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 be successful. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 developmental high-s kills society (Singapore). high-skills society (Germany). so that employers can hire and \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscale x100 fire as economic conditions change\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs 20 Lauder and Brown.

and high-skills soci-\line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex102 ety (South Africa) (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Brown. the ty pical \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 situation is that policies that are ta rgeted at something else \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 include learning at work within their scope. are \line \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex100 seldom the central focus of policy. In the process. \u8216?\u8216?Rather.VET System\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6025 \colsr160\colno2\colw5575\colsr160\qj \li1292\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \l i1292\ri142\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 \ul0\nosupersub\cf 5\f6\fs20 differentiated low-. \up0 \expndtw-1\cha rscalex100 2001. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex106 TVET policy developers could use this analysis as a \up0 \expndtw-1\char scalex100 starting point for policy formulation.00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc1 8ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1 401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7e df5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf 6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347f c370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7 edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00 a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f2 07fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35 f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57 b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff 00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0 d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff 00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc1 8ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1 401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7e df5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf 6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347f c370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7 edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00 a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f2 07fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f497817c6ba3fc44f0a693e32d02cfc5ba7e91ad25 d496767e3af00f8efe17f8ae15b3bebad3a61ab7813e25f873c25e38d01dee2ce592d63d77c3da6c 97d62f6baa592dc6997d657771d6d1401fffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg4}{\bkmkend Pg4}\par\pard\li1292\sb0\sl-207\slmult 0\par\pard\li1292\sb203\sl-207\slmult0\fi0\tx1947 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \ ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 472\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Vocational Educa tion and Training . Kraak.\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri141\sb1\s l-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Theories about human learning have shaped our views \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 of the conditions nece ssary to support curriculum develop-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 ment and instruction. as such.. However. it should be noted that \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex10 0 learning in TVET as well as learning at work.\ul0 \nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 le arning at work is usually assumed to be. intermediate-. in an uncritical \line \up0 \expndtw-7\ charscalex100 and \u8216?common sense\u8217? way. simply the acquisition of disc rete \line \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex100 items of knowledge and skills\u8217?\u8 .

based on the provi-\line \up0 \e xpndtw-2\charscalex100 sion of \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?rich learning environments\u8217?\u8217? \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex94 (p. dynamic and \line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex100 adaptive framework that gives us a fresh perspective on \li ne \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 working and learning in contemporary envir onment\u8217?\u8217? \line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex96 (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\ fs20 Staron\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 .217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Hager.. According to Staron\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 et al\ul0\nosu persub\cf5\f6\fs20 .\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri142\sb2\sl-238\slmult0\ fi236 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 These two types of theories.\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Staron\ul0\nos upersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . based on employees taking per-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca lex100 sonal responsibility for their learning. e. Rather than a model or a set of \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 procedures. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 argued that life-based learning (not work-based learning) \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 was required for v ocational education focusing on capa-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 bility d evelopment and consideration of the learner as \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 3 a whole person. Staron\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 . according to Staron\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 . \up0 \ex pndtw-3\charscalex100 49). 2005\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 830). Thus..: \u8216?\u8216?performance.. This broad interpretation of learning views \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 TVET as \u8216?\u8216?a kn owledge-based industry. \par\pard\qj \li1292\ri142\sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex10 0 Recent research on TVET (see. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ): the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 current period is one of rapid change where new ways of \line \up0 \expndtw-4\c harscalex100 working and living are required. where knowledge \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 is i ts core business\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Staron\ul0\nosupersu b\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . 49). Staron\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\ f9\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ..g. It is adaptive. 2006 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 27).. one that relates to the \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 economic aim of achieving an HSE and the ot her that \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 focuses on the learner in coherent ways co uld provide a \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 useful framework for policy developm ent. based on \line \up0 \expndtw-3\char scalex100 reflexive practice and uses any strategy appropriate to the \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 task\u8217?\u8217? (p.. 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs 20 : 24).\par\pard\ql \li1292\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1294\sb219\sl-253\sl mult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs22 Cases Around th e World\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri141\sb238\sl-238\slmult0\fi3 \up0 \expndtw-5\chars calex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 Policy development as a complex and multifa ceted process \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 can be identified through the p roduct. the foc us of an ecological approach is orien-\line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 tation and thus \u8216?\u8216?it offers a complex. \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 and we do that by adapting. \line \up0 \expndtw4\charscalex100 when there is change (to work or life) this is regarded as a \li ne \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 disturbance and we need to work to achieve equi librium. life-based \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 learning is a win-win situation with benefits to both \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 em ployee and employer. the policy docu-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 ment. argue that a \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 101 learning ecologies metaphor can be used to understand \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex100 how we might work and live successfully. As argued in \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 the\ul0\nosupersub\cf 8\f9\fs20 Life Based Learning\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 report (\ul0\nosupers ub\cf6\f7\fs20 Staron\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs 20 . 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5 \f6\fs20 ). which \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 provides. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 f ocus on the tendency of ecological environments to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex102 move to equilibrium as the key to the metaphor. diverse. self-facilitated. and the process in which implementation is as\par\pard\column \qj \li6185\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \p ar\pard\qj \li20\ri972\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 import . growth \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 and op portunity.

9). Two examples from devel-\lin e \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 oping countries relate to policy as discourse tha t gradu-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 ally builds over time and sets bounda ries to what actors \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 are allowed to think and do. This policy is closely related t o a \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 high-skills thesis. with \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 an ever-growing dep endence on more highly skilled \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 workers\u8 217?\u8217? (1.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri974\sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi239 \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 The first example is the English participation policy \line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex92 (2007).\par\pard\qj \li20\ri974\sb1\sl -239\slmult0\fi239 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 This section examines four poli cies across developed \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 and developing countrie s to illustrate the points dis-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 cussed above. the Youth Matters reforms. because of the benefits tha t higher attainment \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 and longer participation bring. Measures across different areas al ready \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 being implemented in England include: r eforms to the \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 14-19 curriculum. It is also an example of a policy that \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 addresses one issue across a number of sectors and posi-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 tions it within some existing policies.how policies emerge. The goal of the policy is: \u8216?\u8216?to stop \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 young people dropping out of education or tra ining \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 before 18.ant as formulation. Discourses. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 11) and the aim is to reach 90% \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 participation in education or training among 17-year-\li ne \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 olds by 2015.5. the y constitute both subjectivity and power \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 rel ations\u8217?\u8217? (p. the Education \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Maintena nce Allowance.\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7 \fs20 Smyth (1993)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 has empha-\line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex105 sized the need to recognize the pivotal role of central \up0 \expnd tw-6\charscalex100 governments in shaping policy. then. to th e economy and to society\u8217?\u8217? (p. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 2007\ ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ) argues for the new policy on the basis that \u8216? \u8216?the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 structure of the economy has chan ged dramatically. \u8216?\u8216? embody meaning and social \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 relationships. \u8216?\u8216? It is important to understand the context in which \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 policy development takes place . Employers are playing an important part in \line \up0 \expndtw-1 \charscalex100 providing training or releasing young people from work \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 to undertake training. According to\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Bell and Stevenson \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 (2006)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 . \line \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex107 They illustrate a capacity-building thesis within the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 lifelong learning paradigm. 2). 11). \u8216?\u8216?which will increasingly demand m ore highly skilled \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 employees\u8217?\u8217? ( 2. 25). \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 04 how they form and take shape. changes to K ey Stage 3.2. p. to the individual young \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 person. and how they become \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex1 00 lived through the actions of those engaged in the policy-\line \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 development process\u8217?\u8217? (p. and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 others. The pressure of \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 glo balization is presented through the request to increase \line \up0 \expndtw-4\ch . p. The English document:\ul0\nosupersub \cf8\f9\fs20 Raising Expectations: Staying \line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex96 i n Education and Training Post-16\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 presented to Parlia ment \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 in March 2007 (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs 20 Department for Education and Skills. Continuing \line \up0 \expndtw-1 \charscalex100 in education or training is seen as important to the econ-\line \ up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 omy. as\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Ball \line \up0 \expndtw-1\ charscalex100 (1990)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 summarizes them. Two examples from England and Australia \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 rel ate to policy as text or the content of the policy itself. a major expan-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 sion of capacity in work-based learning.

arscalex100 competitiveness of the economy.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri973\sb0\sl-239\s lmult0\fi239 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Since the 1990s there has been a simi lar concern across \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Australia that young peop le are not gaining the right skills \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 to compe te in the global economy.\ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs20 Australia\u8217?s National \line \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex89 Strategy for Voc ational Education and Training \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex88 2004-2010 \par\par d\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh15860{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1080\shptop800\shpright10700\shpbottom980\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz310\shplid4 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}} {\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}} {\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0 001108000b025e03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001 02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221 31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829 2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a 838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6 c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003 0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407 05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015 6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859 5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6 a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef77c4be20b0f0a787b5bf13ea906b775 a6f87f4abfd66fedbc35e1af11f8cfc437169a75b4977710e89e11f07e95aef8afc4daac9144c961 a1786f45d575bd52e4c765a669f797934303fcb7ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff4 34d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00 f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000d c3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7 d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84 afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007 c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff 00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84af daff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1f f0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff00 15edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f06 3fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45 007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015 edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe8 4afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff4 34d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff 00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000d c3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434 d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f1 5edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3 f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7 ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84af daff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c8 1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00 434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afda ff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0 dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015 edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063f . Although the different \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 102 state governments (who have responsibility for educa-\line \up0 \expndtw-8\c harscalex100 tion) have responded in different ways.

\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 Student employment outcomes and satisfaction from \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 VET. state ministers endorsed the key \up0 \expndtw-2\cha rscalex100 performance measures for the VET system as part of the \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex101 2004-10 National Strategy. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 VET system efficiency (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 ANTA and NTSC. The key performance mea-\line \up0 \ex pndtw-4\charscalex100 sures cover the following critical areas:\par\pard\ql \li1 368\ri143\sb120\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Student participati on and achievement in VET.\par\pard\qj \li1368\ri367\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \exp ndtw-3\charscalex100 Community engagement and satisfaction with VET.\par\par d\qj \li1368\ri552\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Employer eng agement and satisfaction with VET. be nefits for communities (communities and regions\par\pard\qj \li1408\ri141\sb3\sl -239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 will be strengthened economically and socially \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 through learning and employment and Indigenous \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 Australians will have skills for vi able jobs and their \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 learning and culture will be s hared).\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb120\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex101 In November 2003.e84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f4500 7c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015ed fb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84a fdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434 d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00 f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3 f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7 d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15e dfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f0 63fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff 00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afda ff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81f f0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff0043 4d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff 00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc 3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015ed fb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe8 4afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d2be09f18e91f103c2da478c342b3f1558693adc334f6569e36 f02f8dfe1a78a61482eee2cdd757f037c47f0f7853c6be1f99a6b691e1b7d7bc3fa6dc5c5ab5bdfd bc52d8dd5adc4dd551401fffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg5}{\bkmkend Pg5}\par\pard\li1815\sb0\sl-207\slmult 0\par\pard\li1815\sb203\sl-207\slmult0\fi0\tx10315 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 Planning and Policy Development for Technical Vocati onal Education and Training Systems\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 473\par\par d\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5911\colsr160\colno2\colw5689\colsr160\qj \li1179\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1179\ri140\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs2 0 ANTA. 2003\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ) developed at the national level. and\par\pard\ql \li1179\sb8\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 3. the global economic competition as the reason for \l ine\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 skills development (industry will have a h ighly skilled\par\pard\qj \li1408\ri143\sb1\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\chars calex100 workforce to support strong performance in the global \up0 \expndtw-5\c harscalex100 economy).\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb119\sl . Key object ives for vocational educa-\line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 tion and training (VET) that are formulated in the National \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Strategy 2004-10 highlighted:\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb119\sl-239\slmult0\tx1408 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 1.\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb1\sl-238\slmult0\tx1408 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 2. highl ighted \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 an attempt at a systematic approach toward TVET devel-\line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 opment in the country. 2005\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 VET outcomes fo r Indigenous Australians. the end-user as a focus of the policy (employers and \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 individuals will be at the center of VET ).

particularly by \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 existing wor kers. where \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 00 participation (as in the English case) is just one compo-\line \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 nent of the policy. and image of \line \up0 \expndtw-3\ch arscalex100 VET and public recognition of its employment outcomes. and facil itate access to international markets. the development of one of these skills types \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal ex100 will predominate over the others.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1088\sb0\sl-239\ slmult0\fi239\tldot\tx1472 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 This example can be ana lyzed within\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Estevez-Abe\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 . Although education policies in \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 developing countries can be closely related to don or \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 priorities and perspectives.\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expnd tw-1\charscalex100 Two examples from developing countries come from \line \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex103 Africa and Cambodia. these cases p rovide illustra-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 tions of how policy can be u sed in different ways. improve the value. brand. in some structured \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 econom ies. These f actors became the main policy \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 drivers in brin ging skills back into the policy spotlight. language. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 2005\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 50). On the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 one hand. two factors emerged: a growing \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 crisis of youth unemployment and lo w levels of economic \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 competitiveness. international donor \line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex104 funding in Africa was directed away from TVET and \line \u p0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 toward support for basic education.\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri142\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \fi236 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 Both examples from developed countries repre sent \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 competitiveness-driven TVET policies as govern ments \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 sought to defend their global competitivenes s by enhanc-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ing the productivity of the dome stic labor force. In an y economy all three \line \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 types of skills will be utilized. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 during the late 1990s. and general skills. industry-s pecific \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 (Germany). 1999\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). Firm-specific skills are \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex103 the least portable. help clients navigate and interact with \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex10 0 VET. inter national funds can be used to imple-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ment mea sures that are episodic and lack essential coher-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 106 ence. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 (2001)\ul 0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 approach where they distinguish three types of \line \ up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 skills: firm-specific (Japan and Korea). they can be used to provide \line \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex100 partial financial support for a large-scale systematic \line \ up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 educational reform. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 This p olicy is an example of systematic reform. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 make learning pathways seamless . TVET provi sion \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 was marginalized as the attention of pol icymakers was \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 directed elsewhere (\ul0\nosup ersub\cf6\f7\fs20 McLean and Kamau.-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Some of the strategies identifi ed include: increase par-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 ticipation and achie vement in TVET. \line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex102 strengthen industry\u8217?s role in anticipating skill req uire-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 ments and develop products and services to meet them. On the other hand. However.\par\pard\column \qj \li6071\sb0 \sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri1087\sb136\sl-239\slmult0\fi239 \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex105 Between the 1980s and 1990s. improve quality and \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 consistency. \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 particularly for the Southern African countries (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Rob erts. industry-specific skills are portable \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 across an industry. while general skills can be . however. One of the challenges facing educational plan-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 4 ners is the need to develop a coherent policy on skills \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex101 development that articulates well with the economic \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 development plans.

\u8217?\u8217? (p. \line \up0 \expnd tw-2\charscalex100 Industry-specific skills require some interaction between \li ne \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 the education and training system and industry f or the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 training to be appropriate and up to date in supplying the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 skills required\expndt w0\charscalex100\tab \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 For general skills. The conclusion to be drawn\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 from this is that more emphasis on the developme nt of\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 industry -specific skills is required so that the economic\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\s lmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 development plans can be achieved.and financial commitment\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw-5\charscalex100 to developing a skilled population\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosup ersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Roberts. Each type requires \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 different type of tr aining and assumes particular kinds of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 econom ic development strategies.primarily between edu-\par\pard\q l \li20\sb8\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 cation and labour minis tries .\par\pard\ql \l i260\sb10\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Cambodia is an example to demonstrate the effective-\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex100 ness of a sector-wide education approach presented\par\pard\ ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 through a developed na tional program for education in a\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex103 developing country. This is then used as the foundation \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscale x100 for the in-house development of skills that firms demand. \u8216?\u8216?for firm-specifi c skills a high level of general \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 education i s desirable. the assumption that an\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex100 improvement in general education in Africa would pro-\par\p ard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 vide the opportuni ty for firm-specific training proved to\par\pard\ql \li20\sb8\sl-230\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 be wrong. 2005\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 52). (2006)\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 . \u8216?\ u8216?This requires gov-\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch arscalex100 ernment commitment in the form of policy development.\par\pard\ql \l i20\sb10\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 sound skills and human res ource development planning. 48). The overall goal of the ESSP was to\par\ pard\ql \li20\sb8\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 contribute to the \u8216?\u8216?achievement of the Government\u8217?s pov-\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\ sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 erty reduction strategy through propoor systematic and \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh15860{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1200\shptop800\shpright10800\shpbottom980\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz399\shplid5 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}} {\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}} {\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0 001108000b025d03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001 .\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex101 inter-ministerial co-operation . education at only a\par\pard\ql \li20\sb8\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mi nimum level is required for the lower end of the flexi-\par\pard\ql \li20\sb10\s l-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ble labour market. In Cambodia\u8217?s case the approach\pa r\pard\ql \li20\sb10\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 comprised: The Education Sector Support Program\par\pard\ql \li20\sb9\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 (ESSP) 2001-06.applied \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 across a range of firms and industr ies. Thus. This was due to the limited number of firms\ par\pard\ql \li20\sb10\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 able to prov ide such training. As argued by\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Lauder \line \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs20 et al\ul0\nosupersub\ cf6\f7\fs20 .

02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221 31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829 2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a 838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6 c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003 0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407 05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015 6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859 5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6 a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef83c43ae59786340d73c4ba941ac5ce9 de1ed1f53d72fedbc3de1ed7fc5dafdc59693653dfdd41a1f853c29a66b5e29f13eb12c16f247a67 87bc35a36adafeb57ad069ba36997fa8dcdb5acbf2c7fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35 f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57 b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff 00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0 d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff 00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc1 8ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1 401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7e df5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf 6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347f c370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7 edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00 a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f2 07fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35 f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57 b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff 00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0 d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff 00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc1 8ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1 401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7e df5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf 6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347f c370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7 edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00 a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f2 07fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00 d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bf ff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370f c18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf 5ffd0d347fc370fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f5fd1401f207fc370fc18ffa12bf6b ff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d347fc370fc18ffa12bf6bff00fc57b7edf5ff00d0d35f5fd1401f207fc3 70fc18ff00a12bf6bfff00c57b7edf5ffd0d35f497817c6ba3fc44f0a693e32d02cfc5ba7e91ad25 d496767e3af00f8efe17f8ae15b3bebad3a61ab7813e25f873c25e38d01dee2ce592d63d77c3da6c 97d62f6baa592dc6997d657771d6d1401fffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg6}{\bkmkend Pg6}\par\pard\li1292\sb0\sl-207\slmult .

\par\pard\ql \li1292\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1294\sb217\sl-253\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs22 Conclusions\par\pa rd\qj \li1292\ri142\sb238\sl-239\slmult0\fi3 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 \ul0\n osupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 This article analyzes issues. It is argued in the article \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 that tensi ons between the pressures for global uniformity \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex 100 and regional specificity should be considered by policy-\line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex103 makers. \l ine \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 and coherence within TVET and across different sectors \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 within particular countries to demo nstrate the complexity \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 of TVET policy formula tion. particularly d ue to differences in \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 the labor-market structu res across the countries. \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 TVET is included in this policy. Policy had \line \up0 \expndtw-2\ch arscalex100 been seen as a dialectic process in which the government \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and the donors were involved in shaping its development . It is also argued that any attempt to develop a \line \up 0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 universal set of principles for policy development sh ould \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 be adopted with caution. Systematic approach at different levels has \lin e \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 been seen important for the three cases examined . 2006\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 : 2). \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?Policy development is theref ore both a continuous and \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 contested process in which those with competing values \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 and diff erent access to power seek to form and shape \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 policy in their own interests\u8217?\u8217? (\ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Bell a nd Stevenson. \up0 \expndtw-9\charscalex96 2002\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs20 ). \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 This is an example to illustrate when policy development \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 is not a simple case of setting up the priorities.\par\pard\qj \li1292\ri142\sb 0\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 These four cases demonstrate the different ways the \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 governments approach policy development: through the \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 high-skills thesis in Australia and England.0\par\pard\li1292\sb203\sl-207\slmult0\fi0\tx1947 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \ ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 474\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Vocational Educa tion and Training . They \line \up0 \ex pndtw-2\charscalex100 provide the basis for macro. Two \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 types of theori es are proposed to provide the basis for \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 und erstanding how educational policy could be planned. The conclusion is adva nced \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 that TVET systems policies and planning should exist as \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 part of a system of lifelon g learning adapted to the needs \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 of each parti cular country and to worldwide economic \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 deve lopment. such as the scope.\par \pard\qj \li1292\ri141\sb0\sl-239\slmult0\fi236 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 Th e issues and theories discussed in the opening section \line \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex100 of the article provide the basis for the analysis of policy \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 examples from developed and developing worlds pre-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 sented in the next section.VET System\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6025 \colsr160\colno2\colw5575\colsr160\qj \li1292\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \l i1292\ri142\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\c f5\f6\fs20 targeted interventions\u8217?\u8217? \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 (\ ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs20 Forsberg and Ratcliffe. It is important to be aware of the complex-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charsca . Government flexibility \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex 100 in negotiating a mix of donor-financing modalities helped \line \up0 \expndt w-3\charscalex100 maintain inclusive partnerships. scale. and through \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex10 0 the combination approach (high skills/low skills) in Africa \line \up0 \expndt w-5\charscalex100 and Cambodia. High-level national lead-\lin e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ership and authority of the ESSP reform process has been \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 critical and it was provided direct ly through the minister. \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charsc alex100 They are high-skills thesis and life-based learning.and micro-level planning.

) (1990). governments carry \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 primary responsibility for TVET policy design. profes-\line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 sional associations. Globalisation.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri989\sb1\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Brown. W hat is policy? Texts. P. 66-88. (ed. (2006). Green. D. and Green. (1996). A.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1301\sb2\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\ch arscalex100 Department for Education and Skills (2007). Shaping our \line\tab \u p0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Future: Australia\u8217?s National Strategy for Voca tional Education and\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1367\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw4\charscalex100 Training 2004-2010: Final Report. and Lauder.lex102 ity of TVET and its interdependence with other policy \line \up0 \expndtw -1\charscalex100 areas.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1040\sb1\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \ex pndtw-4\charscalex100 Bell. (1994).\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1345\ sb2\sl-180\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Astiz. N. Brisbane.. Oxford: O xford University\par\pard\ql \li199\sb6\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscale x100 Press. A. Training and Global\par\pard\ql \li199\sb7\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw-4\charscalex100 Economy. Foucault and Education: Disciplines and \line\ta b \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Knowledge. S.. D. High Skills. K.\par\pard\ql \li20\ri976\sb0\sl -180\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 ANTA (Australian National Train ing Authority) and NTSC (National \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Traini ng Statistics Committee) (2005). 10-17. \line\ tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Competitiveness and Skill Formation. empl oyees and their repre-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 sentatives.\par\pard\ql \li20\s b6\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Ashton. employers . Slouching towards \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 d ecentralization: Consequences of globalisation for curriculum\par\pard\qj \li199 \ri1364\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 control in national edu cation systems. the local c ommunities. a nd Baker. Buckingham: Open U niversity Press. Cumming. Introduction. London: Routledge. A. and Livingstone. D. A.. Raising Expectations: \l ine\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Staying in Education and Training Post-16.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1640\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\chars calex100 Ball. Internation al Handbook of Educational \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Policy. S. (2001).. Springer: Dordrecht.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri973\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Ball.. Comparative Education \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Review 46(1) . and nongovernment \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 organizations should play a crucial role in policy design \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 ( UNESCO/ILO.) (2005). \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 a partnership between government. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 2002: 9a). Education Reform. The overall conclusion to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 104 be advanced in this article is that policy planning and\par\pard\column \qj \li6185\sb0\sl-239\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri974\sb134\sl-239\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw-2\charscalex100 development should be based on research that is directed \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 toward TVET improvement and its relevance to parti cular \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 socioeconomic contexts.\par\pard\ql \li6185\ sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li6185\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb 84\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs22 Bib liography\par\pard\ql \li6185\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri1144\sb109 \sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs1 5 ANTA (Australian National Training Authority) (2003). Brisbane: ANTA. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\char scalex100 Discourse 13(2). Leithwood. Australian National Training \ up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Authority. (1993). Education. and Stevenson.\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1199\sb0\sl-17 9\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 (eds. Shaping our Future: Measuring\par\pard\qj \li19 9\ri1221\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 the Future: Key Perfor mance Measures for Australian Vocational \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Education and Training 2004 to 2010: An Implementation Plan / \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex1 00 [National Training Statistics Committee]. H. (2002). Education Policy: Proce ss. F.\par\pard\qj \li20\ ri1389\sb1\sl-180\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Ball. H. In a modern market economy. trajectories and toolboxes. However ... \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Bascia. S. L. Themes \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and Impact. Norwich: TSO.. Da tnow. pp XIII-XXXVII. Wiseman. M.\par\pard\ql \li20\sb6\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex10 . industry. Routledge: London .

Presented at the IIEP\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1448\sb1\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expnd tw-3\charscalex100 Conference on Sector Wide Approaches in Education. Iversen.\par\pard \qj \li20\ri994\sb2\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Estevez-A be.\par\pard\ql \li20\ri974\sb1\sl-180\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\cha rscalex100 Hager.)\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1140\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\ charscalex100 Debating High Skills and Joined-Up Policy. edn. P. G. A. and Ratcliffe. W. (1995)... Summaries of the National \line\tab \up0 \expn dtw-4\charscalex100 Workshop on Technical and Vocational Education and Training. (2002).. Lauder. D.0 Dye.\par\pard \qj \li20\ri1073\sb1\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Kronner. In Bascia. D. and Ashton.\par\pard\ql \li199\sb6 \sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 2nd rev. Leithwood. P. Dordrecht: Springer. and Soskice. Democratic People\u8217?s Republic of Korea.\par\pard\ql \li20\ri1252\sb2\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndt w-3\charscalex100 Forsberg. A. . H. NJ:\par\pard\ql \li199\sb8\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Prentice Hall. (2006). H. \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Fine gold. A. P. P. A. H. \par\pard\qj \li199\ri1102\sb1\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Pyon gyang.) International Handbook of Educa tional \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Policy. N. (1991). 30 August-1 \up0 \expndtw-3\ charscalex100 September 2006. training and economic performance in\par\pard\qj \li 199\ri1024\sb1\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 comparative perspect ive. In Kraak. (2006). T. (1988). Cumming.. H. Brown. In Kraak.. Datnow. and Soskice. Oxford: University Press.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri975\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Lauder. (2001). A. pp 1-30.. Oxford Review o f Economic Policy 4(3). pp 829-846. (2005). \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Lauder. \up 0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 December 2002. M. and Ashton. Paris. The high-skills thesis. D. and Soskice. and Brown.\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1214\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \ex pndtw-4\charscalex100 and Livingstone. Current theories of workplace learning: A critical \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 assessment. D. Social protection \line\tab \up0 \e xpndtw-3\charscalex100 and the formation of skills: A reinterpretation of the we lfare state. Understanding Public Policy. P... In\par\pard\ql \li20\ri975\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\fi179\tx209 \up0 \exp ndtw-5\charscalex100 Hall. The Dual System of Vocational Education and \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Brown. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 1. T. K.. (eds. (eds. Scope of TVET Policy.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri974\sb0\sl-179\slm ult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Greinert. D. Englewood Cliffs. Cape Town: \up 0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 HSRC (Human Science Research Council) Press.. Education. D. (1992). D. Stuttgart: Holland + Josenhans. (eds. 5768.\par\pard\ql \li199\sb7\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex102 21-51. M. (2006)..) Debating High Skills and \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\pa perw11900\paperh15860{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1080\shptop800\shpright10700\shpbottom980\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpz178\shplid6 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}} {\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}} {\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict\jpegblip ffd8ffe000104a46494600010101006000600000ffdb004300010101010101010101010101010101 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101ffdb0043010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ffc0 001108000b025e03012200021101031101ffc4001f00000105010101010101000000000000000001 02030405060708090a0bffc400b5100002010303020403050504040000017d010203000411051221 31410613516107227114328191a1082342b1c11552d1f02433627282090a161718191a2526272829 . The failure of training in Britain: \li ne\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Analysis and prescriptions. Structure and Function.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1055\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex 100 Finegold.\pa r\pard\qj \li20\ri975\sb1\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Kra ak. Cambodia education case \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 study: Education sector support program . D.) Varieties of Capitalism: Th e Institutional \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Foundations of Comparati ve Advantage.. High skills and joined-up policy: An introduction to the \line\ta b \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 debate. (eds.-D.

2a3435363738393a434445464748494a535455565758595a636465666768696a737475767778797a 838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6 c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9eaf1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffc4001f010003 0101010101010101010000000000000102030405060708090a0bffc400b511000201020404030407 05040400010277000102031104052131061241510761711322328108144291a1b1c109233352f015 6272d10a162434e125f11718191a262728292a35363738393a434445464748494a53545556575859 5a636465666768696a737475767778797a82838485868788898a92939495969798999aa2a3a4a5a6 a7a8a9aab2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9bac2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cad2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dae2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9ea f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9faffda000c03010002110311003f00fef77c4be20b0f0a787b5bf13ea906b775 a6f87f4abfd66fedbc35e1af11f8cfc437169a75b4977710e89e11f07e95aef8afc4daac9144c961 a1786f45d575bd52e4c765a669f797934303fcb7ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff4 34d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00 f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000d c3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7 d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84 afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007 c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff 00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84af daff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1f f0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff00 15edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f06 3fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45 007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015 edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe8 4afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff4 34d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff 00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000d c3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434 d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f1 5edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3 f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7 ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84af daff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c8 1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00 434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afda ff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0 dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015 edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063f e84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f4500 7c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015ed fb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84a fdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434 d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00 f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3 f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7 d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15e dfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f0 63fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff 00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afda ff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81f f0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff0043 4d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff 00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d1ff0dc 3f063fe84afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d7f45007c81ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015ed fb7d7ff434d1ff000dc3f063fe84afdaff00ff0015edfb7d7ff434d7d7f45007c81ff0dc3f063fe8 4afdafff00f15edfb7d7ff00434d7d2be09f18e91f103c2da478c342b3f1558693adc334f6569e36 f02f8dfe1a78a61482eee2cdd757f037c47f0f7853c6be1f99a6b691e1b7d7bc3fa6dc5c5ab5bdfd bc52d8dd5adc4dd551401fffd9}}}}} \pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg7}{\bkmkend Pg7}\par\pard\li1815\sb0\sl-207\slmult 0\par\pard\li1815\sb203\sl-207\slmult0\fi0\tx10315 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 .

D.uk/educol/documents/00001203. Globalisation. Lauder. J. A. market and society \up0 \expndt w-3\charscalex100 change. D.\par\pard\ql \li1179\ri183\sb0\sl -179\slmult0\tx1358 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Lauder. D. (ed.. London: Sage. A Soci ally Critical View of the Self-Managing \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 School.. 47-52. F. (2006). Educational \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Policy and the Pol itics of Change.leeds. Rizvi.htm" }}{\fldrslt {\ul0\nosu persub\cf13\f14\fs15 http://www.\par\pard\column \qj \li6071\sb0\sl-179\ slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li6071\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri1344\sb40\s l-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Smyth.leeds. (eds.\ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs18 Planning and Policy Development for Technical Vocati onal Education and Training Systems\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 475\par\par d\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5911\colsr160\colno2\colw5689\colsr160\qj \li1179\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1179\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1358\ri280\sb40\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\ cf12\f13\fs15 Joined-Up Policy.\par\pard\ql \li20\sb6\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw-5\charscalex100 UNESCO and ILO (International Labour Organisation) (2002) . London: Routledge. (ed.. Technical\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1273\sb1\sl-180\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca lex100 and vocational education and training for the twenty-first century. Codd.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1370\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx20 9 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Taylor. 593-619. M . A. C. and O\u8217?Neill. and Henry.uk/educol/documents/00001203. Human resource \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 developm ent and vocational and technical education in\par\pard\ql \li1358\ri315\sb0\sl-1 79\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Kenyatta University. NSW: TAFE NSW. A Report on the Research Project \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8216?\u8216?Designing Professi onal Development for the Knowledge Era\u8217?\u8217? \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex1 00 Darlinghurst. M. N. pp 31-43.) (2002).uk/educol/documents/00001203. J.}}} \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 {\field{\*\fld inst {HYPERLINK "http://www. Education P olicy: \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Globalization. D. (2000). and Ashton. Lif e based learning: \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 A strength based appro ach for capability development in vocational\par\pard\ql \li199\ri1460\sb0\sl-17 9\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and technical education. Jasinski. H.\par\pard\ql \li1179\sb6\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\ch arscalex100 Rhoten. A. and Weatherley.) (1993). (2006).) \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Deb ating High Skills and Joined-Up Policy. and Ash ton.\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri92 4\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx1358 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 McLean. In Kraak...\par\pard\qj \ li1179\ri334\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx1358 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Roberts.. School Leadership . Locating skills development in the framework. M.\par\pard \ql \li20\sb6\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Walford. Kenya. Lingard. (2005). Cape Town: \up0 \expndtw-4\cha rscalex100 HSRC (Human Science Research Council) Press. P.) Investigating Educa tional Policy through \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Ethnography..-M. Brown. skills \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 fo rmation and the dilemmas of integrated policy: The case of South\par\pard\qj \li 1358\ri224\sb0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Africa. (1997). H. G. Education decentralisation in Argentina: The glob al\par\pard\qj \li1358\ri189\sb1\sl-180\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 lo cal conditions of possibility approach to state.ac.\par\pard\qj \li1179\ri480\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx1358 \up0 \expndtw-3\ charscalex100 Olssen. Citizenship and De mocracy. . J. pp 1-15.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1090\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \ expndtw-4\charscalex100 Staron. A. G. Lahti. In\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1806\sb2\sl -179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Walford. (2004).htm}}}\u l0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs15 (accessed \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Septe mber 2009). Journal of Education Policy 15... B. (eds.\ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f14\fs15 {\field{\*\fldinst {HYPERLI NK "http://www. (2003). S. and Dimmock. I ntroduction: Investigating education policy.. Finland. pp 31-43. Paper prese nted at the European \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Conference on Educational Res earch.ac. London: Falmer. G. P. (1999). G. Brown. Cape Town: HSRC (Human Science \up0 \e xpndtw-4\charscalex100 Research Council) Press. R. M.ac. and Kama u. \line\tab \up0 \expndt w-3\charscalex100 OpenSpace 1(2)..\par\pard\ql \li20\ri1089\sb0\sl-179\slmult0\tx209 \up0 \expn dtw-4\charscalex100 Walker.htm" }}{\fldrs lt {\ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f14\fs15 leeds. Oxford : Elsevier Science. \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 UNESCO/OIT: UNESCO and ILO Recomendations París.

M. Globalisation viewed from the periphery: The\par\pard\qj \li199\ri1105\s b0\sl-179\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 dynamics of teaching identity in the Republic of Benin. London: Routledge. \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24} . (2002). \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Welmond.and \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Administration: Adopting a Cultural Perspective. Comparative \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Education Revi ew 46(1). 10-65.