Engineering Properties of Toughened Zirconia

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Zirconium Oxide, Y2O3 stabilized TZP Mechanical Density Porosity Color Flexural Strength Elastic Modulus Shear Modulus Bulk Modulus Poisson’s Ratio Compressive Strength Hardness Fracture Toughness KIC Maximum Use Temperature (no load) Thermal Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Specific Heat Electrical Dielectric Strength Dielectric Constant Dissipation Factor Loss Tangent Volume Resistivity ac-kv/mm (volts/mil) — — — ohm•cm — — — — >10
10

SI/Metric (Imperial) gm/cc (lb/ft ) % (%) — MPa (lb/in x10 ) GPa (lb/in x10 ) GPa (lb/in x10 ) GPa (lb/in x10 ) — MPa (lb/in x10 ) Kg/mm MPa•m
2 1/2 2 3 2 6 2 6 2 6 2 3 3

SI/Metric 6 0 ivory 900 210 — — — — 1300 13 1500

(Imperial) (205.4) (0) — (120.4) (30) — — — — — — (2730)

°C (°F)

W/m•°K (BTU•in/ft •hr•°F) 10 /°C (10 /°F) J/Kg•°K (Btu/lb•°F)
–6 –6

2

2 10.3 —

(13.9) (5.7) —

— — — — — Download TTZ Zirconia datasheet

Zirconium Oxide, MgO stabilized TTZ Mechanical Density Porosity Color Flexural Strength Elastic Modulus Shear Modulus Bulk Modulus SI/Metric (Imperial) gm/cc (lb/ft ) % (%) — MPa (lb/in x10 ) GPa (lb/in x10 ) GPa (lb/in x10 ) GPa (lb/in x10 )
2 6 2 6 2 6 2 3 3

SI/Metric 5.5 0 tan 400-620 200 — —

(Imperial) (343.4) (0) — (58-90) (29) — —

In alkaline. Pickling Sodium hydride baths are necessary to descale this alloy. Its outstanding strength and toughness in the temperature range cryogenic to 2000°F (1093°C) are derived primarily from the solid solution effects of the refractory metals. salt water.4 A/m) . Acid etching for macro-inspection-expose material electrolytically to a 3-to-1 HCl to HNO3 solution. furnace hardware. Rinse. Chloride stress-corrosion cracking resistance is excellent. The nickel and chromium provide resistance to oxidizing environments. Niobium stabilizes the alloy against sensitization during welding. Pitting and crevice corrosion are prevented by molybdenum. in a nickel-chromium matrix.9) (2. the material should be immersed in a sulfuric acid bath 165°F (74°C) for approximately 3 minutes. neutral salts. H 2SO4. The alloy has excellent fatigue strength and stress-corrosion cracking resistance to chloride ions. Nickel and molybdenum provide for resistance to nonoxidizing atmospheres. The alloy resists scaling and oxidation at high temperatures. nickel-based alloy.1) ac-kv/mm (volts/mil) — — — ohm•cm 2–10 — — — >10 10 (50–250) — — — — Description Alloy 625 is a nonmagnetic .645 amp/in² (25. Some typical applications for alloy 625 have included heat shields. chemical plant hardware. and special seawater applications.and oxidation-resistant. Sulfuric solution: 16% by weight. corrosion . saturated with CuCl2 at a current density of 0. A 25-minute immersion in a nitrichydrofluoric bath 145°F (63°C) is then necessary.5) (0. After the sodium hydride treatment. fresh water. combustion liners and spray bars. Nitric solution: 8% HNO3 by weight and 3% HF by weight. and in the air. Corrosion Resistance Alloy 625 has withstood many corrosive environments.Poisson’s Ratio Compressive Strength Hardness Fracture Toughness KIC Maximum Use Temperature (no load) Thermal Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Specific Heat Electrical Dielectric Strength Dielectric Constant Dissipation Factor Loss Tangent Volume Resistivity — MPa (lb/in x10 ) Kg/mm MPa•m 2 1/2 2 3 — 1800-4820 1100 6-10 400-980 — (270-700) — — (4750-1800) °C (°F) W/m•°K (BTU•in/ft •hr•°F) 10 /°C (10 /°F) J/Kg•°K (Btu/lb•°F) –6 –6 2 2 5–10 418 (13.8–5. columbium and molybdenum. almost no attack occurs. gas turbine engine ducting.

102 Btu/lb-°F 0.6 52. 50.26 microhm-m 1.4 15.28 1.4 8.134 Specific Heat Average Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity * Test Temp.3 microinches/in.5 13.305 lb/cubic in.6 21.4 15.9 14.6 19.3 68-400 68-600 68-800 681000 681200 681400 681600 681800 7. F(C) Room Average Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity.6 17.29 1.8 W/M-°C 11.7 9.123 0.107 0.31 1.2 51.5 7.6 Thermal Conductivity 9.7 16.32 °F 72 74 212 392 572 752 932 1112 British Units 0.5 17.Physical Properties Physical Property Density °C 22 23 100 200 300 400 500 600 20204 20316 20427 20538 20649 20760 20871 20982 23 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Metric Units 8.30 1.118 0.4 50.-°F 79 93 108 122 136 148 0. 49.0 Electrical Resistivity Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 13.-hr.1 x 10(-6)m/m°C 13.0 8.111 0.000) Form Plate.7 8. Condition Annealed at .°F 7. psi x 10(6) (MPa) 30.0 50.1 15.115 0.2 (208.3 429 J/kg-°C 446 463 480 496 513 560 74 212 392 572 752 932 1112 32 212 392 572 752 932 1112 68 Btu-in.6 microhm-in.44 g/cubic cm 1.27 1.4 13.8 51..2 9./ft².

Average Hardness and Tensile Data.000) 25.063" thick 47 B94 .8 (157.000) 24.7 (184. rapid cooled 200 (93) 400 (204) 600 (316) 800 (427) 1000 (538) 1200 (649) 1400 (760) 1600 (871) 1800 (982) 29. lbs.000) * Average of five tests at each temperature.9 (468) Condition Form Elongation in 2" percent Hardness.2 (201.0 (910) Yield Strength at 0. **1875F (1024C).014-0. Rockwell Annealed at 1925°F (1052°C).000) 26.8 (199. Room Temperature Ultimate Tensile Strength.000) 21. (12.ksi (MPa) 67.5 mm) thick 1925°F (1052°C). F (C) Annealed** Aging Time.000) 22.000) 18. -1000 4000 8000 16000 1000 4000 8000 16000 1000 4000 8000 16000 81 11 8 5 4 5 4 5 4 12 11 15 14 J 110 15 11 7 5 7 5 7 5 16 15 20 19 Aging Temperature.000) 27. (9. ksi (MPa) 132. ft.3/8 in. Plate * Average Charpy V-Notch Impact Strength.2% offset. hrs.6 (176. rapid cooled. Mechanical Properties Average Impact Strength.7 (129. rapid cooled Sheet 0.7 (191.3 (168.7mm) plate from a single heat. 1200 (649) 1400 (760) 1600 (871) *Average of four tests on 1/2-in.2 (146.000) 28.

3 (519) 73.3 (878) 128.0 (896) 132.5 (452) 67. (12. (12. Average Tensile Data.2% in 2 in.7 (880) 165.8 mm).0 (1138) 163. Room Temperature* Yield Ultimate Strength Elongation Aging Tensile at 0.Annealed at 1925°F (1052°C).0 (910) 130. (50. **1875F (1024C). ***Based on average of 4 or less tests. rapid cooled Sheet..* 0.6 (1128) 164. 1/2 in. -1000 4000 8000 1000 4000 8000 1000 4000 8000 1400 (760) 1600 (871) *Single tests from a single heat. offset. hrs. F (C) Annealed** 1200 (649) Plate. F (C) Annealed** Plate.7 (508) 66.00" 1-1/2" 1-3/4" 131.155" thick Plate. rapid cooled 132. Rockwell A 58 68 68 68 65 66 65 60 60 60 Form Aging Tme.0 (883) 65.4 (465) 45 B97 Annealed at 1925°F (1052°C). Aged Hardness. 1/2 in.9 (813) 117.*** 1/4" 1/2" 3/4" 1.0 (462) 80.8 46 28 24 18 12 Form Aging Temperature.0 (552) 75.3 (912) 127.78-0.0 (455) 46 44 44 42 43 44 B94 B98 B98 B97 B97 C20 *Based on average of 146 tests **Based on average of 67 tests.2 (456) 122. rapid cooled.5 (907) 67. hrs.7 mm) thick 1200 (649) . Strength. Ksi (MPa) Ksi percent (MPa) -1000 4000 8000 16000 127.7 mm) thick Hardness.3 (843) 117. Tme.0.2 66.2 (877) 127. Room Temperature* Aging Temperature.

°F(°C) 1200 (649) .9 (827) 119.9 (241) 10.2 (408) 58.2 (429) 59.6 (983) 140. Average Tensile Data.5 (410) 59. Sheet* Average Rupture Strength.4 (1140) 142.2% offset.0 (876) 128.(1132) 165. rapid cooled.3 (471) 66.3 (919) 129.ksi (MPa) 72.1 (718) 97.4 (885) (812) 118.5 (658) 104. Average Rupture Data.9 (985) 145.8 (405) 57.8 (75) 6. **1875F (1024C).6 (866) 122.0 (393) 55.1 (359) 25.3 (381) 34.4 (672) 96. rapid cooled.6 (825) 88.7 (439) 63.3 (92) Yield Strength at 0.5 (1003) 142.2 (843) 119.8 (957) 133.4 (609) 52.4 (458) 63.4 (968) 130.4 (437) 1400 (760) 1000 4000 8000 16000 17 12 13 12 1600 (871) 1000 4000 8000 16000 30 29 26 32 *Average of three tests from a single heat.1 (663) 68.0 (496) 67.3 (464) 62. ksi (MPa) 138. °F(°C) Room 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Elongation in 2" percent 38 41 44 45 45 46 47 70 69 108 89 *Annealed at 1925°F (1052°C).0 (896) 130.5 (817) 95.0 (172) 13.0 (896) 127.4 (892) 125. ksi (MPa) for Time Indicated 10 hrs 82 (565) 100 hrs 71 (490) 1000 hrs 60 (414) Test Temperature. Sheet* Ultimate Tensile Strength.1 (42) Test Temperature.

7 (46) 20 (138)** 3.1400 (760) 1600 (871) 36 (248) 12 (83) 27 (186) 6. heavy equipment. High-Speed Cutting Tools for Lathe Turning Operations Angle Back rake Roughing 0° Finishing 8° . treatment No. tensile and yield strength properties are desired. Strip. would require shorter times than large sections.7 (26)** *Annealed at 1925°F (1052°C). 1 is not commonly used for applications below 1500°F (816°C). Alloy 625 becomes very stiff at temperatures below 1850°F (1010°C). ample coolant and positive feeds are general recommendations. Treatment No. It is generally used above 1500°F and where resistance to creep is important. Workability Hot Working Hot working may done at 2100°F (1149°C) maximum furnace temperature. Work pieces that fall below this temperature should be reheated.2000/2200°F (1093/1204°C). rigid tools and work piece. Ductility and toughness at cryogenic temperatures are excellent. The time at the above temperatures depends on volume and section thickness. 3 is recommended for application below 1200°F (649°C) when maximum fatigue. Care should be exercised to avoid frictional heat build-up which can result in overheating. ductility can be restored by process anneal. 1 to 4 hours for treatment No. Cold Forming Alloy 625 can be cold formed by standards methods. When the material becomes too stiff from cold working. The high solution anneal is also used to develop the maximum softness for mild processing operations such as cold rolling or drawing. rapid cooled.1700/1900°F (927/1038°C). 2 is the used treatment and develops an optimum combination of tensile and rupture properties from ambient temperatures to 1900°F (1038°C). 1 and 2 are generally held for 1/2 to 1 hour. air quench or faster. Treatment No. hardness. air quench. Ductility and toughness at cryogenic temperatures are also very good. 3. **Extrapolated Heat Treatment Alloy 625 has three basic heat treatments: (1)High Solution Anneal . tensile and yield strengths up to 1500°F (816°C). Machineability Low cutting speeds. (3)Stress Relieve .1650°F (899°C). Uniform reductions are recommended to avoid the formation of a duplex grain structure. (2)Low Solution Anneal . exceeding 2100°F (1149°C). When a fine grain size is desired for fatigue. Approximately 15/20% reduction is recommended for finishing. for example. Temperatures for treatments No. 3 is sometimes used. Treatment No. air quench or faster.

25 0.500"/12.05 Carbide tools should have smaller angles than high-speed tools and operating speeds can be higher. U-joints for thicker sections. Standard practices such as clean surfaces. Chlorine additives would be an alternative.05 0.06/.010 0.05/0.010 0.10 0. should be followed.04/0. . Heavy restrained sections can be welded and the weld's mechanical properties follow the same trends as base metal properties.70mm) Tapping Milling Reaming Feed ipr 0. Postweld heat treatment of the weld are not necessary to maintain corrosion resistance..06 0.03/0. A sulfur-based cutting fluid is recommended.05/0.Positive side rake End clearance End cutting edge Side cutting edge Cutting Speeds for High-Speed Steels Speed sfpm 12-20 10-12 5-10 10-20 8-10 6° 6° -- 14-18° 8° 25° Up to 45° Operation Turning Drilling (.006/0. Weldability Welding can be accomplished by the gas-shielded processes using a tungsten electrode or a consumable electrode. Thoroughly clean work piece after machining to prevent surface contamination during subsequent heat treating. good joint alignment.010 ---mm/rev 0. etc.15/0.25 ---- m/s 0.