The Middle Ages The Middle Ages call an epoch of the European history between the antiquity and

the modern times. The prevailing social structure and economic system is the feudalism. Main features of the Middle Ages are the society regular according to states, the religious Christian mind posture in literature, art and science, Latin or Greek as a common culture and Bildungssprache, the idea of the unity of the Christian church and a rather uniform world view. Since the 19-th century is the Middle Ages are divided roughly in three phases:    Early Middle Ages (middle 6-th century till the beginning 11-th century) High-level Middle Ages (beginning 11-th century to approx. 1250) Late Middle Ages (approx. 1250 to approx. 1500)

Among the rest, early Middle Ages in the early Middle Ages also fall the time of the migration and the research tends, however, meanwhile to take out this of the Middle Ages, to see them as a connection between antiquity and Middle Ages and to add the late antiquity. Other drastic developments are the extensive christianization of Europe, the rise of the Frankish empire, the inspiration of the Vikings, the beginning of the holy Roman empire and the fights between Empire and papacy. In addition, the rise of Islam and his quick Ausgreifen to Europe looks stamping. Economically the early Middle Ages show a time of the barter economy and especially the system of the basic rule is to be put outside. Essential vehicles of civilization are the Byzantine empire, the cloisters, in particular those of the Benedictine order, as well as the scholars of the Arabian-Muslim cultural circle. High-level Middle Ages the high-level Middle Ages are the period of bloom of the knighthood and the Roman-German empire, the Lehnswesens and the minnesang. In the 11-th century a comprehensive change took place in Europe. This change was released by a growth in population stopping till the 14-th century. New areas had to be improved opened, production methods of the rise of the yields. This promoted craft and trade, and with it again the monetary economy. A mobility not known since the antiquity social developed, locally as well as the social state concerning. The church with the developed papacy developed inwards a clear hierarchy and outwardly it fought with the worldly rulers for the supremacy. These struggles for power flow, in the end, in the Investiturstreit. Education was moved in the foreground. There originated cathedral schools and convent schools and the first universities were founded; indeed, not in the German lands of the holy Roman empire. Reading and writing were no more only skills of the clergy, but increasingly also from parts of the laymen (Ministerial) and parts of the nobility. The literature served the new readers, while it not only ecclesiastical and philosophical subjects processed the high-level Middle Ages was, however, also the time of the crusades against Islam to which also Jews fall victim. Late Middle Ages the late Middle Ages are the time of the climbing up bourgeoisie of the towns and the monetary economy. Then in this time the Hanse, at first a businessman's guild climbs up, a town alliance to the commercial power. Since about 1280 till some decades after the ' big plague ' (in 1348-1352) the European history does some crisis-like developments which lead to a strong decline in population, but also for the strong changes of the structure of society which lead up bit by bit to the modern times.

the commercial routes were blocked to Asia by the propagation of the Osmanischen of empire. besides. Now also here universities originated increasingly. the discovery in particular of the new world by Christoph Kolumbus 1492. and carried by no means only negative trains: In this time the precursors of the modern stateness developed with management and office being and the nation state substituted in wide parts of Europe for the old state things. .Harvest failures. In Italy the cultural period of bloom of the Renaissance in which to the bourgeoisie the final breakthrough succeeded began. Also the conquest of Constantinople by the Osmanen (1453) is called as an event which marks the end of the Middle Ages. Among the rest. famines and plague epidemics as well as increasing social signs of decay and conflicts which found expression in the crisis of the papacy. At the same time the late Middle Ages were the transition period to the modern age. In addition. the invention of the letterpress 1450 and the Verschriftlichung quickened with it of the knowledge. Besides the stream released thereby of Byzantine refugees and scholars was to Italy responsibly for head for the beginning of the Renaissance. regional Jew's pursuit and uprisings of the urban population and rural population let the late Middle Ages to the contemporaries as a period of steady decline appear. so that west-European seafarers explored new ways. America was discovered – at least it was the first time that the existence of America became known within less years in whole Europe. This is not only a chronologically suitable simplification. An exception formed Germany where furthermore konföderale things from Empire and the German small states remained prevailing. the loss of the influence of the institutionalized Catholic church and the beginning of the Reformation. but has some authorization because with the setting of the Byzantine empire the last living Überbleibsel of the antiquity set. One looks at end of the Middle Ages As essential for the crossing of the Middle Ages at the modern times generally the time of the Renaissance (according to land late 14-th century to 16-th century).