Technical Information Handbook

DESIGN IN SUPPORT THAT SAVES YOU TIME

As an architect or engineer you’re always faced with tight time frames and lastminute changes. That’s why, with Georgia Power’s Architects and Engineers Program, you receive responsive support from pre-planning through commissioning. You’ll have one knowledgeable account executive who provides access to all the technical expertise, troubleshooting and design assistance you need to meet your deadlines. If you’re ready for a partnership that works this hard for you, call 1-888-655-5888 or visit georgiapower.com/AandE.

© 2002 Southern Company. All rights reserved. This handbook has been developed to help you. However, we cannot be held liable for inaccuracies or any damages caused by using this for engineering or other design or analysis.

. CCS provided information on HVAC energy requirements and heat recovery technologies.To learn more about Georgia Power rates. call your Georgia Power representative or call the Business Call Center at 1-888-655-5888. Georgia Power would like to acknowledge the contributions of Carrier Complete Systems. products and services.

Table of Contents
Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Electric Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ratcheted Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Time of Use Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Marginal Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Customer Choice in Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Customer Choice Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 kWh vs. Therm Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Conversions between Fuel Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

HVAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Recommended Systems by Building Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cost Comparisons for System Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Typical EFLH for Buildings, Atlanta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 City Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Typical Heating and Cooling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Typical Equipment Energy Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 EER Rating to kW Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Psychrometric Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Heat Recovery Opportunities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Building Envelope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sustainable Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Basic R-value information and calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ceiling Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Wall Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Slab Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Insulating Values for Common Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Basic Passive Solar Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Water Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Water Heating Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Water Use Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
System Wattages for Typical Lamp/Ballast Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Light Level Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Reflectance Values of Different Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Effect of Lighting on Cooling Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Annual Cost for Lighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Outdoor Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Cooking Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
How to Evaluate Energy Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Equipment Input, Diversity, and Preheat Times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Cooking Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Ventilation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Equipment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Typical Equipment List Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Refrigerants and Chillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Common Refrigerants, Applications, and Current Status. . . . . . . . . . 41 Chiller Types, Applications, Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Motors and Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Motor Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Motor Cost Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Recommendation Chart for Motor Replacement/New Installation . 45 Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Motor Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Affinity Laws for Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Fans and Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Fan Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Criteria for Fan Selection:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Duct Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Typical Compressor Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Leakage Rate from Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Process Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Saturated Steam: Pressure Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Steam Loss from Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Combustion Heat Losses, Gas Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Industrial Process Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Industrial Heating and Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Emitters and Applications of IR Radiant Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Typical Oven Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

On-Site Generation and Power Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Standby Generation Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Uninterruptible Power Supply/Power Conditioning Systems. . . . . . . 63 Alternative Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Electrical Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Useful Electrical Formulae for Determining Amperes, Horsepower, Kilowatts and kVa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Estimating Loads From kWh Meter Clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Effects From Voltage Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Percent of Rated Heater Watts at Reduced Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Motor Wattages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Ohm's Law Made Easy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 BTUH—kW—Amperes Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Transformer Types and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Requirements For Service Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Motor Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Diversity Factors for EFLH calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Design Criteria for Room Loudness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Room Sones – dBA Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Typical Weather Data for Metro Atlanta Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Climatic Conditions for Georgia Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Wind Effect on Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Useful Web Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

) 1 Rates .Rates Electric Rates Electric rates for commercial and industrial customers can generally be categorized into three types: • Ratcheted. etc. including Real Time Pricing (RTP) They differ in critical ways when it comes to calculations. demand-based rates • Time of use rates • Marginal rates. Ratcheted Rates How to Recognize: Ratcheted rates will have language in the tariff(s) like: • Hours use of demand • Billing demand • Tiered pricing structure (first block of kWh at one rate. second block at another rate.

Apply other applicable tariffs such as ECCR. etc. FCR. these are called real-time pricing. Off-Peak. In these cases. In Georgia Power. Apply tariff prices according to blocks and any breaks within each block 4. depending on the contract. The prices are confidential and are provided to the customer the day before or hour before the price takes effect. Shoulder kWh and kW • Timed (or block) pricing structure • NOTE: there are market-based time of use rates that are real-time. you will have to contact the utility to get blended averages (see pricing calculation worksheet) 2 .Rates How to Calculate Pricing for Racheted Rates: 1. FF. and appropriate taxes Time of Use Rates How to Recognize: Time of use rates will have language in the tariff(s) like: • On-Peak. HUD = kWh/Billing Demand 3. Determine Hours Use Demand (HUD). Determine Billing Demand by applying ratchet rules of the tariff/rider 2.

FCR. etc. Determine if Economy Demand charges are applicable (summer months only) 3. off-peak and shoulder (if applicable) kWhs and kW 2. Apply other applicable tariffs such as EECR.How to Calculate Pricing for Time of Use Rates: 1. and appropriate taxes 3 Rates . Apply appropriate tariff prices 4. FF. Obtain (or estimate) the on-peak.

etc. and appropriate taxes 4 .Rates Marginal Rates How to Recognize: Marginal rates will have language in the tariff(s) like: • Hourly Prices • Customer Baseline Load (CBL) • Interval Data • Incremental kWhs • Demonstration How to Calculate Marginal Rates: RTP Bills will have both a standard or CBL bill and an RTP (incremental energy) bill 1. Apply other applicable tariffs such as ECCR. FF. (It is not as simple as multiplying the total kWhs by the average RTP price due to varying consumption amounts/weighting) 3. FCR. use the appropriate ratcheted or TOU steps as outlined previously 2. repeat step for all hours of the month. To calculate the standard or CBL bill. The RTP bill is calculated by multiplying the hourly kWh consumption by the hourly RTP price.

When evaluating overall price. outage costs should be included. Beware of short-term fixed prices that escalate sharply after the first few years. irrevocable choice. What other knowledge/assistance will the customer need? Georgia Power offers a host of technical and other energy services to its customers. Georgia Power’s rates are regulated by the Public Service Commission. 5 Service Reliability Generation Capability Ancillary Services Rates . Municipal authority and cooperative rates are not. Customer Choice Considerations Price Stability Since your choice is for the life of the building. many customers over 900 kW who are outside of municipal limits may choose their electric supplier.Customer Choice in Georgia Under the Territorial Act of 1973. depending on the customer. it is critical to evaluate your long-term costs. This is a one-time. The cost of one outage can far outweigh any apparent price savings. Does the supplier have bricks and mortar generation? Or is it buying power on the open market? A supplier with a large percentage of bricks and mortar generation is better able to meet its customers’ electricity needs cost-effectively over the long term than a supplier who must buy on the open market.

6 .Rates * Please refer to Page 91 for graph notations.

Conversions between Fuel Types Gas: 1 Therm = 100.500 Btu 1 gallon = 91.413 Btu Liquid Gas (Propane): 1 cubic foot = 2.500 Btu 7 Rates .500 Btu 1 pound = 21.000 Btu 1 MCF = 1.000 Btu = 100 CCF 1 cubic foot = 1.000 Btu Coal: 1 ton = 25 Million Btu 1 pound = 12.000.160 Btu Oil: 1 gallon = 140.000 Btu = 10 therms Electricity: 1 kWh = 3.

System #2 — HVAC Schools Restaurants Small Offices/Retail Hotels (small) Through-the-wall units Water source heat in classroom. Heat pump water heater in kitchen/laundry. heater kitchen. package unit for auditorium.HVAC Recommended Systems by Building Type Building Type Hospitals System #1 Chillers. room control. Through-the-wall heat pump. heater. VAV. Split system heat pump. pumps. ducting cooling to lobby. split system for offices. pump with cooling tower and boiler. Small-tank water Point of use water heater. Heat pump water heater in kitchen. Rooftop package heat Split system heat pump. 8 . Heat pump Heat pump water in water heater in kitchen. Energy recovery ventilators on operating rooms. Heat pump water heater in laundry. Small electric water heater in teachers’ lounge.

System #2 Two-pipe system with fan-coil units. This analysis generally gives reasonable estimates for operating costs however. Through-the-wall heat pumps. Cost Comparisons for System Types: A quick and easy way to estimate costs for different systems. chillers. EFLH analysis is not as accurate as building modeling. — Historic Buildings Ground source heat pumps. see miscellaneous section for table) Rated Btu input of equipment 9 HVAC . Heat pump water heater in kitchen and indoor pool.) Building Type Hotels (large) System #1 Water source heat pumps with cooling tower and boiler. Weekend only: Electric heat. — Motels Churches Weekday/school buildings: Package unit heat pumps. Annual cost = EFLH *City Factor * kW * $/kWh + 12 * kWd * $/kW Annual cost = EFLH * Btuh * $/therm /100000 Where: EFLH = City Factor = kW = kWd = Btuh = taken from table (on following page) Degree-day factoring to adjust EFLH Connected kW of equipment Diversified kW (takes cycling into account. electric resistance heat.Recommended Systems by Building Type (cont. Gas water heater with recirculating pump.

cooling = Cooling degree days for the city/1670 City factor.61 . Atlanta Type Business EFLH. heating = Heating degree days for the city/3021 10 .33 .’ offices.Typical EFLH for Buildings. Heating 800 700 500 800 800 800 800 500 800 1500 800 800 800 800 400 800 800 Small Retail 0-25 M ft Medium Retail Large Retail Small Office Medium Office Large Office Convenience Stores Supermarkets Hotels/Motels Fast Food Restaurants 9 Month Schools 12 Month Schools Healthcare (drs.75 1.) Churches Services Warehouses 2000 2200 2400 1500 1800 2000 2500 2500 1600 3000 1800 1000 2000 2000 600 1500 1500 HVAC City Factors City Alma Brunswick Macon Rome Cooling Factor 1.37 1.96 Heating Factor .48 1. Air Conditioning 2 EFLH. etc.53 .03 To find your city factor: City factor.

4 1.0 2.6 1. & Theater 40 Banks 49 Barber Shops 46 Bars & Taverns 120 Beauty Parlors 63 Bowling Alleys 38 Churches 35 Cocktail Lounges 65 Comp. Rooms 35 Hospitals 69 Hotel. Corridors 20 Dress Shops 40 Drug Stores 77 Factories 39 High Rise Office – Ext.2 1. Cooling Apartments 24 Audit. Stores – Upper Floors 29 Dormitory.7 1.3 1. Rooms 141 Dental Offices 50 Dept.6 4.1 1.3 0.3 2.6 1.3 1. Cooling 500 300/19* 245 260 100/10* 190 315 340/21* 185 85 240 360 310 410 320 600 300 155 310 280 340 175 345 425 Btu/SF.8 1.1 1. Stores – Main Floor 39 Dept.3 1. Corridors 28 SF/ton.5 4.7 1. Heating 21 38 48 44 114 60 37 33 63 20 49 32 38 28 35 18 39 75 38 41 33 67 35 27 Supply CFM/SF 0. Guest rooms 35 Hotel.2 2. Rooms 43 High Rise Office – Int.3 1. Stores – Basement 33 Dept. Btuh/SF. Rooms 38 Dormitory.9 11 HVAC .Typical Heating and Cooling Requirements Type of Bldg.2 0.0 1.3 1.7 1.

7 2. High 33 Schools. Offices 35 General Offices 33 Plant Areas 38 Libraries 43 Low Rise Office.000 Btu = 1 ton of air conditioning 12 SF/ton Cooling 235 345 360 315 280 310 365 340 420 300 300 280 600 200 285 225 400 370 210 335 335 365 550 Btu/SF Heating 48 34 32 37 40 32 32 33 27 38 39 41 20 60 40 52 28 31 57 32 32 32 20 Supply CFM/SF 1.1 1. Rooms 39 Low Rise Office. Ind.4 0.2 1.Typical Heating and Cooling Requirements (cont.0 1.0 1.) Type of Bldg. Central Area 43 Residences 20 Restaurants 60 Schools & Colleges 42 Shoe Stores 53 Shopping Centers.2 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.1 0.3 1. Int.3 1.8 HVAC . 36 Schools. Ext.3 1.2 1. Middle 36 Schools. Supermarkets 30 Retail Stores 32 Specialty Stores 57 Schools. Btuh/SF Cooling Hotel. Vo-Tech 22 * People/Ton 12.1 1. Office 40 Post Office.2 1.8 1. Public Spaces 51 Industrial Plants. Elem.4 1.3 1.0 1.9 1. Rooms 33 Medical Centers 35 Motels 29 Office (small suite) 40 Post Office.

Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors † Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower 0.440 9.200 50.700 29. 3-Ph. Motor and Full Load Motor Driven Driven Driven Motor Nominal Efficiency EquipEquipEquiprpm ment in ment in ment Out in Space of Space Percent Space Btuh Btuh Btuh 1750 54 1.500 840 660 .640 4.820 5.000 283.500 38.790 3. www.090 7.430 15.390 4. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. Split Ph.600 15.900 †Copyright 1989.200 28. 3-Ph.000 127.550 3. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph.100 24.000 172. 3-Ph.000 212. 3-Ph.640 12.490 6.610 8.300 37.700 18.500 22.33 0.50 0.350 1.000 850 740 850 1.75 1 1 2 3 5 7.600 76.org.900 21.800 50.680 9.000 143.140 1.900 2.300 35.900 44.000 353.000 1. 3-Ph.000 191. 3-Ph.210 7. Reprinted by permission from 1989 ASHRAE Handbook “Fundamentals”.000 636.440 12.000 153.900 63. Motor Out.790 2.700 19.000 699.300 102.000 569.000 255.500 72.400 58.270 1.650 3.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Motor Type Split Ph.300 85.000 509. Split Ph.25 0. 3-Ph. 3-Ph.700 114.120 2.ashrae.000 382. Inc. 3-Ph. American Society of Heating.180 640 540 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 2. 3-Ph. In. 3-Ph.000 420. 3-Ph.300 62. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers.000 318. 3-Ph. 13 HVAC 1750 56 1.960 6.

5 10. package Ground water source heat pump kW/ton. EER Rating to kW Conversions EER Rating 6. commercial Heat pump. air handlers Split-system.2 0.8 1.3 Heating System Efficiency (electric) 0.0 14.6-0.3 1.41 1.82 0.0 7.92 0.8-1.5 8.75-0.5 2. fan requirements.77 N/A N/A N/A Note: the heating efficiency considers heat exchanger losses.3 0.75-0.0 0.20 1. and other losses.0 1.1 0.0 0.7-0.0-1.77 HVAC 0.50 1.0 kW.9-1.95 Heating System Efficiency (gas) 0.0 10. chilled water. Cooling 2.2 0.0-1. residential Split-system.3 0.0 6.0 14 kW.9-1.8 0. Cooling 0.75-1.85 1.33 EER Rating 9. boiler.26 1.09 1.60 1. boiler.15 1.0 12. pump power.7 0.6-0.0 13.38-0.5 7.7 0.Typical Equipment Energy Requirements System Type Rooftop package unit Water-source heat pump with cooling tower and boiler 4-pipe system.71 1.5 9.9 0.86 .7-1.1 1. air handlers 2-pipe system.0 8.95 2.86-1.5 11.92 0. chilled water. Cooling 1.8-1.95 0.3 2. split-system Heat pump.3 2.

Inc. 1 Normal Temperature Barometric Pressure: 29.921 Inches of Summary Copyright 1992 American Society of Heating. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. www.ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No.ashrae.org Reprinted by permission. 15 HVAC .

Energy is transferred by conduction through the walls of the passages so that contamination of the makeup air cannot occur. with outdoor and exhaust air kept separate. A temperature difference between the ends of the pipe causes the refrigerant to migrate by capillary action to the warmer end where it evaporates and absorbs heat. and gives up the heat. It then returns to the cooler end. Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger In contrast to the aforementioned techniques. one in the exhaust air stream. 16 . The heat exchanger is an open-ended steel box compartmented into many narrow passages. installed directly in the ventilation air system. This system transfers heat from a warmer stream to a cooler one and some systems can serve both in the heating and air conditioning mode. heat transfer can be accomplished by circulating an ethylene glycol solution. the air-to-air heat exchanger has no moving parts but conveys heat between exhaust and outdoor air streams by means of a counterflow technique. Heat Pipe A heat pipe is a sealed. with the two being connected by a pipe loop. condenses. One finned tube heat exchanger is located in the outdoor air stream.Heat Recovery Opportunities Heat Wheel This system involves a motor-driven wheel packed with heat absorbing material. A pump circulates the liquid for heat transfer. static tube in which a refrigerant transfers heat from one end of the device to the opposite end. HVAC Runaround System When the outdoor air intake and exhaust air duct are not in close proximity. The device is installed through adjacent walls of inlet and exhaust ducts with their opposite ends projecting into each air stream.

the size of chillers can be reduced. This technique is popular in conjunction with closed loop water source heat pump systems and is used to achieve higher savings with a minimum of interruption. Typically. not just for the utility but for the customer. The most effective systems. Heating and cooling loads can be shifted through thermal storage. Closed water source heat pump systems lend themselves to achieve savings through thermal storage and captured heat for use during off-peak hours. as utility rates are based on the cost to serve the customer. take into account the humidity control of the air as well as the dry bulb temperature. but demand load can be shifted and demand charges reduced. 17 HVAC . it is lowest at night. Often it is advantageous. the demand for electric power. Heat captured from internal sources can be saved and/or heat generated at night can be stored for later use. A mixed air temperature controller regulates the proportion of outside air admitted. Peak Demand Controller This device is programmed to cycle electricity consumption by limiting total demand during on-peak hours. opening the outdoor air dampers as the mixed air temperature increases.Economizer Reducing the amount of air conditioning needed by utilizing the cooling potential of outdoor air can be accomplished by the use of “economizer” systems. to shift some electrical usage from on-peak to off-peak operations. fluctuates widely. called enthalpy controllers. By running chillers at night and storing cool water or ice. Off-Peak Thermal Storage Throughout a 24-hour period. in most service areas. With cooling there is little energy savings.

add the values of each together. Basic R-value information and calculations Total heat flow = U * TD * Area Where: U = 1/R TD = Design temperature difference Area = Total area of space with that R value To estimate total R value of a series of material. remember to use efficiency. 18 . See following page for Tons/1000 SF and Equipment kW/ton. The most active groups in this movement recommend modeling the building to assess the energy-using features. To Compare Annual Cost: Use EFLH Calculation (described above) as follows: Annual cost = Tons/1000 SF * Area (SF)/1000 * Equipment kW/ton * EFLH * $/kWh + Tons/1000 SF * Area (SF)/1000 * Equipment kW/ton * 12 * $/kW Heating is analogous.Building Envelope Sustainable Building Design There’s more of a focus now on “sustainable buildings.” This term is used for buildings that have considerably lower impact on the environment during both construction and long-term operation than a typical building of similar size and location. It’s very important to take local conditions (economic and environmental) into account when designing a low-impact building. If comparing with gas. Building Envelope There aren’t rules of thumb available yet.

98 19 Building Envelope 1” insulation (R-3 or R-4/ Deck.11 22 2420 0.15 .32 0.Ceiling Insulation Roof Type Flat Steel Insulation No kW/ U TD Btu/hr/ Tons/ TD Btu/hr/ 1000 Factor (Cool) 1000 SF 1000 SF (Heat) 1000 SF SF .26 1.67 48 4800 1.0 3.18 48 48 48 7200 3360 1920 2.23 .20 48 5280 1.64 .07 22 1540 0.69 0.53 48 48 30720 11040 9.56 Wall Insulation Wall Type Insulation kW/ U TD Btu/hr/ Tons/ TD Btu/hr/ 1000 Factor (Cool) 1000 SF 1000 SF (Heat) 1000 SF SF .07 .55 48 14400 4. inch) No Ceiling 3” insulation (R-3 or R-4/ inch) No Frame insulation Roofing.98 0.30 22 6600 0.10 80 8000 0.128 48 3360 0.23 80 80 51200 18400 4. R-11 Attic.41 .04 55 55 55 8250 3850 2200 0.11 0. insulation Ceiling R-19 insulation .22 No insulation 4” Face Brick– 1” Cavity– insulation (R-5/inch in 8” Concrete Cavity) Block 2” insulation (R-5/inch in Cavity) .55 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . 0.063 48 2688 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 .0 . .045 Brick. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . common—4". .44 . . .053 Batt or Blanket Insulation—6 1/2" . . . 0. . 22. .30 Insulating Values for Common Building Materials Materials R Value U Value* Air Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .788 Building Envelope Slab Floor Insulation No Insulation 1" Insulation (R-5 /inch) 2" Insulation (R-5 /inch) U Factor 0. . . . .4 .58 0. . . . .071 TD (Heat) 48 48 Btu/hr/ 1000 SF 5424 3120 kW/ 1000 SF 1. 1.135 Batt or Blanket Insulation—3 5/8" . .54 14 756 . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4" . .0 . . . .098 Batt or Blanket Insulation—1" .914 0. . . . . . . . . . .91 .075 Batt or Blanket Insulation—6" . . 19.21 TD (Cool) – – – Btu/hr/ 100 LF – – – Tons/ 100 LF – – – TD (Heat) 48 48 48 Btu/hr/ 1000 LF 3888 2968 1008 kW/ 100 LF 1. . . . . . .06 0. . . .Glass (transmission losses/gains only–does not include radiation!) Glass Type Single Double.14 0. 3. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .41 0. . . . . . . . . . .27 Beadboard Plastic. . .27 Batt or Blanket Insulation—2" . . 0.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 13. . . . . . . 4.589 0. .333 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Built-up Roofing. . .124 . . . . . . 1/4” air space Prime + Storm Window U Factor 1.81 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 0. . . . .61 TD (Cool) 14 14 Btu/hr/ 1000 SF 1484 854 Tons/ 1000 SF 0.

. . . . . . . Fir. . .185 Flexicore—4". . . 0. . . . . . . 2. . . drop—3/4" . . 4. . 1. . . . 4. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 . . . .347 Plywood—3/8" . . . . . . .25 .28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 0. . 0. . 2. .469 Wood: Hardwoods (Maple. .88 . . . . . .13 . 0. . .657 Plaster with metal lath—3/4" . . . asbestos . .0 . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . outdoor exposure . . . . 1. . . . . . . .900 Concrete. . .7 . . . 1. Poured—10" . etc. . . . .136 Double glass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Surface. . . . . . . . . .16 Expanded Polyurethane—2". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 1. . outside (15 mile per hour wind). . . . . .8 Wood Doors—1 1/2" . . 6. . . . . . . . . 0. 1. 0. . 0. . . . 0. . . 0. . . 2. . .781 Steel Doors: 1 3/4" mineral fiber core . . . . . . . . . . .649 Double glass. . . . . . . .27 1 *U=R U x Temperature Difference = heat loss in watts per square foot. . . . . . . . . 1. . . .76 Shingles. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . Block (Cores filled with vermiculite)—8" . .26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Wood Doors—1 1/2" w/Storms . . . . . . .89 . . . .54 . . . . 1/4" apart . . . etc. . . . . . . . . .21 .127 Roof Deck—1" . . . . 0. . . . . .78 . lap . . . . . . . .23 . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581 Triple glass. 0. . 0.47 Siding. . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . .17 . . 0. . . . .282 Surface. . . .36 Sheathing and flooring—3/4" . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .04 . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 1 3/4" urethane foam core with thermal break .42 Gypsum Board—1/2" . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08 Extruded Styrofoam—1" . . . . . 10" . . .)—1" .124 Glass Block.78 . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . Cedar. . . 2. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 1. . . . 1. . . . . . 0. . . . Block—8" . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 1. . . .52 . . . . . 5. . . . . . 1.47 . . . Oak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .515 Concrete. . . . . . inside (air film). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 1. . 0. 1/2" apart . . . . . . . . . .Insulating Values for Common Building Materials (cont. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . .13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . .882 Windows: Single glass. . . . .25 . .5 .0 .086 Shingles. . . . . . . . . wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4" apart . . . .4 . . 5. . . . . . . 0. .45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 . . . 1. . . . . . .11 . . . .19 1 3/4" polystyrene core with thermal break. . . . . .91 . . 0. . . . . . .)—1". . . .) Materials R Value U Value* Cellulose Fiber Blown In—3 1/2" . . . . . . 21 Building Envelope . . . . . . . . . .72 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 1. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .077 Concrete. .282 Siding. . . . . . . . 1. .099 Softwoods (Pine. . . . . . . . 8". . .78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Insulation Board—1/2". . . . .0 Expanded Polyurethane—1". . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . .

In winter. allows solar gain. Reduces heat absorption. and can be connected to potable water to reduce water heating costs. Reduces glare and cooling load. This reduces peak cooling load and helps maintain wintertime temperatures. can improve employee performance. Absorbs heat during the day. reduces glare. Absorbs heat during the day to preheat potable water. Absorbs heat during the day and releases at night. lowering cooling requirements. Heavy ceramic tile or stone floors in lobbies with large expanse of glass Building Envelope Water tubes in areas with large glass expanse Water boxes on roof Reflective roof coatings Low-emissivity glass Natural light/light tubes 22 . Reduces lighting energy requirement.Basic Passive Solar Techniques Technique Overhang on South-facing windows What it Does Reduces summer cooling load while letting in natural light.

maintain. etc. 23 Water Heating . industrial sites. Thermal Storage Laundries. remote washrooms. install. Electric will lose elements if water quality not monitored properly. Boiler Relatively easy to use. Familiar to most customers.Water Heating Water Heating Systems System Type Tank-Style Application Typical potable water requirements: small office areas. Gas will lose efficiency and have long-term maintenance issues if water quality not monitored. Potable water is run through heat exchanger to tap heat in tank as needed. install. space heat). Can reduce overall plumbing costs (only need one piping run instead of two). Point-of-Use Small medical offices. Provides dehumidification as well. kitchens. Hospitals. Heats water during off-peak in sealed storage tank. Heat Pump Water Heater pools. Considerations Easy to use. Must be sized to meet either cooling or water heating load. Removes need for circulating pump. schools. Large process water heat requirements (laundries. maintain. retail. kitchens. Can take a lot of room (although they can be placed outside).

2 kWh 0.6 kWh 0.S.0} Estimating Water Heating Electrical Energy Use kWh = Gallons Per Time Period x 8.} ÷ 10 = kW Required {40°F Temp. Rise 3.000 1 kWh will raise the temperature of 4. Rise} Rinse Water Temperature 180°-Standard Set by U.2 kWh Dishwasher Booster*** 0.Water Heating Calculations Recovery 4.34 x Average Degree F.1 x Wattage = GPH at 100° Rise 1.413 {Btu Content} x Time in Hours x Efficiency {0.413 x Efficiency {0.98-1.P. Department of Health Water Heating PER MEAL kWh ESTIMATES-WATER HEATING FOR RESTAURANTS Total Use Full Meal Restaurants and Cafeterias Drive-in Snack Shops 0.04 kWh ***Booster Use is Included in Total Use Figures 24 .34 {Wt. Per Hr. Rise 3.98-1.1 gallons of water 100°F at 100% efficiency in one hour.H.0} Booster Heater Sizing (Rule of Thumb) G. of Water} x Degrees F. {Gals. Figuring Load Required to Heat Water kW = Gallons x 8. of Gal.

0 gal/unit Nursing Homes 4.0 gal/student 26.0 gal/maximum meals/hour Average Daily 13.0 gal/person 11. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers.6 gal/student* 1. Luncheonettes.0 gal/student Motels: No.0 gal/apt.0 gal/apt.0 gal/apt.5 gal/student 35. of Apartments 20 or less 12. 0. 38. 60.4 gal/average* meals/day 1. 50.0 gal/apt. 75 8.0 gal/bed 2. 35.5 gal/apt.Water Use Charts Type of Building Maximum Hourly Maximum Daily 22.7 gal/maximum Sandwich & meals/hour Snack Shops Apartment Houses: No. 66. 25 Water Heating Men’s Dormitories 3.6 gal/student Junior & Senior High 1. of Units 20 or less 6. American Society of Heating.0 gal/unit 18. 37.0 gal/unit 10.8 gal/student *per day of operation The hourly and daily hot water demands listed represent the maximum flows metered in each type of building.3 gal/student 20.org.0 gal/apt.7 gal/average* meals/day 80. 50 10.0 gal/apt.0 gal/apt. 100 7.0 gal/maximum meals/hour 0. Reprinted by permission from 1999 ASHRAE Handbook “Applications”. .5 gal/maximum Type A-Full Meal meals/hours Restaurants & Cafeterias Type B-Driveins.5 gal/bed Office Buildings 0.0 gal/unit 14.ashrae. Elementary Schools 0.0 gal/unit 25.8 gal/student Women’s Dormitories 5.0 gal/apt. Copyright 1999.6 gal/student 0.1 gal/student 12.0 gal/student Schools 6.0 gal/apt. Inc. Grilles.0 gal/apt.0 gal/unit 60 5.4 gal/person Food Service Establishments 1.0 gal/apt.0 gal/unit 100 or more 4.0 gal/unit 15.5 gal/student 3.0 gal/unit 30.0 gal/apt. 42. 200 or more 5. www.0 gal/apt.0 gal/person 2.0 gal/apt. 40.4 gal/bed 1. 73.

. . . . 125° Chemical Sanitizing Glasswasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conveyor. . . . . . . . . . . 20" x 20" Single Tank. . . . . . . Stationary Rack . . . . . . 4. . . NSF—Dishwasher Rinse Water Requirements 180° Rinse Water Demands (Pressure at Washer—20 psi) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140° Bar Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180° Chemical Sanitizing Dishwasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 416 Gals/Hr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Shower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . Stationary Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Pre-Scraper for Dishes (Salvajor Type) . . . . . . 104 Gals/Hr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Pre-Rinse for Dishes-Shower Head Type (Hand Operated) . 3. . . .” Michigan Department of Public Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9-12 Pound Washers. . 347 Gals/Hr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Bar Sink (Four Compartment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Triple Compartment Sink . Conveyor. . . . . . . . . Inclined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 16 Pound Washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stationary Rack . . . . . . . . 180 Pre-Scraper for Dishes (Conveyor Type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Cook Sink. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Single Compartment Sink . . . . . . . . . . .Food Service Hot Water Consumption Use Gallons Per Hour Vegetable Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Gals/Hr. . . . . . . . . . 18" x 18" Single Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75° Water Heating *From “Guideline for Hot Water Generating Systems for Food Service Establishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Required Water Temperatures* Dishmachine Final Rinse (At Manifold) . . . . Flat . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125° Lavatories . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 277 Gals/Hr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Lavatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16" x 16" Single Tank. 5 Service Sink . . . . . . 250 Bar Sink (Three Compartment). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Gals/Hr. . . 25 Chemical Sanitizing Glasswasher . . . . . . . . . 20 Double Compartment Sink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140° General Purpose . . . . . . . . Conveyor . . . .

of Lamps 40 Watt T12 34 Watt T12 32 Watt T6 F96/75W/SL F96/60W/SL F96/59W/T8 F96/110W/HO F96/215W/VHO F96/215W/VHO F96/185W/VHO N/A N/A 98 83 135 125 230 200 41 Standard (1) 1-Lamp 49 Energy Eff. 3-Lamp Electronic (1) 108 88 90 3-Lamp Lumen output also varies with lamp/ballast combinations. Electronic (1)* N/A N/A 75 3-Lamp Actual light output is dependent on the ballast factor.) No. In addition to consuming 172 140 140 4-Lamp less energy. (2) *These ballasts are low power ballasts.Lighting System Wattages for Typical Lamp/Ballast Combinations 27 Lamp Type Ballast Type (No.4 Watts. they will result in reduced light output. (2) 134 107 109 specific manufacturer's lamp and ballast combinations. The actual wattages depend on the Energy Eff. (1) 1N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 52 37 44 Lamp Electronic (1) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 86 35 34 28 1-Lamp Electronic (1)* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 32 1-Lamp N/A N/A Standard (1) 2-Lamp 79 96 175 138 257 219 440 375 Energy Eff. Standard (2) N/A 192 158 4-Lamp Energy Eff. Electronic (1) 142 108 114 4-Lamp Electronic (1)* N/A N/A 95 4-Lamp Lighting . (1) N/A N/A N/A 86 158 123 237 199 70 70 2-Lamp Electronic (1) N/A N/A 105 118 194 160 69 134 62 57 2-Lamp Electronic (1)* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 102 51 2-Lamp Standard (2) N/A 148 127 3-Lamp All wattages are +/.

Efficacy Comparison Chart LIGHT SOURCE Incandescent Mercury Vapor Fluorescent Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Low Pressure Sodium 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Lumens per Watt 28 . consult chapter 10 of their manual (available at www.Lighting Light Level Recommendations The Illuminating Engineers’ Society of North America (IESNA) has recently changed its focus on lighting levels. For full details.iesna.org). They have made a dramatic shift from considering the lighting quantity only to consider the quality of lighting.

Brushed Aluminum. Dark Oak. White Sandstone Aluminum. Gray Granite Limestone Marble. Light Walnut Reflectance (%) 5-10 20-30 10-20 20-30 20-25 35-60 30-70 90-92 20-40 55-58 70-85 60-70 50-60 67-72 70-90 35-50 6-12 10-15 25-35 5-10 Metals Paint Wood 29 Lighting . Polished Stainless Steel Tin White Light Birch Mahogany Oak.Reflectance Values of Different Surfaces Material Category Glass Masonry Description Clear or Tinted Reflective Brick. Etched Aluminum. Red Cement. Polished Plaster.

000.9 20.000 20. 1.37 38806 3.0 High Pressure Sodium 102.000 13.6 Fluorescent Standard Ballast F40LW/RS/WMII 76.76 *Assumes 2500 Hours Use of the Lighting System Annually.5 Fluorescent Standard Ballast F40CW 71.000 13.000 Lumen Output 30 .000 20.23 24.9 Mercury-Regulator (CW) Ballast HR400DX33 48.31 2.000 Lumens 57.23 Source Btu Input* 194882 158749 Incandescent GE 100A A-19/F 17.08 44642 3.000 System kW per 1.5 Quartz GE Q1000T3/CL 21.000+ 11.33 15.5 Fluorescent Max Miser I Ballast f40CWIRS/WMII 85.51 Ton-hours Cooling Required* 16.81 20.24 13.97 20.71 39966 3.000 11.4 Fluorescent Optimiser System FM28KW 87.Lighting The Effect of Lighting on Cooling Load Initial Lamp Lumens/ Hours Watt Life 750 2.000.9 Metal Halide Auto Regulator (Peak Lead) Ballast MVR400/VBV 86.1 46.44 69762 5.72 39676 33174 3.72 20.9 47680 3.625 9.000 11.

"Positive Cutoff" fixtures on poles or buildings are preferred to reduce distracting glare for more attractive surveillance of premises. 4. exits.) 2. where Demand charge = (Number of fixtures* W/fixture * $/kW * 12)/(1000) Energy charge = (Number of fixtures * W/fixture*Annual burn hours * $/kWh)/1000 Outdoor Lighting For Improved —Safety —Security —Appearance —Merchandising Rule of Thumb Guides 1. Use efficient light sources (high pressure sodium. entrances. Improve parking lot visibility and identification by applying two-foot white or yellow paint (thermal plastic) parking guidelines between cars.90 P. walkways.F. High reflectance materials and/or light paint for all possible vertical and horizontal surfaces will lighten dark areas. 5. 31 Outdoor Lighting . Spacing to mounting height ratios between poles are preferred at a 3 to 1 ratio and not greater than a 4 to 1 ratio. aisles. 3. metal halide high intensity discharge lamps) that will produce maximum light output for the lowest use of energy and cost. Higher reflectances will help to quickly identify possible intruders. Specify high power factor ballasts (minimum . This technique will improve reflected light between cars on asphalt surfaces.Annual Cost for Lighting Systems Annual cost = demand charge + energy charge.

6. Perimeter lighting (75 feet or more when possible in front of buildings) will act as a light barrier deterrent to would-be intruders. 7. Floodlighting should not be directed out from a building more than twice the mounting height of the equipment above the ground. This avoids the problem of extreme light and dark areas in addition to the distracting glare problem. 8. Recommend installation of photocell and/or time switch controlled for maximum customer benefit.

Outdoor Lighting

Outdoor Lighting Levels
Building Exteriors Minimum Entrances Footcandles Active (pedestrian and/or conveyance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Inactive (normally locked, infrequently used) . . . . . . . . . . 1 Building Floodlighting Bright surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Dark surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Building Surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Parking Areas Self-Parking Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Attendant Parking Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vital Locations or Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

32

Light System Selection Lamp Table
(b) Initial Lumens Efficacy Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF

Light Source

Burning Position

(a) Lamp Life

High Pressure Sodium Lamps (Clear)

33 155,000 115,000 110,000 40,000 36,000 19,500 23,000 14,000 12,000 1,625 1,050 1,050 460 460 300 300 210 210

1000W 400W 310W 250W 200W 150W 100W 70W 50W 35W 95 110 105 87 78 65 77 67 71 .84 .73 .73 .68 .68 .76 .76 .67 .67

Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Any

24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000

140,000 50,000 37,000 30,000 22,000 16,000 9,500 6,300 4,000 2,250

1,100 465 380 305 250 200 135 95 63 45

127 108 97 98 88 80 70 66 64 50

.83 .83 .82 .83 .82 .83 .83 .83 .83 .83

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

.65 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .65 .65 .65 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

.54 .58 .57 .58 .57 .58 .58 .58 .58 .58 .55 .48 .48 .48 .48 .53 .53 .47 .47

Metal Halide Lamps (Clear)

1500W 1000W(I) 1000W 400W(I) 400W 250W 250W(l) 175W 175W(l)

Vert. Vert. (j) Vert. Vert. (j) Vert. Vert. Horz. (k) Vert. Horz. (k)

3,000 12,000 12,000 20,000 20,000 (f) 10,000 10,000 10,000 (g) 6,000

Outdoor Lighting

Lamp Table (cont.)
(a) Lamp Life 24,000 + 24,000 + 24,000 + 24,000 + 24,000 + 16,000 + 16,000 + 16,000 + 10,000 (h) 10,000 (h) 10,000 (h) 10,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 20,000 (h) 15,000 (h) 20,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 20,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 250 400 600 900 3,150 2,925 3,350 2,900 3,250 2,900 3,250 8 10 12 16 48 40 48 40 48 40 48 31 40 50 56 66 73 67 72 66 72 67 63,000 22,500 12,100 8,600 4,200 2,800 1,575 1,140 1,060 450 300 210 120 99 74 61 59 50 40 41 38 32 21 19 .50 .71 .74 .78 .67 .68 .68 .68 .70(i) .70(i) .70(i) .70(i) .83 .83 .83 .83 .83 .83 .83 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (b) Initial Lumens Efficacy .65 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF = .32 = .50 = .52 = .55 = .47 = .48 = .48 = .48 = .46 = .46 = .46 = .46 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54

Light Source

Burning Position

Mercury Lamps (Deluxe White)

1000W 400W 250W 175W 100W 75W 50W 40W

Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert.

Fluorescent Lamps

PL5 (or equiv.) PL7 (or equiv.) PL9 (or equiv.) PL13 (or equiv.) F40CWRS (M)F40LW/RS/II F40SP30/RS (or equiv.) (M)F40SP30/RS (or equiv.) F40SP35/RS (or equiv.) (M)F40SP35/RS (or equiv.) F40SP41/RS (or equiv.)

Outdoor Lighting

34

65 . (n) Horz.83 .83 . (n) Outdoor Lighting .350 1500 1000 500 200 (M)F40SP41/RS (or equiv.65 .000 2.300 14.000 18.53 .53 .62 .000 14.500 11.) F40SPX35/RS (or equiv.) F40SPX30/RS (or equiv.65 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = .65 .54 .900 3.) F96T12/CW (Slimline) (M)F96T12/LW (Slimline) F96T12/CW/HO (800MA) (M)F96T12/CW.Lamp Table (cont.95 .67 .000 2.300 6.000 13.65 .65 .000+(h) 20.250 15.000 (h) 20.275 2.275 2.40 .95 .900 40 48 40 48 40 86 71 121 106 222 196 225 196 71 68 71 67 71 73 84 76 78 63 70 71 76 .60 .000 2.54 .62 Quartz Tungsten Halogen Lamps 1500W T-3 1000W T-3 500W T-3 200W T-3 Horz.) (a) Lamp Life (b) Initial Lumens Efficacy Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF Light Source Burning Position Fluorescent Lamps (Cont.83 .800 16.95 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . (n) Horz.60 .67 .000 9.900 3.54 .82 .54 .000 1.60 .89 .65 .65 .54 .500 35.) 35 2.58 .) (M)F40SPX35/RS (or equiv.40 .000 18.60 .89 .900 6.65 . (n) Horz.500 11.58 .800 21.40 .62 .HO (800MA) F96T12/CW/VHO (1500MA) (M)F96T12/LW/VHO (1500MA) F96PG17/CW (1500MA) (M)F96PG17/LW (1500MA) 24 22 22 17 20.40 .83 .200 8.000 (h) 18.000 (h) 20.000 15.000 18.83 .) (M)F40SPX30/RS (or equiv.65 .100 3.82 .000 12.65 .95 .67 .67 .62 .000+(h) 20.65 .65 .

65 = . Lamp must be operated within ± 15° of vertical.000 hours. Estimated.000 18. (e) Light loss factor (LLF).000 (h) (i) (j) (k) 33.500 13.65 . (n) Lamp must be operated within ± 4° of vertical.000 hours (when operated vertical ± 30).00 1.00 x x x x x x (b) Initial Lumens Efficacy . (f) Average rate life 20.65 Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF = .00 1. Requires special socket to accept position oriented base.000 22.800 220 178 125 80 68 30 150 126 108 100 71 60 1. Outdoor Lighting 36 .Lamp Table (cont.000 18. Lamp must be operated within ± 15° of horizontal.000 hours.000 10.65 .65 = . (d) Luminary dirt depreciation (LDD).000 4.000 18.65 . (l) High output lamps. For outdoor luminaries only. Average rated life at 3 hours per start. (g) Average rated life 10. (b) Initial lumens (after 100 hours).000 18. All other burning positions 6.800 1.65 = . (c) Lamp lumen depreciation at 70% rate life (LLD).00 1.65 .000 hours (when operated vertical ± 30).65 = .00 1.) (a) Lamp Life 18.500 8.65 . For outdoor luminaries only. All other burning positions 15. (m) Energy efficient lamps.65 = .00 1.65 Light Source Burning Position Low Pressure Sodium Lamps 180W T-21 135W T-21 90W T-21 55W T-17 35W T-17 18W T-17 (a) Lamp life based: 10 hours per start for HID lamps and 12 hours per start for fluorescent unless otherwise noted.

3' Deck Oven.35) * Hours per year * $/therm /100000 Btu per therm Equipment Input.60 .20 Gas .25 .20 . 2-pan 5' Convection Oven. 40 gal.30 .39 . 3' Charbroiler. Diversity. . Solid Top Range.20 .20 .18 .20 . 1 pan Radiant Broiler.45 Typical Input Electric Gas (Btuh) (kW) 14 9 10 11 18 18 8 5 12 12 18 120000 90000 75000 55000 120000 100000 80000 35000 50000 50000 110000 Preheat Time.39 .39 .80 .25) * 12 * $/kW + kW * Diversity Factor * Hours per year * $/kWh -ORTo estimate further (this is a reasonable estimate. 40 gal.45 .Cooking Equipment How to Evaluate Energy Cost Electric Cost/yr = Nameplate rating (kW) * Diversity Factor (default of . 3' Steam Jacketed Kettle. min.60 . 36" Tilting Skillet.95 .39 .35 .40 . Single Full-Size Conveyor Oven.95 . 3' Range Oven. since cooking will be a flat load throughout the year): Electric Cost/yr = kW * Diversity Factor * Hours per year * Average $/kWh (from Table below) Gas Cost/yr = Nameplate rating (Btuh) * Diversity Factor (default of . and operational differences.20 . 45 # Griddle. 37 Cooking Equipment . thermal efficiency. and Preheat Times Diversity (Elec/Gas) Equipment Type Electric Fryer (conventional). Electric 5-8 7-12 20-36 9-10 20-40 8-13 7-15 20-36 5-10 8-11 10-20 Gas 8-12 10-15 45-60 20-30 30-40 5-9 10-30 20-30 15-20 20 10-20 Note that diversity is different between electric and gas because of reheat.

52 .com for updated information. Check powerzone@georgiapower.19 Cooking Equipment Note: This represents the energy that is put into the food (as opposed to the kitchen or up the flue). over fired Charbroiler Fryer.R.55 .13 .35 1.83 .39 Gas . 12. grooved Kettle.05 . University of Minnesota. J. convection Oven. 3/3/83. pressure Griddle.F.42 .4 1. conventional Fryer. range Skillet.085 Typical Gas Costs ($/therm) 1. Norwig.2 1. Source: “Comparative gas/electric foodservice equipment energy consumption ratio study”. Thompson.52 .P.71 . tilting Steamer. deck Oven. Snyder.28 .23 .79 .73 .08 .24 .4 1. jacketed Open range burner Oven.085 .28 . O. Cooking Efficiency Equipment Broiler.78 .22 .085 . convection Steamer.095 .3 .3 1. pressure Electric .13 . D.1 .38 .095 .45 .65 .25 1.Business Type Fast Food Full Service Cafeteria Church/Synagogue Large Office Building School (K-12) College/University Healthcare Typical Electric Costs ($/kWh) .51 .45 1.62 .73 . 38 .16 .2 Effective 10/2002. p.

3 24 24 8 6 4. Int. Insurance Administration.48 3.6 4 3. Property Tax.9 6.5 2.8 Utilities represent less than 5% of a restaurant's operating budget. General Advertising.1 7.6 2.6 0. High Broilers Grooved Griddles Char-Broilers Electric 20 35 35 85 60 65 75 Gas 25 60 40 100 70 75 150 For every 250 CFM reduction.8 3.Ventilation Requirements (CFM per SF of Cooking Surface) Equipment Ovens.1 tons and heating requirement is reduced by 13. Equipment Considerations Typical Foodservice Budgets Food Sales FOOD COST LABOR COST. 39 Cooking Equipment .2 2.200 Btuh.5 29.8 100% 31.1 29. Steamers. Promotion UTILITIES Supplies Repair. AC load is reduced by 1. Kettles Fryers Griddles and Ranges Hot Top Ranges Salamanders. Maintenance.1 2. BENEFITS Pretax Profits Rent. Depreciation Burger Chains Family Restaurant 100% 33.

223 $4. Less shrinkage in meat roasting 2.977 $25.152 $5. 45 lb.578 $22. Fast recovery speeds production 4.449 40 Gas $24. Kettle. Requires less skilled help 6. Kitchen design is easier and more flexible Cooking Equipment Typical Equipment List Prices Equipment Braising Pan. 40 gal.575 $14.260 $5. Ovens are insulated on all six sides to conserve energy 7. more efficient employees 3. Longer holding of food is possible 6. Less spoilage due to overcooking 4. Significant savings in frying fat 3. It is easier to balance the building’s air flow 6. Charbroiler Griddle.563 $26. Less spoilage due to uneven heating 5.695 $12. Larger servings from the griddle 7. 5-pan Electric $20. Watching of food is minimized 5. Combination Oven. The cooking process is energy efficient only 50% of typical gas BTUs 2. molds) are reduced 9.270 $5. No pilot lights to relight 2. Does not require a flue 5.129 $20. providing for lower building maintenance costs 8. The equipment lasts longer 4. Elimination of crippled baking runs 1.485 $19. Double Convection Pasta Cooker Range Steamer. Oven. This results in cooler kitchens.Electric foodservice equipment has the following advantages: Savings in Food Savings in Labor 1. Minimum of supervision 7.908 $4. Less scrubbing of pots and pans 3.679 As of 4/1/2008 Per autoquotes manufacturers suggested retail price (msrp) . Equipment does not lose its efficiency with age 10. Compact layout saves space Other savings provided by electric cooking 1.743 $33.308 $8.910 $5.588 $11. 3' Fryer. Electricity is clean. Water vapor and resulting humidity (bacteria.000 $5. 40 gal. less or no A/C.726 $16.

Considerations Are most efficient run at full load. cars. cars Chillers Status No longer manufactured. Industrial.Refrigerants and Chillers Common Refrigerants. 75-300 t. heat pumps. and Current Status No. cars New chillers New chillers. Lower upfront cost. Water-cooled Absorption Application High-rises. can be noisy Not generally economic unless free steam is available. less efficient than most alternatives Good efficiency at partial loading. heat pumps Food processing. Applications. marketed as Puron 407c R32/R125/R134a (23/25/52 blend) Chiller Types. A/C units. 11 12 22 Name Trichlorofluoromethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Chlorodifluoromethane Application Chillers (old) Chillers (old) Small equipment. lower installation. Considerations Type Centrifugal. still available Phaseout scheduled for 2010 Current Current Current Current Current 123 Dichlorotrifluoroethane 134a Tetrafluoroethane 717 Ammonia 410a R32/R125 (50/50 blend). large applications (150t+) 100-120 t. A/C units. Applications. Water-cooled Reciprocating Screw. doesn’t require building space. lose efficiency rapidly at partial loading Lower capital expense. air-cooled 41 Refrigerants & Chillers . less efficient than water-cooled Reciprocating and 100-300 t. 800-1000 t. low-temperature applications Small equipment. still available No longer manufactured. scroll. heat pumps.

max. C High Medium 5% Constant load speed. compressors. there are 2 main categories: • Single phase • 3-phase Single phase motors are typically used in applications of 1 horsepower or less.Motors and Pumps Motor Basics There are several terms used in motor applications. Hoists. motor efficiency. etc. conveyors. Applications Motors & Pumps B High 5% Constant load speed. D Very High Low 5% or more Variable load speed. The speed listed on the motor is typically the actual speed (which takes slip into account). Fans. NEMA categorizes motors based on torque. high inertia starts. torque. some presses). Locked Rotor Torque Medium 42 . large blowers. The allowable slip for the three-phase motors varies depending on the application. and synchronous speed. some industrial equipment (punches. Within the AC motor category. we show the applications below: NEMA Design Breakdown Torque % slip. The definitions of these terms are included in the glossary. elevators. high inertia starts Flywheels. low inertia starts. Three-phase motors are used for larger applications that don’t require a DC motor. etc. These include slip.

10.6 6.55 4.5 12.15 3. To determine the annual operating cost and the best choice.0 Code Letter L M N P R S T U V kVa/hp 9.22.0 .0 5.0 9.73 x Volts) Motor Cost Comparison Choosing the right motor is an important part of the design process.0 18.0 10.15 3.5 5.0 5.5 .1 8.12.0 . you need to consider: • Annual hours of operation • Loading • Electric rate • Capital cost of the various options The formula for the total cost would be: Demand cost = hp under loading * 0.0 .0 .1 8.16.Code Letter A B C D E F G H J K kVa/hp 0.55 4. Starting current can be calculated using the following formula: .14.0 3.0 14.4 22.0 16.2 .18.0 5.0 .2 11.0 4.746 kW/hp* $/kW-month * 12 months/year / Efficiency Energy cost = % loading * number of hours of operation * hp * 0.0 20.20.3 7.6 6.0 5.11. There is no “rule of thumb” for all motor types.746 kW/hp * $/kWh / Efficiency Total cost = demand cost + energy cost 43 Motors & Pumps The nameplate code rating is a good indication of the starting current the motor will draw. A code letter at the beginning of the alphabet indicates a low starting current and a letter at the end of the alphabet indicates a high starting current.0 3.3 7.0 .4 and up Starting current = (1000 x hp x kVa/hp)/(1.

Motors & Pumps 44 .

Install New High Eff.75 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 Motor Nominal Full-load Type rpm Eff. 20 hp Rewind/Std. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. 7000 Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. standard market prices. Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors Rated hp 0.Recommendation Chart for Motor Replacement/New Installation3 5 hp 1000 hpy Rewind/Std. Equipment Outside (Btuh) 850 740 850 1140 1350 1790 2790 3640 4490 6210 7610 8680 9440 12600 45 Motors & Pumps 3 Assumes small business tax rate. Equipment Inside (Btuh) 1270 1900 2550 3820 5090 7640 12700 19100 24500 38200 50900 63600 76300 102000 Motor Inside. Install New High Eff. Efficiency Install New High Eff. Efficiency Install New High Eff. 15% discount rate. 10 hp Rewind/Std. % Split-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 Motor Insider. Install New High Eff. Equipment Inside (Btuh) 2120 2650 3390 4960 6440 9430 15500 22700 29900 44400 58500 72300 85700 114000 Motor Outside. Install New High Eff. Efficiency Install New High Eff. 5000 Rewind/High Eff. PLM rate schedule. For any extensive motor replacements/installations. Install New High Eff. 15 hp Rewind/Std. 8760 Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Efficiency 3000 Rewind/High Eff. standard and high efficiency as observed in supply catalogs. please contact Georgia Power to find the best customized decision . Install New High Eff. 30 hp Rewind/Std. Efficiency Install New High Eff.5 0.

ashrae. Inc. Motor Formulae Torque (lb-ft) = hp * 5250/RPM Hp = Volts * Amps * Efficiency/746 % slip = (Synchronous RPM – Full-load RPM)*100/Synchronous RPM Motors & Pumps Affinity Laws for Pumps Impeller Diameter Speed Specific To Correct Gravity (SG) for Flow Constant Variable Constant Head BHP (or kW) Flow Variable Constant Constant Head BHP (or kW) BHP (or kW) Multiply by Speed ( New Old Speed ) Speed 2 ( New Old Speed ) Speed 3 ( New Old Speed ) Diameter (New Old Diameter ) Diameter 2 (New Old Diameter ) Diameter 3 (New Old Diameter ) New SG Old SG Constant Constant Variable Copyright 1987. www.org. www.org. Equipment Inside (Btuh) 143000 172000 212000 283000 353000 420000 569000 699000 Motor Outside.ashrae.Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors (cont. Equipment Inside (Btuh) 127000 153000 191000 255000 318000 382000 509000 636000 Motor Inside. American Society of Heating. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Reprinted by permission from 2001 ASHRAE Handbook “Fundamentals”. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. American Society of Heating. Inc.) Rated hp 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Motor Nominal Full-load Type rpm Eff. Equipment Outside (Btuh) 15700 18900 21200 28300 35300 37800 50300 62900 Copyright 2001. 46 . % 3-phase 1750 89 3-phase 1750 89 3-phase 1750 90 3-phase 1750 90 3-phase 1750 90 3-phase 1750 91 3-phase 1750 91 3-phase 1750 91 Motor Insider. Reprinted by permission from 1987 ASHRAE Pocket Handbook.

the designer must consider these aspects: • Required air volume and static pressure • Application type (temperature of discharge.Fans and Ducts Fan Laws CFM1/CFM2 = RPM1/RPM2 SP1/SP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)2 HP1/HP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)3 Criteria for Fan Selection: To get the best fan for a particular application. etc.) • Available space • Noise criteria • Location of discharge • Motor position • Air density (particularly important in South Georgia) 47 Fans & Ducts . corrosive vapors.

Duct Design Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts Fans & Ducts 48 .

in seconds Additional Air Required = Existing Capacity * Desired Pressure/ Existing Pressure Typical Compressor Capacity: Type of Compressor CFM per hp Piston. psia) Time = pump up time. psia) P1 = initial pressure (absolute.5 Rotary Screw 4.Industrial Applications Compressed Air Existing compressor capacity: C = V(P2-P1)*60/(14.0 49 Industrial Applications . Two Stage 3. P2 = final cutout pressure (absolute. ft.7*time) Where: C = capacity of compressor in cfm V = receiver and piping volume in cu.

5 104 234 415 649 934 1272 1661 2101 2596 3153 3734 5085 6650 0.23 3.62 3.9 38 67.6 132 235 366 528 718 938 1187 1464 1780 2112 2875 3752 0.65 Industrial Applications 0.494 1.9 60.335 1.24 2.6 152 271 423 609 828 1082 1370 1693 2054 2335 3310 4330 Note: For well-rounded entrance.1 162 253 365 496 648 820 1019 1230 1460 1985 2594 0.17 27.0 49.1 22.41 7.6 124.3 85.9 37.8 40.86 17.Leakage Rate from Holes Air Flow Through Orifices 15 Gauge Pressure in Receiver (pounds) 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 Dia.248 0.65 31.36 12.93 15.4 70.42 2.7 193 343 536 771 1050 1371 1734 2144 2607 3081 4200 5480 0.5 16.7 10.35 48.10 7 12.98 11.356 0.7 126 196 283 385 503 637 784 954 1132 1540 2120 0.86 12.420 0.5 498 604 716 972 1274 0.96 4.633 1.5 91.0 5.568 0.23 5.6 112 198 310 446 607 793 1004 1240 1505 1783 2429 3173 0.2 26.75 3.25 14. multiply by 0.9 44.3 84 149.4 28.75 3.9 35.23 0.2 124 162 205 253 307 364 496 648 0.18 6.633 1.062 0. of Orifice (in.0 58.944 1.2 19.7 63.0 21.2 318.0 126 284 506 790 1138 1549 2023 2560 3160 3840 4550 6195 8100 0.2 402.98 4.72 15.8 31.90 17.0 58.916 2.5 63.123 0.8 40.53 5.10 1.97.) 2 5 10 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 3/32 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/18 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 0.7 109.2 244.158 0.43 2.774 1.80 4.03 91.66 6.5 179.267 1.5 108 168 242 329 430 544 672 816 968 1318 1720 0.194 0.25 9.44 7.0406 1.49 14.158 0.6 195 438 777 1216 1750 2382 3112 3940 4860 5910 7000 9530 12450 50 .712 1.4 48. mu8ltiply values by 0.583 2.3 143 195 254 321 397 482 572 780 1015 0.311 0.5 99.66 8.78 6.34 3.97 8.105 0.6 71.7 79.68 3.04 0. for sharp-edged orifices.23 9.38 4.1 22.7 33.06 2.1 20.53 5.06 3.6 26.077 0.491 1.69 10.993 2.3 336 596 932 1340 1825 2385 3020 3725 4525 5360 7300 9540 0.

1470 1.799 26.8 0. Temp (psi) (F) Sat.6 883.382 47.4 907.3121 0.0 120.01782 0.1 945.0 110.016834 0.3 969.404 26.0370 1.5950 1.5043 1.016071 0.7436 10.0 0.02 292.0 60.2 161.5 305.1736 6.0 32.0003 27.7 1193.4411 0.8953 4.3962 1.21 1075.3313 1.04 0.01796 0.25 0.0 960.017482 0.00 213.4794 8.0000 0.274 51 20.Process Steam Saturated Steam: Pressure Table Enthalpy Sat.04 320.4965 8.01789 0.6 319.21 212.0 70.2836 0.6113 1.3 1164.1675 1. (psi) p 0.3358 0.696 15.6 1036.7568 1.0815 1.7275 3.01636 0.0 10.4834 0.9446 1.2349 0.5813 1.0 5. Vapor Evap.8 312.1 1177.0 50.2050 5.6 1183.0 110.4415 Specific Volume Sat.0 60.4122 0.1 250.20 1188.0681 0.0 30.9 1156.0425 1.4273 0.3 1150.0 10.73 130.4919 0.0925 0.532 38.71 302.34 267.3921 0.5 641.1875 5.2010 Industrial Applications .0 130.0 90.0 80.1872 2.0 90. p t vf vfg Abs.1905 1.1 290.4364 3.0 100.79 341.9 894.4133 4.9 915.0 325.5 333.8 1131.420 26.0 14.0 40.5 333.017740 0.74 162.5 1060.323 79.6 1180.5 1087.016022 0.0 5.8 1174.7 298.4967 7.6 888.8455 1.5140 7.0 50. hfg hg 1075.4 1235.28 327.03 0.515 38.01803 20.24 193.17 181.5 1150.017383 0.016726 3302.6 73.6094 1.1 1143.82 334.0 100.5 641.290 20.0 70.0484 3.3 1105.070 13.08865 0.623 69.2190 196.696 15. Press.1 1048.59 73.0 140.9 236.018 59.9 1190.5879 1.7 Entropy Sat.0 120.017009 0.4 1235.0 20.0542 0.016592 0.0 0.25 0.4447 1.5752 Abs.8865 0.6440 1.4536 4.4743 0.1284 1. Vapor hf Sat.9781 1.4544 3.2 262.017151 0.6208 1.7 282.5 1.1326 0.1872 2.6316 1.7879 1.96 250.4998 0.8 900.6586 1. Press.9 982.4 1191.3682 0.4 1096.6995 1.3 1187.1 1000.0306 3.016407 0.7320 1.2167 1.1115 1.2 933. Liquid Sat.0967 2.017274 0.7552 1.017659 0.5071 1. sfg vg 3302.1 970.0 80. Vapor sf sg 2.1562 6.2474 1.27 218.3137 2.2844 1.0 140.7266 10.33 353.016032 0.8443 1.586 101.6027 1.087 13.7097 3. Liquid Evap.6 923.0 130.8779 4.0 14.8 868.4310 4.782 26.27 347.4643 0.6765 1.93 312.0 40.2 272.1 877.8 872.5 1.1 1185.0 30.0960 1.0 227.4711 4.1 1169.26 180.016719 0.017573 0.4534 0.25 281. Liquid Evap.

71013 1.5591 1. (psi) p 150.8909 0.3 1202.0016 0.0 400.6 808.6 818.01821 0.0 190.9 364.6217 0.01889 0.4968 1.01865 0.5105 1. Liquid Sat.4 831.97991 1.65049 1.60 0.43 363.0 170.9923 0.16095 394.69137 1.0 270.6059 0.6 1198.6556 2.0 250.6 1201.53 0.8 828.25 0.6 336.01934 1.9433 0.01880 0.08629 1.0435 1.35 431.2873 2.0 358.9508 0.5197 1.52384 1.01875 0.0 210.0 200.01912 0.5413 1.5695 1.30642 1.5679 0.08 377.7 846.5844 0.80 385.2 368.0 170.0 290.18217 2.1 341.6 842.89909 1.0 821. Temp (psi) (F) Sat.1 1200.01850 0.9834 0.5634 0.6 0.1 835.9665 0.5543 1.01870 0.0 350.0 230.9 1204.5129 2.2 780.9958 2.0 330. Evap.16373 2.1 379.3 376.0 230.5438 0.77418 1.01833 2.5498 1.42 373.5588 0.9223 0.1 1195. Liquid Vapor vg 3.8630 Abs.5641 1.4 1202.5230 1.8336 2.5299 1.1 390.55 368.91 389.0 100.0 260.0 190.5328 0.9748 0.70 397.2 346.8 839.99846 1.80 411.07 414.06779 1.5135 1.0 260.9 1202.0 220.1 1196.88 393.5454 1. Sat.9361 0.2 355.5722 0.4847 Specific Volume Sat.0 1196.0 210.0554 1.5206 0.2689 2.6738 2.0 280.44 407.0 280.0 52 .9 794.4 859.9 1197.9291 0.57597 300.0139 2.2 350.5 359.3847 200.0 240.54274 1.3 372.0 854.75548 1.0 1199.7 p hf t vf vfg 150.8155 2.1 812.0 180.5312 2.0 300.5166 1.0 1204.5540 0.63169 1.97 404.5269 0.8 850.32554 1.) Enthalpy Sat.0 240.0 250.5882 0.0 350.9 863.0 417.01855 0.5384 1.5490 0.3 815.01839 0.5805 0.4030 2.Saturated Steam: Pressure Table (cont.0 180.0 160.9 383.01815 0.01827 0.3 1199. sfg sf Sat.59482 1.0 220.5264 1.0 381.0 270.0 290. Vapor sg 1.01860 0.5366 1. hfg hg 1194.0215 1.1 1201. Press.6 1200. Press.84317 1.5141 0.91769 1.14162 Industrial Applications Entropy Abs.39 400.5374 1.6 387.0 409.73 444. Vapor Evap.5764 0.01844 0.01809 0.8 424.0113 1.5 1201.4 825.82452 1.0 160.0322 1.9585 0.01885 2. Liquid Evap.

0 303.2 52.Steam Loss from Leaks* Trap Orifice Diameter (inches) 1/32 1/16 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 Pressure (psi) 15 0.3 13.0 475. Gas Boilers 53 Industrial Applications .9 75.8 119. steam Combustion Heat Losses.7 54.0 150 4.0 682.0 1303.8 36.0 300 9.8 170.2 145.0 100 3. A typical plant has a steam value of $5/1000 lbs.4 13.0 211.0 *in lb/hr.7 30.0 326.8 18.85 3.0 579.7 123.

Electrically conductive work pieces – high frequency for surface hardening. Disinfection in water/ sewage treatment. welding. High capacity. Rubber vulcanization. Infrared Comfort heating. Rapid startup. Precise control. No bleach required. Great in areas with high ventilation (comfort application). Ozonation Laundry brightening. More accurate and faster than mechanical cutting Best for difficult drying applications. Considerations Fast curing. incineration. Cutting. Higher quality. Best for high value-added products (high capital cost). No VOCs. Sintering ceramics. High efficiency. bound moisture removal New microwave technologies allow web drying applications. Good application for IR curing. Best for symmetric shapes and high productivity applications. Process heating. 54 .Industrial Process Technologies Technology Ultraviolet Industrial Applications Applications Coatings on heat sensitive substrates. Adhesive curing. Microwave Cooking and final drying of foods. Low noise. Plastics welding. Powder Coating Painting. hot water production. Electrode Boilers Steam. increases drying speed – increasing productivity (process). No VOCs. vitrification. low for through heating. Induction Plasma Arc Radio Frequency Rapid drying of nonconductive materials. No exhaust flue. Small footprint. Low maintenance. melting. Water disinfection.

Process 550 430 450 375 350 325 500 400 370 350 450 300 Stainless NonSteel Magnetic Stainless Magnetic Nickel Titanium Copper Brass Aluminum Melting 500 550 Heat Forging 400 375 Hardening/ Solution Treating N/A 375 250 200 100 75 90 120 250 225 110 80 240 N/A N/A 200 N/A N/A 400 300 N/A 300 325 350 300 250 N/A 200 N/A 70 250 260 300 260 N/A 210 N/A 125 Industrial Heating and Curing Annealing 250 210 Typical Energy Requirements (kWh/ton) 55 Warm Forming 175 N/A Stress Relief 150 150 Tempering/ Aging 70 70 Curing 50 50 Industrial Applications .

Information to Assess Induction Feasibility Characteristic Materials Coatings Production Heat Control Scrap Industrial Applications Good Induction Application Electrically conductive (typically metallic) Don’t require long residence time for curing High volume/high speed Requires ability to control temperature and depth of heating precisely Material that oxidizes readily (e. induction tends to cost more upfront. and temperature — can reduce scrap rate from 7-8% to 1% Little available square footage Moderate to high gas prices/moderate to low electric prices Processes that require sporadic heating. induction can cycle whereas gas convection cannot — result is lower energy use for induction Simple. but can have rapid payback depending on application High labor costs. moisture.com Average Induction Heating System Efficiency Type Line Voltage Solid State Radio Frequency Frequency 60 Hz 60 to 200 kHz 200 to 450 kHz System Efficiency 65% 70% 50% 56 . aluminum). contact powerzone@georgiapower. induction allows control of atmosphere. regular Less important to customer. symmetric. induction lends itself to automation which can reduce labor requirements in a plant Floor Space Energy Costs System Efficiency Product Shape Capital Cost Labor Cost For help assessing induction for your customer.g.

silicon tubes. or panels Metal radiant tubes Metal ribbon emitters Ceramic emitters LONG WAVE (High Intensity) Glass panels Vitrified ceramic panels Type of Emitter Curing painted surfaces Curing powder coatings Polymerization of organic coatings on cooking utensils Gelling PVC coatings on fabric Curing painted surfaces Curing powder coatings Drying/heat setting fabrics after dyeing or printing Activating adhesives Drying textiles Animal care in agriculture Printed circuit board processing Supplemental heater Drying silkscreen inks for paper drying Preheating plastic Typical Applications Drying iron oxide on Drying inks in printing Preheating embossing or silkscreening recording tapes rollers Production of TV tubes Drying porcelain and ceramics Preheating plastic Preheating wooden panels prior to coating Drying paints and lacquers Drying and production Curing coatings on wooden panels of glass-plastic composites Curing the varnish or paints on mirror backs 57 Industrial Applications Emitters and Applications of IR Radiant Heating .SHORT WAVE (High Intensity) Tungsten filament lamps T-3 quartz lamps MEDIUM WAVE Coil or wire in unsealed quartz.

Runs all the time Ease of installation Erect on site 58 . Can be turned off or reduced to 5-10% power with no parts in the oven Preassembled. move into position Industrial Applications GAS CONVECTION 300 to 350 feet 30 minutes 20 to 35 minutes 15 to 25% 0 to 450°F.Typical Oven Comparison ELECTRIC Floor space (conveyer length needed) Warm-up time Cure time Efficiency Product temperature range Operational advantages 25 to 30 feet 1 to 90 seconds 1 second to 10 minutes 45 to 60% 0 to 1000°F.

430 Tantalum Tin.260 .057 .1 33 36 20 — 91 14 39 8.100 .282 .04 .290 .032 . 15% Sb) Zinc .1 6.318 .4 11. cast Iron.099 .11 .10 .385 .030 .7 41 242 26 38 8.9 12.4-22 Industrial Applications .5 16.031 .775 .9 10.098 .10 .284 .388 .697 . solid Tin.321 .095 169 167 167 69 23 — 91 29 — — — — — 10 — 160 — 133 — 49 38 17 — — — — 25 — — 15 51 1190 935 1190 1166 520 1700 ± 1981 1945 2475 2470 2600 2300 ± 2800 ± 621 — 1202 2370 2615 2550 3224 1761 415 255 ± 2550 2650 5425 450 — 3300 500 787 169 173 170 423 610 525 550 1203 501 525 508 450 480 710 665 109 551 554 524 1338 655 580 490 488 475 1036 455 437 283 670 445 .303 .13 .4 0.5 31 36 18 9.04 .2 7. 20% Cr) Platinum Silver Solder (50% Pb. wrought Lead. solid Lead.353 .24 .9 4.11 .232 .13 .3 — 65 13.056 .304 .294 .0 3.245 .278 . 304 Steel.304 .6 13 — 4. 50% Sn) Steel.064 .1 9.275 .Metals Properties of Solids Heat of Fusion Btu/lb Melting Point (lowest) °F Density lb/ft3 lb/in3 Thermal Conductivity Btu/hr/ft2 °F Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion per °F x 100 Substance Specific Heat Btu/lb/F 59 Aluminum 1100 Aluminum 2024 Aluminum 3003 Antimony Bismuth Brass (70% Cu.6 6.1 12.24 .319 . melted Magnesium Monel 400 Nickel 200 Nichrome (80% Ni.3 — 14 7.126 .5 6.11 . stainless.7 — 9.164 .24 . 30% Zn) Copper Gold Incoloy 800 Incoloy 600 Invar Iron.0 7.8 12.12 . stainless.7-6.7 9.9 13.12 .600 .11 .1 6.7 7.031 . mild carbon Steel.12 .263 .411 .6 6.9 7.11 .253 . melted Titanium Type Metal (85% Pb.9 4.379 .040 .9 7.3 4.036 .258 128 112 112 10.11 .336 .4 7.9 56 224 169 8.052 .063 .1 9.

20 .Solid Non-Metals Thermal Conductivity Btu/hr/ft2 °F — — — 3–6 .11–.4 .10–.085 .03–.068 .25 .072.048.102.20 .45 .096.38 55–111 17–111 28–139 .21 .32 .12 .020.5 .032.3 18 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 17 — — — — — — — — — — — — 3150 — — — 320 230 90 ± — — — — — — — — — — — 138 95± 100 — 105 125 60 50 34 .45 ± .19 .14 32–72 55–83 25–36 46–58 .104 .048.15 .25 .4 5 — — Properties of Solids Heat of Fusion Btu/lb — 40 75 — — — — — — 250 ± 144 — 6700 2200 ± — — 36 65 60 140 — 165 130 57 .80 .20 .0941.14 .035– .2 .4 .081.45 ± Industrial Applications Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion per °F x 100 340 60 .7 .28 Substance Specific Heat Btu/lb/F Melting Point (lowest) °F.30 .8 .048– . Density lb/ft3 lb/in3 .028.7 1.20 .30 .035± .021.204 .38 .14 .034.1121.40 .19–.068 .21 .55 .035 .17 .21 .050.075.29 .3-.087 .080.06–.44 . hard Plastics ABS Cellulosic Epoxy Fluoroplastic Nylon Phenolic Polyethylene Polystyrene Vinyl Quartz Rubber Soil dry Steatite Sugar Sulfur Tallow Wood-oak Wood-pine — .13 .061 .203 — .45 .20 .040.037.08 .25 .087 — 5 — 36 — — — .055± .3 .038– .20 .2-.22 .0331.3-.44 .10–.4 .12–.033.058.46 .40 — .70 — — — — — — 63 — — — — — — 133 300 ± — — 36 — 58 56 83 Asbestos Asphalt Beeswax Brickwork & Masonry Carbon Glass Graphite Ice Magnesium Oxide before compaction compacted Marinite-36 @ 600 F Mica paper Paraffin Pitch.045.3-.077.28 .3 7.3–2.08013.31 .029.07–.036.

58 112.96 6.82 7.75 7.34 61 Industrial Applications Properties of Liquids . olive Oil.503 .49 5.49 7. petroleum Paraffin.50 10.65 .22 8.84 — 9.518 .18 .35 7.71 .97 8.49 9.58 .Substance Acetic acid Alcohol Benzine Brine (25% NACI) Caustic soda (18% NaOH) Dowtherm A (at 450°F) Ether Freon 12 (Saturated liquid) Glycerine Mercury Oil.83 7.81 .84 .47 .15 10.24 .02 7.03 7.5 54 62. melted Therminol FR-1 (at 450°F) Turpentine Water Source: Chromalox (5) Specific Heat Btu/lb/ °F .472 .3 . melted Potassium (at 1000°F) Sodium (at 1000°F) Sulfur.41 1.2 — 73.033 .5 lb/gal 8.89 10.234 .5 79 845 60 58 56 56 44.6 51.35 6.0 Heat of Vaporization Btu/lb 153 365 166 730± 800± 42 160 62 — 117 — — — — 893 1810 652 — 133 965 Boiling Point °F 245 172 175 220± 220± 495 95 -20 554 675 — 570± — 750± 1400 1638 601 650± 319 212 Density lb/ft3 66 55 56 74 75 55 46 78.36 .47 .51 .45 . cotton seed Oil.

155 Water vapor (212°F) .0728 .1037 .0779 .0053 .25 Hydrogen 3.243 Chlorine .0175 .231 Nitrogen .0101 .0104 .6 Methyl chloride .0108 .124 Carbon dioxide .078 .048 .0056 .245 Oxygen .005 .2 .0135 .35 Air .0372 Thermal Conductivity at 32°F and Atmospheric Pressure Btu/hr/ft2/°F .0142 .08 .0175 .218 Sulphur dioxide .0447 .203 Carbon monoxide .078 .41 Methane .073 .00912 .09 .24 Nitric Oxide .014 .014 .123 .237 Ammonia .520 Argon .0917 .179 .Industrial Applications Properties of Gases and Vapors Specific Heat at Constant Pressure Btu/lb/°F Density at 70°F and Atmospheric Pressure lb/ft3 .0802 .1309 .0043 .0138 .4 Helium 1.0085 .125 Ethylene .0145 Substance Acetylene .451 Source: Chromalox (5) 62 .

Need a much larger tank to provide the required pressure. $200 >100 kW. $200 >100 kW. Propane Natural Gas <100 kW. 63 On-Site Generation & Power Quality <100 kW. not liquid. Burns vapor. Must purchase firm gas contract if for backup of critical systems.On-Site Generation and Power Quality Standby Generation Considerations Genset Fuel Diesel Cost/kW $250 Fuel Tank? 24-hour Considerations If more than 500 kW standard generator. $400 Not required Uninterruptible Power Supply/Power Conditioning Systems Solution Type Uninterruptible Power System (UPS): Battery (long term) Protection Time 5-10 minutes typical protection with longer battery times available Size Range 650 VA to 750 kVA Comments Provides for proper operation of protected equipment for outages up to several minutes or seamless transfer to generator or orderly shutdown of protected equipment before the battery power expires. $400 Tank not furnished . must have dykes to contain spill in amount of largest delivery tanker compartment.

Uninterruptible Power Supply/Power Conditioning Systems (cont. 64 . 30 seconds at 313 kVA 100% load and to up to 60 2500 kVA seconds at partial load Sag correction.) Solution Type UPS: Flywheel Protection Time Size Range Comments Provides for orderly shutdown of protected equipment for short duration outages or provides seamless transfer to generator. On-Site Generation & Power Quality Dynamic Sag Corrector Surge Protection N/A Surge capacity and options vary with model. Protects against 92% of voltage events.250 VA 2 seconds to maximum 3000 kVA Momentary outages up to 12 cycles N/A UPS: Battery (short-term) Provides for orderly shutdown of protected equipment for short duration outages or provides seamless transfer to generator. 13 seconds to 100 kVA 2 minutes to based on 750 kVA power requirements of the protected system. Protects systems from transient voltages such as lightning. switching transients and over-voltages.

Comments Works by converting natural gas to hydrogen. Best applications have fuel with no retail value and steam requirements in plant. except land SE US listed by DOE as (if applicable) low potential location. any wind potential. $1400 (combined heat and power).Alternative Energy Sources Type Fuel Cell Microturbine Potential In SE Cost/kW High High $5000 $1000 (standard). except land Only a few mountain and maintenance ridges in N. about $0. Cost/kWh Cost of fuel/efficiency Must evaluate system efficiency. Requires extensive permitting and design. . Cannot use this capacity for cost calculations – must derate for temperature Active Solar Low $1000-1200 (13% of energy delivered) MedHigh Free. Waste-to Energy Location & Fuel-specific size specific. $200/kW. Ga provide cost. 65 On-Site Generation & Power Quality Windpower Low $1000-1200 Free. At 2002 gas prices. Cost/kW at fully rated capacity. and maintenance cost Industrial application.10/kWh.

4-wire wye (or star) with grounded neutral rated 277/480 volts. For three-phase power circuits and lighting circuits using 277-volt ballasts. Three-phase. Three-phase. 3-wire For three-phase power circuits and singlephase light and power branch circuits. Three-phase. (Threephase. For three-phase power circuits and single-phase light and power branch circuits.Electrical Distribution Transformer secondary For single-phase light and power branch circuits. 120-volt lighting and receptacle loads are fed from this system through singlephase transformers rated 480/-120 240 volts or three-phase transformers rated 480/120-208 volts. 4-wire delta with one phase center tapped and grounded. 4-wire wye (or star) with grounded neutral rated 120/208 volts. Electrical Distribution Single-phase. 3-wire delta for power loads is used with a separate single phase supply for lighting. 66 .

kVA x 1000 E Hp. Kilowatts.73 x Eff. x P. Ratio = Multiplier. Horsepower. Temperature Noise Level Max.F.L. kVA x 1000 1.73 x E I x E x 1.F. 746 I = Amperes. 1000 IxE 1000 I x E x Eff. L. x 746 E x Eff.F. Amps Starting Amps F. x 746 E x Eff. X P. Eff. Amperes when kW x 1000 Kilowatts is known E Amperes when kVa is known Kilowatts kVA Horsepower— (output) I x E x Eff. ALTERNATING CURRENT Single Phase Three Phase Hp.F.73 x E x Eff. R.F.25% -6% 9% +Slight +Noticeable +21% +44% Electrical Distribution .73 x E x P. Ratio 1000 x Time in Seconds Kh = Meter Constant. C. kW x 1000 1.L. x P. F. P. kVA = Kilovolt-amperes.73 1000 I x E x 1. of Revolutions x 3600 x Kh x C. x P. Overloaded Capacity 90% -19% -11/2% -2 Points +11% -10% +11% -Slight -19% 67 % of Rated Voltage 110% 120% +21% +44% +1% +1. 746 IxE 1000 I x E x P. Efficiency F. M. kW x 1000 E x P. Hp = Horsepower Estimating Loads From kWh Meter Clocking kW = No. 746 P.F. 1000 I x E x 1.T.11% +10% +.L.T. kW = Kilowatts. and kVa To Find Amperes when Horsepower is known Direct Current Hp. = Power Factor. if used Effects From Voltage Variations Motor Characteristics Torque F.73 x P.F.F. x 746 1.F. = Efficiency expressed as decimal.5% +1/2 Point +1 Point -7% -.Useful Electrical Formulas for Determining Amperes. E = Volts.

Electrical Distribution Percent of Rated Heater Watts at Reduced Voltage 240 Volt Heater on 230 Volts—92% 240 Volt Heater on 220 Volts—84% 240 Volt Heater on 208 Volts—75% 480 Volt Heater on 440 Volts—84% 480 Volt Heater on 277 Volts—33% Motor Wattages 1/6 hp = 250 W 1/4 hp = 350 W 1/3 hp = 460 W 1/2 hp = 680 W 3/4 hp = 980 W 1 hp = 1200 W Ohm’s Law Made Easy I2 x R ExI E2 R E R W E IxR W I I R W I2 √ E2 W W E √W x R W R E I 68 .

2 8.5 36.2 10.3 250.3 126.650 Formula for Calculating Line Currents AMPERES = SINGLE PHASE WATTS LINE VOLTAGE TO CONVERT “kW” TO WATTS MULTIPLY “kW” BY 1.8 14.4 16.0 14.7 20.8 25.0 48.4 162.2 90.0 208V 30 2.0 166.6 10 4.5 8.3 41.7 38.413 6.5 14.0 83.2 9.2 2.6 24.826 10.065 20.5 180.73 69 Electrical Distribution BTUH—kW—Amperes Chart kW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 120V 10 8.0 36.6 52.2 41.6 16.9 27.6 7.5 480V 10 2.7 50.2 24.0 62.1 96.520 153.4 19.0 60.8 7.0 .325 102.8 83.4 69.6 14.6 166.9 32.6 75.6 10.0 108.8 19.0 36.0 29.0 124.7 25.4 12.3 66.6 4.8 31.717 34.6 20.0 110.000 AMPERES = THREE PHASE WATTS LINE VOLTAGE X 1.4 187.2 24.1 54.2 144.7 25.3 12.0 48.6 19.1 33.390 119.5 16.4 18.1 21.195 68.2 208.2 8.260 85.8 12.6 208.0 42.8 6.2 8.1 97.652 17.5 240V 30 2.304 30.5 43.0 30 1.1 72.0 7.4 22.4 192.0 28.2 21.0 277V 10 3.8 124.0 72.3 28.3 168.6 24.6 62.3 16.0 96.3 108.5 240.7 138.2 6.4 144.4 9.BTUH 3.0 54.0 18.4 4.3 125.3 83.9 16.0 84.5 10 4.6 55.0 58.4 216.4 83.8 5.2 72.1 13.2 120.6 12.3 10.478 23.3 37.239 13.4 3.0 30.130 51.0 120.7 41.0 291.891 27.6 18.8 9.7 333.455 136.1 4.585 170.2 93.4 72.8 145.5 48.0 33.9 33.4 41.0 60.2 104.3 375.3 11.6 104.0 416.

Fire escapes. three-phase. four-wire 277/480V grounded wye. outside stairs. three-wire 120/240V delta. four-wire 120/208V grounded wye. If the building is 3 stories or less. from doorways No closer than 10 ft. you are asked to design a split bus/panel arrangement to accept service from more than one transformer. See powerzone@georgiapower. three-phase. and covered walkways attached to or between buildings shall be considered part of the building.com for most current information. • The edge of the concrete pad nearest the building shall be: No closer than 14 ft. from building wall. 70 . three-phase. windows or other openings. The following requirements must be met:1 • The selected location must be conducive to the installation of underground primary electrical cables. the 10-ft. 1As of 10/02. Georgia Power Company must approve location of padmounted transformers before final design. single-phase. four-wire Maximum Size Padmounted Transformer (kVA) 167 Overhead transformer service only 1000 2500 If the expected demand will exceed the maximum size transformer.Electrical Distribution Transformer Types and Requirements Service Voltage 120/240V. clearance is measured from the edge of any overhang or canopy.

Item Overhead Service Conductors Single-phase underground service conductors Three-phase underground service from padmounted transformers Three-phase underground service from overhead transformers Provided by Georgia Power Georgia Power Comments/Restrictions From transformer to customer’s weatherhead Residential customers must pay a flat fee to receive underground service Customer Georgia Power If LESS than 600A service 71 Electrical Distribution . • Transformers shall be located such that: The front of the transformer faces away from the building There are 10 ft. the minimum spacing between transformers (including cooling fins) is 5 ft. Trees. Before seeking approval. from all sides of the transformer. contact Georgia Power Company to evaluate the feasibility of the exceptions. There is unrestricted air flow for cooling requirements.• Any exceptions to the above requirements must be approved by the local fire marshal or the jurisdiction having authority. Written approval must be provided to Georgia Power Company. of clearance in front of the transformer doors They are easily accessible by personnel and heavy equipment during construction and after project completion If more than one padmounted transformer is required. and other similar vegetation must be kept at least 10 ft. shrubs.

If more than 12 are required. grounded wye service • The customer’s service ground may NOT be terminated in the padmounted transformer compartment • Three-phase services should have no more than 12 conductors per phase. Customer’s service conduits must be designed to fit within the secondary side of the pad opening Requirements for Service Conductors • All three-phase services from padmounted transformers must be 4-wire. and at metering equipment Provided by Customer Comments/Restrictions If MORE than 600A service Georgia Power Concrete transformer Georgia Power pads (contact Georgia Power for dimensional details) GPC will furnish and install. 72 . contact Georgia Power Company to discuss the feasibility of exceptions.Electrical Distribution Item Three-phase underground service from overhead transformers Service conductor connections in padmounted transformers. at weatherheads.

Register your project at powerzone@georgiapower. Any customer with Customer welding machines Three-Phase Customer Other • Available fault current depends on the size transformer and that transformer’s impedance. 73 Electrical Distribution .com to get the available fault current for that location. • Consult Georgia Power Company’s current Electrical Service and Metering Installations for detailed information on metering and service installation requirements. Must design and install motor starting technology to limit starting voltage drop to the established acceptable values on both the customer’s and system’s side.Motor Starting Who Limits Starting Voltage Drop Georgia Power Type of Service Single Phase Comments Responsible for both customer side and system side Must design and install motor starting technology to limit starting voltage drop to the established acceptable values on both the customer’s and system’s side.

Remember to apply only during the months that the equipment would run! 74 . air handlers Lighting.9 0 (if before the meter) 0.35 (see cooking tables for specific items) 0. interior Lighting. Demand seen by meter = Rated kW * Diversity.25 Miscellaneous Space heating Cooking Water heating Refrigeration Miscellaneous This chart can be used to calculate the demand charges for various types of equipment.65 0. exterior Diversity Multiplier (demand) 1 1 0.8 0.Miscellaneous Diversity Factors for EFLH calculations Equipment Compressors (air conditioning) Fans.5 0.

0 to 6 1.0 to 12 Room Type Indoor sports activities Gymnasiums Coliseums Swimming pools Bowling alleys Gambling casinos Manufacturing areas Heavy machinery Foundries Light machinery Assembly lines Machine shops Plating shops Punch press shops Tool maintenance Foreman’s office General storage Offices Executive Supervisor General open offices Tabulation/computation Drafting Professional offices Conference rooms Board of Directors Halls and corridors Sones 4 to 12 3 to 9 7 to 21 4 to 12 4 to 12 25 to 60 20 to 60 12 to 36 12 to 36 15 to 50 20 to 50 50 to 60 7 to 21 50 to 15 10 to 30 2 to 6 3 to 9 4 to 12 6 to 18 4 to 12 3 to 9 1.0 to 6 2.Noise Design Criteria for Room Loudness Room Type Auditoriums Concert and opera halls Stage theaters Movie theaters Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls Multi-purpose Courtrooms Auditorium lobbies TV audience studios Churches and schools Sanctuaries Schools and classrooms Recreation halls Kitchens Libraries Laboratories Corridors and halls Hospitals and clinics Private rooms Wards Laboratories Operating rooms Lobbies & waiting rooms Halls and corridors Sones 1.5 to 5 2.0 to 15 1.7 to 5 1 to 3 5 to 15 Note: Values shown above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings.0 to 12 2. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 — Application of Sone Rating.5 to 8 4.0 to 12 6.0 to 6 2.0 to 12 2.0 to 18 2.5 to 8 4.5 to 8 4.0 to 9 4.5 to 5 3.7 to 5 2.0 to 12 5.0 to 6 1.0 to 12 4.0 to 6 4.0 to 3 1. 75 Miscellaneous .7 to 5 2.

For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 — Application of Sone Rating. plane) Waiting rooms 5 to 15 Ticket sales office 4 to 12 Control rooms & towers 6 to 12 Lounges 5 to 15 Retail shops 6 to 18 Note: Values shown above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings.0 to 18 3 to 9 3 to 9 3 to 9 1. 76 .0 to 12 6.0 to 12 8.0 to 24 3.0 to 9 2.) Room Type Hotels Lobbies Banquet rooms Ballrooms Individual rooms/suites Kitchens and laundries Halls and corridors Garages Residences Two & three family units Apartment houses Private homes (urban) Private homes (rural and suburban Restaurants Restaurants Cafeterias Cocktail lounges Social clubs Night clubs Banquet room Miscellaneous Reception rooms Washrooms and toilets Studios for sound reproduction Other studios Sones 4.3 to 4 4 to 12 6 to 8 5 to 15 3 to 9 4 to 12 8 to 24 3 to 9 5 to 15 1 to 3 4 to 12 Room Type Public buildings Museums Planetariums Post offices Courthouses Public libraries Banks Lobbies and corridors Retail stores Supermarkets Department stores (main floor) Department stores (upper floor) Small retail stores Clothing stores Sones 3 to 9 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 7 to 21 6 to 18 4 to 12 6 to 18 4 to 12 Miscellaneous Transportation (rail. bus.0 to 12 4.0 to 6 7.Noise Design Criteria for Room Loudness (cont.

Inc. www.org. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. American Society of Heating. Reprinted by permission from 1972 ASHRAE Handbook “Fundamentals”. 77 Miscellaneous .Room Sones – dBA Correlation Copyright 1972.ashrae.

GEORGIA Lat. 33 39N Long.) for Each Dry Bulb Temperature Range MAY Obsn Hour Gp 01 to 08 09 to 16 JUNE Obsn Hour Gp 01 to 08 09 to 16 Temperature Range 01 to 08 09 to 16 Obsn Hour Gp M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 Obsn Hour Gp 01 to 08 09 to 16 M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 01 to 08 09 to 16 100/104 95/99 90/94 85/89 80/84 77 74 74 72 71 69 46 51 74 171 68 147 18 69 234 64 46 2 7 55 59 5 0 1 6 55 49 44 72 70 66 60 47 42 76 165 133 19 59 211 54 3 11 68 10 0 1 11 0 0 71 69 65 60 56 1 0 1 5 1 6 30 10 40 0 61 30 91 5 81 57 143 72 74 74 74 73 0 0 6 1 7 30 9 39 72 33 105 3 76 58 137 76 74 74 73 72 4 1 33 13 0 53 28 5 46 81 70 69 67 0 5 0 0 4 1 5 29 10 39 52 25 77 65 44 114 75/79 70/74 65/69 60/64 55/59 0 1 0 3 32 94 59 30 57 47 30 15 7 46 62 52 26 15 106 141 176 100 52 66 64 62 58 53 31 93 82 23 5 50 62 143 28 64 185 11 28 121 1 4 28 1 1 7 50/54 45/49 40/44 35/39 30/34 19 8 3 1 0 0 5 1 0 25 9 3 48 44 40 1 0 Miscellaneous JULY Obsn Hour Gp AUGUST SEPTEMBER M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 01 to 08 OCTOBER Obsn Hour Gp 09 to 16 M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 78 2 0 9 2 31 11 0 60 31 8 72 82 49 22 6 1 0 57 43 21 14 2 1 2 11 42 91 53 118 71 186 40 143 23 86 6 30 1 0 8 1 0 72 71 71 70 68 67 63 59 54 49 45 42 1 8 28 51 60 51 28 14 7 2 0 1 3 16 42 52 53 39 23 0 1 4 0 1 4 20 14 57 34 94 54 135 59 149 40 123 12 24 4 11 2 4 0 1 0 87 43 20 8 2 74 73 70 68 64 63 60 57 52 48 43 39 33 29 . Mean Frequency of Occurrence of Dry Bulb Temperature (degrees F. 1. 84 26W Elev.010 ft.ATLANTA/HARTSFIELD.) with Mean Coincident Wet Bulb (MCWB) Temperature (degrees F.

Hour Gp Total erature 01 09 17 Obsn to to to Range 08 16 24 M C W B 100/104 95/99 90/94 85/89 80/84 1 0 Obsn Obsn M Obsn M Obsn M Obsn M Obsn M Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 08 16 24 1 0 17 3 103 2 2 0 2 64 0 254 113 1 67 1 0 1 64 17 7 24 64 13 370 229 M Total C Obsn W B 1 73 20 74 135 74 367 72 612 70 75/79 70/74 65/69 60/64 55/59 3 19 47 61 34 89 47 26 34 39 106 43 32 37 43 117 38 43 30 40 123 34 41 21 28 91 29 29 10 9 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 -3 46 17 9 4 0 24 20 15 11 6 15 7 3 2 1 5 2 1 0 0 6 26 24 5 2 11 19 1 2 6 15 1 0 2 11 0 1 6 37 37 35 25 14 97 106 108 87 53 47 42 38 34 29 38 44 48 34 25 40 34 21 12 6 44 37 30 15 6 1 3 0 1 0 0 122 115 99 61 37 9 2 1 0 47 42 38 33 29 25 20 16 11 60 60 2 57 9 52 17 0 4 1 11 5 19 19 29 23 0 5 16 30 2 22 55 54 0 5 18 47 69 64 2 0 63 8 3 60 2 16 10 57 7 25 20 53 17 32 33 2 11 28 52 82 63 60 57 55 51 9 18 27 34 45 4 9 24 34 42 13 27 56 84 117 62 59 57 54 50 38 41 43 40 29 0 5 18 28 5 20 32 39 40 1 6 5 25 17 54 35 92 43 111 64 60 3 0 59 1 13 5 56 9 22 16 51 13 26 22 20 36 48 48 38 58 79 113 143 121 62 61 59 56 52 136 487 423 311 276 42 17 22 81 46 255 31 9 14 54 42 243 22 3 6 31 38 249 10 0 1 11 34 228 2 2 29 166 353 301 262 248 234 213 200 158 108 57 350 413 301 286 263 241 222 201 135 80 839 1201 986 845 773 709 665 608 471 303 69 67 62 57 52 47 42 38 34 29 79 23 32 134 24 33 8 10 51 20 13 3 7 23 15 7 2 0 9 11 1 0 0 1 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 -3 79 41 18 5 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 24 28 9 20 9 4 15 5 1 11 3 1 5 0 0 50/54 45/49 40/44 35/39 30/34 34 38 41 113 47 17 36 33 86 47 21 34 45 30 42 117 42 29 44 41 114 42 25 42 44 20 30 94 38 39 44 53 136 38 36 38 35 9 16 60 33 55 29 37 121 34 46 37 20 4 7 31 29 43 19 25 87 29 45 18 25/29 20/24 15/19 10/14 5/9 8 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 12 3 2 0 0 25 23 21 13 14 3 10 2 6 0 7 2 1 1 0 11 3 1 0 0 0/4 -5/-1 0 0 3 1 0 Miscellaneous .NOVEMBER DECEMBER ANNUAL TOTAL JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL Obsn Temp.

4 74 127 83 20.5 76 136 82 19. Metro Airport Macon Marietta. Dobbins AFB Rome Savannah Valdosta.4 18.3 72 123 79 17.Cooling and Dehumidification Design Conditions for Georgia Evaporation WB/MDB 0.3 20. Regional Airport Waycross 93 75 78 91 78 90 77 89 75 134 84 96 95 95 74 77 77 94 93 94 74 76 76 96 76 94 76 Miscellaneous WB MDB WB 79 90 78 78 89 77 77 88 76 79 91 78 81 89 80 79 89 78 MDB 89 87 87 89 88 88 WB 78 76 75 77 79 77 MDB 88 86 85 88 87 87 DP 77 75 74 76 78 76 HR 141 133 133 135 147 139 MDB 83 82 82 84 86 82 DP 76 74 73 75 78 75 HR 136 129 128 130 144 134 MDB 82 81 81 83 85 82 75 130 83 80 .4% 1% 2% DB MWB DB MWB DB MWB 96 76 95 76 93 75 94 75 92 75 90 74 93 75 91 74 88 73 96 76 94 76 92 75 93 78 91 79 88 78 95 76 93 75 91 75 92 75 89 74 91 74 91 76 92 76 78 79 80 90 90 90 77 78 79 89 89 89 79 77 91 88 78 76 89 87 77 88 75 86 76 136 83 74 134 82 96 94 76 74 94 91 75 74 Albany Athens Atlanta Augusta Brunswick Columbus.3 Location Cooling DB/MWB 0.4% 1% 2% Dehumidification DP/MDB/HR 0.4 17.1 73 127 83 20.0 74 129 82 19.2 14.8 18.4% 1% 2% Range of DB DP 75 73 72 74 77 74 75 132 82 73 130 81 76 88 78 87 78 88 75 134 83 77 139 84 77 144 83 74 130 83 76 135 83 76 139 82 HR 133 125 124 127 141 130 MDB 81 80 80 82 84 81 19.7 75 132 82 17.

Wind Effect on Temperature* Wind Speed (mph) calm 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 ACTUAL THERMOMETER READING (°F. refer to Climatic Data Base published by the Cooperative Committee of GAAIA/Georgia Power Company.) 30 30 27 16 9 4 0 -2 -4 -6 20 20 16 4 -5 -10 -15 -18 -20 -21 10 10 6 -9 -18 -25 -29 -33 -35 -37 0 0 -5 -21 -36 -39 -44 -48 -49 -53 -10 -10 -15 -33 -45 -53 -59 -63 -67 -69 -20 -20 -26 -46 -58 -67 -74 -79 -82 -85 -30 -30 -36 -58 -72 -82 -88 -94 -98 -100 -40 -40 -47 -70 -85 -96 -104 -109 -113 -116 EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE WITH WIND *Per Army Medical Research 81 Miscellaneous Climatic Conditions for Georgia Cities . 42 45 52 62 69 76 79 78 73 62 52 44 61 Heating Degree Days 716 563 400 133 37 5 0 0 7 130 394 636 3021 Heating % Use 24 19 13 3 1 0 0 0 0 4 13 22 100 Cooling Degree Days (65°F) 0 0 12 37 170 329 422 409 247 44 0 0 1670 Cooling % Use 0 0 1 2 10 20 25 25 15 2 0 0 100 WINTER City ALMA BRUNSWICK MACON ROME Heating Degree Days 1835 1611 2279 3122 SUMMER Cooling Degree Days (65°F) 2289 2487 2217 1601 For more detail on climatic data for selected Georgia cities.Typical Weather Data for Metro Atlanta Area January February March April May June July August September October November December YEAR Average Temp.

Formulae Formulae 82 .

Geometric Formulae PLANE SOLID Triangle Area A = 1/2bh Sum of Angle Measures A + B + C = 180° Cube Volume: V = s3 Right Triangle Pythogorean Theorem a2 + b2 = c2 Parallelogram Area A = bh Right Circular Cylinder Volume: V = πr2h Lateral Surface Area: L = 2πrh Total Surface Area: S = 2πrh + 2πr2 Trapezoid Area A = 1/2h(a + b) Circle Area A = πr2 Circumference C = πD or 2πr (22/7 and 3.14 are different approximations for π) Sphere Volume V = 4/3π r 2 Surface Area S = 4πr 2 83 Formulae Right Circular Cone Volume: V = 1/3πr2h Lateral Surface Area: L = π rs Slant Height: √ S = r2 + h2 .

Formulae for Solving Right Triangles Formulae 84 .

Curve Formulae 85 Formulae .

. .) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293 watt hours 0. . Conversions 86 . P. . . . . 2. ./hr. .6093 kilometers Measure of Volume 1 cu. . . . . . . 0. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 kW. . .9 qt. . . . . liquid 1 qt. . decimeters 1 sq. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 in. . . . . . . 1 sq. . . in. . . . . . . . . . 42. 1 Grain (water) . .8361 sq. . 1 Horsepower . .15 Btu (latent heat) 7. . . . . . . . . 1. . 1 kilowatt . . . 2. . .). . . in. . . . . . . . 1 Btu . . . . . . . . . . .59 sq. .. 0. . 0. . . 8. . .54 centimeters 1 foot . . . . . 4840 sq. 200 Btu/min. . 1 sq. in. . . .196 sq. 33.0936 yds.7646 cu. . centimeter . . . in. 3. .34 lbs. . . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . 16. . . 231 cu. . . .03527 ounce 1 ounce . . . 1 Pound. . . . . .9144 meter 1 meter. . . . 56. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 0. centimeters 1 cu. . . . 2.309" Hg (64°F.5 lbs. . . . . . . . . . . . ft.2903 sq. . . . . . . . . . . meter 1 liter . . . . .1 yards 1 kilometer . . . . ft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 qts.452 centimeters 1 sq. . . . . . . . . . .3937 inch 1 inch . . . centimeter .415 Btu 1. . . . . . . 1 lb.) 62. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . 1. . 1 watt hour. . . . 28.9463 liter 1 gallon. . . .62137 mile 1 mile . . . . kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liquid .523 Btu/hr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386 mile 1 sq. . . . . inch 1 sq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 cu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. yds. .24 Btu. . . . .048 decimeters 1 yard . . 6. . .785 liters Square Measure 1 sq. . . .5 lbs. . . .Unit Conversions Metric and English Measures Linear Measure 1 centimeter. .35 grams 1 kilogram . . . . . . sensible heat per (°F. .061 cu. . . . . . . . . . .37 lbs. . . . . . . . . . .44 Btu/min. . . . . . . . . . . . . meter . 0. . . . . . . . 1 Pound (air) . . . 6. . . (water). dry 1 meter . . .39 cu. . .317 cu. 34. mile . . . . . . . . .4536 kilogram 1 metric ton . 1 metric ton. .000 grains . 0. . . . . . . . Ft. . . . . . . 9. 0. . . . . . 2.308 cu.) 2. . . . . . . 1 atmosphere . . . . . . . . 28. . 39. . .2046 pounds 1 pound . . . (water 60°F. . . 3. . . . . 1 kilometer . kilometers Weights 1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . yard . . . . . ./sq. 2-1. . . .7 lbs. . .746 kilowatts. . 1. . . 0. . . . . . . . .9072 metric ton Approximate Metric Equivalents 1 liter . . . . . . . . . 0. = = = = = = = = = = = = = 12. .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 1 Cu. . .2 pounds Miscellaneous Data 1 Ton Refrigeration. . 5/8 of a mile 1 kilogram . . . . .000 Btu/hr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Btu/min. . . . . yards 1 cu. yd. . . . . . . . .0567 qts. . . 1. . . inch. . . 1 Boiler H. in. . 0. . . . . . . .1550 sq.65 grains (latent heat water vapor). .0416" Hg (64°F. yds. liquid. 1. . . decimeters 1 cu. . . . . . 3. . 1 Gallon (US) . .1023 English tons 1 English ton . . . . meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .. . ./sq. . . .34 horsepower. . . . . . . . . . . meter 1 acre . . .

mercury = 27. .73 in. per sq.578 oz.7 in. mercury 1 lb.127 in. mercury = 13. in. in. mercury = 7. in. water 1 in. in. = 760 mm mercury = 2992 in. per sq.6 in.85 oz. = 16 oz. per sq. per sq. in.0. water = 0. 1 in.036 in. water 1 in.0735 in. per sq. in. = 2. mercury 1 in. in. water column = 0. water 1 atmosphere = 14.Pressure 1 oz. per sq. per sq. = 1.7 lbs. 1 oz. mercury 87 Conversions .

in consistent units.P. cyclic operation.000 BTU per hour. windows. AMPACITY—The current carrying capacity of a conductor. C.—Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered versus the rate of energy input.O.—Energy Efficiency Ratio.E. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water. 88 Definitions .R. ceilings.E. from warmer to colder areas.F. CIRCUIT BREAKER or FUSE—A load limiting device that automatically interrupts an electric circuit if an overload condition occurs. E. through walls. E.U. 60 cycles per second = 60 hertz. DEGREE DAY—A unit that represents one degree of declination from a given point (as 65°F) in the mean outdoor temperature of one day and is often used in estimating fuel requirements of buildings. floors. operating heat pump system under designated operating conditions. doors and by infiltration in one hour’s time. BTUH HEAT LOSS—the amount of heat that escapes.—(Coefficient of Performance). = BTU ÷ watts.E. one degree fahrenheit.R.Definitions A. BTU—(British Thermal Unit). COOLING TON—A measure of cooling capacity equal to 12. standby and flue losses in a fossil fuel heating system. CIRCUIT—A conductor or a system of conductors through which an electric current flows. CYCLE—Frequency of alternating current expressed in hertz. of a complete. The annual seasonal efficiency which accounts for part load operation. Used in the efficiency rating of room and central air conditioners.

HEAT PUMP—A space conditioning unit that provides both heating and cooling.000 watts of electricity for one full hour.L. such as 60Hz. expressed in voltamperes or kilovoltamperes. during a designated period. to the peak load occurring during that period. Load Factor = kWh supplied in period Peak kW in period x hours in period Load factor is a measure of efficiency. By means of a compressor and reversing valve system.F. .—Equivalent Full Load Hours. Current = (Pressure) Volts or I = E (Resistance) Ohms R POWER FACTOR—It is the ratio of actual power being used in a circuit. 100% efficiency would require the continuous use of a given amount of load for every hour of the month. expressed in watts or kilowatts (kw). HERTZ—The number of cycles of alternating current per second. the amount of current in amperes is equal to the pressure in volts divided by the resistance in ohms. a heat transfer liquid is pumped between the indoor and outdoor units. KILOWATT HOUR—Represents the use of 1. 89 Definitions E.000 watts. Annual hours used to estimate energy consumption of end use equipment. to the power which is apparently being drawn from the line. OHM’s LAW—In a given circuit. LOAD FACTOR—The ratio of the average load in kilowatts supplied. moving that heat into a building during cold weather and out of it during warm weather. KILOWATT—A unit of electrical power equal to 1.H.

Low power factor penalties may be a part of rate schedules. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY VALUES • U Factor—The rate of heat flow through one square foot of completed structural sections.—Seasonal Energy Efficient Ratio. The total cooling of a central air conditioner BTU’s during its normal usage period for cooling (not to exceed 12 months) divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours during the same period.000 BTU. S. such as wall. there are approximately 100 cubic feet of gas per therm. But if a load demands 2kVA while the actual productive power potential is 1kW.000 BTU per cubic foot.R. glass. ceiling. the utility still must supply the other half which you are using but not directly paying for—to supply what is known as wattless power or reactive power which is expressed in vars or kilovars (kvar).E.P. S. As there are approximately 1.E.F. in one hour with a temperature difference of one degree between the inside and outside surfaces. RELATIVE HUMIDITY—The ratio between the actual water vapor content and the total amount of water vapor content possible under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. The ratio of seasonal kWhs used by heat pumps versus the seasonal kWhs used by resistance electric heat for the same space under the same conditions. This means that in using only half of the power supplied to you.What does this mean in the practice of effective energy management and energy cost control? With both values being equal (kW = kVA) a ration of 1 could exist or a power factor of 100%.—Seasonal Performance Factor. Definitions 90 . etc. the power factor would be 50%. SINGLE PHASE—A circuit energized by a single alternating voltage. THERM—A measurement of gas containing 100.

such as one-half inch gypsum board or eight-inch concrete block. (Watts = Volts x Amperes). and C Factors should be kept as low as possible and the R factor as high as possible.K Factor—The rate of heat flow in Btuh through one square feet of building material. * Graph instructions for Page 6: 91 Definitions Note: To convert to watts/sq. THREE PHASE—Three separate sources of alternating current arranged so that the peaks of voltage follow each other in a regular repeating pattern. (W) W = U Factor x Temperature Difference ÷ 3. One watt equals the flow of one ampere at a pressure of one volts. C Factor—The definition is the same as for K Factor except that C Factors are used for materials other than those that are one-inch thick. K. Note: The U. building material or a building structure resists the passage of heat in any direction. in one hour with a temperature difference of one degree between the two surfaces. WATT—The rate of flow of electrical energy. ft. R Factor—The rate at which insulation. VOLT—The push that moves electrical current through a conductor.413 . one-inch thick.

org American Council of Engineering Companies.Useful Web Addresses Georgia Power Company. of Energy (EREN) http://www.ashrae.georgiapower.com/AandE Georgia Power http://www.com Southern Company http://www.org Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute http://www. Georgia http://www.org Illuminating Engineers’ Society http://www. Green Building Council (LEED) http://www.org The Georgia Engineer http://www.org/ U.state.S.iesna.org 92 Useful Web Addresses .usgbc. Dept.southerncompany.psc.org AIA.S.us/ U.aiaga. Georgia Chapter http://www.gov/ ASHRAE http://www.thegeorgiaengineer. A&E Site http://www.ga.acecga.com Georgia Public Service Commission http://www.georgiapower.eren.ari.doe.