CHAPTER – I 1.1 INTROUDUCTION 1.2 COVERAGE 1.3 KEY STATUTORY PROCESSES OF MGNREGA 1.4 Productive Assets created in NREGP 1.5 EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT 1.

6 PERFORMANCE OF MGNREGA (National Overview) 1.7 ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT 1.8 A SCENE FROM THE SOUTH CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION India accounts for an overwhelming number of the poor in the world. The causes of poverty have been traced to lack of adequate employment opportunities and limited access to markets by the poor. With the expansion of economy, poverty in India has declined from 54.9 per cent in 1973-74 to 27.5 per cent in 2004-2005. But the absolute the number of the poor continues to remain high. The formulation and implementation of the National Royal Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) constitutes a significant step to poverty alleviation by providing an institutional framework for guaranteeing supplementary livelihood opportunity to the rural households. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) was notified on 7th September 2005. The Act provides a legal guarantee of 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work at the minimum wage rate notified for agricultural labour prescribed in the State or else an unemployment allowance. The

objective of the Act is to supplement wage employment opportunities in rural areas and in the process also build up durable assets. 1.2 Coverage of the scheme (MGNREGA) MGNREGA was extended to the entire country within five years of its notification. In the first phase, the scheme was implemented in 200 districts, in February, 2006. In the second phase, the scheme was extended to another hundred and thirty districts. A list of hundred and thirteen districts had been tabled in the parliament. In the remaining districts, the scheme came to effect from April 2007. The Finance Minister has announced Rs. 40,100 crores to MGNREGA for 201011. The scheme will be identified very effective when it reaches 4.5 crore households. 1.3 KEY STATUTORY PROCESSES OF MGNREGA The notification of the Act will imply that its legal provisions and processes will become operational. Key statutory processes of the Act are summarized below: I. PROCESS RELATED TO THE WORKERS APPLICATION FOR JOB CARD AND EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION A household in the notified district will need to apply for registration to the local Gram Panchayat. Application for registration may be in a form prescribed, or a plain paper. Oral applications may also be submitted. VERFICATION OF THE REGISTRATION APPLICATION: The Gram Panchayat will verify the application on the basis of i) ii) Local domicile All household members applying for registration are adult. No discrimination is made in registration in terms of caste, creed and gender.

MGNREGA is not confined to BPL families ISSUE OF JOB CARD i) The Gram Pnachayat will issue a Job Card to the household as a whole. This should normally be within 15 days of registration application. ii) Each Job Card will bear a unique registration number for a household. The voter identify card number should also be entered on the Job card. iii) The format of the Job card must capture at least the essential details of information indicated in the National Guidelines. Job Cards must have space for entering vital data that must be regularly entered that includes:  Unique registration number  Days of employment demanded  Days worked  Wage Amount paid  Unemployment Allowance paid iv) Job Card will bear the photograph of all adult members of the household willing to work under MGNREGA. v) The Job Card with photograph is free of cost to the beneficiary. Its cost is to be borne on the programme cost. vi) vii) The Job Card has to be in the custody of the registered household. Job Cards issued will be entered in a Job Card register in the Gram Panchayat. APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT i) A household that has a Job Card has the right to submit a written application for employment to the gram panchayat.

ii)

The applicant may choose the time and duration when employment is sought. The application must state the day from which employment is sought and for how long. The application has to be for a minimum of 5 days of employment.

II PROCESS RELATED TO THE ALLOCATION OF EMPLOYMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT. The Gram Panchayat will issue a dated receipt of the written application for employment. ALLOCATION OF EMPLOYMENT WITHIN 15 DAYS OF DEMAND i) The Gram Panchayat will allocate employment within 15 days of application for work or from the date from which employment is sought, which ever is later. ii) Employment should normally be within 5 kilometers radius of the village where the applicant resides. If it is more than, then it must still be within the block and 10% of the wage rate as extra wages will be paid. iii) Intimation of work provided has to be sent in writing to the Applicant and by public notice at the Village Panchayat office. At least one-third of the beneficiaries who are provided employment shall be women who have registered and requested for work. PAYMENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ALLOWANCE If employment is not provided within 15 days, daily unemployment allowance, in cash has to be paid. States will pay the Unemployment Allowance at their own cost. III) PROCESSES RELATED TO PLANNING OF WORKS TO ALLOCATE EMPLOYMENT The instrument for providing employment are works selected from the list of permissible works under Schedule I of the Act.

i)

Permissible works are as follows:  Water Conservation  Drought Proofing (including plantation and afforestation)  Flood Protection  Land Development  Minor Irrigation, horticulture and land development of the land of SC/ST/-BOL/IAY and Land reform beneficiaries and  Rural connectivity

1.4 Productive Assets created in MGNREGP Figure 1.4.1

Desilting of Gandhi Nagar Tank Supply channel at Pappakudi

Panchayat in Tirunelveli District (2007-2008) Figure 1.4.2 At Nuruddinour village in Khusrupur block of patna district in Bihar, MGNREGA workers build an embankment for flood control and rural connectivity. THE MANI FEATURES OF THE PROPOSED ACT ARE 1. Every household in rural India will have a right to at least 100 days or guaranteed employment every year for at least one adult member. The emplyment will be in the form of casual manual labour at the statutory minimum wage, and the wages shall be paid within 7 days of the week during which work was done.

2. Work should be provided within 15 days of demanding, and the work should be located within 5 kilometer distance. 3. If work is not provided to anybody within the giventime, he/she will be paid a daily unemployment allowance, which will be at least one-third of the minimum wages. 4. Workers employed on public works will be entitle to medical treatment and hospitalization in case of injury at work, along with a daily allowance of not less than half of the statutory minimum wage. In case of death or disability of a worker, an exgratia payment shall be made to his legal heirs as per provisions of the workmen compensation Act. 5. Five per cent of wages may be deducted as contribution to welfare schemes like health insurance, accident insurance, survivor benefits, maternity benefits and social security schemes. 6. For non-compliance with rules, strict penalties have been laid down. 7. For transparency and accountability, all accounts and records of the programme will be made available for public scrutiny. 8. The District Collector/Chief Executive Officer will be responsible for the programme at the district level, and 9. The Gram Sabha will monitor the work of the gram panchayat by way of social audit. The following Table provides Certain Facts 1.6 PERFORMANCE OF MGNREGA (National Overview) Employment provided households: (FY 2006-07) 200 (FY 2007-2008) to Districts 2.10 crore 330 Districts 3.39 Crore (FY 2008-09) 615 Districts (up to September, 08) 2.93 Crore)

Person days Crore): Total: SCs: STs: Women: Others: Budget

(In

90.5 22.95(25%) 32.98(36%) 36.79 (41%) 34.56(38%) Outlay: 11300

143.59 39.36(27%) 42.07(29%) 61.15(43%) 62.16(43%) 12000

109.30 33.40(31%) 26.24(24%) 53.52(49%) 46.65(45%) 16000

(In Rs. Crore) Cental Release: 8640.85 12610.39 16060.85

(In Rs. Crore) Works break up Water conservation: Provision of 0.81(10%) 2.63(15%) 3.35(18%) 4.51(54%) 8.73(49%) 8.42(44%)

Irrigation facility to land owned by SC/ST/BPL and

IAY beneficiaries: Rural Connectivity: Land Development: (Source: Kurukshetra, December 2008) Employment provided to HHS Persondays [in Crore] : 4.84[Crore] 0.89(11%) 2.88(16%) 4.42(23%) 1.80(21%) 3.08(17%) 2.83(15%)

Total SCs STs Women Others Total works taken up Works completed WORKS IN PROGRESS

: : : : : : : :

246.55 74.05[30.04%] 53.13[21.55%] 118.87[48.21%] 119.36[48.41%] 40 lakhs 16.23 Lakhs 23.77 LAKHS

1.7 ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT For the implementation of the scheme, each state Government shall prepare an Employment Guarantee Programme within six months of enactment. The main Features to the included in the programme are: (i) Only productive works that are based on economic, social and environmental benefits, contributing to social equity, and have the ability to create permanent assets will be taken up under the programme. (ii) (iii) The works shall be located in rural areas, and When wages are directly linked with the quantity of work, they sall be paid according to the schedule of rate fixed by the state government. For unskilled labourers, this schedule shall be so fixed that seven hours of work shall retch wages equal to the statutory minimum wage fixed by the state. 1.8 A SCENE FROM THE SOUTH National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) Scheme in TamilNadu Tamil Nadu has a well rehearsed routine of wage payment on a fixed day every week. Tamil Nadu has put in place a good monitoring system. For instance, every worker is required to put his signature or thumb impression on the muster roll every day (by way of making attendance), making it difficult to

fudge muster rolls. The employment guarantee assistant (“Makkal Nalla Panniyalar”) in each gram panchayat is expected to phone the block office every day before 10a.m to report worksite attendance figures. This information is immediately collected at the district level and officials from different department to random checks the same day to verify these reports. Most importantly, in Tamil Nadu a strong message has been sent from the top that MGNREGA works are unlike other schemes and that corruption will not be tolerated. This has been done by taking strict action against panchayat presidents, employment guarantee assistants and block development officers who have been found guilty of major fraud. Another special feature of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (NREGP) in Tamil Nadu is that an overwhelming majority (about 80 per cent) of NREGP workers are women. Most of them have no comparable work opportunities in the private sector. Inded, Tamil Nadu’s strong tradition of active involvement in the social sector is finding a new expression through the NREGP. There is much to learn from this experience, just as Tamil Nadu itself has much to learn from pioneering experiences elsewhere. “In Tamil Nadu, Three Districts (Dindugal, Sivagangai, Kadalur) have received Central Government awards for the best performance in the NREGP (2007-08).” INTERIM BUDGET IN 2010-2011 The Interim budget made provisions for the governments flagship schemes in the social sector. To this end Finance Minister pranab Mukherjee proposed an allocation of Rs. 41,100 crore for the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS). WAGE RATES NUMBEROF PERSON DAYS IN SOUTHERN STATES

State

Average wage

Daily NREGP in Rate (Rs)

Wage Employment provided number of persons-days

Rates

Agricultural occupations in

per Household

Rural India, 200405 (RS), Men Women 20062007 Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu All India 36.61 27.83 49.00 27.85 55.89 27.99 60.79 31.23 61.23 44.59 80.00 74.00 125.00 80.00 31.4 41.1 22.8 26.9 43.1 20072008 39.6 44.4 28.6 57.2 41.8

Source: Economic and political weekly, August 2-8,2008. 1.9 PERENNIAL WEAKNESSES OF NREGP There is a long history (of a least four decades in post – independence India) of wage employment programmes and reviews of these programmes had shown the following perennial weaknesses: (i) (ii) (iii) Low Programme coverage. More than 50 percent beneficiaries not from most needy group. Bureaucracy dominated planning, little participation of community in planning. (iv) (v) (vi) Work to women lower than stipulated norm of 30 percent and Only 16-29 days employment provided to household. Assets created not durable, and

(vii) Corruption; reports of false muster rolls; contractors persisted; peyment often less than prescribed wages.

CHAPTER – II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The review of previous studies helps in understanding the nature and design of the research investigation and provides about the research weather it is familiar with what is already done and known. It will be useful to understand the performance of “The National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme” (NREGP). Through the review of empirical findings of various related studies one can learn procedures and instruments have been used to get the desirable. The study of previous studies guides ther esearcher in a better position to interpret the significance of the present study from the results obtained from the previous studies. a) In their study of Man idipally Rajanna and Gandeti Ramesh1 (20082009) has found that “NREGP-FACET OF INCLUSIVE GROWTH A STUDY OF KARIMANAGAR DISTRICT IN ANDHRA PRADESH” by selecting 500 benefriciaries of the programme randomly to assess the impact of the NREGP. Out of 500 NREGP workers, 68.6% were women, and the rest of the workers were men. This programme helped a lot in reducing the seasonal and disguised unemployment in the agriculture sector,a nd also contributed to empower the women folk in the rural areas. Further this also reduced the wage dissimilarity between men and women workers by increasing the minimum wages. ___ 1. Rajanna Mamidipally and Ramesh Gundeti “NREGP- Facet of Inclusive Growth A study of Karimanagar District in Andhra Pradesh”. Kurukshetra, February 2009, Vol. 57 No. 4 PP. 33-35.

The study revealed that 51.6 per cent of the workers were from backward

class communities, and 46.6 per cent of workers were from scheduled class (S.C) category and the rest were from scheduled Tribe (S.T) and other communities. b) A study conducted by G.B. Pant2 with joint support from Allahabad University and the National Commission for Enterprises in the Un-Organized sector (NCEUS) entitled “MGNREGA SURVEY 2008” were conducted in MayJune 2008. It covered 10 districts spread over six North Indian State (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhyapradesh, Rajasthan and UttarPradesh), concluded that 81 percent of the sample workers live in a kaccha house, 61 percent are illiterate and 72 percent have to electricity at home. Scheduled Class (S.C) and scheduled Tribe (S.T) families are also joining the MGNREGA in large numbers. Clearly, the MGNREGA is a powerful tool to economic redistribution and social equity. c) Anish Vanaik3 analysed “MGNREGA AND THE DEATH OF TAPAS SOREN” a tribal of Birakhap in Jharkhand, committed self-immolation recently, impoverished by the constant demand for bribes by local officals for work done under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. His death soon after the murder of Lalit Mehta who had exposed corruption in MGNREGA schemes in Palamu is damning comment on how the scheme is being implemented in Jharkhand. d) A study conducted by Santhosh Mehrotra4 entitled “NREG TWO YEARS ON WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?” . Concluded, that it is perfectly possible to put in place a system to minimize corruption in the NREG (and in fact other schemes). __ 2. Pant, G.B. “MGNREGA Survey 2008”. Frontline, January 16,2009, PP,417. 3. Vanaik Anish.”MGNREGA and the Death of Tapas Soren”- Economic and

Political Weekly, July 26-August1, 2008, No.30, pp.8-10. 4. Mehrotra Santhosh, “NREG Two Years on: Where Do we Go from Here?”. Economic and political Weekly, August 2-8, 2008, No. 31 pp.27-35.

e) A study conducted by Gopal5 entitled “MGNREGA SOCIAL AUDIT: MYTHS AND REALITY”.Concluded that much had been said and written about the social audits conducted in Andhra Pradesh under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. But on the ground these audits ahd achieved much less than advertised and they had ignored many important aspects of implementation of MGNREGA. The social audit process had a long way to go before it can claim to have contributed to transparency, empowerment and good governance. f) Sudha Narayanan6 analysed “EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE, WOMEN’S WORK AND CHILDCARE” she examined that the provision of effecive childcare facilities at MGNREGA worsites was an important issue that calls of creative thinking and action. Tamil Nadu was well placed to take the lead in this field, given it was earlier achievements in the doman of childcare. This would not only be a step forward for Tamil Nadu but also an example for the country as a whole. g) A study conducted by Mihir Shan7 entitled “EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE, CIVIL SOCIETY AND INDIAN DEMOCRACY”, concluded that Even as we had celebrated 60 years of Indian democracy, with millions of people hungry, cynical and insecure, and living the barrel of the gun (of the state or the entermists), we needed to worry about the reach and quality of our political process. The National Rural employment Guarantee Act had the potential to procide “big bush” in India’s regions of distress. For MGNREGA to be able to

realised its potential, the rold of civil society organisations is critical. But this calls for a new self-Critical politics of fortitude, balance and restraint. __ 5. Gopal, K.s. “MGNREGA Social Audit: Myths and Reality”, Economic and Political weekly, Vol. XLIV No. 3, January 17-23, 2009, p. 70. 6. Narayan Sudha, “Employment Guarantee, women’s work and childcare”, Economic and political weekly, Vol. XLIII No. 9, March 1-7, 2008, P.10. 7. Shan Mihir “Employment Guarantee, Civil Society and Indian Democracy” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XLII No. 45 and 46, November 1016/17-23, 2007, p.43. h) Chhaya Datar8 analysed “FAILURE OF NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME INMAHARASHITRA”, he examined that the Maharashtra Rural Employment Guarantee scheme (MREGS) had not yet picked up momentum because government machinery is paralysed. In the past circumstances, the MREGS would acquire life only if there was a groundswell of poor willing to pressurise the sarpanch and gram sevaks and make life impossible for the chief Executive office (CEO) and Block Development Office (BDO). It was expected that he sarpanch and gram sevaks would be happy to receive such a large sum to develop village assets. But it is sad to know that they are resisting because of the increased burden and the lack of kickbacks through the contractor. It is high time that something is done to wear out present amnesia and push the state to implement that the scheme in a vibrant manner and reclaim the old glory of the innovative idea. i) A study conducted by Vidhya Das, Pramod Pradhan9 entitled

“ILLUSIONS OF CHANGE”, concluded that the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act as implemented by the Orissa Government has resulted in grandiose claims of expenditure but very little to show in reality. The government has taken, as pointed out earlier, serveral progressive steps. But, it should not sit back and count its laurels. The government of Orissa must rise to the occasion, and take immediate steps to stop this most hypocritical and cruel joke on its poorest and most vulnerable communities. ___ 8. Datar Chhaya, “Pailure of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Maharashtra”, Economic and Political weekly, vo; XLII, No. 34, August 2531, 2007, p.3454. 9. Das Vidhya, Pradhan Pramod, “Illusions of Change” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLII No. 32, August 11-17, 2007,m P. 3283. CHAPTER – III METHODOLOGY AND PROFILE OF THE AREA 3.1 METHODOLOGY The chapter deals with the methodology adopted by the researcher for the present study. The significance of the study, objectives of the study, data source, sample size, statistical tool used for present study, period of the study, limitation of the study and scope of the study are presented in this chapter in a detailed mannur. 1. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY NREGP is basically an employment generation programme. It can be Targeted either full or partially in solving practical problem of the poor. It is not always realised that in improving the lot of poor in rural areas leads to improvement in life living conditions and the quality of the life of these people.

By getting employment opportunity, they can improve their health condition both physical and mental. So, they pay more attention to their children and spare time in imcom generating activity. 2. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY a) To study the important feature of National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (NREGP) b) To analyse the socio-economic conditions of workers under the NREGP in Pappakudi Panchayat area. c) To study the major achievements and productive assets created by the NREGP in Pappakudi Panchayat, and d) To examine a few weaknesses found in the NREGP. 3. DATA SOURCE: The present study is based on primary and seconday data. The primary data have been collected from the sample beneficiaries of NREGP, in Pappakudi Panchayat, Tirunelveli. The secondary data have been collected form various books, journals, newspaper and electronic resources. 4. SAMPLE SIZE 50 sample respondents were selected by simple random technique. 5. STATISTICAL TOOL The present study used simple percentage analysis for calculating the Share of each individual item in total. 6. PERIOD OF STUDY The present study is based on cross sectional data. The necessary data were collected from the sample respondents from the month of December 2010 to February 2011.

7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY a) This study covers only one Panchayat in Tirunelveli District. b) Therer may be some human recall bias. 8. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The research has been carried out amont under the NREGP workers of Pappakudi Panchayat. The main purpose of research is to know the performance of National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme in Pappakudi Panchayat. The researcher feels that, there is alwasys further scope for improvement in the research. PROFILE OF THE SUTHAMALLI PANDHAYAT The Suthamali Panchayat is situated in down Talk of Tirunelveli District. It had started in 27th may 1984. General Information 1. Name of the Panchayat 2. Panchayat Area 3. Number of Villages 4. Total Population : : : Suthamalli Panchayat 2125 S.K 22 Villages

4. Total Population (in 2001 census) 5. Total Literate people (in 2001 census)

:

MALE FEMALE TOTAL 6204 5225 11,429

MALE FEMALE TOTAL 5,300 4,052 9,353

:

6. Numbr of Primary school

:

3

7. Number of Middle school

:

1 1 MBC 110 SC 145 Other 37 Total 192

8. Number of Secondary school: 9. Library / Reading room 1 10. Living on Below the poverty Line (in number of families) : :

11. Unemployment people 12. Bank Details OCCUPATION PATTERN S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

: :

942 Members Primary agriculture co-operative bank.

Type of Occupation Agricultural Labourers Beedi workers Cultivators Small farmers Semi Medium Farmers Medium Farmers Large farmers Construction Labour Private Employment

Total Members 1,802 788 707 685 180 178 18 40

Sector 18

10

Other service CHAPTER – IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.0 INTRODUCTION

98

Source: Suthamalli panchayat.

This chapter describes in details about the results discussions and findings of this research study. It is explained in demographic factors like occupational status. The Primary data were collected and analysed scientifically and presented systematically. The following are matters discussed in this chapter. 4.1 SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS 4.2 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS 4.3 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS 4.4 OCCUPATIONAL DETAILS OF THE RESPONDENTS 4.5 MONTHLY INCOME LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS BEFORE THE NREGP 4.6 MONTHLY INCOME LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS AFTER THE NREGP 4.7 DETAILS OF SAVINGS OF THE RESPONDENTS 4.8 DEBT DETAILS OF THE RESPONDENTS 4.9 DETAILS OFFAMILY MEMBERS WORKING UNDER THE NREGP 4.10 DETAILS OF NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO CATEGORY UNDER THE NREGP?

TABLE 4.1 SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS S.NO SEX NO. OF PERCENTAGE (%) 15 85 100

RESPONDENTS 1 2 Male Female Total Source: Primary data 6 34 40

It could be seen from the table 4.1 15 percent of the respondents are male, 85 per cent of the respondents are female. Inference A large number of the respondents are female. TABLE 4.2 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS S.NO EDUCATIONAL LEVEL 1 2 3 Un-educated Primary education Upto-secondary education 4 Higher Secondary Total Source: Primary Data It is evident from the table 4.2 that 35 per cent of respondents are uneducaated, 55 per cent of respondents have completed the primary education, 10 per cent of respondents have completed secondary education. Inference A large number of respondents have primary education. No respondent has completed higher secondary educational level. TABLE 4.3 AGE OF RESPONDENTS S.NO AGE NO. OF PERCENTAGE (%) 10 40 100 NO. OF PERCENTAGE (%) 35 55 10

RESPONDENTS 14 22 4

RESPONDENTS 1 20 - 30 4

2 3 4 5

30 - 40 40 - 50 50 - 60 Above 60 Total

8 10 12 6 40

20 25 30 15 100

Source: Primary Data In could be seeen from the table 4.3 that 10 per cent of respondents are aged between 20 years and 30 years, 20 per cent of respondents are aged between 30 years and 40 years, 25 per cent of respondents are aged between 40 years and 50 years, 30 per cent of respondents are aged between 50 years and 60 years, 15 per cent of respondents above 60 years. Inference: More than 30 per cent of respondents are aged between 50 years and 60 years.

TABLE 4.4 OCCUPATIONAL DETAILS OF THE RESPONDENTS S.No OCCUPATIONAL NO.OF DETAILS 1 Agricultural Labour 2 3 Beedi Rollers Daily Labours Total Source: Primary Data 40 100 8 wage 10 20 25 RESPONDENTS 22 PERCENTAGE (%)1 55

It is clear from the table 4.4 that 55 per cent of respondents are Agricultural Labours, 20 per cent of respondents are Beedi roolers, 25 per cent of respondents are Daily wage Labours. Inference: More than 55 per cent of respondents are agricultural labours. TABLE 4.5 MONTHLY INCOME LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS BEFORE THE NREGP IN PAPPAKUDI IN PANCHAYAT S. No MONTHLY INCOME LEVEL (IN RS.) 1 2 3 500 – 1000 1000 – 1500 1500 – 2000 Total Source: Primary Data It could be seen from the tale 4.5 that 50 per cent of respondents range between Rs. 500 to Rs. 1000, 40 per cent of the respondents range between Rs. 1000 to Rs. 1500 and 10 per cent of respondents range between Rs. 1500 to Rs. 2000. Inference More number of respondents monthly income level ranged between Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000. TABLE – 4.6 MONTHLY INCOME LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS AFTER THE NREGP S.NO MONTHLY NO. OF PERCENTAGE 20 16 4 40 50 40 10 100 NO. OF PERCENTAGE (%)

RESPONDENTS

INCOME (IN RS) 1 2 1000 – 1500 1500 – 2000 Total Source: Primary Data

RESPONDENTS 30 10 40

(%) 75 25 100

It is clear from the table 4.6 that 75 per cent of respondent monthly income range between Rs. 1000 to Rs. 1500, 25 per cent of respondents monthly income range between Rs. 1500 to Rs. 2000. Inference A large number of respondents monthly income ranged between Rs. 1000 and Rs. 1500, as a result of the NREGP. TABLE 4.7 DETAILS OF SAVINGS OF THE RESPONDENTS S.NO SOURCE SAVING 1 OF NO. OF PERCENTAGE (%) 75

RESPONDENTS

Self – Help Group 30 (SHG)

2 3

Bank No Saving Total

4 6 40

10 15 100

Source: Primary Data It is evident from the table 4.7 that 75 per cent of respondents save their money in their SHG, 10 per cent of save their money in the bank, 15% per cent of respondents their no saving. Inference More number of respondents are source of saving in Self – Help Group.

TABLE 4.8 DEBT DETAILS OF THE RESPONDENTS S. NO DEBT DETAILS NO.OF RESPONDENTS 1 2 3 Bank Debt Money lenders 4 28 PERCENTAGE (%) 10 70 20 100

Self – Help Groups 8 Total 40

Source: Primary Data It could be seen from the table 4.8 that 10 per cent of respondents dept in their bank. 70 per cent of respondents dept in their money lenders, 20 per cent of respondents dept in their self – help groups. Inference A large number of the respondents borrow from money lenders. TABLE 4.9 DETAILS OF FAMILY MEMBERS WORKING UNDER THE NREGP IN PAPPAKUDI PANCHYAT S.NO NO. OF FAMILY NO. MEMBERS 1 2 3 One member One – Two Two – Three Total Source: Primary Data It is clear from the table 4.9 that 85 per cent of respondents one member of each family working under the NREGP, 10 per cent of respondent one to two OF PERCENTAGE (%) 88 10 5 100

RESPONDENTS 34 4 2 40

members of each family working under the NREGP, 5 per cent respondents of two to three members of each family are working under the NREGP. TABLE 4.10 DETAILS OF COMMUNITIES OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS S.NO CATEGORY NO. OF PERCENTAGE (%) 20 25 10 45 100

RESPONDENTS 1 2 3 4 BC SC ST MBC TOTAL Source: Primary Data 8 10 4 18 40

It could be seen from the table 4.10 that 20 per cent of the respondents one BC Category, 25 per cent of the respondents are SC Category, 10 per cent of the respondents are ST Category, 45 per cent of the respondents are MBC Category. Inference More than 44 per cent of the respondents belong to the MBC Category. –

CHAPTER

V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION FINDINGS To sum up the programme as a facet of NREGP, it has become of light in the rural areas, and contributed substantially for the: 1. Increased living and economic conditions by reducing the income imbalances in the rural area. 2. Reduction of wage differences in various works by creating equal wages to male and female workers.

3. Ushered to meet the raising prices in the market. 4. Helped to overcome the uncertainly in the employment. 5. Work culture norms in bringing cohesiveness among the workers in the rural areas irrespective of caste and creed, gender and age. 6. As a subsidiary activity it helped a lot in improving the main occupation of the workers in enhancing their income levels. 7. Reduced the migration level to other areas. 8. Helped to some extent in reducing the disguised and seasonal unemployment. SUGGESTIONS 1. At present the Government provides employment opportunity for 100 days per year. The days should be increased for 100 to 150 days. As a result of this, income and standard of the people can be increased. 2. As the rural people are getting work for 100 days only, they are not in a position to get loans from any scheduled bank. So, the government must provide loan at low interest level to those people. 3. Under this scheme, different wages are paid in different states. There is a vast difference between the states regarding the wages paid under NREGP. For example, in Kerala the wage is Rs. 125 per day. At the same time, people in Tamil Nadu are getting Rs. 80 as wage per day. Even in Northern states also the wages are very lower than in Tamil Nadu. Thus our government has to adopt equal wage to all states. The wage might be Rs. 125 per day. 4. People working under this scheme have to posses equipments by their own expenditure. It is better if the government provides the equipments to these people.

5. In most places, medical and restroom facilities are not provided property. Even if these facilities are provided, they are far away from the work place. Thus, this inconvenient should be addressed. 6. Awareness about the accident insurance and minimum wages should be created and spread among the rural people in their “Gram Sabha Meeting” These suggestions will lead to greater success. CONCLUSION Clearly, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme

(MGNREGA) is a powerful tool of economic redistribution and social equity. All the policy makers should engage in truly improving the living condition of the masses through improved per capita income. Limitation of the study: The study are conducted by personal in.

9. Santhos Mehrota, “NREG Two years on: Where Do we Go from Here?”. Economic and Political Weekly, No.31, August 2-8, 2008. 10.Sudha Narayanan, “Employment Guarantee, Women’s work and Childcare”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol: XLIII No. 9, March 1 -7, 2008. 11.Suresh Patidar, “NREGS: A wrong solution”, Economic and Political Weekly, No. 29, July 19-25, 2008. 12.Vidhya Das and Pramod Pradhan, “Illusions of Change”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLII No. 32, August 11-17, 2007. NEWS PAPERS

1. Daily Thanthi, August 4, 2008 and January 31, 2009. 2. The Hindu, February 13, 2009. 3. The Indian Express, February 17, 2009. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES 1. www.yojana.gov.in 2. www.MGNREGA.nic.in

THE

NATIONAL

RURAL

EMPLOYMENT

GUARANTEE

PROGRAMME- A MICREO STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO PAPPAKUDI PANCHAYAT TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT Researcher: BOOBALAN. N

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Name 2. Sex 3. Age 4. Level of Education 5. Martial Status : : : : : Married/Unmarried Male/Female

6. Number of Children : 7. Nuclear Family or Joint Family 8. Occupation 9. Native Place 10.Address : : : :

SPECIFIC PARTICULARS REGARDING EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME ETC

1. Normally, how many days in a month you get employment? ……… days. 2. Normally, what is your monthly Income? Rs……….. 3. Now, Under the National Rural Employment Guarantee programme (NREGP) how many days do you get employment in a month? ………….days. 4. Now, under the NREGP how much income do you get in a month? Rs…….What is your Wage rate? And Wage per day Rs. 5. Do you get wages daily (or) weekly (or) monthly? 6. How many days do you get employment in a year approximately? …..days. 7. How many hours you have to work in a day? ……..hours. 8. What are the conditions for wage payment?.......... 9. What is the average increase your monthly earnings under the NREGP?...... 10.How many persons in your family get employment opportunity under the NREGP? ………… 11.Do you feel better – off due to the NREG now?......... 12.Are you able to eat good and adequate food now?.... 13.Are you able to save some money due to NREGP? ………. 14.Do you have any loan or debt now?............ 15.Do you save or get loan using any bank (or) other sources? Give details: 16.Are you satisfied with the NREGP? 17.What problems do you face in this programme? 18.What suggestions do you want to make? 19.Will you recommend this work to others?

20.Any other comments:-