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A modern Acer laptop with an 18.4" screen.

A laptop is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use.[1] A laptop has most of the same components as a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device such as a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) and/or a pointing stick, and speakers into a single unit. A laptop is powered by mains electricity via an AC adapter, and can generally be used away from an outlet using a rechargeable battery. Laptops are also sometimes called notebook computers or notebooks. Other terms, such as ultrabooks or netbooks, refer to specific types of laptop / notebook. Most of the modern day laptop computers also have a webcam and a mic (microphone) pre-installed. Portable computers, originally monochrome CRT-based and developed into the modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications such as the military, accountants and sales representatives. As portable computers became smaller, lighter, cheaper, and more powerful and as screens became smaller and of better quality, laptops became very widely used for a variety of purposes.

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1 History 2 Classification

o o o o o 

2.1 Desktop replacement 2.2 Subnotebook 2.3 Netbook 2.4 Rugged laptop 2.5 Convertible laptop

3 Components

o o o o  

3.1 Docking stations 3.2 Charging stations 3.3 Solar panels 3.4 Standards

4 Advantages 5 Disadvantages

o o o

5.1 Performance 5.2 Upgradeability 5.3 Ergonomics and health effects

   

5.3.1 Wrists 5.3.2 Neck, spinal 5.3.3 Possible effect on fertility 5.3.4 Thighs

and dual 5.5 lb) chassis.[5] As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted.4 Durability     o 5.3 Heating and cooling 5.6 kg (3. was announced.1 Equipment wears 5.25 in (13.7 kg).6 pounds (10. released in 1981.[4] The IBM 5100. and was based on the SCAMP prototype. the idea of a portable personal computer followed. A "personal.5.[3] The IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable (SCAMP).4. used the Zilog Z80 and weighed 23. a 5 in (13 cm) CRT screen.4.[6] The Epson had a LCDscreen.4. and a calculator-size printer in a 1. the Epson HX-20.[2] and described in his 1972 paper as the "Dynabook".[7][8] .3 cm) single-density floppy drives. appeared in September 1975.4.4 Battery life 5. the number of portables increased rapidly.5 Security and privacy          5. In the same year the first laptop-sized portable computer.2 Parts replacement 5. California) The Epson HX-20 As the personal computer (PC) became feasible in the 1970s. This prototype was based on the IBM PALM processor (Put All Logic in Microcode or 128 bit).o 5. a rechargeable battery. It had no battery. portable information manipulator" was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968. The Osborne 1. the first commercially available portable computer. was demonstrated in 1973. Both Tandy/RadioShack and HP also produced portable computers of varying designs during this period.1 Laptop Theft Recovery 6 Major brands and manufacturers 7 Sales 8 Extreme environments 9 Accessories 10 Former features 11 See also 12 References 13 External links History[edit] Main article: History of laptops Alan Kay with "Dynabook" prototype (5 November 2008 in Mountain View.

 Tablet PC: These have touch screens. There is no definitive demarcation between netbooks and inexpensive small laptops. The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981– 82. The measurement of at least 11 inches across has been suggested as the threshold for this class. Classification[edit] The MacBook Air The term "laptop" can refer to a number of classes of small portable computers:[11][12]  Full-size Laptop: A laptop large enough to accommodate a "full-size" keyboard (a keyboard with the minimum QWERTY key layout. such as the Intel Atom CPU. and therefore more portable laptop with less computing power than traditional laptops. such as the 1990 Intel i386SL. and were supported by dynamic power management features such as Intel SpeedStep and AMD PowerNow! in some designs. Displays reached VGA resolution by 1988 (Compaq SLT/286). but more energy efficient CPUs.  Ultra-mobile PC: An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a small form factor version of a pen computer. 1992) and handwriting recognition (Linus Write-Top. capacities have typically lagged behind physically larger desktop drives. Optical storage. but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85. 1983). released in 1983.The first laptops using the flip form factor appeared in the early 1980s. Some CPUs.[13] The first laptops were the size of a standard U. was the first computer described as a "laptop" by its manufacturer.710 today) GRiD Compass 1100. were designed to use minimum power to increase battery life of portable computers.5 × 11 inches)[citation needed]. There can be either are "convertible" or "hybrid" tablets where the keyboard is removable or moves out of the way. but later "A4-size" laptops were introduced.[10] 1987). lighter. while the term was coined later by Intel. a class of laptop whose specifications were launched by Microsoft and Intel in spring 2006. which is at least 13. "A size" notebook sheet of paper (8. which were the width of a standard ISO 216 A4 sheet of paper (297 mm. for finger or stylus use.6" models are marketed as netbooks. Most netbooks feature cheaper. and added a vertical column of keys to the right and wider screens. The US$8. The smaller keyboards of a netbook can be more difficult to operate. The Asus Eee PC launched this product class. or about 11. the original "Microsoft Tablet PC" form factor used a rotating mount but more recent alternatives include sliding fully inverting the main screen hinge. Since netbook laptops are quite small in size and designed to be light and inexpensive they typically do not come with an internal optical drive.  Netbook: A smaller. Hard drives started to be used in portables. It is usually cheaper than a full-size laptop. and colour screens started becoming a common upgrade in 1991 with increases in resolution and screen size occurring frequently until the introduction of 17"-screen laptops in 2003.[9] From 1983 onward. and has fewer features.5" drives in the late 1980s. encouraged by the introduction of 3. It can also be laid sideways when not in use. was used atNASA and by the military among others. slower.S.5" and smaller drives around 1990. including the touchpad(Gavilan SC. The Gavilan SC. released in 1982. and became common in laptops starting with the introduction of 2. Other "slate" form-factor machines are touch-screen only. read-only CD-ROM followed by writeable CD and later read-only or writeable DVD and Blu-ray. Sony had already . or both.7 inches).150 (US$19. some 11. became common in laptops early in the 2000s. plus some room on both ends for the case). several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops. the pointing stick (IBM ThinkPad 700.5 keys across that are on ¾ (0. The distinction between a "Tablet PC" and an Internet Tablet has become increasingly blurred. as compared to traditional laptops. especially since the release of Windows 8.750) inch centers.

 Rugged: Engineered to operate in tough conditions (mechanical shocks.made a first attempt in this direction in 2004 with its Vaio U series.[11] Sony VAIO P series subnotebook Subnotebook[edit] Main article: Subnotebook A subnotebook or ultraportable is a laptop designed and marketed with an emphasis on portability (small size. and they are intended for use as compact and transportable alternatives to a desktop computer. Other early models were the Poqet PC of 1989 and the Hewlett Packard HP 95LX of 1991. but since around 2010 the distinction in performance between mainstream desktop and laptops have disappeared. or Solid-State Drives. wet and dusty environments. This term is commonly (if inaccurately) used for small notebooks and/or netbooks.7 to 17. some laptops in this class use a limited range of desktop components to provide better performance for the same price at the expense of battery life.  Handheld PC: A Handheld PC.[14] but it is used in common speech for many thin-and-light laptop of a similar form factor—notably including the prominent examples of Apple's Macbook Air.[15] Up until the early 2000s. netbooks are in essence a cheap subcategory of subnotebooks. Desktop replacement[edit] Main article: Desktop replacement computer A desktop-replacement computer is a large laptop laptop which is not intended primarily for mobile use. Other DOS compatible hand-held computers also existed. desktops were more powerful. weighing between 0. often overlapping with the desktop replacement form factor.[17] Since the introduction of netbooks and ultrabooks. . The names "Media Center Laptops" and "Gaming Laptops" are used to describe specialized notebook computers. UMPCs are smaller than subnotebooks. In the past. instead of the common rotational hard disk drives. although the practice has largely died out.8 cm. and are operated like tablet PCs using a touchscreen or a stylus.)  Ultrabook: A very thin version of a laptop by definition less than 0. Most versions of Ultrabooks contain SSD.[12] They were traditionally intended to provide the approximate capabilities of a desktop computer. easier to upgrade. but in later years laptops have become much cheaper and more powerful than before. or H/PC for short. which was only sold in Asia. The distinction lives on in size: desktop replacements are larger and (typically) heavier than other classes of laptops.. They are capable of containing more powerful components and have a 15" or larger display. the line between subnotebooks and either category has been blurry. most ultrabooks are also subnotebooks. they are bulkier and not as portable as other laptops. The first handheld device compatible with desktop IBM personal computers of the time was the Atari Portfolio of 1989. Subnotebooks are usually smaller and lighter than standard laptops. This term is formally a registered trademark of Intel with a narrow qualification to use the term in advertising.[11] the battery life can exceed 10 hours.[16] and most peripherals are available in laptopcompatible USB versions which minimize the need for internal add-on cards.[12] Their operation time on batteries is typically shorter than other laptops. and much cheaper than laptops.8 and 2 kg (2 to 5 pounds). and while some ultrabooks have a screen size too large to qualify as a subnotebook. in rare cases they have no battery at all. with a similar level of performance. low weight and often longer battery life).8 inches thick. extreme temperatures. is a term for a computer built around a form factor which is smaller than any standard laptop computer. It is sometimes referred to as a Palmtop. etc. have a TFT display measuring (diagonally) about 12.

[21] The term came to prominence in the late 2000s. The term "subnotebook" is generally reserved to laptops that run general-purpose desktop operating systems such as Windows. a key point of a netbook. light-weight. and is largely obsolete as of 2013. Netbooks were a market segment of laptops that are inexpensive. tend to blur the branding. Hard disk drive technology and form factors have since been adapted to fit into netbooks providing more hard drive space without much increase cost.9–1. weight. In order to produce small. ultraportables use 13" and smaller screens (down to 6. netbooks generally lack significant upgrade ability. energy-efficient and especially suited for wireless communication and Internet access. The term is used to describe a highly portable laptop that has strict limits for size. the first products introduced to the market utilized very small early-generation solid-state drives for internal storage instead of traditional hard disks. Similarly.[23] most are between 9 and 11 inches (280 mm) and weigh between 0. lowering storage space tremendously—typical sizes were between 8gb-16gb at a time when typical low end laptop hard drives were 120-160gb—and unlike modern solid state drives. but over the past several years these techniques and parts have become mainstream and there is often little distinction besides screen size. and the Atom processors used in most netbooks tend to have their own limits. DVD or Blu-ray) drives. the term has entered general parlance for thin-and-light notebooks. Windows XP and Windows 7 Starter edition. regardless of whether they can legally be sold as "Ultrabooks" under the trademark.To achieve the size and weight reductions.4 kg (2–3 pounds). and utilized advanced materials and construction methods.Windows RT and the Chrome OS.[22] A common distinguishing feature is the lack of optical disk (i. Netbooks had a few disadvantages. economical. . Another issue with netbooks is expansion. although a few of the least powerful lightweight notebooks retain that branding. 40 percent of the consumer laptop market segment will be Ultrabooks. CD.[18] Since then. Palm OS or Android (although in a few cases devices marketed as laptops have used those operating systems).e.4") Most subnotebooks achieve a further portability improvement by omitting an optical/removable media drive. netbooks are intended to "rely heavily on the Internet for remote access to web-based applications"[21] and are targeted increasingly at cloud computing users who rely on servers and require a less powerful client computer. iOS. inexpensive laptops. and have tablet-like features such as instant on functionality. offered little to no performance benefit over rotational disk.[21] Netbooks were mostly sold with light-weight operating systems such as Linux. Intel estimates that by the end of 2012. battery life. in the past they often employed expensive components designed for minimal size and best power efficiency. With primary focus given to web browsing and e-mailing. While the devices range in size from below 5 inches to over 12 inches. rather than a mobile-device-specific OS such as Windows CE. Linux or Mac OS X. In the past. Netbook[edit] Main article: Netbook A Samsung Chromebook. At Computex 2011 Intel announced a new class for ultraportables called Ultrabooks. they often had relatively few ports but with the move to standardize on USB and HDMI this distinction has largely vanished. two cases. there is little to distinguish the smaller ChromeBook models from any reasonable general definition of subnotebooks. At present.[19][20] Hence the name netbook (as "the device excels in web-based computing performance"). In order to limit weight and cost.

construction. and much more expensive than regular laptops. $400. rather than adapted from regular consumer laptop models. Rugged laptop[edit] Main article: Rugged computer A Panasonic Toughbook. The design features found in rugged laptops include rubber sheeting under the keyboard keys.). Rugged laptops are bulkier. Convertible laptop[edit] See also: Tablet computer A tablet laptop with stylus Typical modern convertible laptops have a complex joint between the keyboard housing and the display permitting the display panel to swivel and then lie flat on the keyboard housing. Tablet laptops also contain touchscreen displays alongside the traditional touchpad. Google announced an operating system called Google Chrome OS for this market and in 2011 the Google Chromebook was released running on the Google Chrome OS.[25] and thus are seldom seen in regular consumer use. extreme temperatures. and are rarely marketed via retail channels. Rugged laptops are commonly used by public safety services (police.A majority of netbooks only have a single memory slot and will not recognize any amount beyond 2 GB of RAM. e-mail. and solid-state storage devices or hard disc drives that are shock mounted to withstand constant vibrations. respectively. and wet or dusty environments. military. utilities. Rugged laptops are usually sold to organizations. The big breakthrough for netbook computers did not happen until the weight. fire and medical emergency). This limits the capabilities of the netbook beyond basic functionality (internet. superbright displays easily readable in daylight. < 9". Finally because of their size and cost compared to typical subnotebooks. heavier. Rugged laptops are usually designed from scratch. field service technicians. netbooks almost always have a slower CPU[24] In 2009.S. mining and oil drilling personnel. cases and frames made of magnesium alloys that are much stronger than plastic found in commercial laptops. A rugged/ruggedized laptop is designed to reliably operate in harsh usage conditions such as strong vibrations. became commercially available in around 2008. etc. < U. rather than individuals. . diagonal form-factor and price combination of < 1 kg. while Google has never advertised the ChromeBook machines as a netbook they are in many ways a present evolution of the concept. passive cooling. sealed port and connector covers.

the base of a tablet laptop attaches to the display at a single joint called a swivel hinge or rotating hinge. and cooling of laptops limit the maximum performance of laptop parts compared to that of desktop components. although as of the present decade (2010-) an increasing number of desktop systems use the same smaller. This design. although 4-core models are available. although the most common. traditionally they were miniaturized and adapted to mobile use. although that difference has increasingly narrowed over recent years. [26] Another variant has 2 processors. inner screen is usual as notebook and the outer screen (back to back with inner screen) can be used as tablet which can be a mirror from inner screen or even both can run different applications together. but at the high end the fastest 4-to-8-core desktop processors still substantially outperform the fastest 4-core . Hybrid tablets incorporate a removable keyboard base allowing the user to easily choose between functioning as a laptop with the keyboard attached or as a slate device utilizing the touchscreen alone. size. there is no longer a distinction between laptop CPU performance and desktop. Newer iterations of tablet laptops are of hybrid design. A variant of notebook has 2 screens. typically these days they will have two processor cores.Typically. lower-power parts which originally evolved for mobile use. 2 Operating Systems and 2 storage devices which can run either Windows 8 or Android and can switch between the operating system by press a button. creates a physical point of weakness on the laptop. For low price and mainstream performance. The joint allows the screen to rotate through 180° and fold down on top of the keyboard to provide a flat writing surface.[27] Components[edit] Main article: Personal computer hardware Miniaturization: a comparison of a desktop computer motherboard (ATX form factor) to a motherboard from a 13" laptop (2008 unibody Macbook) Inner view of a Sony VAIO laptop The basic components of laptops function identically to their desktop counterparts. The following list summarizes the differences and distinguishing features of laptop components in comparison to desktop personal computer parts:[28]  Central processing unit (CPU): Laptop CPUs have advanced power-saving features and produce less heat than processors intended purely for desktop use. The design bounds on power. Some manufacturers have attempted to overcome these weak points by adopting innovative methods such as a sliding design in which the screen slides up from the slate-like position and locks into place to provide the laptop mode.

2 card slots allowing the us e of those slots for SATA based solid state drives. heat.) Because of the limitation of DDR3 SO-DIMMs to a maximum of 8gb per module. and connected to the laptop through an DC connector cable.  Battery: Current laptops utilize lithium ion batteries. In the past. a small number of models (notably including the 2013 models of MacBook Pro and MacBook Air) have memory soldered to the motherboard so as to save space inside the case. which outputs a DC voltage typically in the range of 7. In most cases it can charge the battery and power the laptop simultaneously. On nonx86architectures. These two technologies have largely replaced the older nickel metal-hydride batteries. Wi-Fi. although this has become less common in the past few years as the trend has been to increasingly thin and light models.laptop processors. A SODIMM memory module  Memory (RAM): Most laptops use SO-DIMM memory modules. or a Wireless cellular modem can be implemented as replaceable internal expansion cards. A battery's performance gradually decreases with time. Most mid-range laptops are factory equipped with 4-6 GB of RAM. if at all. depending on the charging and discharging pattern and the design of the battery. and limited battery life. The practice is largely extinct as of 2013. this is nearly universal in ultrabooks. these are about half the size of desktop DIMMs. Some internal subsystems such as: ethernet.  Expansion cards: in the past. Many laptops have removable CPUs. [29]  Power supply: Laptops are typically powered by an internal rechargeable battery that is charged using an external power supply. at the expense of massively higher power utilization and heat generation —the fastest laptop processors top out at 56 watts of heat. even when the laptop is powered on. when the battery is fully charged. In newer laptops it is not uncommon to also see Micro SATA(mSATA) functionality on PCI Express Mini or M. these are becoming increasingly rare since the introduction of USB 3. for example. while the fastest desktop processors top out at 150 watts. Most laptops have two memory sockets. with some thinner models using the flatter lithium polymer technology. and some high end models (usually mobile engineering workstations. Battery life is highly variable by model and workload. and a few high-end models intended for gaming have 4.2– 24 volts. In other laptops the CPU is soldered on the motherboard and is non-replaceable. or placed in locations not intended for user replacement. the laptop continues to run on power supplied by the external power supply.0. a PC Card (formerly PCMCIA) or ExpressCard slot for expansion cards was often present on laptops to allow adding and removing functionality. substantial reduction in capacity is typically evident after one to three years of regular use. although some of the lowest-end will have only one. This large-capacity main battery should not be confused with the much . which comes in both mini and even smaller M. AMD and other manufacturers. Increasingly. this means most laptops can only be expanded to a total of 16GB of memory until systems using DDR4 memory start becoming available.2 or "Next Generation Form Factor" sizes. this eliminates the possibility of expansion but allows a thinner and lighter design. and can range from 1 hour to nearly a day. The charger typically adds about 400 grams (1 lb) to the overall "transport weight" of the notebook. The power supply is usually external. There have been a wide range of CPUs designed for laptops available from both Intel. The standards for such cards is PCI Express. some laptops have used a desktop processor instead of the laptop version and have high performance gains at the cost of greater weight. Netbooks are commonly equipped with only 1-2 GB of RAM and generally only expandable to 2 GB. Motorola and IBM produced the chips for the former PowerPC-based Apple laptops (iBook and PowerBook). usually accessible under an access cover on the bottom of the laptop.[28] They may be accessible from the bottom of the laptop for ease of upgrading. although some models are substantially heavier or lighter.

assuming average power consumption levels. Laptop optical drives tend to follow a standard form factor. 250 GB to 1 TB sizes are common for laptop hard disks (64 to 512 GB for SSDs). and in typical 15" screens resolutions as high as 3200x1800 are available.  Input: A pointing stick. Higher-end laptops intended for gaming or professional 3D work still come with dedicated graphics processors on the motherboard or as an internal expansion card.8 inches (46 mm) —compared to desktop 3. improving the user's ability to multitask.5 inches (64 mm) or 1. Netbooks with a 10 inches (25 cm) or smaller screen typically use a resolution of 1024×600. and similar "APU" processors by AMD later that year.  Display: Most modern laptops feature 13 inches (33 cm) or larger color active matrix displays based on CCFL or LED lighting with resolutions of 1280×800 (16:10) or 1366 × 768 (16:9) pixels and above. laptops lacking a separate graphics processor were limited in their utility for gaming and professional applications involving 3D graphics. Some newer laptops (usually ultraportables) employ more expensive. although at the higher resolutions on smaller screens. Innovations in laptops and batteries have seen situations which the battery can provide up to 24 hours of continued operation. Currently.6 inches (29 cm) or 12 inches (30 cm) screen use standard notebook resolutions. or to replace it with a second hard drive using a caddy that fills the extra space the optical drive would have occupied.5 inches (89 mm) drives. Nvidia Optimus is an example of this sort of system of switchable graphics. In the past. Prior to that. Since the introduction of the MacBook Pro with Retina display in 2012. Having a higher resolution display may allow more items to fit onscreen at a time. touchpad or both are used to control the position of the cursor on the screen. but faster. these almost always involve switchable graphics so that when there is not demand for the higher performance dedicated graphics processor. the more power-efficient integrated graphics processor will be used.smaller battery nearly all computers use to run the real-time clock and to store theBIOS configuration in CMOS when the computer is off. and usually have a standard mini-SATA connector (not to be confused with Micro-SATA used for SSD cards). Laptops commonly use 2. which are much smaller than desktop hard drives. and it remains fairly common for now although the trend towards thinner and lighter machines will probably eliminate it. It is very uncommon on subnotebooks and unknown on netbooks or ultrabooks. while netbooks and subnotebooks with a 11. An example is the HP EliteBook 6930p when used with its ultra-capacity battery. . lighter and power-efficientflash memory-based SSDs instead.[30]  Video display controller: On most laptops the video controller is integrated into the CPU to conserve power and space. An external keyboard and/or mouse may be connected using USB or PS/2 port. the resolution may only serve to display sharper graphics and text rather than increasing the usable area. or wirelessly via a USB receiver orBluetooth (if present). even in relatively small systems. there has been an increase in the availability of very-high resolution (FHD 1920x1080 and higher) displays.  Removable media drives: until recently. DVD/CD reader/writer drive was nearly universal on full-sized models. Lithium-ion batteries do not have a memory effect as older batteries may have. and an integrated keyboard is used for typing.  Internal storage: Laptop hard disks are physically smaller—2. while higher end machines had a separate graphics processor. and often higher brightness. since 2011. it is often possible to replace an optical drive with a newer model. this was introduced by Intel with the Core-i series of mobile processors in 2010. Models with LEDbased lighting offer lesser power consumption.5" hard disk drives. lower-end machines tended to use graphics processors integrated to the system chipset. but the capabilities of CPU-integrated graphics has converged with the low end of dedicated graphics processors in the past few years.

are often prime targets for thieves and laptops.[34] Presently. typically through a single large proprietary connector. allowing it to supplement cooling by dissipating heat out of the device core. It is believed that some designs with metal cases. such as if the laptop were to be left running and placed inside a carrying case. Although the trolleys can be moved between areas in buildings. They are generally made out of steel. often passive device that often simply mates to the connectors on the back of the notebook. Modern laptops instead rely on heat pipes to rapidly move waste heat towards the edges of the device. On Apple's systems. also known as laptop trolleys or laptop carts. in the past it was distinguished from a port replicator—a simplified docking station that only provides connections from the laptop to input/output ports —although as of 2013 the terms are generally used interchangeably. are mobile storage containers to charge laptops. Early laptops used heat sinks placed directly on the components to be cooled. netbooks and tablet computers all together. and often an Ethernet network port are found on most laptops.[31] Solar panels[edit] Main article: Solar notebook In some laptops. and the laptops remain locked up while not in use. parallel port or Firewire are increasingly rare. Legacy ports such as a PS/2 keyboard/mouse port. Such a condition has the potential to melt plastics or ignite a fire. As the need for additional storage and expansion slots became less critical because of the high integration inside the laptop. Docking stations became a common laptop accessory in the early 1990s. and in some cases also expansion slots and/or bays for fixed or removable drives. Both docking stations and port replicators are intended to be used at a permanent working place (a desk) to offer instant connection to multiple input/output devices and to extend a laptop's capabilities. an external monitor port (VGA.  Cooling: Waste heat from operation is difficult to remove in the compact internal space of a laptop. there are also Thunderbolt ports. also employ the case of the machine as a "gigantic" heat sink. towards the rear or sides of the device. being a cheaper. and on a handful of non-Apple-produced laptops. The trolleys can be wheeled between rooms and classrooms so that anyone in a particular building can access fully charged IT[32] equipment. solar panels are able to generate enough solar power for the laptop to operate. such as when the device is placed on a soft conforming surface like a chair cushion. Waste heat is usually exhausted away from the device operator. Ports: several USB ports. These stations were very large and quite expensive. Schools. netbooks and tablets can easily be concealed and removed from buildings. and the traditional docs with PCI or PCI-E slots are vanishingly rare. Charging stations[edit] Laptop charging trolleys. like Apple's aluminum MacBook Pro and MacBook Air. audio in/out (sometimes via a single connector). Laptop charging trolleys were designed and constructed to protect against theft. A laptop connects and disconnects easily to a docking station. Secondary device temperature monitoring may reduce performance or trigger an emergency shutdown if it is unable to dissipate heat. especially overnight.[33] The One Laptop Per Child Initiative released the OLPC XO-1 laptop which was tested and successfully operated by use of solar panels. DVI. especially those with open plan designs. but do not have enough plug sockets in their buildings to charge all of the devices. Laptop charging trolleys are also used to deter and protect against opportunistic and organized theft. port replicators have gained popularity. a large space-wasting air duct is needed to exhaust the heat. to allow for a much smaller and compact fan and heat sink cooling system. or connects via a standardized port such as USB or FireWire. The most common use was in a corporate computing environment where the company had standardized on a common network card and this same card was placed into the docking station. . Docking stations[edit] A docking station (sometimes referred to simply as a "dock") is a laptop accessory that contains multiple ports. mini-DisplayPort or HDMI). The trolleys are predominantly used in schools that have replaced their traditional static ICT[31] suites of desktop computers with laptops. but when these hot components are deep inside the device. Multiple air intake paths are used since some intakes can be blocked. serial port. they can often also be mounted to the floor or walls to prevent thieves walking off with investments.

follow their own standards but are difficult to replace because of other factors (for example. The OLPC XO-3 can operate with 2 Watts of electricity because its renewable energy resources generate a total of 4 Watts.[37] Standards[edit] In general. Asus. Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards. [39] Physical portability allows that a laptop can be used in many places— not only at home and at the office. and design and placement of internal components are not standard. [38] Advantages[edit] Laptop computers are portable and can be used in many locations. especially if they attempt to connect their laptops with incompatible hardware or power adapters. Intel. Compal. motherboards are almost always make and model-specific: locations of ports. Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales using a laptop on a park bench. If broken or damaged. but also during commuting and flights. they must be substituted with an exact replacement part. in coffee . components other than the categories listed above are not intended to be replaceable. Those parts are neither interchangeable with parts from other manufacturers (replaceable) nor upgradeable. Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs.) In particular. Shown here isVicente Fox using an Apple PowerBook A teacher using laptop as part of a workshop for school children. a few. in the case of processors cooling and access limitations can make upgrades very difficult or impossible.[35][36] Samsung has also designed a NC215S Solar powered notebook that will be sold commercially in the US market.they are designing a OLPC XO-3 laptop with these features. such as processors. Those users uneducated in the relevant fields are those the most affected by incompatibilities.

A desktop PC needs a UPS to handle short interruptions. a laptop can be closed and put away. For example. as the files exist in a single location and are always up-to-date. and the cost of laptops has fallen less rapidly than desktops. at clients' location or at a meeting room. When not in use. This is beneficial when space is at a premium.  Battery: a charged laptop can continue to be used in case of a power outage and is not affected by short power interruptions and blackouts. as the underlying technology matures. or a student doing his/her homework at the university coffee shop during a break between lectures. laptops have everything integrated into the chassis. even relatively low-end laptops (such as Netbooks) can be fast enough for some users. a problem of synchronization arises: changes made on one computer are not automatically propagated to the others. A typical laptop uses 20–90 W. due both to the components (quieter. using a single laptop at both locations avoids the problem entirely.  Connectivity: A proliferation of Wi-Fi wireless networks and cellular broadband data services (HSDPA. keyboard. print server. mouse. The portability feature offers several distinct advantages:  Productivity: Using a laptop in places where a desktop PC can not be used. For Internet browsing and typical office applications. are adapted to laptops. display. compared to 100–800 W for desktops.[44]  All-in-One: designed to be portable. However. etc. Immediacy allows better collaboration between coworkers or students. achieving onbattery time of more than 20–30 minutes for a desktop PC requires a large and expensive UPS.5-inch hard drives) and to less heat production leading to use of fewer and slower cooling fans. for example in small apartments and student dorms. blackouts and spikes.  Low power consumption: Laptops are several times more power-efficient than desktops. This could be particularly beneficial for businesses (which run hundreds of personal computers. and optional peripherals such as speakers. multiplying the potential savings) and homes where there is a computer running 24/7 (such as a home media server. [45] The upper limits of performance of laptops remain much lower than the highest-end desktops (especially "workstation class" machines with two processor sockets). including physical transfer of updated files (using a USB flash memory stick or CDRs) or using synchronization software over the Internet.shops. For desktops (excluding all-inones) this is divided into the desktop. Wi-Fi networks and laptop programs are especially widespread at university campuses. the cheapest netbooks—between US$200–300—remain more expensive than the lowest-end desktop computers (around . and at times that would otherwise be wasted. There are ways to resolve this problem. laptops remain more expensive than desktop PCs at the same performance level.[40][41]  Immediacy: Carrying a laptop means having instant access to various information. Disadvantages[edit] Compared to desktop PCs. etc. an office worker managing their e-mails during an hour-long commute by train. laptops have disadvantages in the following areas: Performance[edit] While the performance of mainstream desktops and laptop is comparable. slower 2. anywhere. personal and work files. [46] As of mid-2010. EVDO and others) combined with a near-ubiquitous support by laptops[42] means that a laptop can have easy Internet and local network connectivity while remaining mobile. at the lowest end. and "bleeding-edge" features usually appear first in desktops and only then. in lecture halls and libraries. where the computer spends the majority of its time waiting for the next user input. as a laptop can be flipped open to present a problem or a solution anytime.)  Quiet: Laptops are often quieter than desktops.[43] Other advantages of laptops:  Size: Laptops are smaller than desktop PCs.  Up-to-date information: If a person has more than one desktop PC.

engineering. which can cause neck and/or spinal injuries. or even between laptops from the different product-lines of the same manufacturer. Ergonomics and health effects[edit] Wrists[edit] Laptop cooler (silver) under laptop (white). Once an inexpensive monitor is added. they can be connected to a laptop easily by USB or via a docking station. preventing heating of lap and improving laptop airflow Because of their small and flat keyboard and trackpad pointing devices. laptop processors can be disadvantaged when dealing with higher-end database. a simple method to reduce risk of spinal injury is to position the laptop's screen in a manner that an obtuse angle (more than 90 degrees open) is formed. laptop components can rarely be swapped between laptops of competing manufacturers. Most higher-end laptops are sufficiently powerful for high-resolution movie playback. maths. network adapters. virtualization. and numerous other peripherals are available. CPU and graphics. the prices are comparable. including the motherboard. Some upgrades can be performed by adding external devices. but these upgrades usually impair the laptop's portability. Some manufacturers work around this performance problem by using desktop CPUs for laptops. With few exceptions. with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and have high repair costs. Intel. There is no industry-wide standard form factor for laptops.US$200) only when those are priced without a screen/monitor. hard drives and memory can be upgraded easily. In general. Another solution is to use a computer stand.[48]Usage of separate. However. The reasons for limited upgradeability are both technical and economic. Also. each major laptop manufacturer pursues its ownproprietary design and construction. A larger and higher-quality external screen can be connected to almost any laptop to alleviate that and to provide additional screen space for more productive work. Neck. Compal. are not always intended to be upgradeable. For anyone not buying a new screen. [47] Upgradeability[edit] Upgradeability of laptops is very limited compared to desktops. Devices such as sound cards. It is then possible for the neck to remain straight during use of the device. which limits the utility of laptops for high-end 3D gaming and scientific visualization applications. Asus. spinal[edit] The integrated screen often requires users to lean over for a better view. . external ergonomic keyboards and pointing devices is recommended to prevent injury when working for long periods of time. etc. Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards. financial software. Optical drives andinternal expansion cards may be upgraded if they follow an industry standard. hard and optical drives. some 3D gaming and video editing and encoding. the top-of-the-line mobile graphics processors (GPUs) are significantly behind the topof-the-line desktop GPUs to a greater degree than the processors. either USB or in expansion card format such as PC Card. because they add cables and boxes to the setup and often have to be disconnected and reconnected when the laptop is on the move. Some health standards require ergonomic keyboards at workplaces. but all other internal components. which are thoroughly standardized. prolonged use of laptops can cause repetitive strain injury.

One study found that a laptop is three times more likely to break during the first year of use than a desktop. Heating and cooling[edit] Laptops rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heat sink that can fail from blockage caused by accumulated airborne dust and debris. two or three cooling fans – with the entire assembly designed to sit under the laptop in question – which results in the laptop remaining cool to the touch. The study. Components such as screen hinges. a rather minor mishap with a desktop system. other parts are inexpensive—a power jack can cost a few dollars—but their replacement may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of the laptop by a technician.[citation needed] Thighs[edit] Heat generated from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs known as "toasted skin syndrome. A liquid spill onto the keyboard. resulting in a system that gradually causes it to conduct more heat and noise as the years pass. Other inexpensive but fragile parts often cannot be purchased separate from larger more expensive components. Most laptops do not have any type of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems. which could not be offset by a laptop cushion. or to use a book or pillow between the body and the laptop."[55][56][57][58] Durability[edit] A clogged heat sink on a laptop after 2.[50][51][52][53][54] A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk. which included roughly two dozen men between the ages of 21 and 35. can damage the internals of a laptop and result in a costly repair.[49] A 2010 study of 29 males published in Fertility and Sterility found that men who kept their laptops on their laps experienced scrotal hyperthermia (overheating) in which their scrotal temperatures increased by up to 2 °C. These are usually USB powered and consist of a hard thin plastic case housing one.Possible effect on fertility[edit] A study by State University of New York researchers found that heat generated from laptops can increase the temperature of the lap of male users when balancing the computer on their lap. potentially putting sperm count at risk.78 °F). may increase male infertility. further research is needed to determine whether this directly affects male sterility. However. Compressed air can dislodge the dust and debris but may not always remove it. where the fan and heat sink meet. In some cases the laptop starts to overheat even at idle load levels.[59] Parts replacement[edit] Original external components are expensive. after the device is turned on. where casual cleaning and vacuuming cannot remove it. The resulting heat increase.1 °C (3.[60] The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel often exceed the value of a used laptop.5 years of use Equipment wears[edit] Because of their portability. This dust is usually stuck inside. laptops are subject to more wear and physical damage than desktops. power jacks and power cords deteriorate gradually from ordinary use. and greatly reduces laptop heat buildup. latches. and usually proprietary and non-interchangeable.[citation needed] Another solution is to obtain a cooling unit for the laptop. A complete dis- . the loose debris builds back up the cooling system by the fans. found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can increase scrotum temperature by as much as 2.

over 1. The battery is often easily replaceable and a higher capacity model may be obtained for longer life.[66] However. and GadgetTrack have been engineered to help victims locate and recover a laptop in the event of theft. Some laptops also now have additional security elements added by the consumer. and of the resulting problems (identity theft. which . The service utilizes persistent technology. school-issued laptops loaded with special software afforded two high schools with the capability to take secret webcam shots of their students at home. Lower Merion School District (Eastern District of Pennsylvania 2010). which can be used to tether them to a desk or other immovable object with a security cable and lock. and portable.S. Every day. Consequently. configuration. laptops are prized targets for theft. Most laptops have a Kensington security slot. eventually requiring replacement after as little as a year. In addition. which renders the data on the laptop's hard drive unreadable without a key or a pass phrase. the battery's energy storage will dissipate progressively until it lasts only a few minutes. Yet. via their students' laptops. Battery life[edit] Battery life is limited because the capacity drops with time. airports. Replacement batteries can also be expensive. as it ages. modern operating systems and third-party software offer disk encryption functionality. breach of privacy).[61] The cost of stolen business or personal data. For example.assembly is usually required to clean the laptop. Laptop Cop. can be many times the value of the stolen laptop itself. Many laptops are difficult to disassemble by the normal user and contain components that are sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). physical protection of laptops and the safeguarding of data contained on them are both of great importance. that number may increase due to a variety of companies and software solutions specializing in laptop recovery. including eye recognition software and fingerprint scanning components.[63][64][65] Laptop Theft Recovery[edit] Laptop theft is a serious problem. and power management settings. with less than 5% of lost or stolen laptops ever recovered by the companies that own them. Some laptops (specifically ultrabooks) do not have the usual removable battery and have to be brought to the service center of its manufacturer to have its battery replaced. LoJack for Laptops is security software that includes an Investigations and Theft Recovery Team made up of ex law enforcement officers who locate and recover stolen laptops. depending on usage. A new battery typically stores enough energy to run the laptop for three to five hours. credit card fraud. Security and privacy[edit] Main article: Laptop theft Because they are valuable.[62] Software such as LoJack for Laptops. In Robbins v. common.600 laptops go missing from U.

means it can't be removed or disabled by a thief. Inspiron. TLX.Studio. Leaptopand MiLeap Hewlett-Packard / Compaq: HP Pavilion. HP ProBook. Asus ROG Dell: Alienware. The owner can also remotely delete files or lock their device. A. IdeaPad. P.Compaq Presario Lenovo: ThinkPad.Packard Bell Easynote. X. I / O Fujitsu: Lifebook HCL (India): ME Laptop.Let's Note (Japan only) . Major laptop brands Acer / Gateway / eMachines / Packard Bell:TravelMate. Major brands and manufacturers[edit] The Sony Vaio brand is among the best selling laptops. C. Vostro and XPS Falcon Northwest: DRX. Chromebook Apple: MacBook Air and MacBook Pro Asus: Asus Eee.HP Envy. Satellite. Lamborghini. U series andWind Netbook Panasonic: Toughbook. Precision. HP EliteBook. Ferrari and Aspire. ME Netbook. so no one can access their personal data. Latitude. LoJack can only work to track down a missing laptop when it is turned on and it is connected to the Internet. V. and the Essential B and G Series LG: Xnote Medion: Akoya (OEM version of MSI Wind) MSI: E. Extensa. G.

Samsung: SENS: N.[69][72][73][74] When looking at operating systems.7 million.[70] In 2008 it was estimated that 145. both for business and personal use.[79] As of 2011 over 100 ThinkPads were aboard the ISS. several major brands. laptops from major brands are more expensive than laptops by smaller brands and ODMs. do not design and do not manufacture their laptops. Instead. The first commercial laptop used in space was a Macintosh portable in 1991 aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-43. Sales[edit] Battery-powered portable computers had just 2% worldwide market share in 1986. netbooks (EeePC) and laptops for children (OLPC). for Microsoft Windows laptops the average selling price (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009.Chromebook Sony: Vaio TG Sambo (Korea): Averatec.S.6 million units versus 38. In 2009.[67] Therefore. and that the number would grow in 2009 to 177. 7 major ODMs manufactured 7 of every 10 laptops in the world. with 38. Many brands. and the brands choose the models to be included in their lineup. with the largest one (Quanta Computer) having 30% of world market share.[75] Extreme environments[edit] See also: International Space Station#Computers The ruggedized Grid Compass computer was used since the early days of the Space Shuttle program. Some brands are specializing in a particular class of laptops. P.[68] However. offering notebooks in various classes. While Windows machines ASP fell $129 in these seven months. The major brands usually offer good service and support. Laptops used aboard the International Space Station and other spaceflights are generally the same ones that can be purchased by the general . are listed in the box to the right. ASP had further fallen to $602 by January and to $560 in February. such as gaming laptops (Alienware). Averatec Buddy Toshiba: Dynabook. Capitalizing on service. support and brand image.[69] Around 109 million notebook PCs shipped worldwide in 2007.[76][77][78] Mac and other laptop computers continue to be flown aboard manned spaceflights though the only long duration flight certified computer for the International Space Station is the ThinkPad. high-performance laptops (HP Envy). including well-executed documentation and driver downloads that will remain available for many years after a particular laptop model is no longer produced. a small number of Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) design new models of laptops. Satellite. including the major ones. retail in August 2008.[71] The third quarter of 2008 was the first time when worldwide notebook PC shipments exceeded desktops. In 2006. Tecra. a growth of 33% compared to 2006. drawing US$689 at U. Libretto    Main article: List of laptop brands and manufacturers V T E Further information: Market share of personal computer vendors There are a multitude of laptop brands and manufacturers. Portege. R and X series. possibly due to low-cost netbooks.524 to $1. Q. Apple (Mac) OS X laptop ASP declined just $12 from $1.512. there often are identical models available both from a major label and from a low-profile ODM in-house brand.Qosmio.5 million units. laptops have become increasingly popular.9 million notebooks were sold.

with sturdier ones made of LRPu (low-resilience polyurethane). Bulkier and sturdier cases can be made of metal with polyurethane padding inside. Another common accessory is a laptop cooler. for added security. which are distinguished by being relatively thin and flexible. A general active method is plugging a laptop cooler into the laptop and using fans to draw heat away from the laptop.[80] Laptops operating in harsh usage environments and conditions. This device helps lower the internal temperature of the laptop by using either active or passive methods. A common passive method is just propping the laptop up on some type of pad so it can receive more air flow.public but needed modifications are made to allow them to be used safely and effectively in a weightless environment such as updating the cooling systems to function without relying on hot air rising and accommodation for the lower cabin air pressure. laptop skin or laptop case. such as strong vibrations. [81] Former features[edit] Features that certain early models of laptops used to have but not available anymore in most recent models of laptops include:           Reset (Cold restart) button in a hole Instant power off button in a hole Integrated charger or power adapter inside the laptop Floppy disk drive Serial port Parallel port Modem Shared PS/2 input device port IrDA S-video port[82] . and may have locks. with some wrapped in ballistic nylon to provide some measure of waterproofing. extreme temperatures and wet or dusty conditions differ from those used in space in that they are custom designed for the task and do not use commercial off-theshelfhardware. Sleeves. are most commonly made of neoprene. Accessories[edit] A common accessory for laptops is a laptop sleeve. which provides a degree of protection from drops or impacts.