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12

KNOWN: Hemispherical and spherical arrangements for radiant heat treatment of a thin-film material. Heater emits diffusely with intensity Ie,h = 169,000 W/ m2⋅sr and has an area 0.0052 m2. FIND: (a) Expressions for the irradiation on the film as a function of the zenith angle, θ, and (b) Identify arrangement which provides the more uniform irradiation, and hence better quality control for the treatment process. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Heater emits diffusely, (2) All radiation leaving the heater is absorbed by the thin film. ANALYSIS: (a) The irradiation on any differential area, dAs, due to emission from the heater, Ah , follows from its definition, Section 12.2.3,

q G = h →s dAs

Where qh→s is the radiant heat rate leaving Ah and intercepted by dAs. From Eq. 12.7,

(1)

q h →s = Ie,h ⋅ dA h cosθ h ⋅ ωs − h

(2)

where ωs-h is the solid angle dAs subtends with respect to any point on Ah. From the definition, Eq. 12.2,

ω=

dA n r2

(3)

where dAn is normal to the viewing direction and r is the separation distance. For the hemisphere: Referring to the schematic above, the solid angle is

ωs − h =

dAs R2

and the irradiation distribution on the hemispheric surface as a function of θh is G = Ie,h A h cos θ h R 2 For the sphere: From the schematic, the solid angle is

(1)

<

ωs,h =

dAs cos θ s

2 Ro

=

dAs 4R 2 cos θ h

Continued...

where Ro, from the geometry of sphere cord and radii with θs = θh, is

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

0052 m 2 4 ( 2m ) = 54. (1) and (2). Recognize that for the hemisphere thin film arrangement.12 (Cont. 000 W m2⋅ sr × 0. the distribution of the irradiation is quite variable with a maximum at θ = 0° (top) and half the maximum value at θ = 30°.h A h = 2761W The average irradiation on the spherical surface. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Substituting numerical values. (3) Note that G hem > Gsph since the surface area of the hemisphere is half that of the sphere. G sph = q tot Asph = 2761W 4π ( 2m ) = 54. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0052m2 cosθ h ( 2m ) = 219. (4).9 W m 2 2 while the average irradiation on the hemispherical surface. the irradiation on the thin film is uniform and therefore provides for better quality control for the treatment process.9 W m2 2 (2) Note from the foregoing analyses for the sphere that the result for Gsph is identical to that found as Eq. That follows since the irradiation is uniform.h d A h 4R 2 (2) < (b) The spherical shape provides more uniform irradiation as can be seen by comparing Eqs.7 cosθ h W m2 2 (3) (4) Gsph = 169. the irradiations are: G hem = 169. . 000 W m2⋅ sr × 0. Asph = 4πR2.PROBLEM 12. In fact. for the spherical shape.9 W m 2 COMMENTS: (1) The radiant heat rate leaving the diffuse heater surface by emission is 2 q tot = π Ie. Ahem = 2πR2 is G hem = 2761W 2π ( 2m ) = 109.) R o = 2R cosθ h and the irradiation distribution on the spherical surface as a function of θh is G = Ie.

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