# PROBLEM 12.

12
KNOWN: Hemispherical and spherical arrangements for radiant heat treatment of a thin-film material. Heater emits diffusely with intensity Ie,h = 169,000 W/ m2⋅sr and has an area 0.0052 m2. FIND: (a) Expressions for the irradiation on the film as a function of the zenith angle, θ, and (b) Identify arrangement which provides the more uniform irradiation, and hence better quality control for the treatment process. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Heater emits diffusely, (2) All radiation leaving the heater is absorbed by the thin film. ANALYSIS: (a) The irradiation on any differential area, dAs, due to emission from the heater, Ah , follows from its definition, Section 12.2.3,

q G = h →s dAs
Where qh→s is the radiant heat rate leaving Ah and intercepted by dAs. From Eq. 12.7,

(1)

q h →s = Ie,h ⋅ dA h cosθ h ⋅ ωs − h

(2)

where ωs-h is the solid angle dAs subtends with respect to any point on Ah. From the definition, Eq. 12.2,

ω=

dA n r2

(3)

where dAn is normal to the viewing direction and r is the separation distance. For the hemisphere: Referring to the schematic above, the solid angle is

ωs − h =

dAs R2

and the irradiation distribution on the hemispheric surface as a function of θh is G = Ie,h A h cos θ h R 2 For the sphere: From the schematic, the solid angle is

(1)

<

ωs,h =

dAs cos θ s
2 Ro

=

dAs 4R 2 cos θ h
Continued...

where Ro, from the geometry of sphere cord and radii with θs = θh, is

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