APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05

On Achievements, Shortcomings and rrors o! instein
C. Y. Lo
Applied and Pure Research Institute
" Taggart #rive, $nit , %ash&a, %H 030'0
A(STRA)T
The e*ectromagnetic energ+ is not e,&iva*ent to mass- Th&s, instein.s !orm&*a / mc
2
is on*+ conditiona**+ va*id-
01erimenta**+, it is 2no3n that the 1hotons are e,&iva*ent to mass- Ho3ever, to satis!+ / mc
2
, the 1hotons m&st
inc*&de not on*+ e*ectromagnetic 3ave energ+, 4&t a*so gravitationa* 3ave energ+- 5or the d+namic case 3ith massive
so&rces, it is i**&strated thro&gh e01*icit ca*c&*ations that the non-*inear instein e,&ation has no 4o&nded d+namic
so*&tions- Th&s, the 1ositive mass theorem o! Ya& 6 Schoen 7and 8itten9 is mis*eading in 1h+sics- A*so, the 2011
Sha3 Pri:e to )hristodo&*o& is act&a**+ to3ard his errors against honora4*e ;&**strand, )hairman o! the %o4e* Pri:e
)ommittee !or Ph+sics- <oreover, the *ineari:ed e,&ation is com1ati4*e 3ith a 1==5 modi!ied instein e,&ation that
added a gravitationa* energ+-stress tensor 3ith an anti-gravit+ co&1*ing in the so&rce- Th&s, the im1*icit ass&m1tion o!
the &ni,&e co&1*ing signs !or the s1ace-time sing&*arit+ theorems o! Penrose 6 Ha32ing is inva*id- ;enera* re*ativit+ is
incom1*ete a*so d&e to the a4sence o! the radiation reaction !orce- 8hen charged 1artic*es are invo*ved, the charge-mass
interaction im1*ies instein.s &ni!ication 4et3een gravitation and e*ectromagnetism- This veri!ied re1&*sive interaction
3o&*d e01*ain the 3eight red&ction o! charged ca1acitors and the S1ace-Pro4e Pioneer Anoma*+- Ho3ever, the charge-
mass re1&*sive !orce 3as over*oo2ed o3ing to the s1ec&*ation o! / mc
2
- The e0istence o! a re1&*sive !orce in
gravitation a*so casts a strong do&4t on the va*idit+ in the notion o! 4*ac2 ho*es-
>Y8OR#S? d+namic so*&tion@ gravitationa* radiation@ 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+@
PA)S? 0A-20-)v@ 0A-50--h@ 0A-50->d@ 0A-B0-)c
“Unthinking respect for authority is the greatest enemy of truth.” A. !instein
". Introduction.
instein is common*+ recogni:ed as a geni&s 4eca&se he created ne3 theories and *ed &s 3ith acc&rate 1redictions
to ne3 areas o! 1h+sics, name*+, s1ecia* re*ativit+, ,&ant&m mechanics and genera* re*ativit+- In s1ecia* re*ativit+, he
revo*&tioni:ed the notion o! s1ace-time and esta4*ished a !orm&*a 4et3een energ+ and mass / mc
2
- The notion o!
1hoton 1*a+s a centra* ro*e in ,&ant&m mechanics- In genera* re*ativit+, he ama:ed &s 4+ his three acc&rate 1redictions-
Th&s, a !aith in instein 3as deve*o1ed-
1
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
Ho3ever, as time has gone 4+ the shortcomings o! his theories are grad&a**+ sho3n and even inc*&de mista2es- 8e
admire instein not 4eca&se he 3as 1er!ect as 3e 1revio&s*+ 4e*ieved, 4&t rather !or his ingen&it+ in starting ne3
cha1ters o! 1h+sics- In 3hat !o**o3s, 3e sha** 1oint o&t the 1ro4*ems that 3e 2no3- This *eads to the necessar+
recti!ication o! his theories, in 1artic&*ar, genera* re*ativit+-
19
%everthe*ess, it a*so 4ecomes c*ear that his conCect&re o!
&ni!ication 4et3een gravitation and e*ectromagnetic is esta4*ished- Th&s, !ina**+ instein.s conCect&re t&rns o&t to 4e
correct at the end- It is &1 to &s to e01*ore !&rther 3hat he has started that remains !or o&r !&t&re investigation-
#. $pecial Relati%ity and the &ormula ! ' mc
#
8hi*e s1ecia* re*ativit+ t&rns o&t to have the *east 1ro4*ems, the &nconditiona* va*idit+ o! the !orm&*a / mc
2
is on*+ a
s1ec&*ation that has never 4een veri!ied D1E- In !act, instein had tried ver+ hard !or +ears 71=05-1=0=9 to 1rove this
!orm&*a to 4e genera**+ va*id, 4&t !ai*ed D2E-
The !orm&*a can 4e traced 4ac2 to s1ecia* re*ativit+, 3hich s&ggested a rest inertia* mass m0 has the rest energ+ o!
m0c
2
- This is s&11orted 4+ the n&c*ear !issions 3ith F / Fmc
2
, 3here Fm is the mass di!!erence a!ter the !ission and
F the tota* energ+ created and is &s&a**+ a com4ination o! di!!erent t+1es o! energ+- Ho3ever, !or an ar4itrar+ energ+
, the re*ation m / Gc
2
is not on*+ an &nveri!ied s1ec&*ation, 4&t a*so an o4stac*e !or 1rogress in 1h+sics D1E-
According to genera* re*ativit+, s&ch a c*aim is incorrect !or e*ectromagnetic energ+- The instein !ie*d e,&ation is,
;
µν
≡ R
µν
H
1
2
g
µν
R / H > T
µν
, 719
3here the energ+ stress tensor T
µν
is the s&m o! an+ t+1e o! energ+-stress tensor- The e*ectromagnetic energ+-stress
tensor, 4eing trace*ess, cannot a!!ect R in e,- 719- There!ore, the e*ectromagnetic energ+ is not e,&iva*ent to mass-
<oreover, the Reissner-%ordstrom metric i**&strated that e*ectromagnetic energ+ and mass are c*ear*+ di!!erent in terms
o! gravit+ D1E- A*so, &nconditiona* va*idit+ o! / mc
2
is the 1rimar+ ca&se o! over*oo2ing the charge-mass interaction
D1E- This non-e,&iva*ence is d&e to that the trace o! an e*ectromagnetic energ+-stress tensor is :ero- 01erimenta**+, in
contrast to instein D3E, it has 4een sho3n that a 1iece o! heated &1 meta* has red&ced 3eight DAE-
Th&s, mass and energ+ are not e,&iva*ent- It !o**o3s that the co&1*ing signs o! a** the energ+-stress tensors in
genera* re*ativit+ need not 4e the same as Penrose and Ha32ing im1*icit*+ ass&med in their s1ace-time sing&*arit+
theorems D5E- Th&s, it is c*ear that their sing&*arit+ theorems are irre*evant to 1h+sics-
(. )he *uestion of Photons
2
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
8hen instein 1ro1osed the notion o! 1hoton, it consists o! a ,&ant&m o! e*ectromagnetic energ+, and it acts *i2e a
1artic*e in the 1hotoHe*ectric e!!ect- It has 4een o4served that the 1artic*e π
0
meson deca+s into t3o 1hotons 7i-e-, π
0
→ γ
I γ9- This 3as mista2en*+ considered as evidence that the e*ectromagnetic energ+ is e,&iva*ent to mass- Ho3ever, there
3o&*d 4e a con!*ict i! a 1hoton inc*&des on*+ e*ectromagnetic energ+ since the e*ectromagnetic energ+-stress tensor is
trace*ess- There!ore, the 1hotons m&st consist o! non-e*ectromagnetic energ+-
Since a charged 1artic*e a*3a+s has mass, it is nat&ra* that the non-e*ectromagnetic energ+ is the gravitationa*
energ+- 8hen instein 1ro1osed the notion o! 1hoton, he had not conceived genera* re*ativit+ +et- <oreover, since
Ha32ing and Penrose c*aimed that genera* re*ativit+ 3as not a11*ica4*e in microsco1ic sca*e, the 1ossi4i*it+ o!
inc*&ding gravitationa* energ+ in 1hotons 3as ignored- It 3i** 4e sho3n that Ha32ing and Penrose are inva*id 7see
section A9- <oreover, it has 4een sho3n that the energ+ o! 1hotons is, indeed, the s&m o! the energies o! the
e*ectromagnetic 3ave com1onent and that o! the gravitationa* 3ave com1onent D'E- In other 3ords, the energ+-stress o!
1hotons T7J9
a4
is
T7J9 a4 / T79 a4 I T7%9 a4 or T7%9 a4 / T7J9 a4 H T79 a4 729
3here T79a4 and T7%9a4 are res1ective*+ the e*ectromagnetic energ+-stress tensor and the non-e*ectromagnetic energ+-
stress tensor- (esides, T79c4 4eing intrinsica**+ trace*ess 7T79
mn
gmn ≡ 09, 3o&*d not 4e com1ati4*e 3ith instein.s
!orm&*a ∆ / ∆mc
2
- (ased on the !act that the e*ectromagnetic energ+ is dominating e01erimenta**+, it is nat&ra* to
ass&me as sho3n *ater that T7%9 a4 is in !act the gravitationa* energ+-stress tensor T7g9 a4-
Ph+sics re,&ires that the energ+-stress tensor !or 1hotons T7J9a4 is? 19 trace*ess, 29 T7J9 a4 e,&a* to T79a4
a11ro0imate*+ 4&t DT7J9 tt H T79 ttE ≥ 0 on the average, and 39 satis!+ing an e,&ation as !o**o3s,
;

a4 ≡ R

a4 H
1
2
g

a4 R / >T7g9 a4 / H >DT79 a4 H T7J9 a4E- 739
3here Ra4

is Ricci c&rvat&re tensor- ,- 739 is di!!erent !rom instein e,&ation 3ith an additiona* term T7J9a4 3ith a
co&1*ing o! di!!erent sign- 5rom e,- 739, 3e have ∇cT7J9
c4
/ 0 since ∇cT79
c4
/ 0-
Jet &s consider the energ+-stress tensor T7J9 a4 !or 1hotons 7o! a 1*ane 3ave9 de!ined 4+ !orm&*a 729- I! a geodesic
e,&ation m&st 4e 1rod&ced, !or a monochromatic 3ave 3ith !re,&enc+ ω, the !orm o! a 1hotonic energ+ tensor sho&*d
4e simi*ar to that o! massive matter- O4servationa**+, there is ver+ *itt*e interaction, i! an+, among 1hotons o! the same
ra+- Since 1hotons trave* at the ve*ocit+ o! *ight, there sho&*d not 4e an+ interaction 7other than co**ision9 among them-
3
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
Th&s, the 1hotons can 4e treated as a 4&nd*e o! mass*ess 1artic*es C&st as instein D"E did- There!ore, the 1hotonic
energ+ tensor o! a 3ave o! !re,&enc+ ω sho&*d 4e d&st-*i2e, 3hose trace is :ero, as !o**o3s?
T
a4
7J9 / ρ P
a
P
4
, 7A9
3here ρ is a sca*ar and is a !&nction o! & 7/ ct H :9- In the &nits c / / 1, Pt / ω is the energ+- I! the 1hotons are a
4&nd*e o! mass*ess 1artic*es, the 1hotonic energ+ tensor has 4een o4tained DBE as !o**o3s?
ρ 7&9 / H A
m
g
mn
A
n
≥ 0 759
is a sca*ar and is a !&nction o! & 7/ ct - :9- Since *ight intensit+ is 1ro1ortiona* to the s,&are o! the 3ave am1*it&de,
ρ 3hich is Jorent: ga&ge invariant, and the densit+ !&nction o! 1hotons- Then
T
a4
/ HT7g9
a4
/ T79
a4
H T7J9
a4
/ T79
a4
I A
m
g
mn
A
n
P
a
P
4
- 7'9
%ote that ρ7&9 is a 1ositive non-:ero sca*ar consisting o! A2 andGor !ie*ds s&ch that, on the average, T7J9a4 is
a11ro0imate*+ T79a4 , and e,- 739 3o&*d have 1h+sica**+ va*id so*&tions- %ote that T7g9a4 has an antigravit+ co&1*ing-
5or instance, consider an e*ectromagnetic 1*ane-3ave o! circ&*ar 1o*ari:ation, 1ro1agating to the :-direction
K A
0
/
1
2
A
0
cos ω& , and A
+
/
1
2
A
0
sin ω& , 7"9
3here A0 is a constant- The rotationa* invariants 3ith res1ect to the :-a0is are constants- These invariants are? ;
tt
, R
tt
,
T79
tt
, ;, 7g
00
I g
++
9, g
t:
, g
tt
, g, and etc- It !o**o3s that [']
g
00
/ H1 H ) I (
α
cos7 ω
1
& I α 9, g
++
/ H1 H ) H (
α
cos7 ω
1
& I α 9, 7B9
and
g
0+
/ t(
α
sin 7 ω
1
& I α 9,
3here ) and (
α
are sma** constants, and ω
1
/ 2ω - Th&s, metric 7B9 is a circ&*ar*+ 1o*ari:ed 3ave 3ith the same
direction o! 1o*ari:ation as the e*ectromagnetic 3ave 7"9- On the other hand, one a*so has
;
tt
/ 2ω
2
(
α
2
G; ≥ 0 , 3here ; / 71 I )9
2
H (
α
2
L 0 , 7=9
4&t
T79
tt
/
1
2G
ω
2
A
0
2
71 I ) H (
α
cos α 9 L 0-
Then e,- 7A9, e,- 759 and e,- 7'9 give
T
tt
/ T79
tt
H T7J9
tt
/ H
1
G
ω
2
A
0
2
(
α
cos α M 0 , since (
α
/
K
2
A
0
2
cos α - 7109
A
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
It !o**o3s that e,- 739 is satis!ied- This sho3s a*so e,- 759 is va*id- To con!irm the genera* va*idit+ o! e,- 729
!&rther, consider an e*ectromagnetic 1*ane-3ave *inear*+ 1o*ari:ed in the 0-direction,
A
0
/ A
0
cos ω7ct H :9- 7119
5or this e*ectromagnetic 3ave, a gravitationa* 3ave 3as a*so o4tained D'E- Th&s, a 1hotonic energ+-stress tensor has
4een o4tained to satis!+ the demanding 1h+sica* re,&irements D'E-
The energ+ and moment&m o! a 1hoton is 1ro1ortiona* to its !re,&enc+, as e01ected !rom a c*assica* theor+- N&st as
e01ected !rom s1ecia* re*ativit+, indeed, the gravit+ o! an e*ectromagnetic 3ave is an accom1an+ing gravitationa* 3ave
1ro1agating 3ith the same s1eed- )onc&rrent*+, !or this case, the need o! modi!+ing the instein e,&ation is
accom1*ished- Then, c*ear*+ the gravit+ d&e to the *ight is neg*igi4*e in ca*c&*ating the *ight 4ending D"E- Ho3ever, i!
T79a4 3ere a*one in e,- 739, the gravitationa* e!!ect 3o&*d 4e so ver+ *arge that cannot 4e neg*ected-
A particle such as the photon has no inertial mass simply because it is subjected to only absorption and emission,
but not acceleration and deceleration- (ased on s1ecia* re*ativit+, it is 2no3n that the energ+ o! an e*ectromagnetic
3ave is distinct !rom the energ+ o! a rest mass- Interesting*+, it is precisely because of this non-equivalence of mass and
energy that the photonic energy-stress tensor (6) is valid, and the formula ! mc
"
can be proven-

One might arg&e that e01eriment sho3s the notion o! mass*ess 1hotons is va*id, and th&s 4e*ieved the e,&iva*ence o!
mass and e*ectromagnetic energ+- Ho3ever, #hile the addition of t#o massless particles may end up #ith a rest mass,
the energy-stress tensor of electromagnetism cannot represent a rest mass since such a tensor is traceless ($()
mn
gmn !
%)& Th&s, instein.s !orm&*a

∆ / ∆mc
2
necessari*+ im1*ies that T7J9
a4
m&st inc*&de non-e*ectromagnetic energ+- This
ma2es it c*ear that the 1hotonic energ+ tensor is intrinsica**+ di!!erent !rom the e*ectromagnetic energ+ tensor-
)*ear*+, gravit+ is no *onger C&st a macrosco1ic 1henomena, 4&t a*so a microsco1ic 1henomena o! cr&cia* im1ortance
to the !orm&*a / mc
2
- (oth ,&ant&m theor+ and re*ativit+ are 4ased on the 1henomena o! *ight- The gravit+ o! 1hotons
!ina**+ sho3s that there is a *in2 4et3een them- It is gravit+ that ma2es the notion o! 1hotons com1ati4*e 3ith
e*ectromagnetic 3aves D'E- instein 1ro4a4*+ 3o&*d smi*e hearti*+ since his !orm&*a con!irms the *in2 that re*ates
gravit+ to ,&ant&m theor+-
+. Pro,lems and !rrors in -eneral Relati%ity
5
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
In genera* re*ativit+, the most im1ortant statement o! instein is the e0istence o! a 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion !or
the instein e,&ation- On this iss&e, instein and ;&**strand D=E, the chairman 71=22-1=2=9 o! the %o4e* )ommittee !or
Ph+sics are in o11osition to each other- To c*ari!+ the iss&e, one m&st 4e c*ear on some o4sc&re errors-
It 3as genera**+ 4e*ieved that the *ineari:ed instein e,&ation 3o&*d give a !irst order a11ro0imation o! the
so*&tion !or the instein e,&ation D10E- 5or s1ace-time metric g'( , the instein e,&ation o! 1=15 is

µν µν µν µν
9 7
2
1
m K$ ) g ) G − · − ≡ 7129
3here $(m) '(

is the energ+-stress tensor !or massive matter, and K is the co&1*ing constant-
The *ineari:ed instein e,&ation D10E 3ith the *ineari:ed harmonic ga&ge 0 · ∂
µν
µ
γ is
µν µν α
α
κ γ 9 7
2
1
m $ · ∂ ∂ 3here γ η γ γ
µν µν µν
2
1
− · and
αβ
αβ
γ η γ · - 7139
%ote that 3e have
;OP / ;OP
719
I ;OP
729
and
αβ
β α
µν µα ν
α
να µ
α
µν α
α
µν
γ η γ γ γ ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ − ∂ ∂ − ∂ ∂ ·
2
1
2
1
9 1 7
G 71A9
3here ;OP
729
re1resents the second order terms-

This *ineari:ed e,&ation is o4tained 4+ neg*ecting the second order terms
in the non-*inear instein e,&ation 3ith a harmonic ga&ge- Th&s, it is e01ected that its so*&tion is the !irst a11ro0imation
o! a so*&tion o! the instein e,&ation- This res&*t has 4een veri!ied !or the static case D10E-
<an+ 4e*ieved the *ineari:ed e,&ation 3o&*d give the !irst order a11ro0imation !or other circ&mstances- Ho3ever,
this has 4een 1roven not tr&e !or the d+namic case 3hen gravitationa* 3aves are invo*ved D11-13E- In terms o!
mathematics, !or a *inear e,&ation s&ch as the <a03e** e,&ation, a 3ea2 so*&tion a*3a+s e0ists i! the so&rces are 3ea2-
Ho3ever, !or a non-*inear e,&ation, there is no com1e**ing reason that a 4o&nded so*&tion e0ists !or a 3ea2 so&rce-
Since a *ineari:ed e,&ation s&ch as e,- 729 a*3a+s 1rod&ces a 4o&nded so*&tion, i! the non-*inear instein e,&ation
has on*+ &n4o&nded so*&tions, the instein e,&ation and its *ineari:ed e,&ation 3o&*d have no com1ati4*e so*&tions-
Th&s, i! a 4o&nded so*&tion does not e0ist, then the 1roced&re o! Q*ineari:ationR is not va*id- Then, the non-*inear
instein e,&ation and its Q*ineari:ationR are essentia**+ inde1endent e,&ations-
There are e01*icit e0am1*es D1A, 15E that sho3 the non-*inear instein e,&ation and the *ineari:ed e,&ation are
inde1endent e,&ations that have no com1ati4*e so*&tions- 8e sha** i**&strate s&ch characteristics s&ch that the readers
can readi*+ acce1t the !act that instein 3as 3rong and there is no d+namic so*&tion !or the instein e,&ation-
+.". !.amples of no /ounded 0ynamic $olutions
'
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
<an+ 4e*ieved that it 3o&*d 4e ver+ di!!ic&*t to sho3 that there is no d+namic so*&tion !or the instein e,&ation-
Ho3ever, i! one 3o&*d *oo2 care!&**+, it is 1ossi4*e to have ver+ remar2a4*e evidence s&ch as the t3o e0am1*es-
a9 The metric o4tained 4+ (ondi, Pirani, 6 Ro4inson D1AE
The metric is as !o**o3s?
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cosh2
sinh2 cos2
2sinh2 sin2
d d
ds e d d u d d
d d
ϕ
β η ς
τ ξ β θ η ς
β θ η ς
1
+
1
1
· − − + −
1
1

1
¸ ]
715a9
3here
φ
,
β
and θ are !&nctions o! u 7
τ ξ · −
9- It satis!ies the di!!erentia* e,&ation 7i-e-, their ,- [2-B]9,
( )
2 2 2
2 sinh 2 u φ β θ β ′ ′ ′ · + , 71549
a s1ecia* case o! G'( ! %& The+ c*aimed this is a 3ave !rom a distant so&rce- %ote that φ cannot be a periodic function&
The metric is irred&ci4*+ &n4o&nded 4eca&se o! the !actor u
"
- Th&s, !or this case, there is no 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion-
<oreover, 3hen gravit+ is a4sent, it needs to have
2 sinh2 sin2 0 φ β θ · · ·
- These red&ce 715a9 to
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
ds d d u d d τ ξ η ζ · − − − 715c9
And th&s this metric is not e,&iva*ent to the !*at metric-

Th&s, metric 715c9 vio*ates the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+ again-
<oreover, &n*i2e the Sch3ar:schi*d so*&tion !or the static case, in 715a9 there is no 1h+sica* 1arameter to 4e adC&sted
s&ch that metric 715a9 4ecomes e,&iva*ent to the !*at metric-
)*ear*+, metric 7159 is not a 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion, and th&s this i**&strates that the non-*inear instein
e,&ation and the *ineari:ed e,&ation are inde1endent e,&ations- <oreover, *ineari:ation o! 71549 does not ma2e sense
since varia4*e u is not 4o&nded- Th&s, man+ theorists c*aim instein.s notion o! 3ea2 gravit+ inva*id-
Ho3ever, the+ over*oo2ed that !or this case, there is no 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion- This cha**enges the vie3 that
4oth instein.s notion o! 3ea2 gravit+ and his covariance 1rinci1*e are va*id- These con!*icting vie3s are s&11orted
res1ective*+ 4+ the editors o! the QRo+a* Societ+ Proceedings AR and the QPh+sica* Revie3 #R- The Ro+a* Societ+
correct*+ 1ointed o&t D1', 1", 1BE that instein.s notion o! 3ea2 gravit+ is inconsistent 3ith his covariance 1rinci1*e-
<oreover, instein.s 3ea2 gravit+ is s&11orted 4+ the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+ D11E-
,1 )he 2etric of 2isner3 )horne3 4 5heeler-
The genera* instein e,&ation is com1*icated- Ho3ever, <isner, Thorne, and 8hee*er D15E inadvertent*+ give a
sim1*e e0am1*e that i**&strates the non-e0istence o! a d+namic so*&tion-
The Q3aveR !orm considered 4+ <isner, Thorne, 6 8hee*er D15E is as !o**o3s?
"
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
dy e d* e + d, dt c ds
β β −
+ − − · 71'9
3here + ! +(u), β · β (u), u ! ct - ,, and c is the *ight s1eed- Then, the instein e,&ation G'(

/ 0 4ecomes
2
2
2
0
d L d
L
du
du
β ¸ _
+ ·
÷
¸ ,
71"9
<isner et a*- D15E c*aimed that ,- 71"9 has a 4o&nded so*&tion, com1ati4*e 3ith a *ineari:ation o! metric 71'9-
S&ch a c*aim is c*ear*+ in con!*ict 3ith the non-e0istence o! d+namic so*&tions- A11arent*+, the+ incorrect*+ 4e*ieve
this is a case di!!erent !rom the metric o! (ondi et- a* D1AE- It 3i** 4e sho3n that s&ch a c*aim is d&e to a 4*ind !aith on
instein.s c*aim on the e0istence o! the d+namic so*&tion together 3ith a care*ess ca*c&*ation at the &ndergrad&ate *eve*-
The+ !&rther c*aimed D15E,
QThe *ineari:ed version o! J.. / 0 since 7S.9
2
is a secondHorder ,&antit+-
There!ore the so*&tion corres1onding to Jineari:ed theor+ is
J / 1, S7&9 ar4itrar+ 4&t sma**- 71B9
The corres1onding metric is
ds
2
/ 71 I 2S9d0
2
I 71 - 2S9d+
2
I d:
2
- dt
2
, S / S7t-:9-R 71=9
Ho3ever, care!&* ca*c&*ation sho3s that these c*aims are a*so incorrect- In other 3ords, <isner et a*- D15E are incorrect
and ,- 71"9 does not have a 1h+sica* so*&tion that satis!ies instein.s re,&irement on 3ea2 gravit+-
In !act, +(u) is &n4o&nded even !or a ver+ sma** β (u)& Jineari:ation o! 71"9 +ie*ds +.. ! %, and in t&rn this *eads to
β. (u) ! %& Th&s, this *eads to a so*&tion + ! /0u 1 /" 3here )1 6 )2 are constants- There!ore, the re,&irement + ≈ 0
im1*ies /0 ! %& 2o#ever, β. (u) ! % implies β (u)!constant, i&e& no #aves& $hus, metric (03) is cannot not derived&
To 1rove ,- 71"9 having no 3ave so*&tion, it is s&!!icient to consider the case o! 3ea2 gravit+ since a red&ction o!
so&rce strength 3o&*d *ead to 3ea2 gravit+- According to instein, !or 3ea2 gravit+ o! metric 71'9, one 3o&*d have
2 2
1 L e
β
≅ and
2 2
1 L e
β −
≅ 720a9
It !o**o3s that
4
1 L ≅
,
2
1 e
β t
≅ and
9 7 9 7 u u + β >>
- 72049
Since +(u) is 4o&nded, +.(u) cannot 4e a monotonic !&nction o! &, &n*ess J.TL 0- Th&s, there is an interva* o! u
s&ch that the average,
U U +
/ 0 7219
Ho3ever, the average o! the second term o! e,&ation 71"9 is *arger than :ero &n*ess ( ) 0 u β′ ·
in the 3ho*e interva* o! &-
B
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
A*so, !rom e,- 7209, one 3o&*d o4tain + (≅ 0) 4 %, and one has % 4 +..(u) if β.(u) ≠ %& Th&s, - +.(u) is a
monotonic increasing !&nction in an+ !inite interva* o! & since β.(u) ! % means +.. ! %, i-e-, no 3ave- In t&rn, since
β.(u) is a 5#ave factor6, this im1*ies that +(u) is an &n4o&nded !&nction o! u- There!ore, this 3o&*d contradict the
re,&irement that J is 4o&nded- In other 3ords, e,- 71"9 does not have a 4o&nded 3ave so*&tion- <oreover, the second
order term +.. 3o&*d give a ver+ *arge term to +, a!ter integration- A*so, *ineari:ing e,- 71"9 to +6 ! % *eads to no 3ave-
%o3, *et &s investigate the errors o! <isner et a*- D15@ 1- =5BE- The+ ass&med that the signa* β(u) has d&ration o! "$-
5or sim1*icit+, it is ass&med that de!inite*+ ¦β.(u)¦ ! δ in the 1eriod "$- (e!ore the arriva* o! the signa* at u ! *, one has
( ) 1 L u ·
, and ( ) 0 u β ·
(22)
I! 3ea2 gravit+ is com1ati4*e 3ith ,- 71'9, one 3o&*d have J7&9 ≅ 1- It th&s !o**o3s !rom ,- 71"9, one has
( )
2
0 '
u
x
L u dy β ′ · −
∫ ∫
− · − ≈
u
*
* u dy 9 7
2 2
δ δ for
2 x T u x + > >
,
or
2
2T δ ≈ −
for 2 u x T > + (23)
Hence

,
_

− · − − ≈
+ ·


u
*
u
*
* u
dy * y
dy + u +
2
9 7
1 9 7 1
U 1 9 7
2 2
2
δ
δ
for 2 x T u x + > >
or

,
_
− − − ·
− − − ≈
∫ ∫
+
+
9 7 2 1
2 9 7 1
2
2
2
2 2
* $ u $
dy $ dy * y
$ *
*
u
$ *
δ
δ δ
for 2 u x T > +
(24)
Th&s, inde1endent o! the sma**ness o! "δ
"
$ 7or detai*s o! ¦β.(u)¦
2
9, + co&*d 4e a11ro0imate*+ :ero and vio*ates the
condition !or 3ea2 gravit+- Th&s, e,- 71"9 has no 3ea2 3ave so*&tion- <oreover, V +(u)V is not 4o&nded since it 3o&*d
4ecome ver+ *arge as & increases- Th&s, restriction o! "δ
"
$ 4eing sma** D15E does not he*1-
Th&s, one can get a no 3ave so*&tion thro&gh *ineari:ation o! ,- 71"9, 3hich has no 4o&nded so*&tion- The
ass&m1tion o! metric !orm 71'9 is 4o&nded D15E, and has a 3ea2 !orm 71=9, is not va*id- Th&s, there is no 4o&nded 3ave
so*&tion !or the non-*inear instein e,&ation, 3hich vio*ates the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+-
=
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
The root o! their errors 3as that the+ incorrect*+ ass&med that a *ineari:ation o! the instein non-*inear e,&ation
3o&*d 1rod&ce a va*id a11ro0imation- Th&s, the+ im1*icit*+ and incorrect*+ ass&me the e0istence o! a 4o&nded 3ave
so*&tion 3itho&t the necessar+ veri!ication, and th&s o4tain incorrect conc*&sions-
On the other hand, !rom the *ineari:ation o! the instein e,&ation 7the <a03e**-%e3ton a11ro0imation9 in
vac&&m, instein D1=E inde1endent*+ o4tained a so*&tion as !o**o3s?
2 2 2 2 2 2
9 2 1 7 9 2 1 7 dy d* d, dt c ds φ φ − − + − − · 7259
3here φ is a 4o&nded !&nction o! u (! ct - ,)- %ote that metric 7259 is the *ineari:ation o! metric 71'9 i! φ / β (u), 4&t it
cannot 4e o4tained thro&gh the non-*inear instein e,&ation-
Th&s, the 1ro4*em o! 3aves i**&strates that the *ineari:ation is not va*id !or the d+namic case 3hen gravitationa*
3aves are invo*ved since e,- 71"9 does not have a 4o&nded 3ave so*&tion-

In other 3ords, the instein e,&ation and its
*ineari:ation are essentia**+ inde1endent e,&ations-
A-2- 6ther !rrors in the 7on8e.istence of a 0yanmic $olution.
Since the error o! the non-e0istence o! d+namic so*&tion 3as made 4+ instein, other theorists a*so made errors 4+
having &nveri!ied !aith on instein- 8a*d D5E is the 4etter 2no3n among them-
According to instein D10E, in genera* re*ativit+ 3ea2 so&rces 3o&*d 1rod&ce a 3ea2 !ie*d, i-e-,
gOP / WOP I XOP, 3here 1 LL X ǀ OP ǀ 72'9
and WOP is the !*at metric 3hen there is no so&rce- Ho3ever, this is tr&e on*+ i! the e,&ation is va*id in 1h+sics- <an+
!ai*ed to see this 4eca&se the+ !ai*ed to see the di!!erence 4et3een 1h+sics and mathematics D20E- 8hen the instein
e,&ation has a 3ea2 so*&tion, an a11ro0imate 3ea2 so*&tion can 4e derived thro&gh the a11roach o! the !ie*d e,&ation
4eing *ineari:ed- Ho3ever, the non-*inear e,&ation ma+ not have a 4o&nded so*&tion- The *ineari:ed instein e,&ation
3ith the *ineari:ed harmonic ga&ge 0 · ∂
µν
µ
γ is e,- 7139- Then, the *ineari:ed vac&&m instein e,&ation means
0 E D
9 1 7 9 1 7
·
αβ µν
γ G 72"9
Th&s, as 1ointed o&t 4+ 8a*d D5E, in order to maintain a so*&tion o! the vac&&m instein e,&ation to second order 3e
m&st correct X
719
OP 4+ adding to it the term X
729
OP , 3here X
729
OP satis!ies
[ ] 0 E D
9 2 7 9 2 7 9 1 7
· +
αβ µν
αβ
µν
γ γ G G , 3here XOP / X
719
OP I X
729
OP 72B9
3hich is the correct !orm o! e,- 7A-A-529 in 8a*d.s 4oo2- In 8a*d.s 4oo2, he did not disting&ish XOP !rom X
719
OP -
10
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
This e,&ation does have a so*&tion !or the static case- Ho3ever, detai*ed ca*c&*ation sho3s that this e,&ation does
not have a so*&tion !or the d+namic case D11-13E- The !act that, !or a d+namic case, there is no 4o&nded so*&tion !or e,-
72B9 means a*so that the instein e,&ation does not have a d+namic so*&tion- The e0am1*es are the metric o! (ondi,
Pirani, 6 Ro4inson D1AE and the metric o! <isner et a*- D15E-
#&e to con!&sion 4et3een mathematics and 1h+sics, 8a*d D5E made errors at the &ndergrad&ate *eve*- The 1rinci1*e
o! ca&sa*it+ re,&ires the e0istence o! a d+namic so*&tion, 4&t 8a*d did not see that the instein e,&ation can !ai* this
re,&irement D20E- Th&s, his theor+ does not inc*&de the d+namic so*&tions-
There are others 3ho a*so ma2e errors on d+namic so*&tions- )hristodo&*o& 6 >*ainerman D21E, and Yt Hoo!t D22,
23E c*aimed to have e01*icit e0am1*es o! 4o&nded d+namic so*&tions- Ho3ever, these are a*so d&e to errors in
ca*c&*ation andGor misconce1tions as the case o! <isner et- a* D15E- )hristodo&*o& and >*ainerman D21E c*aimed to have
constr&cted d+namic so*&tions, 4&t their constr&ction is act&a**+ incom1*ete D2AE- <oreover, N- A- Ta+*or o! Princeton
3as &na4*e to C&sti!+ their ca*c&*ation on the 4inar+ 1&*sar e01eriments D25E 3hen <orrison o! <IT ,&estioned him
D2'E-
In de!ense o! the errors o! the %o4e* )ommittee !or Ph+sics o! 1==3, Ut Hoo!t D22, 23E comes &1 3ith a 4o&nded
time-de1endent c+*indrica* s+mmetric so*&tion as !o**o3s?
2
9 cos 7
2
0
9 , 7
ϕ α
π
ϕ
r t
e d A t r
− −

· Ψ , 72=9
3here A and Z 7L 09 are !ree 1arameters- [\[ is ever+3here 4o&nded- Then, Yt Hoo!t D22, 23E c*aimed that his so*&tion, \
is o4tained 4+ s&1erim1osing 1*ane 3ave 1ac2ets o! the !orm e*p D- Z7* - t9
2
E rotating them a*ong the : a0is over ang*e
], so as to o4tain a c+*indrica* so*&tion- %ote that since the integrand e*pD- Z7t - r cos79
2
E / e*pD- Z7t - *9
2
E, there is no
rotation a*ong the : a0is- The !&nction e*pD- Z7t - *9
2
E is 1ro1agating !rom 0 / H ^ to 0 / ^ as time t increases-
%ote, ho3ever, that in a s&1erim1osition the integration is over a 1arameter o! !re,&enc+ _ &nre*ated to the 0-a0is@
3hereas the so*&tion 72=9 is integrated over ]70, +9- Since, 72=9 is a com4ination that invo*ves the coordinate ] 70, +9, it
is not a s&1erim1osition o! 1*ane 3aves 1ro1agating a*ong the 0-a0is- 5&rthermore, the integration over a** ang*es ] is a
1ro4*em that 3o&*d vio*ate the re,&irement o! the idea*i:ation 4eca&se it re,&ires that the 1*ane 3ave is va*id over the
3ho*e 0-+ 1*ane- Th&s, !&nction 72=9 is not va*id as an idea*i:ation in 1h+sics-
There!ore, in so*&tion 72=9, t3o errors have 4een made, name*+? 19 the 1*ane 3ave has 4een im1*icit*+ e0tended
4e+ond its 1h+sica* va*idit+, and 29 the integration over d] is a 1rocess 3itho&t a va*id 1h+sica* C&sti!ication- <oreover,
11
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
it has 4een sho3n that there are no va*id so&rces that can 4e re*ated to so*&tion 72=9 D23E- Th&s, since the 1rinci1*e o!
ca&sa*it+ is a*so vio*ated, his so*&tion is not va*id in 1h+sics-
9. )he !instein !:uation ;ith 2assi%e $ources for the 0ynamic Case.
instein started his !aith on his theor+ o! genera* re*ativit+ 3ith the remar2a4*e ca*c&*ation o! the remaining
1erihe*ion o! <erc&r+- Ho3ever, ;&**strand s&s1ected that his ca*c&*ation is ,&estiona4*e since he !ai*ed to sho3 s&ch a
ca*c&*ation is deriva4*e !rom a man+-4od+ 1ro4*em a11roach- This is a ver+ insight!&* criticism- Th&s, instein 3as
a3arded a %o4e* Pri:e !or his 1hoto-e*ectric e!!ects, and a controvers+ accom1anies the theor+ since then-
In 1==5, it is 1roven that !or the d+namic case, i-e-, 3hen the gravitationa* 3aves are invo*ved, there is no 4o&nded
d+namic so*&tion !or the instein e,&ation- In other 3ords, instein has 4een 1roven 3rong, 4&t ;&**stand is right-
Ho3ever, 4eca&se the 1roo! is rather *ong, man+ theorists C&st do not have the time to go over it- (esides, 3e**-2no3n
theorists s&ch <isner et a* and 8a*d insisted as instein c*aimed the e0istence o! the d+namic so*&tions-
In this 1a1er, 3e sho3 thro&gh the theories o! <isner et a*- D15E and 8a*d D5E and e0am1*es in the *iterat&re that
the+ are mista2en- The main error is that the+ 4e*ieve that the instein e,&ation has 4o&nded d+namic so*&tions and th&s
is va*id !or the d+namic case- Ho3ever, it has 4een sho3n that there is no d+namic so*&tion !or the instein e,&ation- In
short, the instein e,&ation is va*id on*+ !or the static and sta4*e cases, 4&t inva*id !or the d+namic case-
9.". )he *uestion of a Correct &ield !:uation for 2assi%e $ources
An o4vio&s ,&estion is 3hat is the correct !ie*d e,&ation !or the d+namic case` <oreover, ho3 s&ch an e,&ation
3o&*d 4e re*ated to the Q*ineari:edR e,&ation, 3hich is s&11orted 4+ o4servation- A meaning!&* ans3er 3o&*d 4e that
the Q*ineari:edR e,&ation is o4tained tho&gh a va*id mathematica* *ineari:ation o! the correct !ie*d e,&ation- <oreover,
since the Q*ineari:edR e,&ation 3ith massive so&rces is s&11orted 4+ o4servation, there m&st 4e a 3a+ to C&sti!+ its
va*idit+ inde1endent*+- This *eads to the <a03e**-%e3ton A11ro0imation D11-13E-

2
1

c

c
γ
a4
/ −aT7m9
a4
, 713a9
3here
γ
a4 / γa4 H 71G29η a4 , γa4 / ga4 − ηa4 , γ / η
cd
γcd , and ηa4 is the !*at metric- A so*&tion o! e,- 713a9 is
γ
a4
70
i
,t9 / −
π
κ
2

1
)
T
a4
[+
i
, 7t − R9] d
3
+, 3here R
2
/ ( ) ∑ −
·
3
1
2
i
i i
y * 71349
12
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
%ote that the Sch3ar:schi*d so*&tion, a!ter a ga&ge trans!ormation, can a*so 4e a11ro0imated 4+ 71349- So*&tion 71349
3o&*d re1resent a 3ave i! Ta4 has a d+namica* de1endenc+ on time tU 7/ t − R9- Th&s, the theoretica* e0istence o!
gravitationa* 3aves seems to 4e ass&red as a certaint+ as 4e*ieved-
,, 7139 is c&rrent*+ considered as the *ineari:ation o! the instein e,&ation o! 1=15 ["], 3hich is
µν µν µν µν
κ 9 7
2
1
m $ ) g ) G − · − ≡ . (12)
instein 4e*ieved that his e,&ation satis!ied this re,&irement since its *ineari:ed ba11ro0imationb gives a 3ave-
Ho3ever, as has 4een sho3n that, !or the d+namic case, e,&ation 7129 and the Q*ineari:edR e,&ation 7139 are act&a**+
inde1endent e,&ations There!ore, e,- 7139 cannot 4e a mathematica* *ineari:ation o! e,&ation 7129-
<oreover, !or non-*inear e,&ations, the 1h+sica* second order terms can 4e cr&cia* !or the mathematica* e0istence
o! 4o&nded so*&tions- 5or the instein e,&ation, the )a&ch+ initia* condition is restricted 4+ !o&r constraints since there
is no second order time derivatives in ;at 7a / 0, +, :, t9 [2"]- This s&ggests that the instein e,&ation 7129 and ,- 7139
ma+ not 4e com1ati4*e !or a d+namic 1ro4*em- instein discovered that his e,&ation does not admit a 1ro1agating 3ave
so*&tion D2B, 2=E- It has a*so 4een 2no3n that the *ineari:ation 1roced&re is not genera**+ va*id- Th&s, it is necessar+ to
C&sti!+ 3aver so*&tion 71349 inde1endent*+ since it is the 4asis o! instein.s radiation !orm&*a-
The ,&estion o! d+namic so*&tions 3as raised 4+ ;&**strand D=E- He cha**enged instein and a*so #- Hi*4ert 3ho
a11roved insteinYs ca*c&*ations D30E- Ho3ever, Hi*4ert did not 1artici1ate in the s&4se,&ent de!ense and he 3o&*d
1ro4a4*+ have seen the de!icienc+- %everthe*ess, theorists s&ch as )hristodo&*o& 6 >*ainerman D21E, <isner et a*- D15E
and 8a*d D5E etc- !ai*ed to see this, and tried ver+ hard to 1rove other3ise-
The !ai*&re o! 1rod&cing a d+namic so*&tion 3o&*d cast a strong do&4t to the va*idit+ o! the *ineari:ed e,&ation
that 1rod&ces man+ e!!ects inc*&ding the gravitationa* 3aves- In !act, !or the case that the so&rce is an e*ectromagnetic
1*ane 3ave, the *ineari:ed e,&ation act&a**+ does not have a 4o&nded so*&tion D31E-
%everthe*ess, 3hen the so&rces are massive, some o! s&ch res&*ts !rom the *ineari:ed e,&ation have 4een veri!ied
4+ o4servation- Th&s, there m&st 4e a 3a+ to C&sti!+ the *ineari:ed e,&ation, inde1endent*+- To this end, insteinUs
e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e is needed D12E, The non-e0istence o! a 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion !or massive so&rces is d&e to a
vio*ation o! the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+ D32E-
9. #. )he 5eak -ra%ity of 2assi%e 2atter and !instein !:uation of the "<<9 Update
5or a massive so&rce, the *inear e,&ation 7139, as a !irst order a11ro0imation, is s&11orted 4+ e01eriments [", 10]- It
3i** 4e sho3n that e,- 713a9 can 4e derived !rom instein.s e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e- (ased on this, the e,&ation o! motion
13
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
!or a ne&tra* 1artic*e is the geodesic e,&ation- In com1arison 3ith %e3tonUs second *a3, one o4tains that the %e3tonian
1otentia* o! gravit+ is a11ro0imate*+ c
2
gttG2- Then, in accord 3ith the Poisson e,&ation and s1ecia* re*ativit+, the most
genera* e,&ation !or the !irst order a11ro0imation o! ga4

is,

1
2

c

c
γ
a4
/ −
2
κ
[αT7m9
a4
I β

$ 7m9η
a4
], 730a9
3here


$ 7m9 / η
cd
T7m9
cd
, a / Bπ>c
-2
, and α I β / 1, 73049
3here α and β are constants since %e3tonUs theor+ is not ga&ge invariant-
Then, according to Riemannian geometr+ [2"], the e0act e,&ation 3o&*d 4e
R
a4
I c
729
a4
/ −
2
κ
[αT7m9
a4
I β T7m9g
a4
], 3here T7m9 / g
cd
T7m9
cd
731a9
and c
729
a4 is an &n2no3n tensor o! second order in >, i! R a4 consists o! no net s&m o! !irst order other than the term
71G29 ∂c∂
c
γ a4 - This re,&ires that the s&m

1
2

c
[∂
4
γ
ac
+ ∂
a
γ
4c
] +
1
2

a

4
γ , 73149
m&st 4e o! second order- To this end, *et &s consider e,- 730a9, and o4tain

1
2

c

c
7∂
a
γ
a4
9 / −
2
κ
[α∂
a
T7m9
a4
I β∂
4

$ 7m9] - 732a9
5rom ∇
c
T7m9c4 / 0, it is c*ear that > ∂
c
T7m9c4 is o! second order 4&t >∂4

$
7m9 is not- Ho3ever, one ma+ o4tain a
second order term 4+ a s&ita4*e *inear com4ination o! ∇
c
γc4 and ∂4γ- 5rom 732a9, one has

1
2

c

c
7∂
a
γ
a4
+ ) ∂
4
γ9 / −
2
κ
[α∂
a
T7m9
a4
I 7β I A)β I )α9∂
4

$ 7m9] - 73249
Th&s, the harmonic coordinates 7i-e-, ∂
a
γ
a4
− ∂
4
γG2 ≈ 09, can *ead to inconsistenc+- It !o**o3s e,s- 73149 and 73249 that,
!or the other terms to 4e o! second order, one m&st have ) / -1G2, α / 2, and β / -1-
Hence, e,- 730a9 4ecomes,

1
2

c

c
γ
a4
/ −a[T7m9
a4

1
2

$ 7m9 η
a4
] - 7339
3hich is e,&iva*ent to e,- 713a9- This derivation is inde1endent o! the e0act !orm o! e,&ation 732a9- The im1*icit ga&ge
condition is that the !*at metric ηa4 is the as+m1totic *imit- ,- 7339 is com1ati4*e 3ith the e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e as
demonstrated 4+ instein in his ca*c&*ation o! the 4ending o! *ight- Th&s, the derivation is se*!-consistent-
1A
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
instein o4tained the same va*&es !or α and β 4+ considering e,- 731a9 3ith the im1*icit ass&m1tion c
729
a4 / 0- An
advantage o! the a11roach o! considering e,- 7309 and e,- 73149 is that the over sim1*i!ication c
729
a4 / 0 is not needed-
Then, it is 1ossi4*e to o4tain !rom e,- 731a9 an e,&ation di!!erent !rom 7129,
;
a4
≡ R
a4

1
2
g
a4
R / - a [T7m9
a4
− Y
719
a4
], 73A9
3here
-aY
719
a4
/ c
729
a4
-
1
2
g
a4
{ c
729
cd
g
cd
}-
The conservation *a3 ∇
c
T7m9c4 / 0 and ∇
c
;c4 ≡ 0 im1*ies a*so ∇
a
Y
719
a4 / 0- I! Y
719
a4 is identi!ied as the gravitationa*
energ+ tensor o! t7g9a4, instein e,&ation o! the 1==5 &1date [11] is rea!!irmed- %ote that e,- 713a9 is the !irst order
a11ro0imation o! e,- 73A9 4&t ma+ not 4e o! 7129- %ote, ho3ever, that in instein.s initia* consideration, t7g9a4 is a
1se&do-tensor- It has 4een sho3n that it m&st 4e a tensor D11E 4eca&se the radiation energ+ cannot 4e :ero-
A cr&cia* discover+ is that !or the e0istence o! d+namic so*&tions there m&st 4e di!!erent signs !or the co&1*ings
D11E- 5or the d+namic case, a modi!ied instein e,&ation D11-13E is,
;
µν
≡ R
µν
-
1
2
g
µν
R / - > [T7m9
µν
- t7g9
µν
], 7359
3here t7g9OP is the energ+-stress tensors !or gravit+- %ote that t7g9OP 3ith the anti-gravit+ co&1*ing has a11eared in e,-
739- S&ch a ca*c&*ation is necessar+ to C&sti!+ that in the 4ending o! *ight, its gravitationa* e!!ect is neg*igi4*e-
9.(. Implications of the 2odified !instein !:uation.
The e,&ation 7359 e01*ains 3h+ the non*inear instein e,&ation a*3a+s res&*ts in vio*ating the 1rinci1*e o!
ca&sa*it+ 4eca&se t7g9
µν
is neg*ected- <oreover, since the 1o1&*ar notion o! 4*ac2 ho*es is a s1ec&*ation 4ased on the
instein e,&ation, 3hich is not va*id !or the d+namic case, this notion m&st 4e thoro&gh*+ revie3ed-
5rom 7359, the e,&ation in vac&&m is
;
µν
≡ R
µν
-
1
2
g
µν
R / > t7g9
µν
- 73'9
%ote that >t7g9OP

is e,&iva*ent to ;
729
OP

7and insteinUs gravitationa* 1se&dotensor9 in terms o! his radiation !orm&*a
D11E- Th&s, >t7g9OP ma2es that e,- 7309 satis!ies the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+ and has a 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion D11-13E--
The gravitationa* energ+-stress tensor t7g9
µν
is non-:ero !or gravitationa* 3aves- Th&s, a radiation does carr+
energ+-moment&m as re,&ired- This e01*ains a*so that the a4sence o! an anti-gravit+ co&1*ing, 3hich is determined 4+
insteinUs radiation !orm&*a, is the 1h+sica* reason that the 1=15 instein e,&ation 719 is incom1ati4*e 3ith radiation-
15
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
<oreover, it is c*ear no3 the *ineari:ed e,&ation is a mathematica* *ineari:ation o! the modi!ied instein e,&ation- A*so,
the im1*icit ass&m1tion o! &ni,&e co&1*ing signs o! Penrose and Ha32ing is necessari*+ inva*id-
%o3, this sho&*d 4e *oo2ed at c*ose*+ 4eca&se the non-e0istence o! d+namic so*&tions has 4een esta4*ished- It
necessari*+ !o**o3s that their sing&*arit+ theorems are act&a**+ irre*evant to 1h+sics- <oreover, genera* re*ativit+ is
a11*ica4*e to micro-1henomena- In !act, it has 4een sho3n that the 1hotons m&st inc*&de gravitationa* energ+ D'E- (oth
,&ant&m theor+ and re*ativit+ are 4ased on the 1henomena o! *ight- The gravit+ o! 1hotons !ina**+ sho3s that there is a
*in2 4et3een them- It is gravit+ that ma2es the notion o! 1hotons com1ati4*e 3ith e*ectromagnetic 3aves D'E-
In the a4ove, errors are d&e to inade,&ac+ in mathematics- Th&s, one might e01ect that the mathematicians
3o&*d remed+ a** these 1ro4*ems- $n!ort&nate*+, things are not that sim1*e, and the mathematicians s&ch as <- Ati+ah,
29
#- Hi*4ert, - 8itten
39
and S- T- Ya&, have a common 1ro4*em, the+ do not &nderstand the re*ated 1h+sics-
=. Pro,lems in 2athematics due to a &ailure in Understanding the Physics
In mathematics, an assertion can 4e either right or 3rong-

Ho3ever, in *ogic, there is act&a**+ a third case that the
conditions in a theorem are va*id in mathematics 4&t some im1*icit ass&m1tion is not genera**+ va*id- Th&s, the theorem
is not sim1*+ right or 3rong, 4&t mis*eading- In !act, s&ch an error can 4e made 4+ to1 mathematicians s&ch as <-
Ati+ah-

)onse,&ent*+ s&ch mis*eading errors in mathematics 3ere cited as a main reason to a3ard the 1=B2 and the
1==0 5ie*ds <eda* to Ya& and 8itten

and to a3ard the 2011 Sha3 Pri:e in mathematics to )hristodo&*o&-
A9
(rie!*+, the 1ositive mass conCect&re D33, 3AE sa+s that i! a three-dimensiona* mani!o*d has 1ositive sca*ar
c&rvat&re and is as+m1totica**+ !*at, then the mass in the as+m1totic e01ansion o! the metric is 1ositive 78i2i1edia9-
The &ni,&e co&1*ing signs are a*so im1*icit*+ &sed in the 1ositive energ+ theorem o! Schoen and Ya& D33, 35E- A cr&cia*
ass&m1tion in the theorem is that the so*&tion is as+m1totica**+ !*at- Ya& D33E re,&ires the metric,
giC / diC I O7r
-1
9- 73"9
This is even a more strict !orm o! the as+m1totica**+ !*at ass&m1tion- The motivation o! 73"9 is c*ear*+ the *ineari:ed
e,&ation 7139- <oreover, s&ch an ass&m1tion can 4e considered as common in 1h+sics since this condition is satis!ied in
sta4*e so*&tions s&ch as the Sch3ar:schi*d so*&tion, the harmonic so*&tion, the >err so*&tion, etc-
59

Ho3ever, i! one &nderstands the 1h+sics in genera* re*ativit+ as 3e** as ;&**strand D=E does, the a4ove statement is
c*ear*+ incorrect- %ote that the condition o! as+m1totica**+ !*at does not necessari*+ im1*+ the inc*&sion o! a d+namic
so*&tion- A11arent*+, Schoen and Ya& ass&med it did 4eca&se the+ !ai*ed to see that, !or a d+namic case the *ineari:ed
e,&ation and the non-*inear instein e,&ation is not com1ati4*e D3'E-
1'
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
In !act, it has 4een 1roven that the instein e,&ation has no d+namic so*&tion, 3hich is 4o&nded D11-13E- Th&s, the
ass&m1tion o! as+m1totica**+ !*at im1*ies the e0c*&sion o! the d+namic so*&tions- A11arent*+, mathematicians Schoen
and Ya& have not considered the #+namic so*&tions- There!ore, the+ act&a**+ 1rove a trivia* res&*t that the tota* mass o!
a sta4*e so*&tion is 1ositive- In other 3ords, the conc*&sions dra3n !rom the 1ositive theorem are gross*+ mis*eading-
'9

This i**&strates that an inade,&ate &nderstanding in 1h+sics can *ead to com1*ete*+ inva*id statements in 1h+sics-
The 1ro4*em rises !rom the instein e,&ation that does not have a 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion as ;&**strand
s&s1ected D'E- Th&s, Ya& and Schoen &sed an im1*icit ass&m1tion, the e0istence o! 4o&nded d+namic so*&tions, 3hich
is act&a**+ !a*se 4&t 3as not stated in their theorem- <oreover, Ati+ah, 4eing a 1&re mathematician, 3as not a3are o!
the 1ro4*em o! non-e0istence o! 4o&nded d+namic so*&tions-
In !act theorists s&ch as Ya& D33E, )hristodo&*o& D21E, 8a*d D5E, and Penrose 6 Ha32ing D5E ma2e essentia**+ the
same error o! de!ining a set o! so*&tions that act&a**+ inc*&des no d+namic so*&tions D11-13, 2AE- The !ata* error is that
the+ neg*ected to !ind e01*icit e0am1*es to s&11ort their c*aims- Had the+ tried, the+ sho&*d have discovered their errors-
<oreover, the same error D3"E 3as cited in a3arding to )hristodo&*o& the 2011 Sha3 Pri:e-
A9,
S&4se,&ent*+,
)hristodo&*o& 3as e*ected to the <em4er o! $-S- %ationa* Academ+ o! Sciences 720129- It 3o&*d 4e interesting to see
ho3 this s1ecia* case 3o&*d end &1 since the contri4&tions o! )hristodo&*o& are essentia**+ C&st errors-
<an+ theorists &se the *ineari:ed e,&ation and o4tained satis!actor+ res&*ts- Ho3ever, the+ did not sto1 to thin2
3hat does a *ineari:ation means 3hen the non-*inear instein e,&ation has no 4o&nded so*&tions- 5rom the e01*icit
ca*c&*ations, c*ear*+ !or the d+namic case, the *ineari:ed e,&ation is inde1endent o! the non-*inear instein e,&ation-
The ca*c&*ation !or the gravitationa* 3ave i**&strates the !o**o3ing?
19 The *ineari:ed e,&ation and the non-*inear instein e,&ation have no com1ati4*e so*&tions-
29 The non-*inear instein e,&ation !or 3aves has no 4o&nded so*&tion-
39 Since, !or the d+namic case, the instein e,&ation and its *ineari:ed e,&ation are inde1endent e,&ations, the
*ineari:ation 1roced&re is not va*id !or this case-
A*tho&gh 3e have !orma**+ o4tained a modi!ied instein e,&ation, this recti!ication is sti** incom1*ete 4eca&se the e0act
!orm o! the gravitationa* energ+-stress tensor t7g9
µν
is sti** not 2no3n-
<oreover, in a d+namic sit&ation, the geodesic as the e,&ation o! motion is a*so inade,&ate 4eca&se there is no
radiation reaction !orce in genera* re*ativit+- A*tho&gh an acce*erated massive 1artic*e 3o&*d create radiation D5, "E, the
1"
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
metric e*ements in the geodesic e,&ation are created 4+ 1artic*es other than the test 1artic*e D"E- Th&s, instein.s genera*
re*ativit+ is intrinsica**+ incom1*ete even !or the case o! massive so&rces-

"- Unification of -ra%itation and !lectromagnetism.
%o3, *et &s consider the case that e*ectromagnetism is invo*ved- Since the 1hotons inc*&de gravitationa* energ+, the
&ni!ication o! gravitation and e*ectromagnetism is necessar+- In genera* re*ativit+, it is c*ear that a charge can
create a !ie*d that co&1*es 3ith a mass- This is sho3n 4+ the Reissner-%ordstrom metric D15E 73ith c / 19 created
4+ a charged 1artic*e 3ith mass < is as !o**o3s 7see a*so remar2 119 in A11endi09?
2 2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1 Ω −

,
_

¸
¸
+ − −

,
_

¸
¸
+ − ·

d r dr
r
q
r
8
dt
r
q
r
8
ds 73"9
Ho3ever, it is not c*ear that a mass can create a !ie*d that co&1*es 3ith a charge-
)onsider the static !orce that acts on a test 1artic*e P 3ith mass m- 5or the !irst order a11ro0imation this !orce is
3
2
2
r
q
m
r
8
m + − 73B9
since g
r r
≅ -0- %ote that it is c*ear that the second term is a re1&*sive !orce d&e to the static charge-mass interaction-
Since the reaction !orce is e,&a* to 4&t in the o11osite direction o! the acting !orce, the test 1artic*e P m&st create a !ie*d
mGr
3
that co&1*es to ,
2
- This 3o&*d mean that &ni!ication 4et3een e*ectromagnetism and gravitation is necessar+-
Ho3ever, the ne3 !orce that sho&*d have 4een discovered in 1=1' 3as over-*oo2ed &nti* 1==" D3BE-
This 3as so 4eca&se o! t3o misconce1tions? 19 ;ravit+ is a*3a+s attractive@ 29 / mc
2
is incorrect*+ considered as
&nconditiona*- The non-e0istence o! d+namic so*&tion !or the instein e,&ation *eads to the discover+ that there m&st 4e
di!!erent co&1*ing signs !or the d+namic case D11E- This non-&ni,&eness o! co&1*ings *eads to the investigation o!
3hether / mc
2
is conditiona*- Th&s, the charge-mass interaction is discovered D3=E- The e01erimenta* con!irmation o!
the charge-mass interaction 3o&*d con!irm the &ni!ication o! e*ectromagnetism and gravitation- instein over-*oo2ed
the co&1*ing o! charge s,&are in the !ive-dimensiona* theor+ DA0E 4eca&se he 4e*ieved that, &n*i2e <a03e**, that a ne3
interaction sho&*d not 4e created- In other 3ords, instein has over con!idence in genera* re*ativit+- Since !orm&*a 73B9
is generated 4+ genera* re*ativit+ and th&s is a*so a test !or genera* re*ativit+-
Ho3ever, the charge s,&are co&1*ing is c*ear*+ 4e+ond instein.s genera* re*ativit+- <oreover, in a !o&r-
dimensiona* theor+ the e*ectromagnetic !ie*d is s&4Cected to e*ectromagnetic screening- On the other hand, the ,
2
!actor
s&ggests this !orce is inde1endent o! the sign o! the charge and there!ore sho&*d not 4e s&4Cected to e*ectromagnetic
1B
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
screening- To !ind o&t this, the 4est 3a+ 3o&*d 4e to test 3hether s&ch a !orce 3o&*d act on a charged ca1acitor-
01eriments sho3 that s&ch a !orce does act on a charged ca1acitor and its !orce is 1ro1ortiona* to s,&are o! 1otentia*
di!!erence as e01ected- This is 1ossi4*e in a !ive-dimensiona* theor+ 4eca&se the re1&*sive !orce can 4e generated 4+ the
mass m thro&gh the ne3 metric e*ement g55 DA1E- I! d0
5
Gde / ,G<c
2
>, one 3o&*d have
2
2
2
55 ,
3
2
1
8c
q
K
mq
ρ
ρ
Γ − ≈
ρρ
g 3here
9 9
i
9
*
g
*
g
*
g


− ·





≡ Γ
55 55
5
5
55 ,
2
1
2
1
- 73=9
Th&s, a !ive-dimensiona* theor+ 3o&*d 4e a 1otentia* candidate !or &ni!ication as instein envisioned DA0E-
In short, it is c*ear that &ni!ication o! e*ectromagnetism and gravitation is necessar+ a*tho&gh the e0act theor+ o!
&ni!ication is not +et ver+ c*ear- 5or this, one m&st &nderstand the !i!th varia4*e in a !ive-dimensiona* theor+--
>. Conclusions and 0iscussions
%o3, it is c*ear that the instein e,&ation has no 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion- The most im1ortant conc*&sions !rom
this 1a1er are? 19 / mc
2
is not genera**+ va*id- In 1artic&*ar, the e*ectromagnetic energ+ is not e,&iva*ent to mass- 29
The 1hotons inc*&de energ+ !rom its gravitationa* com1onents- 39 instein.s genera* re*ativit+ is va*id on*+ !or the static
and sta4*e cases, 4&t is inva*id !or the d+namic case D3'E, !or 3hich it remains to 4e recti!ied and com1*eted in at *east
t3o as1ects? 19 The e0act !orm o! the gravitationa* energ+-stress tensor is not 2no3n@ and 29 The radiation reaction
!orce is a*so not 2no3n- Th&s, the s1ec&*ation on the notion o! 4*ac2 ho*es sho&*d 4e revie3ed- %ote that, d&e to the
a4sence o! a radiation reaction !orce, the vie31oint o! considering genera* re*ativit+ as a theor+ o! geometr+ is inva*id-
<oreover, since the 1hotons inc*&de gravitationa* energ+, the &ni!ication o! gravitation and e*ectromagnetism is
necessar+- A ver+ strong candidate is a !ive-dimensiona* theor+- ;enera* re*ativit+ revea*s a*so t3o 1ro4*ems among
some 1h+sicists, inade,&ac+ in &nderstanding the mathematics and the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+-
<oreover, there are man+ 1ositive conse,&ences res&*ting !rom there 4eing no d+namic so*&tion !or the instein
e,&ation- The e0istence o! a d+namic so*&tion re,&ires, as sho3n in D11E, an additiona* gravitationa* energ+-moment&m
tensor 3ith an antigravit+ co&1*ing- Th&s, the s1ace-time sing&*arit+ theorems, 3hich re,&ire the same sign !or
co&1*ings, are act&a**+ irre*evant to 1h+sics- $sing the same inva*id ass&m1tion, the 1ositive energ+ theorem o! Schoen
and Ya& is on*+ !or sta4*e so*&tions D35E 4eca&se their theorem act&a**+ does not inc*&de the d+namic so*&tions-
<oreover, / mc
2
is on*+ conditiona**+ va*id D20E, and s&ch recognition is cr&cia* to identi!+ the charge-mass
interaction- This re1&*sive !orce can 1otentia**+ e01*ain the S1ace-Pro4e Pioneer anoma*+ DA2E- This !orce is not
s&4Cected to e*ectromagnetic screening 4eca&se it is 1ro1ortiona* to the charge s,&are- Th&s, it 3o&*d 4e &se!&* to detect
1=
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
things &ndergro&nd andGor &nder 3ater since the strength o! s&ch detection can 4e adC&sted 3ith the 1otentia* o! a
charged ca1acitor D3=E- <oreover, a !orce co&1*ed to the charge s,&are e0ists in a !ive-dimensiona* theor+-
The e01erimenta* veri!ication and con!irmation o! s&ch an interaction mean that instein.s &ni!ication 4et3een
e*ectromagnetism and gravitation is 1roven va*id D3=, A2E- instein !ai*ed 4eca&se o! his t3o shortcomings? 19 He !ai*ed
to see, as <a03e** sho3ed, that &ni!ication is necessar+ to create ne3 interactions- 29 / mc
2
3as mista2en as
&nconditiona*- A*tho&gh this ne3*+ discovered re1&*sive !orce can 4e detected !rom its action to a charged ca1acitor,
s&ch a !orce cannot 4e generated in c&rrent !o&r-dimensiona* theories- Hence, instein t&rns o&t to 4e the 4iggest 3inner
at the end- A maCor di!!ic&*t+ o! this 3or2 is d&e to the con!&sion and errors created 4+ the 8hee*er Schoo* DA3E- These
added *ots o! 3or2 !or a critica* ana*+sis o! genera* re*ativit+- Ama:ing*+, the main o4stac*e 3as the !a*se s1ec&*ation
that / mc
2
4eing &nconditiona**+ tr&e, and the Princeton $niversit+ 3as the maCor so&rce o! errors DAAE-
Ackno;ledgments
This 1a1er is dedicated to Pro!- P- <orrison o! <IT !or his &n!ai*ing g&idance over 15 +ears- The a&thor is
grate!&* to Pro!- A- N- )o*eman !or 1ointing o&t some errors in genera* re*ativit+ as 8hitehead did, and to Pro!- I-
Ha*1erin !or the mathematica* !o&ndation o! instein.s theor+- The a&thor 3ishes to e01ress his a11reciation to S-
Ho*com4e !or va*&a4*e s&ggestions- This 1&4*ication is s&11orted 4+ Innotec #esign, Inc-, $-S-A-
Appendi.? $ummary of 2isrepresentations and !rrors in -eneral Relati%ity
5or the convenience o! the readers, the errors and misinter1retations in genera* re*ativit+ are s&mmari:ed in this
A11endi0- The !irst error, s&s1ected 4+ ;&**strand D=E, is the non-e0istence o! d+namic so*&tions- Ho3ever, in 2011 ha*!
o! a Sha3 Pri:e !or mathematics 3as a3arded to )hristodo&*o& D3"E !or his errors against ;&**strand-

This error has
4een 3e**-esta4*ished 4eca&se it can 4e i**&strated 3ith e0am1*es &nderstanda4*e at the &ndergrad&ate *eve*-
The !&ndamenta* iss&es that historica**+ re*ate to errors are?
19 instein.s 1=11 ass&m1tion o! e,&iva*ence 4et3een acce*eration and %e3tonian gravit+ DA5E? It 3as &sed to derive
the correct gravitationa* redshi!ts, 4&t the so-o4tained *ight 4ending de!*ection disagrees 3ith o4servation-
29 instein.s e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e D"E? The e!!ects o! an acce*erated !rame are e,&iva*ent to a &ni!orm gravit+
7generated 4+ a metric9- In 1h+sics, the *oca* metric o! a 1artic*e &nder the in!*&ence o! gravit+ is a *oca* <in2o3s2i
metric D"E- This 1rinci1*e can 4e i**&strated 3ith e01*icit e0am1*es and is s&11orted 4+ e01eriments- Since the *oca*
20
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
metric o! the earth is on*+ a *oca**+ constant metric at one 1oint, instein 1ointed o&t that the gravit+ cannot 4e
trans!ormed a3a+ 4+ &sing an acce*erated !rame- Th&s, gravit+ and acce*eration are not genera**+ e,&iva*ent-
a9 Pa&*i.s misinter1retation DA'E? Pa&*i c*aimed that the gravit+ o! an in!initesima* region can 4e trans!ormed a3a+@
4&t the *oca* metric o! a 1artic*e need not 4e *oca**+ <in2o3s2i-
49 The misinter1retation o! <isner, Thorne 6 8hee*er D15E? The+ agree 3ith Pa&*i and c*aimed that gravit+ is
e,&iva*ent to acce*eration in a sma** region o! the *oca* metric- 8hat the+ re!erred to is the %e3tonian gravit+
7since the+ agree 3ith 5oc2 DA"E and reCect the 1rinci1*e9- <oreover, the+ c*aimed that in s&ch a sma** region the
*oca* metric is necessari*+ <in2o3s2i 7the so-ca**ed Jorent: invariance9- Ho3ever, their notion o! Jorent:
invariance is incorrect in mathematics and is not !avored 4+ the 200= e01eriment o! )h& et a*- DABE-
c9 5oc2 DA"E misinter1reted that instein.s e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e as the 1=11 ass&m1tion- He sho3s that it is
im1ossi4*e to have a metric !or the %e3tonian gravit+ in genera* re*ativit+@ and inva*id*+ reCected the 1rinci1*e-
39 instein.s covariance 1rinci1*e? instein e0tended his 1rinci1*e o! genera* re*ativit+ to &nrestricted mathematica*
covariance and ca**ed it as the Q1rinci1*e o! covarianceR- Since di!!erent ga&ges 3o&*d *ead to di!!erent 1h+sica*
inter1retations o! the coordinates DA=, 50E, this is in con!*ict 3ith his e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e 3hich im1*ies the *oca*
time di*ation and s1ace contractions are &ni,&e- The e01eriment s&11orts instein.s e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e-
A9 instein.s meas&rement o! the distance D"E? instein ada1ted the notion o! distance in a Riemannian s1ace- S&ch an
ada1tation has 4een 1ointed o&t 4+ 8hitehead D51E as inva*id in 1h+sics- A*so, it is !o&nd that his C&sti!ications !or
his ada1tation are d&e to inva*id a11*ications o! s1ecia* re*ativit+ D52E- It t&rns o&t that the correct theor+ o!
meas&rement D53E is C&st 3hat instein 1racticed in his ca*c&*ation o! *ight 4ending- Then, the meas&rement o!
distance is consistent 3ith the o4served 4ending o! a *ight ra+ D5AE- Th&s, it 4ecomes c*ear that to regard the H&44*e
redshi!ts as d&e to the #o11*er e!!ects is inva*id D55E, as H&44*e himse*! a*so disagrees-
59 The ,&estion o! a 1h+sica* ga&ge? The inva*idit+ o! the covariance 1rinci1*e e01osed an &rgent iss&e, i-e-, to !ind a
va*id 1h+sica* ga&ge !or a given 1ro4*em- 5ort&nate*+, the <a03e**-%e3ton a11ro0imation has 4een 1roven to 4e
an inde1endent*+ va*id !irst order a11ro0imation !or gravit+ d&e to massive so&rces D12E,

so that the 4inar+ 1&*sar
radiation e01eriments can 4e e01*ained satis!actori*+ D11, 13E- Th&s, instein.s notion o! 3ea2 gravit+ 7inc*&ding
gravitomagnetism and gravitationa* radiation D5'E
"9
9 is va*id D12, 1", 1BE-
'9 The 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+ is im1*icit*+ &sed in an+ scienti!ic research- In genera* re*ativit+, this 1rinci1*e is
im1*icit*+ &sed 4+ instein in s+mmetr+ considerations D"E- Ho3ever, theorists s&ch as Penrose D5"E and Yt Hoo!t
D22, 23E do not &nderstand this 1rinci1*e ade,&ate*+- The Ph+sica* Revie3 a*so !ai*ed to &nderstand the 1rinci1*e o!
21
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
ca&sa*it+ ade,&ate*+ and th&s mista2en*+ 4e*ieved that the non-*inear instein e,&ation has 3ave so*&tions D22E-
"9 Inva*idit+ o! *ineari:ation D20E? )&rrent*+, to o4tain an a11ro0imation thro&gh *ineari:ing the instein e,&ation is
incorrect*+ 4e*ieved as genera**+ va*id 4eca&se *ineari:ation has 4een s&ccess!&* !or the static case o! massive
so&rce- Ho3ever, this 1rocess o! *ineari:ation !or the d+namic cases is inva*id since the instein e,&ation act&a**+
has no 4o&nded d+namics so*&tions D11, 13E 4eca&se the 1rinci1*e o! ca&sa*it+ is vio*ated-
B9 (o&nded d+namic so*&tions? The instein e,&ation has no 4o&nded d+namic so*&tion- Th&s the 1erihe*ion o!
<erc&r+ is 4e+ond the reach o! instein as ;&**strand D=E s&s1ected@ and the ca*c&*ation !or the gravitationa*
radiation o! 4inar+ 1&*sars is act&a**+ inva*id- A conc*&sion !rom this res&*t is that a** the co&1*ing constants cannot
have the same sign, and th&s the 1h+sica* ass&m1tion o! the s1ace-time sing&*arit+ theorems D5E is inva*id-
=9 The sign o! co&1*ing constants 4eing &ni,&e 3as acce1ted since / mc
2
3as considered as &nconditiona*-
Ho3ever, the e*ectromagnetic energ+ cannot 4e e,&iva*ent to mass since the trace o! an e*ectromagnetic energ+-
stress tensor is :ero- In !act, !or severa* +ears, instein had tried and !ai*ed to 1rove this !orm&*a !or other t+1e o!
energ+ D2E-
109 The 1hotons m&st have non-e*ectromagnetic energ+ 4eca&se the meson f0 deca+s into t3o 1hotons- The immat&re
ass&m1tion that the 1hotons have on*+ e*ectromagnetic energ+ 3as 1ro1osed 4e!ore genera* re*ativit+- Since a
charged 1artic*e is massive, it is not s&r1rising that the 1hotons sho&*d inc*&de a*so gravitationa* energ+-
119 The static instein e,&ation 3ith the so&rce o! a charged 1artic*e im1*ies the e0istence o! a static re1&*sive !orce
4et3een a charge and a massive 1artic*e- <oreover, s&ch a re1&*sive e!!ect has 4een inadvertent*+ o4served 4+
Tsi1en+&2 6 Andreev D5BE- geri!ication o! s&ch a !orce is necessar+ !or genera* re*ativit+- Th&s, &ni!ication o!
gravitation and e*ectromagnetism is act&a**+ necessar+- Some arg&ed that the e!!ective mass o! s&ch a charged
1artic*e sho&*d 4e 7< H ,
2
G2r9 or < sho&*d inc*&de the e*ectromagnetic energ+ o&tside the 1artic*e- Ho3ever the+
have 4een 1roven as theoretica**+ inva*id andGor against o4servation-
%ote that a** the errors are direct*+ or indirect*+ re*ated to distortions o! instein.s e,&iva*ence 1rinci1*e- The inva*id
s1ec&*ation o! &nconditiona* va*idit+ o! / mc
2
is the so&rce o! man+ errors in genera* re*ativit+, and th&s instein.s
genera* re*ativit+ is not +et com1*ete- Its com1*etion 3o&*d 4e cr&cia* to e01*ain the H&44*e redshi!ts and the 1ioneer
anoma*+ discovered 4+ %ASA D5=-'1E, and ma+ even 4e needed to e01*ain 1ro4*em o! renorma*i:ation-
!ndnotes?
22
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
19 )&rrent*+ a maCor 1ro4*em in genera* re*ativit+ is not on*+ that instein.s errors are over-*oo2ed, 4&t a*so that some
theorists c*aimed as Qe01ertsR D5, 1A, 15, 21, 25, 33, 3AE 3ho additiona**+ ma2e their o3n errors-
29 <ichae* 5rancis Ati+ah has 4een *eader o! the Ro+a* Societ+ 71==0-1==59, master o! Trinit+ )o**ege, )am4ridge
71==0-1=="9, chance**or o! the $niversit+ o! Jeicester 71==5-20059, and President o! the Ro+a* Societ+ o!
din4&rgh 72005-200B9- Since 1==", he has 4een an honorar+ 1ro!essor at the $niversit+ o! din4&rgh 78i2i1edia9-
39 J&d3ig #- 5addeev, the )hairman o! the 5ie*ds <eda* )ommittee, 3rote 7QOn the 3or2 o! d3ard 8ittenR9?
Q%o3 I t&rn to another 4ea&ti!&* res&*t o! 8itten H 1roo! o! 1ositivit+ o! energ+ in instein.s theor+ o! gravitation-
Hami*tonian a11roach to this theor+ 1ro1osed 4+ #irac in the 4eginning o! the !i!ties and deve*o1ed !&rther 4+ man+
1eo1*e has *ed to the nat&ra* de!inition o! energ+- In this a11roach a metric : and e0terna* c&rvat&re h on a s1ace-*i2e
initia* s&r!ace S
739
em4edded in s1ace-time <
7A9
are &sed as 1arameters in the corres1onding 1hase s1ace- These data
are not inde1endent- The+ satis!+ ;a&ss-)oda::i constraints H high*+ non-*inear P#, The energ+ H in the
as+m1totica**+ !*at case is given as an integra* o! inde!inite ,&adratic !orm o! ∇: and h- Th&s, it is not mani!est*+
1ositive- The im1ortant statement that it is neverthe*ess 1ositive ma+ 4e 1roved on*+ 4+ ta2ing into the acco&nt the
constraints H a !ormida4*e 1ro4*em so*ved 4+ Ya& and Schoen in the *ate sevent+ as Ati+ah mentions, Y*eading in
1art to Ya&.s 5ie*ds <eda* at the 8arsa3 )ongress.-
8itten 1ro1osed an a*ternative e01ression !or energ+ in terms o! so*&tions o! a *inear P# 3ith the coe!!icients
e01ressed thro&gh X and h h--R
A9 The 2011 Sha3 Pri:e a*so made a mista2e 4+ a3arding a ha*! 1ri:e to )hristodo&*o& !or his 3or2, 4ased on o4sc&re
errors, against the honora4*e ;&**strand D=E o! the %o4e* )ommittee- A*tho&gh )hristodo&*o& has mis*ed man+
inc*&ding the 1==3 %o4e* )ommittee D'2E, his errors are no3 3e**-esta4*ished and the+ have 4een i**&strated 3ith
mathematics at the &ndergrad&ate *eve* DAAE- )hristodo&*o& c*aimed in his auto,iography that his ;ork is
essentially ,ased on t;o sources? "1 )he claims of Christodoulou and @lainerman on genera* re*ativit+ as
sho3n in their 4oo2 The Global Nonlinear Stability of the Minkowski Space D21E@ 29 Roger Penrose had introd&ced, in
1='5, the conce1t o! a tra11ed s&r!ace and had 1roved that a s1ace-time containing s&ch a s&r!ace cannot 4e
com1*ete D5E- Ho3ever, this 3or2 o! Penrose, 3hich &ses an im1*icit ass&m1tion o! &ni,&e sign !or a** co&1*ing
constants, act&a**+ de1ends on the errors o! )hristodo&*o& and >*ainerman D21, 2AE- Ho3ever, s&ch a re*ation 3as
not c*ear &nti* 1==5 D11E-
59 These so*&tions have no gravitationa* radiation-
23
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
'9 I have 3ritten to Horng-T:er Ya&, ditor in )hie! o! )omm&nications in <athematica* Ph+sics, on the mis*eading
nat&re o! the 1a1ers o! Ya& 6 Schoen D33E and 8itten D3AE- Ho3ever, I have no res1onse !rom him on this so !ar-
"9 Ho3ever, dm&nd (ertschinger does not &nderstand that, !or the d+namic case, the non-*inear instein e,&ation and
the *ineari:ed e,&ation are not com1ati4*e D3'E-
References?
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"
, the )eissner->ordstrom 8etric, and instein.s ?nification,R Ph+s-
ssa+s, #9 719, A=-5' 720129-
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3- A- instein, Y / mc
2
U 7!rom Science I**&strated 1=A'9 in Ideas and Opinions 7#over, 1=B29-
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7Se1t- 20129-
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"
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tonic nergy-<tress $ensor, and ?nified Bolari,ation of the Blane-Aave Gorms,R Ph+s- ssa+s "# 729, 22' 71===9-
=- A- ;&**strand, Ar2- <at- Astr- 5+s- 1', %o- B 71=219@ i4id, Ar2- <at- Astr- 5+s- 1", %o- 3 71=229-
10- A- instein, )he 2eaning of Relati%ity 7Princeton $niv- Press, 1=5A9-
11- )- Y- Jo, QinsteinHs )adiation Gormula and 8odifications to the instein quation,R Astro1h+sica* No&rna* +99,
A21-A2B 7#ec- 20, 1==59@ ditor S- )handrase2har, a %o4e* Ja&reate, s&ggests and a11roves the A11endi0? The
;ravitationa* nerg+-Stress Tensor !or the necessit+ o! modi!+ing instein e,&ation-
12- )- Y- Jo, Q/ompatibility #ith insteinHs >otion of Aea9 GravityD insteinHs quivalence Brinciple and the Absence
of Fynamic <olutions for the 030I instein quation,6 Ph+s- ssa+s "# 739, 50B-52' 71===9
13- )- Y- Jo, Q@n ;ncompatibility of Gravitational )adiation #ith the 030I instein quation,6 Ph+s- ssa+s "( 7A9,
52"-53= 7#ecem4er, 20009-
1A- H- (ondi, 5- A- - Pirani, 6 I- Ro4inson, 6Gravitational #aves in general relativity ;;;& *act plane #aves,6 Proc-
Ro+- $oc- London A#9" 7"<9<9-
15- )- 8- <isner, >- S- Thorne, 6 N- A- 8hee*er, Graitation 78- H- 5reeman, San 5rancisco, 1="39-
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1'- Pring 5, The Ro+a* Societ+, Q(oard <em4erUs )omments” (Jan. 8, 2007).
1"- )- Y- Jo, 6instein.s )equirement for Aea9 Gravity, versus instein.s /ovariance Brinciple,6 Internationa* Scien-
ti!ic <eeting on Ph+sica* Inter1retation o! Re*ativit+ Theor+, Im1eria* )o**ege, Jondon, Se1tem4er 12 H 15 200B@
1B- )- Y- Jo, QThe Brinciple of /ausality and instein.s )equirement for Aea9 Gravity, versus instein.s /ovariance
Brinciple,R (&**etin o! P&re and A11*ied Sciences, #<0 729, B1-10A 720109-
1=- A- instein, Sit:&ngs4eri, Pre&ss, Acad- 8is- 1=1B, 1? 15A 71=1B9-
20- )- Y- Jo, 5)ectifiable ;nconsistencies and )elated Broblems in General )elativity,6 Ph+s- ssa+s, #( 729, 25B-2'"
720109-
21- #- )hristodo&*o& 6 S- >*ainerman, The Global Nonlinear Stability of the Minkowski Space 7Princeton- $niv-
Press, 1==39@ %o- A2 o! the Princeton <athematica* Series-
22- )- Y- Jo, QThe Princi1*e o! )a&sa*it+ and the )+*indrica**+ S+mmetric <etrics o! instein 6 Rosen,R (&**etin o!
P&re and A11*ied Sciences, #A0 729, 1A=-1"0 7200B9-
23- )- Y- Jo, QOn Ph+sica* Inva*idit+ o! the Y)+*indrica* S+mmetric 8aves. o! Yt Hoo!t,R Ph+s- ssa+s, #+ 719, 20-2"
720119-
2A- )- Y- Jo, Q$he Cuestion of Jalidity of the KFynamic <olutions. /onstructed by /hristodoulou and Klainerman,6
Ph+s- ssa+s "( 719, 10=-120 7<arch 20009-
25- T- #amo&r 6 N- H- Ta+*or,6 Stron"#field tests of relatiistic "raity and binary pulsars$ Ph+s- Rev- #, +9 7'9,
1BA0-1B'B 71==29-
2'- )- Y- Jo, Q@n the >obel Bri,e in Bhysics, /ontroversies and ;nfluences,6 ;NS5R go*- 13-A Iss&e 3 gersion 1-0, 5=-
"3 7N&ne 20139-
2"- S- 8ein4erg, Graitation and %os&olo"y 7Nohn 8i*e+ Inc-, %e3 Yor2, 1="29-
2B- <- (orn, bThe (orn-instein Jettersb 78a*2er, %e3 Yor2, 1='B9, 1-125-
2=- A- instein 6 %- Rosen, N- 5ran2*in Inst- 223, A3 71=3"9-
30- A Pais, 5<ubtle is the +ord &&&. 7O0!ord $niversit+ Press, %e3 Yor2, 1=='9-
31- )- Y- Jo, #avid P- )han, Richard )- Y- H&i, Ph+s- ssa+s "9 719, ""-B' 7<arch 20029-
32- )- Y- Jo, The ;ravitationa* QP*ane 8avesR o! Ji& and iho& and the %one0istence o! #+namic So*&tions !or
instein.s ,&ation, Astro1h+s- S1ace Sci-, (B=? 205-215 7200'9-
33- R- Schoen and S--T- Ya&, QProo! o! the Positive <ass Theorem- II,R )omm&n- <ath- Ph+s- A<, 231-2'0
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APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
71=B19-
3A- - 8itten, QA %e3 Proo! o! the Positive nerg+ Theorem,R )omm&n- <ath- Ph+s-, >B, 3B1-A02 71=B19-
35- )- Y- Jo, On the j&estion o! a #+namic So*&tion in ;enera* Re*ativit+, No&rna* o! S1ace 01*oration A 720139-
3'- )- Y- Jo, The %on-*inear instein ,&ation and )onditiona**+ ga*idit+ o! its Jineari:ation, Internationa* No&rna* o!
Theoretica* and <athematica* Ph+sics, go*-3, %o-' 720139-
3"- Press Re*ease on The Sha3 Pri:e in <athematica* Sciences 7Sha3 Pri:e 5o&ndation, Hong >ong, N&ne ", 20119-
3B- )- Y- Jo, )omments on <is&nderstandings o! Re*ativit+, and the Theoretica* Inter1retation o! the >re&:er
01eriment, Astro1h+s- N- +AA3 "00-"0A 7<arch 10, 1=="9-
3=- )- Y- Jo, QGravitation, Bhysics, and $echnology,R Ph+sics ssa+s, #9 7A9, 553-5'0 7#ec- 20129-
A0- A- instein 6 8- Pa&*i, Ann- <ath- ++, 133 71=A39-
A1- )- Y- Jo, ;- R- ;o*dstein and A- %a1ier, *ectromagnetic Radiation Reaction 5orce and Radiation Potentia* in
;enera* 5ive-#imensiona* Re*ativit+, Hadronic No&rna* "# 729 "5-B= 71=B=9-
A2- )- Y- Jo, Q>A<A.s <pace-Brobes Bioneer Anomaly and the 8ass-/harge )epulsive Gorce,6 "Ath Annual 7atural
Philosophy Alliance Conference, )a*i!ornia State $niversit+, Jong (each, )a*i!ornia $SA, N&ne 23-2', 2010-
A3- )- Y- Jo, rrors o! the 8hee*er Schoo*, the #istortions to ;enera* Re*ativit+ and the #amage to d&cation in
<IT O1en )o&rses in Ph+sics, ;NS5R go*- 13 Iss&e " gersion 1-0 720139-
AA- )- Y- Jo, )omments on the 2011 Sha3 Pri:e in <athematica* Sciences, -- an ana*+sis o! co**ective*+ !ormed
errors in 1h+sics, ;NS5R go*- 12-A Iss&e A 7ger- 1-09 7N&ne 20129-
A5- A- instein, 5@n the influence of Gravitation on the propagation of light,6 Anna*en der Ph+si2, 35, B=B-=0B
71=119--
A'- 8- Pa&*i, Theory of Relatiity 7Pergamon Press, Jondon, 1="19-
A"- g- A- 5oc2, The Theory of Space Ti&e and Graitation 7Pergamon Press, 1='A9- The R&ssian edition 3as
1&4*ished in 1=55 as 1art o! the m&d thro3ing cam1aign to discredit instein, a!ter his death-
AB- >--Y- )h&ng, S--3- )hio3, S- Herrmann, Steven )h&, and H- <k**er, QAtom interferometry tests of local +orent,
invariance in gravity and electrodynamics,R Ph+s- Rev- # >B, 01'002 7N&*+ 200=9-
A=- iho&, Pei-Y&an, in !roc' of the Third Marcel Gross&ann Meetin"s on Gen' Relati' ed- H& %ing, Sci- PressG%orth
Ho**and- 71=B39, 1-20-
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APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
50- )- Y- Jo, Q@n Gauge ;nvariance in Bhysics L instein.s /ovariance Brinciple,6 Ph+s- ssa+s, #( 739, A=1-A==
7Se1t- 20109-
51- A- %- 8hitehead, The !rinciple of Relatiity 7)am4ridge $niv- Press, )am4ridge, 1='29-
52- )- Y- Jo, 6instein.s quivalence Brinciple, the Brinciple of /ausality, and Blane-Aave <olutions,R Ph+s- ssa+s
#B 739, A=A-502 7Se1t- 200"9-
53- )- Y- Jo, Q<pace /ontractions, +ocal +ight <peeds, and the Cuestion of Gauge in General )elativity,6 )hinese N- o!
Ph+s- 7Tai1ei9, +" 7A9, 233-3A3 7A&g&st 20039-
5A- )- Y- Jo, 5@n /riticisms of instein.s quivalence Brinciple,6 Ph+s- ssa+s "= 719, BA-100 7<arch 20039-
55- )- Y- Jo, Q@n ;nterpretations of 2ubbleHs +a# and the Eending of +ight,6 Progress in Ph+s-, go*- 1, 10-13 7Nan-,
200'9-
5'- dm&nd (ertschinger, %os&olo"ical (yna&ics$ #e1artment o! Ph+sics <IT, )am4ridge, <A 0213=, $SA-
5"- R& Penrose, 5A )emar9able property of plane #aves in general relativity,6 Rev& <od& Ph+s& 3" (1='5) 215H
220&
5B- #- Y&- Tsi1en+&2, g- A- Andreev, Ph+sica* Inter1retations o! the Theor+ o! Re*ativit+ )on!erence, (a&man
<osco3 State Technica* $niversit+, A H " N&*+ 2005- e-mai*:andrv*adl+ande0-r&-
5=- S- ;- T&rgshev, g- Toth, J- R- >e**og+, - J- Ja&, and >- N- Jee, QA <tudy of the Bioneer AnomalyD >e# Fata and
objectives for >e# ;nvestigation,R Int- N- <od- Ph+s- #, 15719, 1-55 7200'9-
'0- )- Y- Jo, “$he 8ass-/harge )epulsive Gorce and <pace-Brobes Bioneer Anomaly,R Physical Interpretation
of Relati%ity )heory? Proceedings of International $cientific 2eeting. 2osco;3 = < Culy #BB< D dited 4+ <-
)- #&!!+, g- O- ;*ad+shev, A- %- <oro:ov, P- Ro3*ands H <osco3? (<ST$-
'1- S*ava ;- T&r+shev , gi2tor T- Toth, S1ace Science Revie3s, "+>, %o- 1-A, 1A=-1'" 7#ecem4er, 200=9-
'2- )he "<<( Press Release of the 7o,el PriEe Committee 7The Ro+a* S3edish Academ+ o! Sciences, 1==39-
#ear Sir?
I 4e*ieve this 1a1er 3o&*d 4e &se!&* to astro1h+sicists 3ho 3o&*d a11*+ the 3or2 o! instein correct*+- In this 1a1er, it
is 1ointed o&t a n&m4er o! s&4t*e errors and misste1s in the a11*ication o! instein.s theor+- It eva*&ates instein.s
theor+ and its a11*ications and shortcomings as a 3ho*e-
In 1artic&*ar, the 1o1&*ar s1ace-time sing&*arit+ theorems are determined as irre*evant to 1h+sics since it is !o&nd that
the+ im1*icit*+ inc*&de an inva*id &n1h+sica* ass&m1tion, the &ni,&e sign !or a** the co&1*ings- As a res&*t, these
theorems give mis*eading incorrect conc*&sion s&ch as genera* re*ativit+ is ina11*ica4*e to microsco1ic 1henomena-
2"
APRI-TH-PHY-2013-05
S&ch a conc*&sion 1revents the norma* theoretica* deve*o1ments a*tho&gh there is a4so*&te*+ no e01erimenta* s&11ort
!or its va*idit+- To get rid o! their incorrect in!*&ence, the ne3 1a1er 1roves that the+ are 3rong-
Another s1ec&*ation is that / mc
2
as &nconditiona**+ va*id a*tho&gh there is no 1roo! !or this- 01erimenta**+, it has
4een !o&nd that that a 1iece o! heated-&1 meta* has red&ced 3eight, instead o! increased 3eight as instein 1redicted-
Ana*+sis sho3s that s&ch an inva*id s1ec&*ation is res1onsi4*e !or over*oo2ing the charge-mass interaction, 3hich is
cr&cia* !or the e0istence o! a re1&*sive !orce in gravitation- S&ch a re1&*sive !orce 3o&*d 1otentia**+ e01*ain the S1ace-
Pro4e Pioneer Anoma*+- This a*so 3o&*d have *ed to the im1ortant conc*&sion that gravitation and e*ectromagnetism
m&st 4e &ni!ied-
Than2 +o& !or +o&r 2ind attention- I am *oo2ing !or3ard to hearing !rom +o&-
Sincere*+ +o&rs,
)- Y- Jo
2B