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)

Vehicle Dynamic Testing Data Processing Using Wavelet Analysis

Weining Bao

School of Electromechanical & Architectural Engineering Jianghan University Wuhan China e-mail: wning_bao@163.com

Abstract— The vehicle dynamic test data usually have some noise which would bring serious negative effects. In order to accurately obtain vehicle dynamic response. The test datas must be denoised using suitable signal denoising method. For this purpose, the basic principle of wavelet analysis is presented and the method of wavelet threshold denoising is used in automotive handling and stability test data processing. The denoising result shows that the wavelet denoising method is effective. And it provided a theoretical basis and practical engineering experience for vehicle handling and stability test data de-noising processing. Keywords-vehicle; testing; wavelet analysis; denoising

II.

∧

**BASIC THEORY OF WAVELET DENOISING fourier transform is
**

∧

Assuming ψ (t ) ∈ L2 (R ) ,its

ψ (ω ) ω

∧ 2

**ψ (ω ) ,when the ψ (ω ) fit the admissible condition[7]:
**

Cψ = ∫ dω < ∞

(1)

R

The ψ (t ) is called wavelet base or mother wavelet. And the Cψ is wavelet transform coefficient. The wavelet array as followed:

ψ a ,b (t ) =

1 a

I.

INTRODUCTION

ψ⎜

The handling and stability performance is an important part of vehicle dynamic performance evaluation system. The accuracy of test data is very important to the dynamic performance evaluation. But in the process of vehicle handling and stability test, there are many interferential factors such as environmental factor, instrumental factor and artificial factor, these would bring much noise signals, so the test data has noise components. Dye noise signals bring negative effect to the performance evaluation, because the dye noise siganls will bring error. When the dye noise condition is serious, the test must be renewed. So the scientific signal processing method can improve the reliability of test and reduce test cost. Wavelet transform has many fine properties such as low entropy, multiresolution, decorrelation. It provide a new method for signal process field. In recent years, wavelet transform has been widely used in vibration and noise signal processing, mechanical signal detection, machinery fault diagnosis and other fields[1]. Hai Wang[2] used wavelet analysis to de-noise the vehicle wheel speed signals. Yifan Li[3] used wavelet denoising method to deal with the vehicle transmission vibration signals. Hou Tieshuang[4] used wavelet analysis in the ship-radiated noise signal processing. Many Researchers analyzed the wavelet denoising method with different threshold functions, noise estimation and the wavelet decomposition levels and so on[5,6].

⎛t −b⎞ ⎟ a , b ∈ R; a ≠ 0 ⎝ a ⎠

(2)

It could be deduced through stretch and translation transform, where a is stretch factor, b is translation factor. For the any function f (t ) ∈ L2 (R ) , its CWT (continuous wavelet transform) is followed:

W f (a, b ) = f ,ψ a ,b = a

− 1 2

**⎛t −b⎞ ⎟dt ∫ f (t )ψ ⎜ ⎝ a ⎠
**

R

(3)

And its reconstruction transform is given by: 1 ∞ ∞ 1 ⎛t −b⎞ f (t ) = W f (a, b ) ψ⎜ ⎟dadb 2 ∫ ∫ − ∞ − ∞ Cψ a ⎝ a ⎠

(4)

Because the realization of digital signals processing should depend on the computer, the CWT must be discretization. In the process of discretization, a is limitted to positive value. Then the admissible condition is transformed as follows:

Cψ = ∫

∞

ψω ω

∧

()

0

dω < ∞

(5)

**In discretization process, stretch factor a and translation factor b usually be given by a = a 0j ,
**

b = ka 0j b0 , where j ∈ Z , a0 ≠ 1 , and

a0 is a fixed value

So the corresponding DWT(discrete wavelet transform) ψ j ,k (t ) can be writing:

© 2013. The authors - Published by Atlantis Press

30

n) = ⎨ ⎩W ( j . g (k ) = (− 1)1− k h(1 − k ) .2. k −∞ ∞ (7) So the reconstruction formula of the DWT is followed: f (t ) = C ∑∑ C j .ψ j . ( n = 1. and D j is detail coefficient at level J. SNR is used for assess criterion in the process of signal denoising. signal f (t ) can be decomposed as followed: (10) f (t ) = AJ + ∑ D j j≤ J Where W ( j. steering system. e(n ) is noise signal. tires and loading were adjusted correspond with the standard before road tests. The formula of SNR as follow: SNR = 20 ln ∑ f (n ) 2 n =1 N N (15) ∑ e (n ) 2 n =1 In which AJ is approximate coefficient at level J. threshold function express the different process strategies and estimation method to the wavelet coefficients. n )) W ( j. then the effect of denoising is better. And the visushrink threshold principle is also called general threshold presented by Donoho and Johostone. Basic Denosing Model Assuming f (n ) is original signal and s(n ) is dye noise signal. T is threshold. assuming f (n ). According to the Mallat algorithm. VEHICLE HANDLING AND STABILITY TEST We proceeded vehicle handling and stability tests according to the national standard of handling and stability test. A. then the main frequency range which is contaminated by nosie is processed with threshold processing. Hard threshold function: ∧ ⎧0 W ( j. So the wavelet decomposition principle as figure 1 shows. THRESHOLD SELECTION Discretization wavelet coefficient is given by: C j . if regard f (n ) as an approximate value when stretch factor j = 0 The fast orthogonal wavelet transform as follows: ⎧a j +1 (n ) = ∑ h(k − 2n )a j (k ) ⎪ k∈Z ⎨ ( ) = d n g (k − 2n )d j (k ) ∑ ⎪ j +1 k∈Z ⎩ Soft threshold function: ∧ ⎧0 W ( j. The test object is a commercial vehicle. N ) is the discrete sampling sequence of the signal f (t ) ∈ L2 (R ) . N is the length of signal. So we can get the f (n ) which is the best approximation of f (n ) Where n is the number of each sample point.kψ j . n ) p T (13) W ( j. SNR is higher. so the basic noise model can be expressed as : s (n ) = f (n ) + e(n ) (11) Where e(n) is noise.k = ∫ f (t ) ψ* j . It means that noise e(n) is restrained and eliminated by threshold ∧ process. IV. n) = ⎨ ⎩W ( j . L . And it is concluded in the condition that aim at multidimensional independent normal variable joint distribution when dimension tending to infinite (12) t = σ 2 ln N Where σ is the variance of noise signal.k (t ) = a0 2ψ ⎜ ⎜ − j j − ⎛ t − ka0j b0 ⎞ −j ⎟ = a 0 2ψ a0 t − kb0 j ⎟ a 0 ⎠ ⎝ ( ) (6) III.k (t ) −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ (8) In the process of wavelet threshold denoising method. taking slalom test as a example explains the procedure of test and data processing. In the process of wavelet threshold denoising. Wavelet Decomposition And Reconstruction The wavelet decomposition fast algorithm is presented by Mallat. k (t )dt = f . The test ground is proving ground which is strictly correspond with all requirements in the national test standard. n ) is estimation value of wavelet coefficient. It decompose the original signal to low frequency components which describe the approximate shape of original signal and high frequency components which describe the detail informations of original signal[8]. n ) p T otherwise (14) (9) Where {hk }k∈Z ∈ L2 (Z ) and {g k }k∈Z ∈ L2 (Z ) are coefficients of orthogonal conjugate filter determined by wavelet function ψ (t ) . so the threshold value tend to put all wavelet coefficient to be zero. Threshold value and logarithrm square root of singal length are in direct proportion.ψ j . The aim of wavelet transform is to decompose signal s(n) to different frequency range. W ( j . B. 31 . When the length of signal is longer. a j is the approximate coefficient. N is the total of signal sample points. threshold selection is a critical part which is direct affect the quality of signal denoising. Denoising Effect Assess Criterion Usually. ∧ A. the threshold value is bigger. f (n ) is original signal. n ) − T ⋅ sgn (W ( j . We can see from formula (11). The suspension.We used the visushrink principle. sgn (*) is sign function. and d j is the detail coefficient at the level j. n ) is wavelet coefficient of original signal. n ) otherwise Where C is a constant which is irrelevant with the signals.

lateral acceleration and yaw rate are going to be recorded. Figure 5. YAW ANGLE RATE DATAS MEASURED BY GYROSCOPE Figure 2. GYROSCOPE AND INSTALL LOCATION Test condition: the vehicle moves with the speed of 65km/h along the path of the slalom drawn on the ground. steering wheel torque. driver should keep the vehicle speed stable. which is used in wavelet threshold denoising commonly. the steering wheel angle.Figure 1. According to practical engineering experience. DB3 BASE WAVELET DECOMPOSITION AND DENOISING 32 . And we dealt with the test data using wavelet base db3. when the vehicle in the test area. so it need to remove the noise component before vehicle performance evaluation. LATERAL ACCELERATION DATAS MEASURED BY GYROSCOPE Figure 3. YAW ANGLE RATE SIGNAL DENOSING USING LEVEL 5. and do not allow the vehicle to knock down any stake. SLALOM TEST PATH V. rotating steering wheel steady in the test process. The result as shown in figure 5 and figure 7. the best level of wavelet decomposition for signal denoising is five. The vehicle moving one circle of slalom route means one time test. the measurement signal of angle rate and lateral acceleration have strong noise component (as blue curve shown in figure4). So we selected level five. Figure 4. In the process of the test data record. VEHICLE TEST DATA DENOISING PROCESSING Usually. ORIGINAL YAW ANGLE RATE DATA AND DENOISING DATA Figure 6.

we calculated the SNR of the denoising signals. 7. 10. Jianhui Lin. pp32-39. Yifan Li. Hai Wang. 2009 International conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is supported by the Science Research Foundation of Jianghan University(2012028). Xiang Jinglin. Han Peng. pp191-194. September 2003 and [2] Figure 7. S.200710321089 ). the [6] [7] 33 . July 2009. Zhuting Yao. no. Hongxia Pan. pp935-939. Mattat. Application of wavelet transform in vehicle wheel speed signal denoising. 2011. no. Mattat.G. Hou Tieshuang. Acta Armamentar. pp: 674 – 693. Research of the Denoising the Line Spectrum Signal of The Ship-Radiated Noise Based on the Wavelet Inter-scale Dependency. S. “Theory for multi-resolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation”.2007AA101C14) and the Science & Technology Bureau of Wuhan Key Research Project (No. ORIGINAL LATERAL ACCELERATION DATA AND DENOISING DATA [3] According to function (15).Lateral Acceleration/m. October. 3. The results show that SNR of yaw angle rate is 12. Nassar. 2010. no. vol30. IEEE A&E System Magazine. 2009. vol.5247 and SNR of lateral acceleration is 11. Vibration transmission analyze based on wavelet theory and higher order spectrum. pp182-185.s-2 Education Department of Hubei Province Research Project (No. REFERENCES [1] S. 7. China machine press. Wavelet denoising for IMU alignment. EI-Sheimy. 2004. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence.9562. July 1989. VI. Study on wavelet package analysis technology applied to fault diagnosis of vehicle transmission. And the SNR through wavelet denoising processing is higher. 11.G. Weigong Zhang. Noureldin.D200634002) and the Science&the Technology Bureau of Hubei Province Research Project (No. 2011 International conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering. pp5492-5495. vol 2. 2010 The second International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering. CONCLUSION [4] [5] Using wavelet denoising method can remove the noisy component of vehicle dynamic test data. so the value of vehicle response is more credible. A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing. vol. vol19.

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