40-Gb/s Optical Packet Buffer Using Conversion/Dispersion-Based Delays
Omer Faruk Yilmaz, Student Member, IEEE, Scott R. Nuccio, Xiaoxia Wu, and Alan E. Willner, Fellow, IEEE, Fellow, OSA

Abstract—We experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable, all-optical packet buffer based on conversion dispersion delays. 40-Gb/s asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) packets with return-to-zero ON–OFF keying data are buffered up to ten-packet length (116 ns). The packet buffer performance is characterized for several delay values. Power penalties of 3, 2, and 0.5 dB for zero-packet, five-packet, and ten-packet delays are achieved, respectively, at a bit error rate (BER) of 10 9 . Reconfiguration of the packet buffer is also investigated and reconfiguration times as fast as 25 ps are shown by using a high-speed optical switch to toggle between wavelength conversion pumps. The reconfiguration is also demonstrated for a 1 ns guard time between the packets. It is observed that reconfiguration with this method results in 1.1 and 2 dB extra power penalty at 10 9 BER for 1 and 25 ps guard times, respectively. Index Terms—Nonlinear optics, optical buffer, optical fiber communication, optical packet switching, optical signal processing.



S network data rates and capacity grow, the limited scaling and performance of electrical routers may become a bottleneck for system operation. One potential technology for highly efficient and high-capacity networking is optical packet switching [1]. A critical challenge for any optical switch is the need to implement the rapid resolution of contention and congestion within the core routers [2]. Traditionally, this has been difficult to realize in the optical domain due to the lack of optical memory. Typically, optical contention resolution can take the form of packet dropping, wavelength conversion, deflection routing, and buffering. While the first methods may be inefficient to implement on a large scale, optical buffering has shown the potential for high-capacity operation. Several techniques have been published that demonstrate optical buffers, including: 1) using material resonances or coupled resonant structures to decrease group velocity [3], [4], and 2) feedback or feed-forward fiber delay-line buffers [5]–[9]. These buffers tend to switch between a discrete set of fixed delay times producing a tradeoff between the amount of delay and the delay granularity, or provide small continuous delays (up to several bits) limited by the system bandwidth or distortions. Optical buffering can also be achieved by relative

delays based on the conversion/dispersion techniques, which are shown to offer large delays [10]–[12], with fine granularity [13]. Conversion/dispersion delays tunably wavelength convert the optical signal before passing it through a chromatic-dispersive element and wavelength converting back to the original wavelength. The amount of delay can be tuned by changing the converted wavelength. Recently, conversion dispersion has been used to generate a tunable delay (up to 13.7 ns) capable of buffering a 40 Gb/s variable-length packets by two packet lengths [14]. However, residual chromatic dispersion limits the buffer from accommodating larger packet sizes and larger delays while reconfiguration is not shown. In this paper, we demonstrate and characterize a ten-packetdepth, 40-Gb/s optical buffer with a 0.5 ns reconfiguration time using a 116 ns, continuously tunable conversion/dispersion delay [15]. The use of a continuously tunable optical delay allows for adjustment to changes in packet size and data rate of the incoming optical signal. The buffer is both amplitudeand phase-maintaining, making it transparent to a host of modulation formats. Optical phase conjugation is used to minimize the residual dispersion limitation in the delay [16], [17]. Rapid reconfiguration by switching between wavelength converting pumps is shown for switching windows as fast as 25 ps (1 bit time). II. CONCEPT A conceptual block diagram of the buffer is shown in Fig. 1. The buffer consists of two functional paths in parallel. The incoming packet stream is split into two and sent to these two paths for processing. The upper path induces the relative delay on the desired packet(s) by utilizing the conversion/dispersion based delay, while the lower path is used for deletion of packet(s) from their original time slot(s). Additionally, this gives the functionality of emptying any desired time slot if a data packet is not needed. In the upper path, three wavelength conversion stages are used to complete the relative delay for the selected packet(s). A highly dispersive medium is used for the wavelength dependant delay that utilizes the group velocity variation due to the chromatic dispersion [10]–[12], [15], [18]–[21]. A conceptual block diagram of delays based on the conversion/dispersion technique is shown in Fig. 2. The input signal is wavelength-converted to that will determine the relative a desired wavelength delay in the dispersive medium. Raman amplification is used in the dispersive medium to overcome the losses [22]. After the dispersive medium, a second wavelength conversion is utilized to phase conjugate the signal to a nearby wavelength . The phase-conjugated signal is then sent back through the same dispersive element to make use of the same group velocity

Manuscript received May 23, 2009; revised August 12, 2009. First published September 29, 2009; current version publishedFebruary 05, 2010. This work was supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Defense Advanced Research Agency under Agreement FA8650-08-1-7820 and Agreement N00014-05-1-0053. The authors are with the Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA (e-mail: oyilmaz@usc.edu; nuccio@usc.edu; xiaoxia@usc.edu; willner@usc.edu). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JLT.2009.2030900

0733-8724/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

However. A 40-Gb/s packetized input signal is generated by programming a pulse-pattern generator (PPG). The most rapid reconfiguration is needed when two consecutive packets are to be buffered by different delay values. Upper path induces the relative delay onto the selected packet(s). If the buffer is to process more than two packets independently at once. For the reconfiguration. the number of phase conjugation stages should be increased accordingly. a phase conjugation scheme that maintains the relative packet wavelength difference is required for the phase conjugation process. Hence. Therefore. The input packet stream is first split into two copies. Input packet stream is sent to two paths. and D is the dispersion of the medium. This case would also require more packet signals to be phase-conjugated. Conceptual block diagram of the demonstrated optical buffer. Phase conjugation.and packet-level wavelength conversion. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP A. Fig. A Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) is used for data modulation of the optical carrier ( 1540. In our scheme. dependence. Two consecutive packets entering the dispersive element at different wavelengths will have different delays. This feature allows the buffer to be used with tunable packet sizes and variable bit rates as the delay is continuous between zero and the maximum value. Therefore. The faster wavelength for the selected packet(s) is used as the reference: The time alignments of the two paths are realized such that this wavelength results in no relative delay with respect to the original packet time slot. Another MZM driven with a 40-GHz RF clock is used for full-rate pulse carving to achieve a 50% return-to-zero ON–OFF keying (RZ-OOK) waveform. and 11 are left open to allow buffered packet to be reinserted. In the first copy (upper path) a packet (packet 1) is selected to be delayed. asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) packets where packet slots 2. 4. 3. the signal is converted back to the original wavelength to have a wavelength transparent delay. Buffer The experimental block diagram of the demonstrated buffer is shown in Fig. III. the output packet stream is identical to the input packet stream for this wavelength. the first wavelength conversion stage uses gated pump(s) for the wavelength conversion. . Reconfiguration of the packet buffer requires tunability of the delay within a guard time between the packets as illustrated in Fig. After the delay. is used to double the delay and compensate the dispersion. 3. The reconfiguration should take place within the guard time between the packets.82 nm) with the packetized data. This requires wavelength conversion of the consecutive packets to two different wavelengths. Initially. where the lower path deletes any desired packet(s). 6. Fig. This is achieved by using a two-pump wavelength conversion scheme in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. A fast 2 2 optical switch is utilized to realize the switching between packet extraction pumps for this purpose. Extracted packets are then sent to the dispersive medium to induce the relative delay. Some additional fiber is used in the lower path to emulate flight time matching/synchronization of the two paths prior to combining. Conceptual block diagram of the conversion/dispersion technique used to generate relative delays in the optical buffer. a fast tuning laser or a laser bank with a large scale optical switch is necessary for the extraction process. Packets to be delayed are extracted to the corresponding wavelengths in the first wavelength conversion stage. a 1 ns guard time is used by programming 40 zero bits between the consecutive packets. Illustration of reconfiguration of the optical buffer. the induced relative delay is almost doubled while dispersion compensation is also achieved. The pump(s) is/are turned on and synchronized only for the duration of the desired packet(s). This packet is extracted to the required wavelength that will induce the desired delay. 1. where other methods that can allow realization of this process may also be possible. one for the delay of the selected packet and the other for the deletion of the selected packet as described in the previous section. The packet stream is composed of 11 424-bit-long (53 B). as described. two separate gated pumps are required to realize the wavelength conversion of two consecutive packets to two different wavelengths. they experience different amounts of delay in the dispersive element. This results in wavelength conversion of only the packet(s) that is (are) going to be delayed. where is the difference between the minimum and the maximum wavelengths that the signal is converted to. and hence. 2.YILMAZ et al. induced by the system is the maximum relative delay approximately equal to . We have used two wavelength conversion stages in parallel that phase conjugates the extracted packets independently. As demonstrated in [23] a single gated pump can enable bit. The second wavelength conversion is the phase conjugation stage. The first wavelength conversion controls the amount of delay.: 40-GB/S OPTICAL PACKET BUFFER USING CONVERSION/DISPERSION-BASED DELAYS 617 Fig. After the second pass through the dispersive element. a third wavelength conversion stage is used to convert the delayed packet(s) back to the original input wavelength. the minimum guard time without any data loss is determined by the reconfiguration speed. Thus. Hence.

CLK: clock.2 nm offset is kept between the phase-conjugating pump wavelength and for all different cases of corresponding to different delay values. We have the frequency modulated the DFG CW pump with a MZM to generate the gated pump for the packet extraction process. a zero long with a nonlinear coefficient dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of 1562. An 8. The wavelength conversion techniques are polarization dependent and we used polarization controllers to maximize the conversion efficiency for each stage.2 nm filter. with a QPM wavelength of 1552. A CW pump and packet 1 signal is amplified with erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and filtered with 2-nm filters prior to launching into the HNLF. PPLN-1 [24]. Two-pump lasers are tuned according to such that the converted output signal is always at .6 nm. the extracted packet is not phase conjugated. 4. Following the delay and dispersion compensation. A phase modulation method for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) suppression is not employed. corresponding to the maximum (116 ns: 10 packets) and minimum (0 ns: 0 packet) delays. MZM: Mach–Zehnder modulator. PPLN-2. It might be desirable to delete the packet(s) being delayed from the original time slots. FEBRUARY 15. 28. is used to compensate for the residual dispersion offset caused by the nonzero dispersion slope of the DCF. TDL: tunable delay line.6 nm. Packet 1 is then filtered by an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) with a bandwidth of 1.618 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY.2-km-long SMF. the phase-conjugated signal wavelength ranges from 1556. any unnecessary packet(s) can be deleted from the stream to create open time slots. and a dispersion slope 0. The second copy of the input packet stream is sent to the lower path for deletion of packets. A two-pump conversion scheme similar to the packet extraction stage is used for wavelength conversion in PPLN-2. and sent back through the DCF to complete the delay and compensate for the intrachannel dispersion. By tuning the gated pump wavelength .2 nm bandwidth. which is ON only for the duration of packet 1. corresponding to a total dispersion of 140 ps/nm. 4. SSMF: standard single-mode fiber. The phase-conjugated packet 1 is filtered by an OBPF with a 1. combined with the signal from the lower path by a 3-dB coupler. The gated pump is then synchronized with packet 1 in PPLN-1 using an optical tunable delay line (TDL). Hence. NO. where ideally similar medium could be used in all wavelength conversion stages to realize the buffer. 4. The processes of sum frequency generation (SFG) between two pumps symmetrically located with respect to the quasi-phase matching (QPM) wavelength of the PPLN waveguide followed by difference frequency generation (DFG) between the sum signal and a continuous-wave (CW) pump in the PPLN waveguide results in the idler generated at .5–1560. leading to the extraction of packet 1 to by the relation. As the input signal is used as a pump. packet 1 is converted back to the original wavelength using a second PPLN waveguide. as shown in Fig. After the MZM. A 2. BPF: bandpass filter.9 to 1564.5 nm and passed through ps/nm of dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF) [ ps/(nm km)]. DCF: dispersion-compensating fiber.8 nm.026 ps/(nm km). A PPG synchronized with the input data is used to generate the gating signal. 2010 Fig. delayed packet 1 at . the wavelength packet 1 is extracted to is tuned in the 1552. We used two different mediums for wavelength conversions in the buffer. An EDFA is used to amplify the signal to match the power of the signal combined from the upper path. The dispersed packet is then -converted to using degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) for phase conjugation [25]. is then filtered with a 1. PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. which is Raman-pumped with two copropagating pumps at 1450 nm and two counter-propagating pumps at 1460 nm (150 mW each) to mitigate the 18 dB loss of the DCF.2 nm. Experimental setup for the optical buffer. The PPLN-1 waveguide is 4 cm long and the QPM wavelength is tuned to 1551. VOL. The HNLF used for phase conjugation is 330 m of 25 W km . The packet to be deleted is time aligned with the PPG signal using a TDL. and finally. the packet stream is sent through 60 km of SMF. amplified.2 nm range. however. Modifications for demonstration of reconfiguration are shown with dotted lines and italic titles. Rx: preamplified receiver. A TDL is used to match the two path lengths exactly (within the repeating 11 packet data stream) for the faster wave- . An MZM modulator is used for the deletion process driven by an RF signal generated by a PPG synchronized with the data. This signal. respectively. followed by 10 km DCF ( ps/nm) to emulate the time synchronization with the upper path.

as shown in [14]. Reconfiguration For the demonstration of reconfigurability. After the phase conjugation. 7. PPLN-2 QPM is shown with the dotted line and is at back to  1552. The resulting output packet stream is then sent to a preamplified receiver for bit-error-rate (BER) measurements. Packets are then sent through the DCF ( ps/nm). the experimental setup is slightly modified. through the DCF as discussed before. with the and . The time alignments of the two paths are adjusted such that this wavelength results in no relative delay with respect to the original packet time slot.7 nm. Delayed packets are not deleted from the original packet stream in the lower path. 5 shows the evolution of a packet (packet 1) in the buffer for the longest delay value along with the corresponding eye diagrams. Eye diagrams of the signal shown are also given. (b) packet 1 after extraction to  in PPLN-1. a 100 m HNLF with W km nm. Buffer Results Fig. (a) Packet extraction in the PPLN-1 with gated pump  nm). An OBPF (bandwidth of 3. multiplexing of these packets to a single wavelength in a PPLN is possible. 1 ns guard time). (c) Packet 1 after double passing through the DCF and after SMF. is used. A 1. A third wavelength conversion stage is not employed for the reconfiguration experiments.5 nm) packet.   length of the selected packet(s). For the second phase conjugation. The switch is driven with a programmed PPG synchronized with the input signal clock. (b) phase conjugation in the HNLF. The transition between the pump lasers occurs within the guard time between the packets.5 nm) is used to filter the extracted packets. B. The same phase conjugation setup mentioned in the previous section is used for one of the packets. Thus.   Fig. (d) output packet signal is at  and original packet 1 is stream where delayed packet 1 is converted to  deleted from time slot 1 in the lower path. as shown in Fig. ( 1556. no filters are used as the multiplexed signal is present on multiple wavelengths. and ps/(nm km). 8 and 3 nm/division. IV.6 buffer. Fig. the signals are combined and sent back Fig. (b) Output packet stream for various buffering scenarios including zero and maximum delay. The QPM of the PPLN-1 is tuned to 1551. a reference (zero delay) is achieved for the buffer. However. 6.YILMAZ et al. two consecutive packets in the data stream will be wavelength-converted by two different DFG pumps. In the first wavelength conversion stage. The reconfiguration experiment is conducted for two different guard times: 1 ns (40 bits) and 25 ps (1 bit) by programming the input packet stream in the PPG. (c) delayed packet 1 is wavelength converted in PPLN-2. Packet 1 being buffered from time slot 1 to time slot 11. PPLN-1 QPM wavelength is shown with a dotted line ( 1551. 5(a) shows the 11-packet- . (a) Relative delay achieved for the system for a 40-Gb/s input signal. Hence. a 4 km spool of SSMF is used for the residual dispersion compensation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. The corresponding spectra for each wavelength conversion stage are shown in Fig. In the receiver. a 2 2 20-GHz lithium niobate switch is utilized to switch between the dummy pump lasers. 5. The scale is the same. (a) 40-Gb/s input packet stream (424 bits per ( 1552. for all plots. 6.6 nm).9 nm) due to phase conjugation. The dispersion compensated packets are then combined with the packet stream from the lower path and sent to the receiver.6 nm.: 40-GB/S OPTICAL PACKET BUFFER USING CONVERSION/DISPERSION-BASED DELAYS 619 Fig. The total power lunched to the PPLN-1 is kept under 27 dBm. The signal after the DCF is split into two copies to realize the phase conjugation on each packet with two independent phase conjugation stages. Experimental spectra of the wavelength conversion processes in the (1550. The output of the switch is sent to an MZM to gate the pumps such that they only exist during the duration of the two selected packets. A TDL is used to match the path lengths of the two-phase conjugation stages.2-nm filter is used in the preamplified receiver following the low noise EDFA. 4 with dotted lines. After the DCF.

In addition to this. The first row shows the packet extraction in PPLN-1. In all cases. This results in a delay resolution of 15 ps with the amount of dispersion used. and nm. residual dispersion varies for different delay values as the SMF used is fixed length and will perfectly compensate only for a particular wavelength. corresponding to delays of 0. A 3. it does not change the buffer application. Experimental spectra of the three wavelength conversion stages for (a) maximum (116 ns). As shown. which is 1 pm. 4. . NO. only the second wavelength conversion stage needs to be phase conjugating for compensation of the dispersion. as shown in Fig. the third wavelength conversion stage uses the packet 1 signal as one of the pumps for SFG process. as shown in Fig. 6(c). Packet 1 at is then sent through the DCF and then phase conjugated to . 7(a). The relative delay achieved by the wavelength conversion/dispersion process is shown in Fig. and (c) zero delay.5 nm packets is 1 ns. Conversion efficiency for the degenerate FWM process is –16 dB. packet 1 is wavelength-converted from back to the input signal wavelength in PPLN-2.3 nm wavelength separation between the and is kept for all delay cases as shown in the second row. 7(b). The granularity of the delay is limited by the granularity of the pump lasers. In general. and ten-packet delays. for the buffer. (b) middle. The maximum relative delay achieved is 116 ns that corresponds to a buffer depth of 10 packets including the 1 ns buffer time between packets ( ns). The third wavelength conversion process converts for each the delayed packet back to the input wavelength delay value. 2010 Fig. 6(a). are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. We believe that proximity to the high-power pump induces a higher penalty for the zero-packet delay due to the nonideal roll-off profile of the filter used in the packet extraction stage. The BER test-set is programmed for the new packet stream generated at the buffer output. Both paths are then coupled together forming the output packet stream. and 116 ns are shown. As this signal is OFF for 10/11 of the duration. 5. delayed packet 1 is converted back to the original wavelength in PPLN-2 by tuning the pumps and . which is not a phase conjugating process. packet 1 is deleted from the input stream by the MZM. the uncompensated residual dispersion gives an additional power penalty for the zero-packet delay case. second row shows the phase conjugation in HNLF.620 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY. as shown in the third row of Fig. packet 1 is deleted from time slot 1 and buffered to the 11th time slot. Instead. The wavelength of extracted packet 1 is controlled by the wavelength of as shown. The BER performance of the buffer for delay values of 0. 28. The set of delays with . BER measurements are performed to characterize system performance for various delay values. This causes some pump power to leak as the pump is not perfectly suppressed. 8. respectively. respectively. After the second pass through the DCF. however. The delayed and dispersion-compensated packet 1 after the 8. In the lower path. five-packet. 5(c). 9. For all plots. Packet 1 is extracted to in PPLN-1. the center wavelength is 1552. Reconfiguration Results Rapid reconfiguration times from 1 ns down to 25 ps are also demonstrated using a 20-GHz 2 2 lithium niobate switch. Following this step. 2 and 0. The average power of the packet 1 signal is –13 dBm. B. the signal is used as the dummy signal for the DFG process. 5(d). the packet is delayed by 116 ns. The buffer is tested for various delay values. The input packet stream of eight packets is shown in Fig. the peak power of the signal is 10 dB higher than the average power. 10(a). Hence. and maximum delays are shown in Fig. 6(b). FEBRUARY 15. as shown in Fig. VOL. In the cases of (a) maximum and (b) middle delay. We observe 3. as shown in Fig. The complete set of wavelength conversion spectra for all three stages for minimum.5 dB power penalties at BERs of for zero-packet. 7(b). with packet 1 buffered to the desired time slot. middle. long input stream to the buffer where the guard time between the 1552. and third row shows the wavelength conversion of the delayed packet 1 to the original wavelength in PPLN-2. respectively. 5(b). and 10 packets. 58. 8(a)–(c). as given in Fig.2-km SMF is shown in Fig.7 nm and the scale is 3 nm/division for horizontal and 8 dB/division for vertical axis. since a dummy laser as used in (a) and (b) would overlap with the signal itself. For the zero-delay case (c) the packet signal is used for the DFG process in a different two-pump configuration. 8. 1. The spectrum for the extraction process is shown in Fig. This is a phase conjugation process as opposed to (a) and (b). The delayed packet 1 at is then combined with the lower path signal where packet 1 is deleted from the original time slot to generate the output packet stream.

(d) Packets 2 and 3 after the second pass through the DCF. Packets 2 and 3 being buffered by three and five time slots in the reconfiguration experiment. (c) Extracted packets 2 and 3. 10(c). 10(b). (c) Delayed packet 1 is wavelength converted back to  .0 nm and 1557. The rise (10%) and fall (90%) times for the switch are measured to be 25 ps for both output ports. packets 2 and 3 are not deleted from their original time slots in the lower path.84 nm) in the lasers ( packet extraction stage (PPLN-1). After this second pass through the DCF. . the relative delay between the packets accumulates ( ns. As the guard time between the other packets is 1 ns. (b) Illustration of the gated pumps generated by the switch and the MZM in the packet extraction stage. In the reconfiguration experiments. (b) Phase conjugation in the HNLF. After combining two signals. which is length ( at a shorter wavelength. ns) in the DCF due to the difference in wavenm). As packet 3 is still at a shorter wavelength. or one bit at 40 Gb/s.1 conjugated to nm) such that the wavelength difference between the two packets is preserved ( nm). experiences a larger group delay. If a single phase conjugation stage with a single pump were used for both signals. ns) when the two signals are sent back through the DCF for dispersion compensation. hence cancelling the relative delay during the second pass through the DCF.36 nm). The signals at the output of the phase conjugation stages are combined after timing of the both arms are adjusted by a TDL on one of the phase conjugation stages. Packets 2 and 3 experience different amounts of group delay ( ns. BER performances for several buffering scenarios. 11(b) and (c).7 nm. 12. A PPG toggles the switch between two-pump 1556.6 nm). PPLN-1 QPM wavelength is shown with a dotted line ( 1551. The same experiment is repeated for a guard time of 1 ns between packets 2 and 3. respectively. The experimental spectra of the phase conjugation process for both packets are shown in Fig.: 40-GB/S OPTICAL PACKET BUFFER USING CONVERSION/DISPERSION-BASED DELAYS 621 Fig.16 nm) and different wavelengths. where packets 2 and 3 are going to be buffered to time slots #5 and #7. The extracted packet stream is shown in Fig.6 nm). (a) Packet extraction in the PPLN-1 with gated pump  (1550.   Fig. The transient response of the 2 2 lithium niobate switch is shown in Fig. By using two conjugation stages. Packet 3. The guard time between the packets 2 and 3 is 25 ps. respectively. Then. 11(e). Back-to-back performance and BER performance of the signal at the output of lower path (with packet 1 deleted) is also given for comparison. A zero guard time allows one bit to leak into both packets. This is required as the equipment used in the phase conjugation stages is not identical. the delayed packets are coupled with the signal from the lower path. 10. This.YILMAZ et al. the two packets are separately ( 1553. 11(e) shows the output packet sequence and eye diagram at the output. Fig. The time alignment is checked by tuning the gated pumps to identical wavelengths such that packets 2 and 3 experience the same relative delay. The pump switching signal and the clocking signal are arranged such that only packets 2 and 3 are extracted to two ( 1547. Fig. packet 3 would be at a longer wavelength after phase conjugation ( nm). in the packet extraction process. Thus. the guard time between the rest of the packets is kept at 1 ns. The experimental spectra for the reconfiguration experiment with 25 ps guard time are shown in Fig. the guard time between packets 2 and 6 (as well as between packets 6 and 3) is 500 ps at the output packet stream. they are sent back through the DCF. The inset shows the guard time. The inset shows the buffer time of 25 ps between packets 2 and 3. (e) Output packet sequence where packets 2 and 3 are inserted at the corresponding time slots. ( 1545.9 nm) and ( 1552. phase-conjugated packets 2 and 3 are filtered off by a 4 nm filter. PPLN-2 QPM is shown with the dotted line and is at 1552. 11. the original copies along with the delayed copies coexist in the output packet stream as in Fig. (a) Input packet sequence of eight packets. As only packets 2 and 3 are going to be delayed. Note that the two extracted packets are at different wavelengths. as illustrated in Fig. due to the poor extinction ratio. 11(a) shows the spectra of the cascaded SFG-DFG process with the two gated pumps in PPLN-1. Fig. 11. 9. limits the guard time to be 25 ps. therefore. Experimental spectra of the wavelength conversion processes in the buffer.

13(c) shows corresponding edges of the packets after the delay before combining with the lower arm of the packet buffer. Dorren. Compared to the buffer-only case. no filters were used in the receiver for this experiment. However. this suggests that zero guard time may be achievable by using a larger bandwidth switch. 13(c). and packets are simultaneously ns. As the wavelength conversion stages used in the buffer preserve the phase information. [26]. both of the extracting pumps are ON. Thus. for this case. 13. 14. F. . ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank Dr. BER performances of the buffer reconfiguration experiment for guard times of 1 and 25 ps. the neighboring time slot appears empty in Fig. N. 14. J. respectively. de Waardt. characterized with a new back-to-back BER measurement. Therefore. D. Fig.1 dB penalty. H.S. The rise/fall time is 25 ps for both output ports. [27]. 1. Liu. V. Srivatsa. 2010 Fig. we believe. Jan. 2003. J. M. (c) Packets 2 and 3 after the delay (before the combination with the lower arm) when both gated pumps are ON. we showed that a reconfiguration time as fast as 25 ps are potentially achievable for buffers with conversion/dispersion-based delays. The U. 2  Fig. 13(a) shows the guard time between the packets 2 and 3. Therefore. Fig. (b) Packets 2 and 3 after extraction in the PPLN-1. Reconfiguration of the packet buffer shows power penalties of 4. I. the packet buffer can be tuned to support different bit rates and packet lengths. The effect of the reconfiguration setup is characterized with BER measurements as well.” J. 21. 13(b) plots only show one of the extracted packets while the other one is not extracted due to the gating effect of the switch. is due to the lowered wavelength conversion efficiency of the packet extraction stage in the multipacket scheme as the gated pump powers are decreased due to the insertion of the 2 2 switch prior to the amplification by the fixed gain EDFA. and ns. which. The output bit pattern is programmed to the error detector for each experiment with different guard times. However. 4. Fig. Y. BER measurements for the reconfiguration experiments with guard times of 1 and 25 ps are shown in Fig.. Fazal for fruitful discussions. Using a fast optical switch to toggle between the converted wavelengths that define the delay. Additionally. The relative delay used for the buffer is continuously tunable with 15 ps granularity. 2–12. the corresponding pump of a packet is turned off in each case. Calabretta.622 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY.9 dB penalty for the 25 ps reconfiguration case may be attributed finite extinction ratio ( 25 dB) and the limited transient response of the 2 2 optical switch. The scale is 100 ps/division for all the plots except (a)-(ii). Wang and Mr. Khoe. packet 3 (packet 2) extraction pump is turned off for demonstration purposes. no. Technol. For demonstration of the gating effect of the switch. 12. NO. vol. REFERENCES [1] H. 13(b).1 and 5 dB for guard times of 1 and 25 ps. Due to delayed by the delay. “Optical packet switching and buffering by using all-optical signal processing methods. CONCLUSION Fig. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. M. A. Hill. Lightw. Langrock of Stanford University for providing the PPLN waveguides and Dr. (a) Packets 2 and 3 from the input packet stream with a guard time (i) 25 ps and (ii) 1 ns. the reconfigurability of the buffer is tested. T. Transient response of the 2 2 lithium niobate switch used for toggling between pump lasers in packet extraction. and the first and last several bits for (i) 25 ps and (ii) 1 ns cases. the receiver is We have demonstrated an optical buffer that is capable of buffering ATM packets up to ten-packet length with a tunable 116 ns delay achieved by conversion/dispersion technique. and G. VOL. As described before. 1 ns reconfiguration introduces an extra 1. S. Fejer and Dr. The edges of the two packets after the extraction are also shown in Fig. Huijskens. For packet 2 (packet 3). this buffer has the potential to be used for phase-encoded packets as well [12]. 28. pp. Last and first several bits of the packets 2 and 3. respectively. The additional 0. FEBRUARY 15.

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