You are on page 1of 8

Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal

EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS Title Mirasol v. DPWH GR No. 158793 8 June 2006 Carpio, J. Facts In 1957 R! 2000 "#i$i%e& Hi'()a*s !+%, )as ena+%e&. -u.se/uen%l* DPWH !&$inis%ra%ive 0r&er 1 "1ro(i.i%in' $o%or+*+les on li$i%e& a++ess (i'()a*s, DPWH De1ar%$en% 0r&er 72 "&e+larin' +er%ain 1or%ions o3 %(e N#45 an& -#45 as li$i%e& a++ess 3a+ili%ies, an& DPWH De1ar%$en% 0r&er 215 "&e+larin' 6oas%al Roa& as a li$i%e& a++ess 3a+ili%*, )ere issue&. Ja$es Mirasol Ri+(ar& -an%ia'o an& %(e #u7on Mo%or+*+lis%s 8e&era%ion In+. sou'(% %o (ave %(e DPWH issuan+es invali&a%e& 3or viola%in' R! 2000. 6onse/uen%l* %(e 9oll Re'ula%or* :oar& issue& De1ar%$en% 0r&er 123 )(i+( allo)e& $o%or+*+les )i%( en'ine &is1la+e$en%s o3 200++ insi&e li$i%e& a++ess 3a+ili%ies. 9(e %rial +our% &is$isse& %(e 1e%i%ion .u% &e+lare& D0 123 invali&. -alva&or Parre@o serve& in %(e !8P 3or 32 *ears .e3ore (is re%ire$en% a3%er )(i+( (e re+eive& 1ension 1a*$en%s. Parre@o %(en $i'ra%e& %o Ha)aii an& .e+a$e a na%urali7e& !$eri+an +i%i7en. 9(e !8P su.se/uen%l* s%o11e& Parre@oAs 1ension in a++or&an+e )i%( -e+%ion 27 o3 PD 1638 )(i+( Issue/s W;N !&$inis%ra%ive 0r&er 1 is un+ons%i%u%ional 3or viola%in' %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause. Ruling N0. I% is nei%(er )arran%e& nor reasona.le %o sa* %(a% %(e onl* <us%i3ia.le +lassi3i+a%ion a$on' $o&es o3 %rans1or% is %(e $o%ori7e& a'ains% %(e non= $o%ori7e&. No% all $o%ori7e& ve(i+les are +rea%e& e/ual. Real an& su.s%an%ial &i33eren+es e>is% .e%)een a $o%or+*+le an& o%(er 3or$s o3 %rans1or% su33i+ien% %o <us%i3* i%s +lassi3i+a%ion a$on' %(ose 1ro(i.i%e& 3ro$ 1l*in' %(e %oll)a*s. 9(e $os% o.vious an& %rou.lin' &i33eren+e )oul& .e %(a% a %)o=)(eele& ve(i+le is less s%a.le an& $ore easil* over%urne& %(an a 3our=)(eele& ve(i+le. Pu.li+ in%eres% an& sa3e%* re/uire %(e i$1osi%ion o3 +er%ain res%ri+%ions on %oll)a*s %(a% &o no% a11l* %o or&inar* roa&s. !s a s1e+ial ?in& o3 roa& i% is .u% reasona.le %(a% no% all 3or$s o3 %rans1or% +oul& use i%. Doctrine/s 6lassi3i+a%ion .* i%sel3 is no% 1ro(i.i%e&. I% +an onl* .e assaile& i3 i% is &ee$e& invi&ious %(a% is i3 i% is no% .ase& on su.s%an%ial &i33eren+es. ! 1oli+e 1o)er $easure $a* .e assaile& u1on 1roo3 %(a% i% un&ul* viola%es +ons%i%u%ional li$i%a%ions li?e &ue 1ro+ess an& e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la).

Parre@o v. 6o$$ission on !u&i% GR No. 162222 7 June 2007 Carpio, J.

W;N -e+%ion 27 o3 PD 1638 &is+ri$ina%es a'ains% !8P re%irees )(o (ave +(an'e& %(eir na%ionali%*.

N0. Pe%i%ionerAs loss o3 8ili1ino +i%i7ens(i1 +ons%i%u%es a su.s%an%ial &is%in+%ion %(a% &is%in'uis(es (i$ 3ro$ o%(er re%irees )(o re%ain %(eir 8ili1ino +i%i7ens(i1. ! re%iree )(o (a& los% (is 8ili1ino +i%i7ens(i1 alrea&* renoun+e& (is alle'ian+e %o %(e s%a%e. 9(us (e $a* no lon'er .e +o$1elle& .* %(e s%a%e %o ren&er +o$1ulsor* $ili%ar*

9(e +ons%i%u%ional ri'(% %o e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la)s is no% a.solu%e .u% is su.<e+% %o reasona.le +lassi3i+a%ion. 9o .e reasona.le %(e +lassi3i+a%ion "a, Mus% .e .ase& on su.s%an%ial &is%in+%ions )(i+( $a?e real &i33eren+esB "., Mus% .e 'er$ane %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la)B

1

2 .* su.* +a1i%al +on%ri. PHI#R46! v.orro)in'.* %(e 1assa'e o3 %(e #o+al Govern$en% 6o&e.le +lassi3i+a%ion. In +on%ras% +oo1era%ives un&er PD 269 are 'overn$en%=3un&e& an& are lar'el* +on%rolle& .u% also +i%i7ens )(o (ave re%ire& 3ro$ $ili%ar* servi+e.* .* a la) .* o%(er 1ersons or o%(er +lasses in %(e sa$e 1la+e an& in li?e +ir+u$s%an+es.s%an%ial &is%in+%ions %(a% $a?e real &i33eren+es one +lass $a* . J. Wi%( %(e 1assa'e o3 PD 269 ele+%ri+ +oo1era%ives )ere &e+ree& %o .<e+%ive o3 %(e #G6 %o 'ran% 9(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause un&er %(e 6ons%i%u%ion $eans %(a% Dno 1erson or +lass o3 1ersons s(all .ene3i%s %er$ina%e&. 8irs% su.%e&ness in+urre& .e+o$e +o$1le%el* 3ree o3 in&e. W.u%ions .li'a%ions s%ill e>is%. 6oo1era%ives un&er R! 6938 are 3un&e& . 123076 10 June 2003 Puno.e &e1rive& o3 %(e sa$e 1ro%e+%ion o3 la)s )(i+( is en<o*e& .ers an& are envisione& %o .e re1ai& %o %(e 'overn$en%.er o3 %(e +lass.s%an%ial &is%in+%ions e>is% .e %rea%e& an& re'ula%e& &i33eren%l* 3ro$ ano%(er. Mus% a11l* e/uall* %o ea+( $e$.* %(e Na%ional 4le+%ri3i+a%ion !&$inis%ra%ion %o ensure %(a% %(e loans 'ran%e& %o %(e$ )oul& .Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal 1rovi&es %(a% a re%iree )(o loses (is 8ili1ino +i%i7ens(i1 s(all (ave (is re%ire$en% .* viola%in' %(e servi+e )(en %(e nee& arises )(i+( %(e s%a%e $a* re/uire o3 no% onl* i%s 1riva%e +i%i7ens . Parre@o re/ues%e& 3or re+onsi&era%ion . Mus% no% . 9(e li$i%e& an& res%ri+%ive na%ure o3 %(e %a> e>e$1%ion 1rivile'es un&er %(e #G6 is +onsis%en% )i%( %(e -%a%e 1oli+* %o ensure au%ono$* o3 #GCs an& %(e o. 9(e 60! &enie& Parre@oAs +lai$ 3or la+? o3 <uris&i+%ion an& a&vise& Parre@o %o 3ile %(e +ase in %(e 1ro1er +our%. DI#G -e+re%ar* GR No.e li$i%e& %o e>is%in' +on&i%ions onl*B an& "&. 9(us (e 3ile& a +lai$ .ase& on reasona. Ho)ever %(e 1e%i%ioners +on%en& %(a% %(eir %a> e>e$1%ions )ere invali&l* )i%(&ra)n . 9(e* assail -e+%ions 193 an& 232 3or 'ivin' &i33eren% %a> %rea%$en%s on ele+%ri+ +oo1era%ives re'is%ere& un&er PD 269 an& %(ose re'is%ere& un&er R! 6938 %(ere. 9(us %(e 'uaran%* o3 %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la)s is no% viola%e& .e3ore %(e 60! 3or %(e +on%inuan+e o3 (is $on%(l* 1ension. 8ro$ 1971 %o 1978 %(e P(ili11ine 'overn$en% an& %(e ele+%ri+ +oo1era%ives en%ere& in%o 6 loan a'ree$en%s )i%( C-!ID %o 3inan+e %(eir ele+%ri3i+a%ion 1ro<e+%s. -e+on& %(e +lassi3i+a%ion o3 %a>= e>e$1% en%i%ies in %(e #G6 is 'er$ane %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la). N0.e sel3= su33i+ien% an& in&e1en&en% or'ani7a%ions )i%( $ini$al 'overn$en% in%erven%ion or re'ula%ion.e 1er$anen%l* e>e$1%e& 3ro$ in+o$e %a>es an& e>e$1%e& 3ro$ 1a*in' na%ional or lo+al 'overn$en% %a>es un%il i% (as . I3 %(e 'rou1in's are +(ara+%eri7e& . 9(ese o.u% %(e Ju&'e !&vo+a%e General o3 %(e !8P &enie& (is 1e%i%ion.* $e$.e%)een +oo1era%ives un&er PD 269 an& +oo1era%ives un&er R! 6938.N %(e &i33eren+e in %rea%$en% o3 ele+%ri+ +oo1era%ives re'is%ere& un&er PD 269 an& %(ose re'is%ere& un&er R! 6938 +ons%i%u%e a viola%ion o3 %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause. "+.

le +lassi3i+a%ion as %(ese e>e$1%ions are no% li$i%e& %o e>is%in' +on&i%ions an& a11l* e/uall* %o all $e$. 9(e ins%i%u%ion an& 1rose+u%ion o3 +ri$inal +ases are 'overne& . 9(e -%a%e is en%i%le& %o &ue 1ro+ess in +ri$inal +ases as $u+( as %(e a++use&. Sr. In 2001 %(e +ase a'ains% #a+son )as revive&. 8inall* -e+%ions 193 an& 232 o3 %(e #G6 1er$i% reasona. I% )oul& .roa&en %(e %a> .* Ju&'e !'nir in 1999 . 129253 7 0+%o.e3ore %(e ne) rule %oo? e33e+% in 2000. ! re%roa+%ive a11li+a%ion o3 %(e %i$e=. In 2000 %(e Revise& Rules o3 6ri$inal Pro+e&ure %oo? e33e+% -e+%ion 8 Rule 117 o3 )(i+( 1res+ri.Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause.* %(e 6our%. In 1999 Ju&'e !'nir 1rovisionall* &is$isse& 11 $ur&er +ases a'ains% Pan3ilo #a+son.* e>is%in' rules an& no% .s%an%ial sour+es o3 revenue.e a &enial o3 %(e -%a%eAs ri'(% %o &ue 1ro+ess an& a %raves%* o3 <us%i+e 3or %(e 6our% %o a11l* %(e ne) rule re%roa+%ivel* in %(e 1resen% +ase as #a+son insis%s +onsi&erin' %(a% %(e +ri$inal +ases )ere 1rovisionall* &is$isse& . #a+son invo?e& -e+%ion 8 Rule 117 o3 %(e RR6P s%a%in' %(a% %(e rule s(oul& also a11l* re%roa+%ivel* on %(e . !s a $a%%er o3 3a+% i% )oul& .. 3 .es a %i$e=. 'enuine an& $eanin'3ul au%ono$* %o ena.e3ore i% )as a11rove& . #a+son GR No.sur& un<us% an& o11ressive +onse/uen+es %o %(e -%a%e an& %o %(e vi+%i$s o3 +ri$es an& %(eir (eirs. 4>e$1%ions 3ro$ lo+al %a>a%ion in+lu&in' real 1ro1er%* %a> are 'ran%e& %o all +oo1era%ives +overe& .* rules *e% %o e>is%.ase o3 #GCs %o assure %(e$ o3 su.N %(e non=re%roa+%ive a11li+a%ion o3 %(e ne) %i$e=.le #GCs %o a%%ain %(eir 3ulles% &evelo1$en%.ar rule )oul& viola%e %(e a++use&As ri'(% %o e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la).er 2003 Callejo.ein' 3avora. J.e %(e a1e> o3 in<us%i+e %o (ol& %(a% -e+%ion 8 (a& a 1la%oni+ or i&eal e>is%en+e . #a+son +on%en&e& %(a% i3 %(e rule )oul& onl* .ers o3 %(e sa$e +lass.le %o %(e a++use&.vious in%en%ion o3 %(e la) is %o .ar rule o3 2 *ears 3or %(e revival o3 %(e 1rose+u%ion o3 +ases )(i+( )ere 1rovisionall* &is$isse&.e 'iven $ore %(an 2 *ears 3ro$ %(e &is$issal o3 %(e +ase %o revive %(e +ri$inal +ases %(us viola%in' (is ri'(% %o W.e a11lie& 1ros1e+%ivel* %(e 1e%i%ioners )oul& . 9(e o. Peo1le v.ar )ill resul% in a. N0.* R! 6938 an& su+( e>e$1%ions e>is% 3or as lon' as %(e #G6 an& %(e 1rovisions %(erein on lo+al %a>a%ion re$ain 'oo& la).asis o3 .

J.an?s )i%(ou% e>+e1%ion. Prior %o %(e e>1ira%ion o3 %(e +o$$er+ial .Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal :el%ran v.usiness en%er1rise an& %(e* sour+e %(eir . W.an?s are $o%iva%e& .loo& .loo& .loo& .an?s in a $anner )(i+( is no% 'er$ane %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la).le &iseases %(an %(ose &ona%e& %o %(e P(ili11ine Na%ional Re& 6ross.an?s in %(e +oun%r*.loo& &ona%ion. Non1ro3i% .an?s is 'er$ane %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la) )(i+( is %o 1rovi&e %(e na%ion )i%( an a&e/ua%e su11l* o3 sa3e .* 1ersons %o +o$$er+ial . R! 7719 "Na%ional :loo& -ervi+es !+%.ase& on su.li+ an& %o 'ive $eanin' %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la) %(e 6lass le'isla%ion &is+ri$ina%in' a'ains% so$e an& 3avorin' o%(ers is 1ro(i.loo& %rans3usion %rans$issi.an?s are %(ree %i$es $ore li?el* %o (ave .an?s )i%(in 2 *ears a3%er i%s e33e+%ivi%*.loo& as a sale o3 +o$$o&i%*. 0ne R! 7719 is . In servin' %(e in%eres% o3 %(e 1u.N R! 7719 viola%es %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause. 0n %(e o%(er (an& +o$$er+ial .* 1ro3i% an& %rea% . 9(is ne+essaril* involves %(e 1(ase=ou% o3 +o$$er+ial .loo& .an?s o1era%e 3or 1urel* (u$ani%arian reasons an& as a $e&i+al servi+e an& en+oura'e volun%ar* .an?sA li+enses %(e* 3ile& a 1e%i%ion assailin' %(e +ons%i%u%ionali%* an& vali&i%* o3 R! 7719 an& i%s I$1le$en%in' Rules an& Re'ula%ions 3or &is+ri$ina%in' a'ains% 3ree s%an&in' .i%e&B . N0.loo& &onors )(o are +onsi&ere& unsa3e.loo& .le .an?s .s%an%ial &is%in+%ions. 9)o %(e +lassi3i+a%ion an& %(e +onse/uen% 1(ase=ou% o3 .loo& %rans3usion as a (u$ani%arian or $e&i+al servi+e ra%(er %(an a +o$$o&i%*.loo& sol& .er 2005 Azcuna.N -e+%ion 7 o3 R! 7719 +ons%i%u%es unla)3ul &e1riva%ion o3 1ersonal li. 133620 133661 an& 139127 25 Nove$.* 1ro$o%in' volun%ar* . W.i%raril* or +a1ri+iousl* is 1er$i%%e&.loo& &ona%ion an& %rea%in' . 9(ree %(e #e'isla%ure in%en&e& 3or %(e 'eneral a11li+a%ion o3 %(e la).loo& &ona%ion an& . 4 .asis an& no% $a&e ar. )as ena+%e& in 1992 see?in' %o 1rovi&e an a&e/ua%e su11l* o3 sa3e .loo& .ase& on %(e 3a+% %(a% %(e* o1era%e as a .loo& .* re'ula%in' .loo& .loo& su11l* 3ro$ 1ai& . 9(e !+% )as 1asse& a3%er s%u&ies s(o)e& %(a% .loo& . 8our %(e la) a11lies e/uall* %o all +o$$er+ial . N0.loo& . I%s ena+%$en% )as no% solel* %o a&&ress %(e 1e+uliar +ir+u$s%an+es o3 %(e si%ua%ion nor )as i% in%en&e& %o a11l* onl* %o e>is%in' +on&i%ions.loo& . &ue 1ro+ess an& e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la).u% +lassi3i+a%ion on a reasona. -e+re%ar* o3 Heal%( GR Nos.* 1ro$o%in' volun%ar* .er%* an& 1ro1er%*. -e+%ion 7 %(ereo3 1rovi&e& 3or %(e 1(ase= ou% o3 all +o$$er+ial .loo& %rans3usions +oul& lea& %o %rans$ission o3 &iseases an& %(a% .loo& .

rou'(% (er +ase %o %(e -o+ial -e+uri%* 6o$$ission )(i+( s%ill &enie& (er +lai$. Ho)ever %(e sa$e )as &enie& on %(e 'roun& %(a% un&er -e+%ion 12=:"&. 161357 30 Nove$.ears no rela%ion %o %(e a+(ieve$en% o3 %(e 1oli+e o. W. I% is ar.e+auseG "1.ase& on reasona.e'an re+eivin' (is $on%(l* 1ension 3ro$ %(e ---. i% is no% .erAs re%ire$en% as s(a$ rela%ions(i1s or )ere +on%ra+%e& solel* 3or %(e 1ur1ose o3 a+/uirin' . J. 9(e +lassi3i+a%ion viola%es %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause .Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal D*+ai+o v. s(e +oul& no% .loo& .an a11li+a%ion 3or survivorAs 1ension.ene3i+iaries.u% %(eir in%eres%s $us% 'ive )a* %o serve a (i'(er en& 3or %(e in%eres% o3 %(e 1u.)i%( (is +o$$on=la) )i3e 4lena an& %(eir ei'(% +(il&ren na$e& in (is &a%a re+or& as . Irre. 5 .e+a$e %(e* )ere no% $arrie& Da% %(e %i$e o3 (is re%ire$en%.ene3i+iar* .an?s.le +lassi3i+a%ion &oes no% viola%e %(e +ons%i%u%ional 'uaran%* o3 %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause o3 %(e la).E "2. Sr.le 1resu$1%ions (ave lon' .ene3i%s a++ruin' u1on %(e &ea%( o3 %(e o%(er s1ouse.ase& on )(e%(er %(e $arria'e )as +on%ra+%e& .s%an%ial &is%in+%ions.ase& on real an& su.ur&en.ers )ere +on%ra+%e& a3%er %(e la%%erAs Generall* a s%a%u%e .E 4lena . In 1989 :oni3a+io )as +onsi&ere& re%ire& an& . He $arrie& 4lena on %(e sa$e *ear %(a% (e 1asse& a)a*. #e'isla%ure &ee$e& i% ne+essar* %o 1(ase=ou% +o$$er+ial .ili%* si+?ness $a%erni%* ol& a'e &ea%( an& o%(er +on%in'en+ies resul%in' in loss o3 in+o$e or 3inan+ial . 6lassi3*in' &e1en&en% s1ouses )i%( res1e+% %o %(eir en%i%le$en% .an?s . 9(e 1roviso also viola%es %(e &ue 1ro+ess +lause as i% ou%ri'(%l* &e1rives %(e survivin' s1ouses )(ose res1e+%ive $arria'es %o %(e re%ire& --. o3 R! 8282 "-o+ial -e+uri%* #a).er o3 %(e --. 9(is a+%ion $a* seriousl* a33e+% %(e o)ners an& o1era%ors as )ell as %(e e$1lo*ees o3 +o$$er+ial .een &is3avore& un&er %(e &ue 1ro+ess +lause as %(e* +oul& 1resu$e 3a+%s )(i+( are no% ne+essaril* or universall* %rue. -o+ial -*s%e$ GR No.u%%a.li+.e +onsi&ere& :oni3a+ioAs 1ri$ar* .ers an& %(eir . i% is no% 'er$ane %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la).e3ore or a3%er %(e re%ire$en% o3 %(e o%(er s1ouse re'ar&less o3 %(e &ura%ion o3 %(e sai& $arria'e . o3 R! 8282 viola%es %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion an& &ue 1ro+ess +lauses o3 %(e 6ons%i%u%ion.N %(e 1roviso Das o3 %(e &a%e o3 (is re%ire$en%E in -e+%ion 12= :"&.ene3i+iaries a'ains% %(e (a7ar& o3 &isa.<e+%ive o3 %(e la) )(i+( is %o D1rovi&e $eanin'3ul 1ro%e+%ion %o $e$. F4-.$e$. -(or%l* a3%er :oni3a+ioAs &ea%( 4lena 3ile& )i%( %(e --. I% un3airl* lu$1s $arria'es +on%ra+%e& a3%er %(e $e$.i%rar* an& &is+ri$ina%or*..er 2005 Callejo. -e+uri%* :oni3a+io D*+ai+o )as a $e$.loo& .

lis($en%s insi&e an& ou%si&e %(e 7one <us%i3*in' %(e &i33eren+e in %(eir %rea%$en%.u% %o 3u%ure +on&i%ions as )ell inas$u+( as %(e la) envisione& %(e 3or$er $ili%ar* reserva%ion %o ul%i$a%el* &evelo1 in%o a sel3= 9(e 'uaran%* o3 %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la)s is no% viola%e& . W.le +lassi3i+a%ion. 4n%er1rises ou%si&e %(e -4H $ain%ain %(eir . viola%es %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause.e+ause %(e sai& survivin' s1ouses are no% a33or&e& an* o11or%uni%* %o &is1rove %(e 1resen+e o3 %(e illi+i% 1ur1ose %(ere. 9(e 1roviso +rea%es %(e 1resu$1%ion %(a% $arria'es +on%ra+%e& a3%er %(e $e$.e& a I100 $on%(l* li$i% %o %(ose )(o live )i%(in %(e --48PH .N 40 97=! ")(i+( 1res+ri.ase& on a reasona.* also &e1rivin' %(e$ %(e o11or%uni%* %o .es %(e %a>=3ree 1rivile'es.i+ :a* )(ere 3ree 3lo) o3 'oo&s an& +a1i%al is $ain%aine&B %(us %(e +lassi3i+a%ion is 'er$ane %o %(e 1ur1ose o3 %(e la).se/uen%l* several 4>e+u%ive 0r&ers allo)e& %(e . In 1992 R! 7227 )as 1asse& 3or %(e +onversion o3 %(e 6lar? an& -u. N0. -u.e (ear&. Pe%i%ioners assail %(e I100 $on%(l* an& I200 *earl* %a>=3ree 1rivile'es. 9(e +lassi3i+a%ion $oreover is no% li$i%e& %o e>is%in' +on&i%ions )(en %(e la) )as 1ro$ul'a%e& . 9(is 1resu$1%ion is +on+lusive .e (ear&. -u. 9orres GR No. 132527 29 Jul* 2005 Azcuna. 6 . re%ire$en% o3 %(eir survivorAs .ersA re%ire$en% &a%e )ere en%ere& in%o 3or %(e 1ur1ose o3 se+urin' .u% ou%si&e %(e -e+ure& !rea an& I200 *earl* li$i% %o %(ose )(o live ou%si&e %(e --48PH.Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal 6o+onu% 0il Re3iners v.e%)een %(e es%a. 9o 'ran% %(e sa$e %a> in+en%ives 'iven %o en%er1rises )i%(in %(e 7ones %o .usinesses )i%(in %(e P(ili11ine %erri%or* )(ile -4H en%er1rises o1era%e )i%(in a se1ara%e +us%o$s %erri%or*.s%an%ial &is%in+%ions lie .ene3i%s. 9(ere is ou%ri'(% +on3is+a%ion o3 .i+ $ili%ar* reserva%ions in%o s1e+ial e+ono$i+ 7ones.i+ -1e+ial 4+ono$i+ an& 8ree Por% Hone.* a le'isla%ion .usinesses o1era%in' ou%si&e %(e 7ones )oul& +learl* &e3ea% %(e s%a%u%eAs in%en% %o +arve a %erri%or* ou% o3 %(e $ili%ar* reserva%ions in -u.ene3i%s &ue su+( survivin' s1ouses )i%(ou% 'ivin' %(e$ an o11or%uni%* %o . I% 1res+ri. In 1993 %(e :ases 6onver%ion Develo1$en% !u%(ori%* 1asse& a resolu%ion allo)in' %(e %a> an& &u%*=3ree sale a% re%ail o3 +onsu$er 'oo&s i$1or%e& via 6lar? 3or +onsu$1%ion ou%si&e %(e 6lar? -1e+ial 4+ono$i+ Hone. J.rin'in' ou% o3 1ur+(ase& %a>= 3ree i%e$s 3ro$ %(e -u.ene3i%s un&er R! 8282.

He %(en +on%en&e& %(a% %o &is+ri$ina%e 60! 1ersonnel 3ro$ o%(er na%ional W. 8inall* %(e +lassi3i+a%ion a11lies e/uall* %o all re%ailers 3oun& )i%(in %(e se+ure& area. Ru&* Jillare@a )as assi'ne& as !u&i%or o3 Mari?ina .ene3i%s )(i+( )ere la%er &is+overe& .ene3i%s %(e 6i%* o3 Mari?ina 'ave %o su+( o33i+ials a++or&in' %o %(e #G6.* Mari?ina en%i%le& (i$ %o re+eive s1e+ial allo)an+es an& .le %o 1ro1erl* 1er3or$ %(eir +ons%i%u%ional $an&a%e 60! o33i+ials nee& %o . 0r&inan+es 1asse& . N0.o%( in 1rivile'es 'ran%e& an& in o. 9o .i%e& 1a*$en% o3 a&&i%ional +o$1ensa%ion %o 60! 1ersonnel . 6o$$ission on !u&i% GR Nos.N -e+%ion 18 o3 R! 6758 viola%es %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause.le o33i+e rules an& re'ula%ions. !%%*.* 'overn$en% uni%s %o )(i+( %(e* )ere assi'ne&.* 60!. J. !%%*. !%%*.* %(e 6o$$ission on !u&i% 3ro$ 1992 %o 1997. Jillare@a )as %(en 3oun& 'uil%* .e a++or&e& &i33eren% %rea%$en% un&er %(e la) as lon' as %(e +lassi3i+a%ion is reasona. 9(e* are all si$ilarl* %rea%e& .i%rar*. 7 . Jillare@a a11eale& s%a%in' %(a% (e )as a$on' %(e Do%(er na%ional 'overn$en% o33i+ialsE )(i+( )ere en%i%le& %o )(a%ever a&&i%ional allo)an+es an& .Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal Jillare@a v.le an& no% ar.ein' in li?e +ir+u$s%an+es or +on%ri. 9(e 1ri$ar* 3un+%ion o3 an au&i%or is %o 1reven% irre'ular unne+essar* e>+essive or e>%rava'an% e>1en&i%ures o3 'overn$en% 3un&s. 125383=82 6 !u'us% 2003 Azcuna.* %(e 60! 3or ne'le+% o3 &u%* si$1le $is+on&u+% an& viola%ion o3 reasona.u%in' &ire+%l* %o %(e a+(ieve$en% %o %(e en& 1ur1ose o3 %(e la) are no% +a%e'ori7e& 3ur%(er.li'a%ions re/uire&. 9(e 1ro(i.i%ion un&er -e+%ion 18 o3 !+% 6758 )as &esi'ne& 1re+isel* %o serve %(is 1ur1ose.e a.usinesses )i%(in %(e se+ure& area .* a -1e+ial !u&i% 9ea$ +ons%i%u%e& . sus%ainin' inves%$en% +en%er.e insula%e& 3ro$ un)arran%e& in3luen+es so %(a% %(e* +an a+% )i%( in&e1en&en+e an& in%e'ri%*. I% )as %(en &e+lare& %(a% %(ese )ere re+eive& in viola%ion o3 -e+%ion 18 o3 R! 6758 )(i+( 1ro(i. 9(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause &oes no% 1re+lu&e +lassi3i+a%ion o3 in&ivi&uals )(o $a* . 9(ere are vali& reasons %o %rea% 60! o33i+ials &i33eren%l* 3ro$ o%(er na%ional 'overn$en% o33i+ials. 9(e in&ivi&uals an& .

8 .e3ore %(e la). No 1ar%i+ular 1erson or +lasses o3 1ersons are i&en%i3ie& .e e>+lusivel* i$1ose&.ein' viola%ive o3 %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause s%a%in' %(a% i% onl* 1unis(es 1eo1le li?e (i$ )(o are une&u+a%e& an& <o. Mi<ano GR No. Obiter: Compassion for the poor is an imperative of every human but only when the recipient is not a rascal claimin an un!eserve! privile e.N %(e &ea%( 1enal%* viola%es %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion +lause.* %(e la) a'ains% )(o$ %(e &ea%( 1enal%* s(all . Cn&er %(is 'uaran%ee ea+( in&ivi&ual is &eal% )i%( as an e/ual 1erson in %(e la) )(i+( &oes no% %rea% %(e 1erson &i33eren%l* o3 )(o (e is or )(a% (e is or )(a% (e 1ossesses. N0. I% a11lies %o all 1ersons an& %o all +lasses o3 1ersonsKri+( or 1oor e&u+a%e& or une&u+a%e& reli'ious or non= reli'ious. 129112 23 Jul* 1999 Per Curiam 'overn$en% o33i+ials )oul& +ons%i%u%e a viola%ion o3 %(e e/ual 1ro%e+%ion o3 %(e la)s.Constitutional Law Case Digest Matrix Set 2 – Stef Macapagal Peo1le v.* %(e lo)er +our% o3 %(e +ri$e o3 ra1e o3 3ive=*ear=ol& Ha7el Ra$ire7 3or )(i+( %(e 1enal%* o3 &ea%( )as 'iven. 9(e e/uali%* %(e 6ons%i%u%ion 'uaran%ees is le'al e/uali%* or as i% is usuall* 1u% %(e e/uali%* o3 all 1ersons . 9(e &ea%( 1enal%* $a?es no &is%in+%ion. !++use& Ji$$* Mi<ano )as +onvi+%e& . Mi<ano assails %(e &ea%( 1enal%* 3or .less. W.