Assignments in Science Class X (Term II

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Carbon and its Compounds
IMPORTANT NOTES
9. Unsaturated organic compounds : Organic compounds in which a double or a triple bond exists between two carbon atoms in a carbon chain, are called unsaturated organic compounds. 10. Hydrocarbons : Organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms are called hydrocarbons. 11. Straight chain hydrocarbons : Hydrocarbons, in which all the carbon atoms are linked to one another in a straight chain by a single covalent bond are called straight chain hydrocarbons. 12. Branched chain hydrocarbons : Hydrocarbons, in which one or more carbon atoms are attached to the main straight chain of carbon atoms by a single covalent bond are called branched chain hydrocarbons. 13. Isomerism : The phenomenon due to which there can exist two or more organic compounds, with different physical and chemical properties, due to the difference in arrangement of carbon atoms in their structure, but have same chemical formula is called isomerism. 14. Homologous series : A group of members of the same class of organic compounds, which differ from each other by a – CH2 group, when arranged in the ascending order of molecular mass, is called a homologous series. 15. Homologous : The members of the same class of organic compounds, when arranged in the ascending order of molecular mass, such that they differ by 14 amu or a – CH2 group are called homologous. 16. Alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons) : Compounds of carbon and hydrogen, in which all the valencies of carbon atoms are satisfied by single covalent bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes.

1. Covalent bond or Molecular bond or Homopolar bond : A chemical bond formed between two non-metallic elements by the mutual sharing of one or more electron pairs is called covalent bond. 2. Covalency : The number of electron pairs which an atom of an element mutually shares with another atom or atoms of the same or different elements, so as to acquire a stable configuration like noble gases, is called covalency. 3. Properties of covalent (molecular) compound : (i) They have low melting point and boiling point. (ii) They have low density, i.e., their density is generally less than that of water. (iii) They are gaseous or volatile liquids or soft solids. (iv) They are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents. (v) They are generally bad conductors of electricity. 4. Diamond is the purest crystalline form of carbon which is the hardest naturally occurring substance.

5. Other pure crystalline forms of carbon are graphite and fullerenes. In Buckminsterfullerene, each molecule has 60 atoms arranged in hexagons and pentagons. 6. Organic Chemistry : The branch of chemistry dealing with carbon compounds other than carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and carbonates is called organic chemistry. 7. Catenation : The property of carbon atoms to link with other carbon atoms or the atoms of other elements with single, double or triple covalent bonds, so as to form large number of compounds is called catenation. 8. Saturated organic compounds : Organic compounds in which all the four valencies of carbon atoms are satisfied by single covalent bonds, are called saturated organic compounds.
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L A Y O G

S ER TH O R B

N A SH A K A R P

General formula for alkanes is CnH2n + 2 where ‘n’ stands for number of carbon atoms. 17. Alkenes : A homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons, characterised by the presence of double covalent bond (— C = C —) in the

Functional group in an organic compound. The conversion of unsaturated vegetable oil into saturated vegetable oil by the absorption of hydrogen in the presence of finely divided nickel is called hydrogenation of oils. A chemical reaction between ethanoic acid and any alcohol to form an acetate of the alcohol (commonly called as ester). 19. 26. 29. General formula for alkenes is CnH2n where n stands for the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain. 22. in which the carbon atom of are attached to two carbon atoms. A chemical reaction in which hydrogen atoms in a saturated hydrocarbon are replaced by the atoms of some other elements is called substitution reaction. 31. Coal and petroleum are formed when organic matter (plants and animals) got buried deep inside the earth and then decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. Ethanol reacts with sodium and potassium to form their respective ethoxides and hydrogen gas. 32. (ii) is miscible in water in all proportions. All allotropic forms of carbon as well as organic compounds burn in air/oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water (in the form of steam). 35. This makes it unfit for drinking purposes. sulphuric acid at 443 K (170°C). 20. 27. Ethanol gets dehydrated to ethene when heated with conc. IUPAC name of alcohols is alkanols and general formula is CnH2n + 1 OH. 18. Methylated spirit is ethanol in which a small amount of methanol is mixed. Pure ethanoic acid is a corrosive colourless liquid having strong smell like that of vinegar. 21. that it is usually the site of chemical reactivity of an organic compound. but is extensively used in paints and varnish industry. General formula for alkynes is CnH2n – 2. which is a sweet smelling product. 36. N A SH A K A R P 2 . Ethanol (i) is a colourless and inflammable liquid. Carboxylic acids are compounds of carbon containing — COOH group attached to the carbon atom of an alkyl chain. is an atom or group of atoms bonded together in such a unique fashion. where ‘n’ stands for the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain. Aldehydes are carbon compounds containing — CHO group attached to the carbon atom of an alkyl chain. obtained by replacing a hydrogen atom of an alkane with an atom of a halogen are called halo alkanes. 33. with the release of a large amount of energy. so as to form new organic compounds having single covalent bond. The process by which an ester gets hydrolysed in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form the constituent alcohol and sodium salt of alkanoic acid is called saponification. 23. The process of rapid burning of carbon or its compounds in air/oxygen. (iii) has a boiling point of 78. having the general formula CnH2n + 1. characterised by the triple covalent bond (— C ≡ C straight chain of carbon atoms alkynes. where ‘R’ stands for alkyl radical and ‘X’ stands for halogen atom. Halo alkanes : Halogen compounds of alkanes. is called addition reaction. Alcohols are carbon compounds containing — OH group attached to the carbon atom of an alkyl chain. Ketones are compounds containing group. and O general formula is R C R' where R and R ′ stand for the same or different alkyl radicals. IUPAC name of carboxylic acids is alkanoic acids and general formula is R—COOH where R stands for alkyl radical having the general formula CnH2n + 1. are called alkenes. L A Y O G S ER H C=O T OC = O R B 30. is called esterification.2°C and freezing point of – 118°C and (iv) is a bad conductor of electricity. General formula of halo alkanes is R—X 37. 34. 24. with the release of a large amount of energy and formation of carbon dioxide and water is called combustion. 28. IUPAC name of aldehydes is alkanals and general formula is CnH2n + 1 CHO. IUPAC name of ketone is alkanone. A reaction which proceeds with the breaking of double or triple covalent bonds in organic compounds. unsaturated presence of —) in the are called 25. Alkynes : A homologous series of hydrocarbons.straight chain of carbon atoms.

45.38. forming the short ionic part in soap/detergent are attracted by water molecules and is called hydrophilic. is known to form compounds with many elements. Which of the following will give addition reaction and why? C4H10 . Soap is a sodium salt of long chain carboxylic acids (fatty acids). However. which are commonly called soap micelles. Name the functional group present in propanal [2011 (T-II)] (C3H6O). 41. Write the name and structure of an aldehyde with 4 carbon atoms. How ethanoic acid got its name as glacial [2011 (T-II)] acetic acid? . [HOTS] 3. it is attracted by oil or grease molecules. Synthetic detergents lather even in hard water and hence can be used for cleaning. 39. it is repelled by oil or grease molecules. 44. Why? [2011 (T-II)] 3 C3 H 7 OH. QUESTIONS FROM CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS 7. 43. “Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a blue flame while unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame”. 4. Draw the structure of ethene molecule (C2H4). What is rectified spirit? 7. I. [2011 (T-II)] [2011 (T-II)] 10. C3H8. Write an example of a compound formed with : (a) chlorine (Group 17 of Periodic Table) (b) oxygen (Group 16 of Periodic Table). [2011 (T-II)] L A Y O G S ER TH O R B N A SH A K A R P (1 Mark) B. What do you understand by the term catenation? 5. [2011 (T-II)] 4. Draw the structure of the simplest ketone. VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS A. Name the fourth (4th) member of alkene [2011 (T-II)] series. Carbon. However. [2011 (T-II)] 6. Sodium ions. What is general formula of alkanoic acid? 1. 11. which has cleansing action in water. The long chain of hydrocarbon in soap/ detergent is repelled by water molecules and is called hydrophobic. O || 3. CH 3 – C – CH 3 9. C2H6 . Group (14) element in the Periodic Table. Draw the electron dot structure of ethane (C2 H6). 42. Write the next higher homologue of the following : (i) C3H6 (ii) C5H8 [2011 (T-II)] 2. Synthetic detergents (soapless soaps) are either sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid or sodium salt of long chain alkyl hydrogen sulphate. The process of breaking down of bigger droplets of oil or grease into smaller droplets is called emulsification and the substance used to do so is called emulsifier. Name the functional group present in each of the following compounds. What would be the electron dot structure of a molecule of sulphur which is made up of 8 atoms of sulphur? 2. The colloidal particles of soap suspended in water form clusters. 12. Name the products obtained on complete combustion of ethanol. [HOTS] Give the name of any alkanoic acid. CH4 . Draw the structure of pentanal (C4H9CHO). which show cleansing properties in water. [2011 (T-II)] 5. 40. Name the gas evolved and also write a balanced chemical equation of the reaction involved. [2011 (T-II)] 8. Soap loses its cleansing action in hard water and forms a sticky scum. A gas is evolved when ethanol reacts with sodium. 6. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 1.

What happens when soap solution in a test tube is shaken with (i) soft water (ii) hard [2002] water? N A SH A K A R P (2 Marks) A. Write the formula and draw electron dot [HOTS] structure of carbon tetrachloride. 28. Why are covalent compounds generally poor [2008] conductors of electricity? S ER TH O II. It is exhibited by both carbon and silicon. Name the functional group present in [2006] propanone (acetone). Name the type of reaction represented by the following equation : 2SO 4 CH 3CH 2OH + CH3COOH Conc. 26. What is meant by a saturated hydrocarbon? [2009] [2009] 19. [2009. 2011 (T-II)] 25. (a) The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Name the product formed besides soap that is obtained during saponification process. Draw the possible isomers of the compound with molecular formula C3H6O and also give [HOTS] their electron dot structures. Give a chemical test to distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. 16. Name the element other than carbon that [2003] constitute carbohydrates. What is the difference in the molecular formula of any two consecutive members of a homologous series of organic compounds? [2008] 14. 27. 3. What is a functional group in a carbon compound? Identify the functional group present in CH3COOH and C2H5OH. Give reason for the following observation : 24. the valence shell electrons are represented by crosses or dots. Write the names of the following compounds. [2002] 32. 2.13. What is denatured alcohol? [2004] 17. Give reasons. How are the molecules of aldehydes and [2004] ketones structurally different? 29. Compare the ability of catenation of the two [HOTS] elements. Write a chemical equation to represent the reaction of ethanol with acidified solution of [2009] potassium dichromate. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS–I R B L A Y O G 22. Draw the structure of CH3COOH molecule. Why does carbon form compounds mainly by [2008] covalent bonding? 21. Catenation is the ability of an atom to form bonds with other atoms of the same element. [2009. [2008] 1. [HOTS] 30. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (a) (b) (c) (d) 4 . 31. 4. 20. (b) Draw the electron dot structure of chlorine molecule. 2011 (T-II)] 15. 18. Write the names of the functional groups in : (i) (ii) [2009] (i) What would be observed on adding a 5% solution of alkaline potassium permanganate solution drop by drop to some warm ethanol taken in a test tube? (ii) Write the name of the compound formed [2008] during the chemical reaction. Write its electronic configuration. Give reason for the following : Formalin is used for preserving biological [2007] specimens.H  → CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O [2011 (T-II)] 23. [2008] The element carbon forms a very large number of compounds. In electron dot structure. Draw the structure of ethanol molecule.

(c) (a) (d) (b) 6. What are isomers? Draw the structures of two [2011 (T-II)]] isomers of butane (C4H10). (a) Give a chemical test to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid. How would you bring about the following conversions? Name the process and write the reactions involved. 5 7. QUESTIONS FROM CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS 1. Identify and name the functional groups present in the following compounds. 4. How is the reaction useful in vegetable ghee industry? [2011 (T-II)]] L A Y O G S ER TH O R B addition reactions. 2009] . N A SH A K A R P (i) Addition reaction (ii) Substitution reaction (iii) Neutralisation reaction (iv) Esterification reaction 5. which part largely determine its physical and chemical properties. Ethene is formed when ethanol at 443 K is heated with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid. With the help of a balanced chemical equation indicate what happens when it is [2010] heated with excess of conc. What is the role of sulphuric acid in this reaction? Write balanced chemical equation of [HOTS] this reaction. 6. (a) ethanol to ethene [HOTS] (b) Propanol to propanoic acid.5. Write the names and molecular formula of two organic compounds having functional group suffixed as ‘–oic acid’. What is saponification? Write the reaction [HOTS] involved in this process. H2SO4. (b) Name the product formed when an organic acid reacts with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst. Write the name and molecular formula of an organic compound having its name suffixed with ‘–ol’ and having two carbon atoms in the molecule. Match the reactions given in Column (A) with [HOTS] the names given in Column (B). Give the test to distinguish [HOTS] ethane from ethene. 8. [2009] 3. What is a homologous series of substances? In an organic compound. 11. 10. 9. What is a hydrogenation reaction? Write an equation to represent this reaction. Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain multiple bonds between the two C-atoms and show B. 2. What is the name assigned to this type of reaction? [2008. Intake of small quantity of methanol can be [HOTS] lethal. Comment. With the help of a balanced chemical equation explain what happens when any one of them reacts with [2010] sodium hydroxide. What happens when wood is burnt in a limited supply of oxygen? Name the residue left behind after the reaction and state two advantages of using this residue as a fuel over [2010] wood. Column (A) → CH3COOCH3 + H2O (a) CH3OH + CH3COOH  H+ [HOTS] Column (B) → CH3— CH3 (b) CH2 = CH2 + H2  Sunlight Ni → CH Cl + HCl (c) CH4 + Cl2  3 → CH3COONa + H2O (d) CH3COOH + NaOH ⎯⎯ 7.

Why are soaps ineffective in hard water? [2008] 12. State the principle on which the cleaning [2008] action of soap is based. KMnO [HOTS] 5. 10. B. What is the role of metal or reagents written on arrows in the given chemical reactions? (a) L A Y O G S ER TH O R B N A SH A K A R P (b) CH 3 COOH Conc.8. The alcohol on oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 followed by acidification gives the same carboxylic acid as used in this reaction. III. . 4. A compound X is formed by the reaction of a carboxylic acid C2H 4O2 and an alcohol in presence of a few drops of H2SO4. 11. → (i) C3H6 + O2  → (ii) C2H5OH + H2SO4  (iii) CH3COONa + HCl  → 3. Name the compounds ‘A’ and ‘B’ and 6 write their structural formula. (a) (i) Name the products formed when ethanol burns in air. (ii) Alcohol supplied for industrial purposes is [2007] mixed with copper sulphate. [2005] 16. 15. An organic acid ‘X’ is a liquid which often freezes during winter time in cold countries. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS +  → CH3COOC2H5 + H2O 4→ (c) CH3CH2OH  CH3COOH Heat Alk. Write the structural formulae of all the isomers of hexane. (a) Write the name of the following: (i) CH3CH2COOH (ii) CH3CH2Br (b) Draw the electron dot structure of ethene. C 2 H 4 O 2 . (ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction [2008] involved. QUESTIONS FROM CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS 1. It has the molecular formula. What happens when ‘A’ and ‘B’ react in the presence of an acid catalyst? Write the chemical equation of [2011 (T-II)] the reaction. Give the names and structures of (a) carboxylic acid (b) alcohol and (c) the compound X. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS–II 1. Give three advantages of synthetic detergents. (a) Give a chemical test to identify the compound CH3COOH. Give reasons for the following: (i) Oxidation of ethanol with CrO3 produces ethanal while ethanol when oxidised with alkaline KMnO4 produces ethanoic acid. (b) Name the gas evolved when this compound acts on solid sodium carbonate. An organic compound ‘A’ is an essential constituent of wine and beer. [2008] 9. elements. What is meant by ‘fermentation’? Write chemical equations for the two steps involved in preparing ethanol by the fermentation of [2004] molasses. a compound ‘Y’ with a sweet smell is formed. Write balanced equations for following reactions. Also write the [HOTS] reaction. On warming it with ethanol in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. compounds or mixtures? Give one example of allotropy. (i) Identify ‘X’ and ‘Y’. How would you identify this gas? [2008] 13. (ii) What two forms of energy are liberated on burning alcohol? (b) Why is the reaction between methane and chlorine considered as substitution [2008] reaction? 14. Oxidation of ‘A’ yields an organic acid ‘B’ which is present in vinegar. Allotropy is a property shown by which class : substances. [HOTS] 2. H 2SO 4 (3 Marks) CH 3 CH 2 OH A.

. (a) On dropping a small piece of sodium into an organic compound ‘A’ with molecular formula C 2 H 6 O in a test tube a brisk effervescence is observed. This compound reacts with ethanol in the presence of a mineral acid to form a sweet smelling compound B. Why? [2011 (T-II)] 8. Describe an activity to show the formation of an ester in the school laboratory. (b) Write the names of : (ii) CH3–CH=CH2 (i) CH3CH2Br 5. 15. [2011 (T-II)] 3. (b) With a labelled diagram describe an activity to show the formation of an ester. [2009. how an addition reaction is useful in industries. (b) What will happen when you heat the organic compound ‘A’ at 443K with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid? [2011 (T-II)] L A Y O G S ER TH O R B [2011 (T-II)] 12. (a) Write the names of : (i) CH3–CH2–CHO (ii) CH3–CH2–OH (b) Name the gas evolved when an alcohol reacts with sodium. Write the name of following compounds : (a) CH3 CH2–C≡CH (c) CH3COCH3 (b) CH3 CH2OH [2011 (T-II)] (a) What is vinegar? (b) Describe with a chemical equation. CH4O [2011 (T-II)] 14. Identify ‘A’ and write the chemical equation. 6. what happens when sodium hydrogen carbonate [2009] reacts with ethanoic acid. (b) Carbon only forms covalent compounds. Two carbon compounds A and B have the molecular formula C 3 H 8 and C 3 H 6 respectively. 2011 (T-II)] 13. Write the name of one such compound. C2H6O2. 10. How does ethanol behave with the following (a) Sodium? (b) Excess of conc. (ii) butanone 7 16. (i) Identify the compound A. Soap does not work well with hard water. [2009] 7. Name the class of compounds which can be used as cleansing agent in place of soap. What are detergents chemically? Why are they more effective than soaps in cleansing action? How can detergent molecules be altered to make them biodegradable? [2006. Explain in brief the mechanism of its cleansing action [2009] when used in hard water. Give chemical equation for the reaction involved. What is ethanol? Draw the structure of ethanol molecule. (a) Distinguish between esterification and saponification reactions of organic compounds. [2011 (T-II)] 9. 4. (a) Define the term functional group. Which one of the two is most likely to show addition reaction? Explain with the help of a chemical equation. sulphuric acid at 443K? Write chemical equation for each reaction. What are micelles? How does the formation of a micelle help to clean the clothes? 11. Give reasons for the following : (a) Unsaturated hydrocarbons show addition reactions but not saturated hydrocarbons.2. (c) Which two of the following compounds belong to same homologous series? (ii) Which gas is produced when A reacts with sodium carbonate? Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction involved. (a) An organic compound A is widely used as a preservative in pickles and has a molecular formula C 2 H 4 O 2 . [2011 (T-II)] (b) Conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid is considered an oxidation reaction. On bringing a burning splinter the gas evolved burns with a pop sound. C2H6. Identify the functional group present in the following compounds : (i) CH3– CH2– CH2– OH (ii) (b) What will you observe on adding a 5% alkaline potassium permanganate solution drop by drop to some warm ethanol taken in a test tube? Write the name of the compound formed during the above [2011 (T-II)] chemical reaction. 2011 (T-II)] N A SH A K A R P [2011 (T-II)] C2H6O. (a) Draw the structure for following compounds (i) ethanoic acid.

Name the salt X and the gas evolved. Also write chemical equation of the reaction [HOTS] involved. (b) Name the product obtained when ethanol is oxidised by either chromic anhydride or alkaline potassium permanganate. What happens when ethanoic acid reacts with (i) magnesium. (a) Complete the following reactions and name the main product formed in each case. (5 Marks) (a) What change would you observe in calcium hydroxide solution taken in tube B? 1.17. 8 NaOH  → Sunlight (iii) CH4 + Cl2   → (ii) CH3COOC2H5 [2011 (T-II)] 2. (b) Give the structural differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples each. [2005] 19. Look at the figure and answer the following questions : 1.  → . Also write the chemical equation for each [2011 (T-II)] of the above reactions. (iii) Ethyl ethanoate is treated with NaOH solution. (c) If ethanol is given instead of ethanoic acid. (a) Write the chemical equation representing the preparation of ethanol from ethene. (c) What is a functional group? Give examples of four different functional [HOTS] groups. What special name is given to its 5-8% solution in water? How does ethanoic acid react with sodium carbonate? Write chemical equation of the reaction and common name of the salt [2009] produced. (ii) sodium carbonate. H SO (ii) CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → (iii) CH4+Cl2 Sunlight  → (iv) CH2 = CH2 + H2 Ni  → KMnO4 (v) C2H5OH + O2 Alk.  → (b) Write chemical test to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid. Complete the following reactions. QUESTIONS FROM CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS conc. 18. Name the main product formed when : (i) Ethanoic acid is treated with sodium bicarbonate (ii) Ethanol is heated with alkaline KMnO4 solution. IV. Describe an activity and draw the diagram of the apparatus to prove that the evolved gas is the one which you have named. 2 4 (i) CH3CH2OH   → heat L A Y O G S ER TH O R B 3. [2011 (T-II)] 3. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS A. N A SH A K A R P (b) Write the reaction involved in test tubes A and B respectively. 2. (c) Give an example of esterification reaction. and (iii) sodium hydroxide? Write the necessary [2005] chemical equation in each case. KMnO4 (i) CH3CH2OH Alk. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (a) What are hydrocarbons? Give examples. would you expect the same change? (d) How can a solution of limewater be [HOTS] prepared in the laboratory? B. A salt X is formed and a gas is evolved when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. What is ethanoic acid? Write the formula of the functional group present in this acid.

(a) Write a chemical equation for the combustion of ethanol. Identify ‘C’. [2009. ‘S’ and write [2011 (T-II)] the reactions involved. On addition of NaOH to ‘C’. ‘R’. (a) The formula of an ester is : CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 . Identify the compounds A to E in the [2011 (T-II)] following reaction sequence: 4 (i) CH3CH2OH   dil. Write chemical equations to represent what happens when (a) ethanol burns in air? (b) ethanol reacts with sodium metal? (c) ethanol is heated with alkaline KMnO4? (d) ethanol is heated with ethanoic acid in presence of few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid? 9. (c) Write chemical equation to represent hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Write the structural formulae of the corresponding alcohol and the acid. ‘A’. 5. (c) Write one use of ethanoic acid. (b) (i) Mention the experimental conditions involved in obtaining ethene from ethanol. Compound ‘C’ on treatment with an alcohol ‘A’ in presence of an acid forms a sweet smelling compound ‘S’ (molecular formula C3H6O2). (a) Write chemical equation of the reactions of ethanoic acid with : (i) sodium (ii) sodium carbonate (iii) ethanol in the presence of conc. (a) Complete the following reactions stating the main products formed in each reaction.H2SO4 forms a compound B which on addition of one mole of hydrogen in presence of nickel forms a compound ‘C’. Write the chemical equation for the reaction involved. (b) List any two differences between saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds. (b) Define Esterification. An organic compound A on heating with conc. (a) Write balanced equations for the following reactions. H2SO4 9 .H SO (iii) B + NaOH → C + CH3CH2OH (iv) A + NaHCO3 → C + D + H2O (v) CH3CH2OH + E → CH3CH2ONa + H2 13. Identify the compounds A. Write a chemical equation to illustrate it. (a) Define catenation. 8.catalyst (i) CH3–CH=CH2 + H2 Ni → (ii) C2H5OH + Na  → (b) State the role of concentrated sulphuric acid in the esterification reaction.HCl → A + H2O 2 4 (ii) CH3CH2OH + A   → B + H2 O L A Y O G S ER TH O R B [2011 (T-II)] N A SH A K A R P (c) Explain the cleansing action of soap. [2011 (T-II)] 10. 14. (ii) Write the chemical equation for the above reaction. Why no other element exhibits the property of catenation to the extent seen in carbon compounds? (b) Name the type of compound formed by the reaction of an organic acid and an alcohol. 6. it also gives ‘R’ and water. . (iii) CH3COOH + Na2CO3  → (b) Write the next homologue of propanol and butanal (CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH) [2011 (T-II)] (CH3CH2CH2CHO). B and C and write the equations for the reactions [2011 (T-II)] involved. (c) Draw the structures of any two isomers of [2011 (T-II)] butane and name them. (a) Draw the structure of Ethyne (C2H2). CH3OH + Na → CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → C2H6 + O2 (excess) → (b) Write the formula and name of the next homologue of : (i) CH3CH=CH2 and (ii) CH3–CO–CH3 [2011 (T-II)] 11. 7. ‘S’ on treatment with NaOH solution gives back ‘R’ and ‘A’. One mole of ‘C’ on combustion forms 2 moles of CO2 and 3 moles of H2O.4. A compound ‘C’ molecular formula (C2H4O2) reacts with sodium metal to form a compound ‘R’ and evolves a gas which burns with a pop sound. 2011 (T-II)] KMnO / KOH Conc. 12. (c) List any two differences between soaps [2011 (T-II)] and detergents.

(a) What is denatured alcohol? (b) What is hydrogenation? State its industrial application. Identify A and C. (a) Complete the following reactions and name the main product formed in each case. 22. [2011 (T-II)] 21. [2011 (T-II)] 23. sulphuric acid to give another compound C. (i) (ii) State the functional group present in each [2011 (T-II)] compound. (a) What is a functional group? (b) Draw the structure of : (i) Chloropentane (C5H11Cl) (ii) Ethanoic acid (c) How is scum formed? (d) Write the name of the following compounds. [2011 (T-II)] Sunlight  → 17. (d) How many covalent bonds does a molecule of ethane (C2H6) have? Draw its structure to justify your answer. (d) List two factors responsible for the versatile nature of carbon. (i) CH3COOH + NaOH → (ii) C2H5OH + O2 → (iii) (ii) CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → (ii) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH → (b) Write the name of the following compounds. (b) Why do the bottoms of cooking vessels get blackened? (c) What is a Micelle? Draw a labelled diagram of a micelle. (i) What type of organic compounds show substitution reaction? (ii) How will you convert ethanol into unsaturated hydrocarbon? (iii) How is carboxylic acid different from mineral acids? (b) With the help of electron dot representation explain the formation of O2 molecule. 10 L A Y O G S ER TH O R B N A SH A K A R P (b) What is covalent bond? How many such bonds are present in ethane? Write two characteristic features of covalent [2011 (T-II)] compounds. 18. [2011 (T-II)] (c) What is the difference between vegetable oil and animal fat? [2011 (T-II)] 19. (a) Complete and balance the following reactions : (i) CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → (ii) C2H5OH + Na → (iii) CH4 + Cl2 (b) What are structural isomers? Draw the possible structural isomers for butane. . (b) Draw the structures of benzene C6H6 and cyclohexane C6H12. A on oxidation gives compound B which gives effervescence with sodium hydrogen carbonate. Also write the chemical equations for the reactions involved in the formation of B and C. (a) Draw the structure of propanoic acid (C2H5COOH). (a) Complete the following reactions and name the main product formed in each case. (a) Answer the following questions in one sentence or one word. (a) Illustrate the following reactions with example.(e) ethanol is heated at 443 K in excess of [2011 (T-II)] concentrated H2SO4? 15.[2011 (T-II)] 16. (i) Substitution reaction (ii) Addition reaction (iii) Oxidation reaction (b) What is glacial acetic acid? Why is it named so? State its two uses. (a) An organic compound A is liquid at room temperature. which has a pleasant smell. (i) CH3CH2OH + 2[O] acidified K  → 2 Cr2 O7 20. (c) Define isomerism. It is also a good solvent and has the molecular formula C2H6O. A reacts with B in the presence of conc.

In this time the ethanol will acquire the temperature of the water bath. (iv) Again warm the test tube for another 5 minutes in the water bath. a beaker (250 ml). 1% alkaline potassium permanganate solution. Make your observations and record them. In this ethanol acts as a fuel. a funnel. (ii) Ethanol is heated with alkaline KMnO4 24. (iii) Hold the funnel in an inverted position so that L A Y O G S ER TH O R B just the end of the jet tubing is immersed in limewater. a measuring cylinder (10 ml). Materials Required : Ethanol. 11 .(i) (ii) (b) Write chemical equations for the following reactions : (ii) [2011 (T-II)] (i) Ethene is made to react with hydrogen in the presence of nickel catalyst. N A SH A K A R P (b) Oxidation of ethanol using an oxidising agent (i) Measure 3 ml of ethanol and transfer it to a boiling tube. attach a rubber tubing. (ii) Place the boiling tube in a water bath maintained at 60°C for 5 minutes. Check that the inner surface of the funnel is completely dry. (iii) To the contents of the boiling tube add 2 or 3 drops of alkaline potassium permanganate solution and shake the test tube. two boiling tubes. Make your observations and record them. (a) Write the name of the following compounds : (i) (iii) Sodium carbonate is made to react [2011 (T-II)] with ethanoic acid. (ii) To the stem of the funnel. (iv) Light the spirit lamp and hold the funnel in an inverted position over the flame for 2 minutes. Procedure : (a) Complete combustion of ethanol by burning it in air (i) Take a spirit lamp. a small glass tubing with jet. Quiz (i) What do you see on the inner surface of the funnel? (ii) What colour change takes places in lime water? (iii) What do you infer from the colour change in limewater? (iv) What do you infer by looking at the inner surface of the funnel? (v) What are the products formed on complete combustion of ethanol? (vi) Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of ethanol. baking soda [NaHCO3]. freshly prepared clear limewater. contained in the beaker as shown in the figure. (v) To the contents of the reaction mixture add a pinch of baking soda and shake. Objective To study oxidation reactions of alcohol. Experiments [May be demonstrated by the teacher or performed by the students] 1. A. To the other end of the rubber tubing attach the glass tubing with jet. a rubber tubing.

tripod stand. Take maximum care while using it. bunsen flame. (ii) Sulphuric acid is highly corrosive and can cause painful blisters on the skin. (vi) Pour the reaction mixture into a beaker containing aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate. By placing the beaker on a wire gauze and tripod stand. (vii) Which gas is liberated when the reaction mixture is poured in the aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate? (viii) What use are esters put to? L A Y O G S ER TH O R B N A SH A K A R P Precautions : (i) Organic compounds are generally volatile and combustible. sulphuric acid? Give two reasons. You will also see effervescence in the solution and vapours coming out of it. If excess of it is used. sodium hydrogen carbonate. test tube. sulphuric acid (few drops). (v) What is the chemical name of the ester formed? (vi) What is the purpose of adding a few drops of conc. Objective To study esterification reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid. Always use a water bath. (iv) Fill half the beaker with water. Never heat organic compounds on direct flame. sulphuric acid with the help of a dropper. (ii) Alkaline potassium permanganate should be very dilute. 2. Take care while handling it. At this stage lower the flame so that the temperature stays around 60°C. (vii) Why is this reaction called an oxidation reaction? Precautions : (i) Ethanol is extremely volatile and inflammable. conc.Quiz (i) What is the colour of the reaction mixture. (v) Place the test tube containing the reaction mixture in the water bath as shown in the figure. (vii) Fan the vapours coming out of the reaction mixture with your hand towards your nose and smell them. heat it on a bunsen flame. beaker. This will remove the unreacted acid. water. it will not decolourise the liquid. Materials Required : Glacial ethanoic acid (2 ml). after warming it for 5 minutes? (iii) What happened in the reaction mixture that led to the colour change? (iv) What products are formed in the above reaction? (v) What was observed when baking soda was added in the reaction mixture? (vi) Guess which gas is responsible for the observations in (v). Precautions : (i) Take a clean test tube and pour 2 ml of glacial ethanoic acid in it. wire gauze and a cork loosely fitting in the test tube. Activities [May be demonstrated by the teacher or performed by the students] 1. Now discuss the following questions : (i) What is the smell of ethanol like? (ii) What is the smell of ethanoic acid like? (iii) What is the smell of the ester like? Does it resemble the smell of ethanol or ethanoic acid? (iv) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between ethanol and ethanoic acid. B. Objective : To show that soaps or detergent can remove oil or oily substance and hence are cleansing agents. (iii) Add four drops of conc. ethanol (2 ml). till the temperature rises to 60° C. Heat the test tube for 5 minutes and shake it occasionally. when 2 or 3 drops of alkaline potassium permanganate are added? (ii) What is the colour of the reaction mixture. (ii) Add 2 ml of ethanol in the ethanoic acid and shake well. Fix a cork loosely in the mouth of the test tube. 12 . Do not add more than three drops.

condensed formula. hard water. 5 empty ice cream cups. pour 2 ml of soap solution in test tube A. Materials Required : 100 g of coconut oil . lather is formed. can be used for removing dirt from clothes. instead of lather. write their IUPAC name. (ii) Pour 10 ml of distilled water in test tube A and 10 ml of hard water in each of the test tubes B and C. 3. From this it implies that distilled water or soft water is fit for removing dirt from clothes. any detergent powder. From the above observations. a steel bowl of 500 ml capacity or more. Procedure : (i) Buy 25 g of caustic soda and 100 g of coconut oil from the local grocer. pour caustic soda in the china mug and then add 100 ml of water to it. but add 2 ml of soap solution in test tube B and a small amount of detergent powder in test tube C. a steel spoon with long hand. B and C vigorously and then leave the test tubes undisturbed for 10 minutes. (vii) Pour out this paste in empty ice cream cups. B and C. Do not touch caustic soda with bare hands as it burns the skin. Peel off the paper of ice cream cups to obtain solid cakes of soap. soap solution. (iii) Transfer the coconut oil in the steel bowl. warm it. Objective : To study the comparative cleansing capacity of a sample of soap solution and a detergent in soft and hard water. are cleansing agents. soap solution. B and C. If hard water is not available. Procedure : (i) Take three test tubes and label them A. a dropper. distilled water. (iv) Shake the contents of each test tube vigorously. a test tube stand. Models By using coloured plastic beads. but no layer of oil is formed in case of test tubes B and C. From this it implies that detergents can lather in hard water. Stir the contents with the steel spoon till the caustic soda completely dissolves. detergent solution. You will notice that a thin layer of oil is formed over the surface of water in test tube A. Materials Required : Three test tubes. Pour 2 drops of any vegetable oil in each of the test tubes. distilled water. any vegetable oil. even if the water is hard. (i) Alkanes (ii) Alkenes (iii) Alkynes (iv) Alkanols (v) Alkanals (vi) Alkanoic acids . (iii) Keep the test tube A as it is .Materials Required : Three test tubes. (vi) Go on stirring till a thick white paste is formed. 25 g of caustic soda. tooth picks and fevicol or fevistick make models of the molecules of : (i) methane (ii) ethane (iii) ethene (iv) ethyne (v) ethanol (vi) ethanoic acid D. lather is formed. (ii) Now pour 10 ml of water in each of the test tubes A. till all of it is consumed. From this it implies that soap solution is not fit for removing dirt from clothes when the water is hard. 2 ml of detergent solution in test tube B and 2 ml of soap solution in test tube C. This precipitate is sticky in nature. a china mug of capacity 100 ml or more. Allow it to solidify for 4 to 5 days. Cover the mug with some cardboard and keep it there for a day. and hence. B and C in the test tube stand. (ii) A day before starting the project. you can make hard water by dissolving 1g of magnesium chloride or magnesium sulphate in 50 ml of distilled water or tap water. Procedure : (i) Take three test tubes and label them A. Charts Prepare multicoloured charts for the first five members of the homologous series. so that it melts. This is soap. structural formula and electronic formula. (iv) Pour slowly about 10 ml of caustic soda solution in the coconut oil and stir vigorously till it mixes to form a whitish paste. Objective : To make soap from coconut oil. it can be concluded that soaps and detergents can remove oil or oily substances and hence. a test tube stand. (iii) Arrange the test tubes A. Now. 2. If the coconut oil is in the solid state. L A Y O G S ER TH O R B N A SH A K A R P You will observe : (i) In test tube A. (iii) In test tube C. (v) Go on adding 10 ml of caustic soda solution each time with vigorous stirring. (ii) In test tube B. Please ask him to pack caustic soda in a plastic bag. (iv) Shake the components of each test tube A. B and C. a curdy white precipitate is formed 13 C.