SAP - Etabs

Structural Analysis Program
Extended 3D Analysis of Buildings Systems
Lecturer
Department of Civil Eng..
Fayoum U
By:
DR. Ahmed M. EL-Kholy
Ahmed M. EL-Kholy
Copyright
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SAP ???
Or
Etabs ???
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Ahmed M ELKholy
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I mportant Brief
I ntroduction
to
Finite Element Method
“FEM”
Finite Element Analysis
“FEA”
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SAP
Structural Analysis Program
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Ahmed M ELKholy
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I mportant Brief
I ntroduction
to
SAP
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Area Sections
..Define… Section Properties…Area Sections…
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٢١
Sign Convention
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Frame Sign Convention
Positive Axial Force & Torque
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Frame Sign Convention
Positive M3 & V2
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Frame Sign Convention
Positive M2 & V3
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Shell Sign Convention
Positive Stresses and I n-Plane Forces
Forces are per unit
length
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Shell Sign Convention
Positive Bending Moments
Moments are per
unit length
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Default Colors of faces +3 & -3
Positive Bending Moments
face 6 = face+3 = Red
face 5 = face-3 = Pink
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Degrees of Freedom
..Analyze… Set Analysis Options
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Degrees of Freedom
..Analyze… Set Analysis Options
Any space joint has 6 DOF
Ux Uy Uz Rx Ry Rz
2D Frame XZ Plane √ ---- √ ---- √ ----
2D Frame XY Plane
√ √ ---- ---- ---- √
3D Frame √ √ √ √ √ √
3D Truss
√ √ √ ---- ---- ----
2D Truss XZ Plane
√ ---- √ ---- ---- ----
XY Slab (Vertical Loads) ---- ---- √ √ √ ----
XY Slab (Vertical & Horizontal Loads) √ √ √ √ √ √
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Load Patterns, Load Cases,
Load Combinations
..Define… Load Patterns…
..Define… Load Cases…
..Define… Load Combinations…

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?Load Patterns, Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Patterns…, Load Cases…, Load Combinations
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Load Case
OW
Live
EQ-Static
Flooring
Wind
Wall Weight
EQ-Dynamic
Buckling
Moving Load
Temperature
Load Combination
Dead=OW+Flooring+Wall Weight
Work=Dead+Live
Ult=1.4Dead+1.6Live
Load Pattern
1 2 3
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Follow Chapter 3
in ECP-RC
…….
…….
…….
……
…....
…...

A Load Pattern must
be created for every
Static Load Case
to enter
the patterns
(values & shapes) of
applied loads
in the case
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?Load Patterns, Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Patterns…
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Load Patterns, ?Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Cases…
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Load Patterns, ?Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Cases… Flooring (modify/show case)
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Research
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Load Patterns, ?Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Cases… Modal (modify/show case)
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≥ 90%
ECL 2012
item: 8-4-2-6
≥3√n
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Load Patterns, ?Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Cases… Add New Load Case… Response Spec..
..Define…
Functions…
Response Spectrum…

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UBC: 9.81
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Load Patterns, ?Load Cases, Load Combinations
..Define… Load Cases… Add New Load Case… Response Spec..
..Define…
Functions…
Response Spectrum…

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Load Patterns, Load Cases, ?Load Combinations
..Define… Load Combinations…
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Steps of
Building a SAP Model
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Steps of Building a SAP Model
Units
Define… Materials, Sections, Functions, L Patterns, L Cases, L Combinations
New Model
Draw the Structure & Assign Sections
Available DOF
Assign Joint.. Restraints, Constraints, Springs
Assign Frame.. Releases, End Offset, Intersection Points, Output Stations
Assign Area.. Springs
Assign Joint Loads & Frame Loads & Area Loads
Display.. Show Loads & Misc Assignments
Run
Display… Show Deformed Shape
Read Deflections, Forces, Moments….
Check Warnings & Errors in the Log File
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2
3
4
5
6
7
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9
10
11
12
13
14
Alternative 2
Define…………. 5*
Assign Sections 5
\*
Draw the Structure 4*
Slide 31~38
Slide 29
Slide 8
Bottom Right Screen
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Step 2
New Model …
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Step 3. New Model
..File… New Model…
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Slide 27



Cartesian & Cylindrical

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٤٣
Step 4*
Draw the Model …
Drawing Tools
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Drawing / Selection / View Tools
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Drawing / Selection / View Tools
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Drawing / Selection / View Tools
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Drawing / Selection / View Tools
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View Direction Angle options: Set these three angles to determine the
orientation of the view. These angles can be thought of as describing the
location of your eye, looking toward the origin

Plan angle: Your location in the X-Y plane, where zero is on the positive X
axis, and 90 is on the positive Y axis

Elevation angle: Your location above or below the X-Y plane, where zero is
on the X-Y plane, and 90 is on the positive Z axis

Aperture angle: A measure of how strong the perspective effect is, or how
far away you are from the origin. Zero indicates that you are infinitely far
away, and all receding lines are parallel (no perspective). A value between
30 and 60 is usually adequate
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Drawing / Selection / View Tools
Training Example
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Z
X
Y
4 m 4 m
3 m
3 m
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Using Excel
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Type Name X Y Z USER
POINT 1 2 3 1 Y
Drawing a Joint
Type Name XI YI ZI XJ YJ ZJ
LINE 1 3 5 0 7 5 0
Drawing a Frame
Type Name NumPoints X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3 X4 Y4 Z4
AREA 1 4 3 5 0 5 5 0 4.6 8.9 0 1.1 7.2 0
Drawing an Area
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Step 4*. Drawing the Model
Using Excel :: Training Example
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7

m

7 m
2.5 m
9

m

Z
X
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
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J oint Constraints
..Define… J oint Constraints…
..Assign… J oint Constraints…
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J oint Constraints
..Define/Assign… J oint Constraints..
Body
Weld
Equal
Plate
Diaphragm
Rod
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A Body Constraint causes all of its constrained joints
to move together as a three-dimensional rigid body.
If a large number of these constraints must be created,
consider using the weld constraint instead.
A Diaphragm Constraint causes all of its constrained joints
to move together as a planar diaphragm that is rigid against
membrane (in-plane) deformation.
This constraint can be used to model concrete floors .
if the Z axis is chosen, this constraint is equivalent to
a body constraint in the same coordinate system with
translations X and Y and rotation Z chosen.
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Definition of
Non Prismatic Section
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Nonprismatic Section
..Define..Section Properties..Frame..Add New..Other..Nonprismatic
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A linear variation in t2 for the rectangular shape
would require eivar33=1
A linear variation in t3 for the rectangular shape
would require eivar33=3
A linear variation in t3 for the I- shape would re
quire eivar33=2
The interpolation of the bending stiffness in the 1-
2 plane, i22 × e1, is defined in the same manner
by the parameter eivar22
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Nonprismatic Section
..Define..Section Properties..Frame..Add New..Other..Nonprismatic
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Frame I ntersection Point
Cardinal Point
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I ntersection Point
..Assign..Frame..I ntersection Point
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I ntersection Point
..Assign..Frame..I ntersection Point
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I ntersection Point
..Assign..Frame..I ntersection Point
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Cardinal Point
I ntersection Point
..Assign..Frame..I ntersection Point
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Frame End Offset
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End Offset
..Assign..Frame..End Offset
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Examples
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D1
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Example 1
Truss-Frame
10x2.00=20.00 m
Z
X
6

m

1
.
5

1
.
0

PD=2 t
PL=1 t
PW=0.3 t
0
.
2
4

t
/
m

0
.
1
5

t
/
m

B1
B2 B3
T1
T2
V2
Steel 37
All truss members are 2Ls 80x80x8
All frame members are HEA 360
DL, LL, WLL, WLR
Special Names for chord, vertical & diagonal members
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Example 2
RC-Beam
Z
X
6
0

c
m

2
3
25 cm
1 4 3.5 4.5
DL 3 t/m, LL 0.4 t/m
DL 1.00 t/m
LL 0.40 t/m
DL 1.25 t/m
LL 0.50 t/m
DL 3.0 t
LL 1.2 t
2.5 2.5
1.0 1.0 1.0
Concrete Fcu=300 Kg/cm
2
Alive Model &
Output Stations
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Example 3
Frame Verification
Modifiers
Using Two different alternatives
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Load Case 3: Linear Increase 60 F on the top fiber

Z
X
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Example 4
Beam under Temperature
10 inch
3


2
3
2”
Mater1
E=29000 k/in
2
α=0.000065 /F

Load Case 1: Increase 20 F

Load Case 2: Increase 2 F/inch along X-axis

2
60 F
Case1: Temperature=+20 (+ increase)
Case2: Define/Assign (Joint Patterns) Temperature=2X+10
Case3: Gradient22=+60/3=+20 (+ increase with local 2)
A
Z
X
B
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Example 4
Beam under Temperature
A
Z
X
B
Case A Case B
Load Case U F
1 Ux=0.0013 Fx=-22.62
2 Ux=0.00065 Fx=-11.31
3 Uz=-0.0065 Fz=2.545
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Example 5
Frame under different loads and temperature
+Settlement + I nclined Support
Concrete Fcu=350 Kg/cm
2
Sec. 3
4

m

3

m

1 m
3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m 2 m
DL
LL
WL
Utemp
NUTemp
Sec. 3
30 cm
6
0

c
m

2
3
30 cm
9
0

c
m

2
3
30 cm
1
2
5

c
m

2
3
Sec. 2
Sec. 1
Sec. 3
S
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2

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c
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2

DL 3.0 t
LL 1.2 t
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Example 5
Frame under different loads and temperature
+Settlement + I nclined Support
6
0

c
m

2
3
25 cm
5-NUTemp Case:: I ncrease 30 C outside the frame

9
0

c
m

2
3
25 cm
1
2
5

c
m

2
3
25 cm
1-DL Case
2-LL Case
3-WL Case
4-Utemp Case :: Uniform I ncrease 20 C
30 C
30 C
30 C
6-Settel Case:: Downward settlement of 1 cm at hinged support

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Example 5
Frame under different loads and temperature
+Settlement + I nclined Support
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Example 6
Arch
20.00 m
Y
X
8

m

4

m

10
4

R
-
4

R
2
=10
2
+(R-4)
2
3 t/m
Cartesian 2-2-1-20-8-…
Cylindrical 2-41-1-14.5-4.5-… & Origin=P
Replicate Radial
P=(0,-2.5,0)
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Example 6
Arch
Horizontal Projection Load
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Example 6
Arch
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Example 7
Prestress Beam – Using Tendon Element
Uz=0.165 inch & M=2004 Kip
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Flat Slab
Example
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Flat Slab Example
Flat Slab Modeling ::: 3 Alternatives
H

H

H
/
2

H
/
2

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Flat Slab Example
Minimum Dimensions
1. ts=15 cm.
2. ts=L/32 for edge spans.
3. ts=L/36 for internal spans.
4. bc=1/20 span.
5. bc=30 cm.
6. bc=1/15 floor height.
7. Edge beam depth ≥ 3ts
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Flat Slab Example
Flat Slab Modeling ::: 3 Alternatives
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Flat Slab Example
Flat Slab Modeling ::: 3 Alternatives
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1. Choose carefully & fix (0,0) point in CAD & SAP
2. Mesh 0.25x0.25 ~ 1.0x1.0 m
2

3. Align the mesh at the beams lines, building edges
and lines separating different loads areas.
4. A t least one joint must exist in the column C.G.
5. Large columns may be represented by more joints.
6. Avoid triangle and irregular elements shapes as
much as possible
7. Delete the openings.
8. Apply the rules given in slides 4~6 and 19~20.
9. Draw Slabs in CAD & (Col, beams, SW) in SAP
84
Flat Slab Example
AutoCAD DXF
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1. Fcu=300 Kg/cm2
2. Slab 22 cm “Isotropic == Material angle=0”
3. Beam B25X70
4. Patterns: OW, Flooring, Wall& LL
5. Cases: Patterns & DL
6. Combinations: Work & Ultimate
7. Flooring=250 Kg/m2 & Walls=350 Kg/m2
85
Flat Slab Example
I nput
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86
Flat Slab Example
Material Angle
Isotropic
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87
Flat Slab Example
I nput
Grid 9,10,1
X Spacing
1.82,3.87,2.87,1.63,1.63,2.87,3.87,1.82
Y Spacing
3.38,2.74,1.5,1.31,2.25,1.31,1.5,2.68,3.44
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88
Flat Slab Example
Reactions
Display… Show Forces… Joints
Display … Show Tables..
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89
Flat Slab Example
RFT
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90
Flat Slab Example
RFT
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91
Flat Slab Example
RFT Details
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92
Flat Slab Example
RFT Details
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93
Flat Slab Example
Development Length & Embedment Length
1. Item 4-2-5-1 ECP RC Structures
2. Ld ≥ Ld+0.3d from critical section (Column Face
for –M and mid span for +M)
3. Le ≥ d & Le ≥ 0.3d+10Φ
Check Punching
1. q=Qβ/b
0
d (6-25) ≤ Eq. (4-32-a & 4-32-b & 4-33)
2. β=1.15 for internal columns
3. β=1.30 for edge columns
4. β=1.50 for corner columns
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94
Flat Slab Example
Check Deflection – item 4-3-1-1
1. ΔD+L+Creep ≤ L/250
2. ΔD+L+Creep ≤ L/480 “non structural elements likely to be
damaged by large deflection”
3. ΔL ≤ L/360
4. L?
5. Δ : from SAP or ∫MM/EI
6. Ie must be used for estimating Δ
7. Ie= (Mcr/Ma)
3
Ig+(1-(Mcr/Ma)
3
)Ic
8. SAP modifier= Ie/Ig
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Calculation of Deflection According to ACI 318M-05
Concrete Compressive Strength (f'
c
) = Kg/cm2 = MPa
Concrete Modulus of Rupture (f
r
) = MPa (Eq. 9-9)
Concrete Modulus of Elasticity (E
c
) = MPa (Clause 8.5.1)
n (E
s
/E
c
) = (Clause 8.5.2)
Section Properties
Thickness of Section (t) = cm Depth of Ten. Reinforcement (d) = cm
Breadth of Section (b) = cm Depth of Comp. Reinforcement (d') = cm
Tension Reinforcement (A
s
) =
cm
2
Compression Reinforcement (A
s'
) =
cm
2
Span (l) =
m
Nutral Axis Depth (z) = cm
Gross Moment of Inertia (I
g
) =
cm
4
=
mm
4
Cracked Moment of Inertial (I
cr
) =
cm
4
=
mm
4
Cracking Moment (M
cr
) = N mm = m. t (Eq. 9-8)
Service Straining Actions
Bending Moment Due to Dead Load only (M
d
) = m.t = N. mm
Bending Moment Due to Live Load only (M
l
) = m.t = N. mm
% of Sustained Load from the Live Load =
% of Gross Inertia Used in Calculation =
Bending Moment Due to Sustained Load (M
sus
) = m.t = N. mm
Calculated Short Time Deflection (Calculated by total or percentage of gross moment of inertia)
Deflection due to Dead Load (∆
i
)
d
= cm = mm
Deflection due to Live Load (∆
i
)
l
= cm = mm
10.00
6.73
1.700
2.66
8.03E+08
273066.67
80276.33
0.3000
0.1700
3.000
2.7E+07
100%
5.80 5.80E+07
50%
6.7E+07
8.00
30.00
2.6E+04
3.40
7.77
100.00
32.00 32.00
3.00
14.00
Subject
DESIGN CALCULATION
SHEET
Building

Batool of
Checked by
--
Date
Computed by Sheet No.
Project No.
_
Approved by
_
300.00
5.40 5.4E+07
2.73E+09
7.06
95
Flat Slab Example
Check Deflection – item 4-3-1-1
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Efffective Moment of Inertia (Eq. 9-7)
Under Dead Load Only (I
e
)
d
=
cm
4
=
mm
4
Under Sustained Load (I
e
)
sus
=
cm
4
=
mm
4
Under Dead + Live Load (I
e
)
d+l
=
cm
4
=
mm
4
Modified Short time Deflection
Deflection due to Dead Load (∆
i
)
d
= cm
Deflection due to Sustained Load (∆
i
)
sus
= cm
Deflection due to Dead + Live Load (∆
i
)
d+l
= cm
Deflection due to Live Load (∆
i
)
l
= cm
Additional Long Term Deflection (Clause 9.5.2.5)
For 5 years or more (∆
long
) = cm For 12 months (∆
long
) = cm
For 6 months (∆
long
) = cm For 3 months (∆
long
) = cm
Results
-- Flat roofs not supporting and not attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large defelections:
(∆
i
)
l
= cm l/180 = cm
-- Floors not supporting and not attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections:
(∆
i
)
l
= cm l/360 = cm
-- Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections:
(∆
long
) + (∆
i
)
l
= cm l/480 = cm
-- Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by
large deflections:
(∆
long
) + (∆
i
)
l
= cm l/240 = cm
< 2.08333
5.5556
4.1667
1.4635
1.4635 <
0.5446
<
2.7778 <
0.91887 0.64321
0.45944 0.55132
0.3000
0.5169
0.8446
2.03E+09
1.52E+09
273066.67
203400.45
151953.891
2.73E+09
0.5446
0.5446
96
Flat Slab Example
Check Deflection – item 4-3-1-1
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Flat Slab Example
Reactions Slide 88 & Constraint Column J oints
Reactions Slide 88
Constraint Column J oints
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٩٨
Complex Model

Add to Model
from Template
98
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99
Complex Examples
…Edit.. Add to Model from Template…

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Complex Examples
…Edit.. Add to Model from Template…







100
Define, S-Doom
R 2.5, Z divisions 6
Origin 10.181, 12.586
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101
Complex Examples
…Edit.. Add to Model from Template…
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102
Complex Examples
…Edit.. Add to Model from Template…







R 2.5, Z divisions 6
Origin 10.215, 7.527
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103
Complex Examples
…Edit.. Add to Model from Template…
Slab edge must be aligned with
doom bottom edge
at their intersection
in DXF stage
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١٠٤
Tanks
104
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X
Y
Z
Bearing
Capacity
=1.0 Kg/cm
2
=10.0 ton/m
2

105
Tanks
…Problem
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Grid
2
2
2
6
4
3
106
Tanks
…Model
Quick Area
5 Areas
Assign… Area .. Reverse local 3
+3 face out
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107
Tanks
…Model 0.5x0.5 m
2

Edit… Edit Areas…
Divide Areas …
(0.5x0.5 m
2
)
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108
Tanks
Define..J Patterns, ..Assign…J oint Patterns
Water Pressure=3-(1)Z
Define
Joint Patterns

Assign
Joint Patterns


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109
Tanks
Assign… Area Loads… Surface Pressure



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110
Tanks
Display… Show Loads…Area…Contours

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111
Tanks
Assign…J oints OR Area … Springs
Alternative 1:: Area Springs
100 X Bearing Capacity (ton/m
2
)
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112
Tanks
Assign…J oints OR Area … Springs
Alternative 2:: Joint Springs
1
2
3
100 X Bearing Capacity (ton/m
2
) X 0.5X0.5
100 X Bearing Capacity (ton/m
2
) X 0.25X0.25
100 X Bearing Capacity (ton/m
2
) X 0. 5X0.25
All Base Joints
Edge Joints
Corner Joints
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Tanks
Run….Unstable!!
Four corner points to get
symmetric deformed shape
113
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114
Tanks
Deformed Shape
Uy
Ux
Uz
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115
Tanks
Spring Forces
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116
Tanks
Moments & RFT
M11 Horizontal RFT M22 Vertical RFT
Base RFT, M11 & M22
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117
Tanks
Check Bearing Capcity
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١١٨
RAFT
118
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410 ton
Mx=My=1100 mt
360 ton
Mx=My=1100 mt
290 t
300 t
400 t
110 t
160 t
160 t
160 t
70 t
480 t
230 t
130 t
70 t
110 t
410 t
140 t
100 t
140 t
200 t
60 t
200 t
290 t
190 t
280 t
180 t
240 t
85 t
130 t
140 t
60 t
119
RAFT
…Problem
DL+LL Column Loads are given in blue
EQ Core Moments are given in Red
Bearing
Capacity
=2.0 Kg/cm
2
=20.0 ton/m
2

Patterns
SDL
SEX
SEY
Cases
Patterns+
SEXN
SEYN
t=110 cm
Fcu=300 Kg/cm
2
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120
RAFT
…Patterns, Cases, Combinations, Design M
Patterns
SDL
SEX
SEY
Cases
Patterns+
SEXN
SEYN
Combinations
SDLEX
SDLEXN
SDLEY
SDLEYN
Design
SDL
SDLEX
SDLEXN
SDLEY
SDLEYN
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121
RAFT
…Loads
Patterns
SDL
SEX
SEY
SDL
SEX
SEY
Load SEX & SEY will be
explained in the lecture
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Brief I ntroduction
to
ECL 2012
122
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Code ECL 2012
..

…..
…….
123
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Etabs
١٢٤
124
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1. Try to avoid triangle and irregular elements shapes
as much as possible
2. Choose carefully & fix (0,0) point in Cad & Etabs
3. The mesh should be applicable for continuity of
the columns and shear walls in all floors
4. Check your mesh in Cad many times before
working on Etabs
5. Delete any thing on layer 0
6. Draw Slabs in Cad & (Col, beams, SW) in Etabs
1. Prepare DXF for different floors in Autocad as
shown in the given practice in lecture.
Etabs
DXF
125
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7. Large Columns supporting spaced parallel beams
may be modeled using area elements.
8. Two alternatives to model the retaining wall.
Etabs
DXF
126
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2-Units
Ton-m
127
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١٢٨
3- New,… edb
4- Grid, Axes, Story data according your project
Master story & similar stories (F2 is master)
Grid 9,10
X Spacing
1.82,3.87,2.87,1.63,1.63,2.87,3.87,1.82
Y Spacing
3.38,2.74,1.5,1.31,2.25,1.31,1.5,2.68,3.44
128
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١٢٩
5- Etabs Commands & I cons
5- Options-Window-Change the windows number if
you want
One story
Similar stories
All
129
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١٣٠
5- Etabs Commands & I cons
130
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7- Define Design Data and Material (Slab,
Columns, Core..)
7- Design data (Options-Preferences-Concrete Frame
Design)
8- Material properties (Define-Material Properties-
Concrete 350) according the considered code
131
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9- Define Wall, Column, Beam, Slab
Sections
9- beams…. Define-Frame sections (Add
Rectangular) .. Make C30x100, C40x90, B25x60,
B12x60
9- slabs…. Define-Wall/Slab/..sections (Add slab, add
wall) Make W30, W40, Slb20, Slb22 according the
considered code
132
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9- Define Wall, Column, Beam, Slab
Sections
Columns Modifier Ieff=0.7Ig
Shear Walls Ieff=(0.70) or 0.50Ig (2008) 0.35Ig(2012)
Beams Ieff=0.5Ig (0.35Ig ACI)
Slabs Ieff=0.25Ig
Chapter 6 in Egyptian RC Code– Ch 8 Egy Code loads

These modifier for M1,M2,M12
133
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10- I mport your DXF floors
File-Import-DXF floor plan

134
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ﺔﻴﻠﻌﻔﻟا تﺎﻋﺎﻄﻘﻟﺎﺑ لدﻮﻤﻟا ﺐﺤﺳ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺎهﺮﻴﻏ ﺔﻴﺋﺪﺒﻣ تﺎﻋﺎﻄﻗ
ﻰﻠﻋ ءﻰﺷ يا ﺢﺴﻣا layer 0
ﻲﻓ ةﺪﺣاو ﺮﻔﺻ ﺔﻄﻘﻧ دﺪﺣ Cad & Etabs
135
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11-Select slabs then, Assign-Shell/Area-Wall/Slab
Section-Slb22
ﻰﻠﻌﻔﻟا عﺎﻄﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻃﻼﺒﻟا عﺎﻄﻗ ﺮﻴﻐﺗ و ﻪﺒﺤﺳ ﺪﻌﺑ لدﻮﻤﻟا
136
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12- Draw Beams, Col, Shear walls
Draw beams, columns, shear walls with exact cross
sections in Etabs

137
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12- Draw Beams, Col, Shear walls
Draw beams, columns, shear walls with exact cross
sections in Etabs

138
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12- Draw Beams, Col, Shear walls
Draw beams, columns, shear walls with exact cross
sections in Etabs

139
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13- Fix the base points
Select the base points and then, Assign-joints-
restraints and choose fixed
140
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١٤١
14- Define Diaphragms for floors
Menu: Define-diaphragm-D1,D2,D3,D4…..D10
141
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14- Assign Diaphragms for floors
Menu: Select-by story- strory2
Assign-Shell-D2
142
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After assigning all diaphrams
143
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15- Mesh Shear Wall Areas
16- Define Static Load Cases
17-Define Response Spectrum Functions
18-Define Response Spectrum Cases
19-Define Load Combinations ??Spectra or not?
20-Assign Loads …D, L, …
21- P-delta Effect/Dynamic Analysis
22- Define Mass source
23- Assign Piers
24- Check model
25- Run Analysis & Check Log File
28- Checks: Mass Ratio, Drift, Overturning & Sliding
29- Read Straining Actions
30- Design
Only for
Spectra Method
D, L, Equivalent Static EQ
,…Temp, H, Wind, Snow
26- I f Spectra Method is utilized,
Scale the Base Shear of Spectra Method
to the 0.85 Base Shear of Equivalent Static.
…ECL2012 P141
27- Re-Run & Check Log File…
Retaining Wall !!..
Scale level
144
26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26
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145
15-Mesh (Vertically) Shear Wall Areas
..Two Alternatives
Not
meshed
Wrong
meshed
Correct
1- Bad Alternative
Edit… Mesh Areas ….
2-Better Alternative
Assign…Shell/Area…
Area Object Mesh Options
meshed
Correct
meshed
Correct
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Load Type SWM
Auto Lateral
Loads
Comment
1 OW Dead 1 Own Wight
2 SID Dead 0 Flooring+Walls+….
3 LN Live 0 ψ=0.25, Table 8-7
4 LG Live 0 ψ=0.5, Table 8-7
5 LGT Live 0 ψ=1.0, Table 8-7
6 EXA Quake 0 User Loads +X dir & Ecc=+0.05
7 EXB Quake 0 User Loads +X dir & Ecc=-0.05
8 EYA Quake 0 User Loads +Y dir & Ecc=+0.05
9 EYB Quake 0 User Loads +Y dir & Ecc=-0.05
146
16-Static Load Cases
..Define..Static Load Cases
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Combination Equation Comment Equ
1 SD OW+SID Service Dead (Deflection)
2 SL LN+LG+LGT Serivce Live (Deflection)
3 SDL OW+SID+LN+LG+LGT Serivce Dead+Live
4 UD 0.9OW+0.9SID Ultimated Dead
5 UDL 1.4(OW+SID)+1.6(LN+LG+LGT) Ultimated Dead+Live
6 UDLEXA 1.12SD+α SL+EXA Ultimate Dead+Live+EX+ECC
7 UDLEXAN 1.12SD+α SL-EXA Ultimate Dead+Live-EX+ECC
8 UDLEXB 1.12SD+α SL+EXB Ultimate Dead+Live+EX-ECC
9 UDLEXBN 1.12SD+α SL-EXB Ultimate Dead+Live-EX-ECC
10 UDLEYA 1.12SD+α SL+EYA Ultimate Dead+Live+EY+ECC
11 UDLEYAN 1.12SD+α SL-EYA Ultimate Dead+Live-EY+ECC
12 UDLEYB 1.12SD+α SL+EYB Ultimate Dead+Live+EY-ECC
13 UDLEYBN 1.12SD+α SL-EYB Ultimate Dead+Live-EY-ECC
14 UDEXA 0.9SD+EXA Ultimate Dead+EX+ECC
15 UDEXAN 0.9SD-EXA Ultimate Dead-EX+ECC
16 UDEXB 0.9SD+EXB Ultimate Dead+EX-ECC
17 UDEXBN 0.9SD-EXB Ultimate Dead-EX-ECC
18 UDEYA 0.9SD+EYA Ultimate Dead+EY+ECC
19 UDEYAN 0.9SD-EYA Ultimate Dead-EY+ECC
20 UDEYB 0.9SD+EYB Ultimate Dead+EY-ECC
21 UDEYBN 0.9SD-EYB Ultimate Dead-EY-ECC
(3-5)
(3-5)
(3-9)
(3-9)
19-Load Combinations..Define..Load Combinations
147
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Combination Equation Comment Equ
22 UDLSpecX 1.12SD+α SL+SpecX Ultimate Dead+Live+SpecX+ECC (3-5)
23 UDLSpecY 1.12SD+α SL+SpecY Ultimate Dead+Live+SpecY+ECC (3-5)
24 UDSpecX 0.9SD+SpecY Ultimate Dead+SpecX+ECC (3-9)
25 UDSpecY 0.9SD+SpecY Ultimate Dead+SpecY+ECC (3-9)
19-Load Combinations
…Define..Load Combinations
148
Dynamic Load Combinations
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21- Dynamic & P-Δ Parameters
…Analyze..Set Analysis Options..
149
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22- Mass Source
…Define..Mass Source..
150
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24- Check Model
…Analyze..Check Model..
151
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25- Run …Check log file
…Analyze.. Run..//// …File..Last Analysis log File
152
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26- Scale the Base Shear for Spectra
Method
153
Vdynamic
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26- Scale the Base Shear for Spectra
Method


Must be equal to Base
Shear estimated manually
Vstatic
154
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26- Scale the Base Shear for Spectra
Method
Scale Factor SpecX= Scale Factor SpecX
0.85 Vstatic X
155
*
Vdynamic X
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26- Scale the Base Shear for Spectra
Method
156
Scale Factor SpecY= Scale Factor SpecY
0.85 Vstatic Y
*
Vdynamic Y
Re-Run
!!!
Check Log File
Check Base Shear
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28- Check Mass Participating Ratios
157
Item 8-7-3-3-1-5
ECL 2012
≥ 90%
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28- Check Drifts
158
Item 8-8-3-1-a
ECL 2012
≤ 0.005
UDLSpecX
UDLSpecY
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28- Check Sliding, Overturning
159
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23 & 29- Assign Piers, Read Results
160
Select Every Column and Assign…Frame….Pier Label
Select Every Wall and Assign…Area….Pier Label
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١٦١
Etabs

Columns Design
161
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١٦٢
Etabs

Shear Walls / Cores
Design
162
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