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Dwayne Devonish

**Reminder: Types of Variables
**

• Categorical Variables Based on qualitative type variables. Gender, Ethnicity, religious affiliation, occupation. Age measured as categories: What is your age: 18-26 years, 27- 35 years, Over 35 years. • Quantitative/numerical (numerical) variables Based on data in the form of numbers Age in years (What is your age ______?) Tourist expenditure ($)

We dealt with inferential tests used to examine differences between groups… Now we look at inferential tests used to examine relationships between variables.

**Inferential statistics: Examining Relationships between Variables
**

• Inferential statistics which examine relationships or associations between two or more variables answer research questions that are associational: Is there a relationship between number of tourist arrivals and crime rates? Is there a relationship between destination satisfaction and total expenditure?

Inferential Statistics: Examining Relationships • Popular inferential statistics examining relationships between variables include: Correlations Chi-square test Simple linear regression and Multiple Regression .

Pearson Chi-square test: Test of Association .

It accompanies a crosstabulation between the two variables. • Categorical independent and dependent variable needed .Pearson Chi-square Test • The Pearson Chi square test is used to test whether a statistically significant relationship exists between two categorical variables (e.g. gender and type of car).

and voting intentions (whether I vote for DLP. Gender is the independent variable. and voting intentions is the dependent variable.Research question for Chisquare • Is there a relationship between gender and voting intentions among employees? There are two variables: gender and voting intentions. . NDP) is also categorical. Pearson Chi-square appropriate as criteria are met. BLP. Gender is categorical.

NOTES • Ask these questions: How many variables? Which one is the independent variable. and which one is the dependent variable? What types of variables are they? So Chi-square appropriate? .

no. and answer this question: Is there a relationship between the nationality of the tourist and the likelihood to return to Barbados or Does the likelihood of returning to Barbados vary by nationality? 2 variables – nationality and likelihood of return (revisit intentions) Independent variable – nationality Dependent variable – revisit intentions Nationality is categorical (U.Chi-square test in SPSS • Let’s look at the tourism data3. . don’t know).S and Canada). and revisit intentions are categorical (yes.

000 Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases a.0% Would you return to Barbados for a holiday? Yes No Don't know Total Count % within Nationality Count % within Nationality Count % within Nationality Count % within Nationality Chi-Square Tests Value 21.Chi-square Output Crosstab Nationality U. The minimum expected count is 8.489 115 df 2 2 1 Asymp. .917a 28.0% Total 59 51.3% 39 33.0% 100.5% 36.8% 20 19 34.43.0% 29.5% 33. Sig.0%) have expected count less than 5.9% 17 14. 0 cells (.3% 0 17 . (2-sided) .000 .000 .8% 115 100.S Canadian 38 21 65.8% 58 57 100.552 18.

001). p < .Sample Write-up • Is there a relationship between nationality and revisit intentions to Barbados (likelihood of return)? -Results can be written up as: • “A Pearson chi-square test was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between nationality and revisit intentions. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the two variables (Chi square value = 21.S tourists (66%) reported that they would return to the destination for a holiday visit compared with only 37 percent of Canadian tourists (see Tables 1 and 2).” .92. A significantly larger proportion of U. df =2.

More Chi-square tests in SPSS • Let’s look again at the tourism data3. and intentions are categorical (yes. and answer this question: Is there a relationship between the nationality of the tourist and the likelihood to recommend the destination (word-of-mouth intentions) or Do word-of-mouth intentions vary by nationality? 2 variables – nationality and likelihood of recommending to friends/family (word of mouth intentions) Independent variable – nationality Dependent variable – word-of-mouth intentions Nationality is categorical (U. no.S and Canada). don’t know). .

Computed only for a 2x2 table b. .S Canadian 36 19 62. (2-sided) Exact Sig.396 9.431 115 df 1 1 1 1 Asymp. 26.0% 100.7% 58 57 100.3% 22 38 37. (2-sided) .2% 115 100.0% Would recommend this destination to your friends and family? Total Yes No Count % within Nationality Count % within Nationality Count % within Nationality Total 55 47.8% 60 52.002 a.513b 8.002 . Sig.002 Exact Sig.652 9.004 . The minimum expected count is 27.Chi-square Output 2 Crosstab Nationality U.0%) have expected count less than 5. (1-sided) Pearson Chi-Square Continuity Correction a Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases .9% 66.002 . 0 cells (.1% 33.003 .0% Chi-Square Tests Value 9.

p = . .Results can be written up as: • “A Pearson chi-square test was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between nationality and word-of-mouth intentions.51. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the two variables (Chi square value = 9.S tourists (62%) were significantly more likely to recommend the destination to their friends/family moreso than Canadian tourists (33%) (see Tables 1 and 2).Sample Write-up 2 • Is there a relationship between nationality and word-of –mouth intentions? -.002) U. df =1.

Do a chi-square analysis now • Using tourism data3. answer the following questions: Is there a relationship between nationality and likelihood of returning to the hotel of stay? .

Correlations .

. • They measure the strength and direction of a relationship between variables.Correlations • Correlation tests (Pearson correlation) are used to examine relationships between two or more quantitative/numerical variables.

and which one is the dependent variable? What types of variables are they? So Correlation appropriate? .NOTES • Ask these questions: How many variables? Which one is the independent variable.

Pearson Correlations • The Pearson correlation tells you the strength and direction of a relationship between two quantitative/numerical variables. A positive correlation indicates that high values on the one variable are associated with high values of the next. It ranges from negative (-1) to positive (+1) coefficient values. . Direction: • A negative correlation indicates that high values on one variable are associated with low values on the next.

. • The p-values tells you whether the relationship or correlation between the variables are statistically significant (p< .Pearson Correlations II • A positive correlation between height and age means that higher values on the height variable (taller persons) are associated with higher values on the age variable (older persons).05). • A negative correlation means that higher values on the height variable (taller persons) are associated with lower values on age variable (younger persons).

(-).50 is the same strength as (+).50 and above = Strong relationship/high correlation.49 = Moderate relationship/Medium correlation .10 to .29 = Weak correlation/relationship .50 but different direction.Pearson Correlations III Strength: • Correlations have different strengths: .30 to . The sign of the relationship does not indicate the strength. ‘r’ is the symbol of the correlation coefficient. .

Independent variable: satisfaction with prices Dependent variable: shopping expenditure Both variables are quantitative/numerical. .Correlation Analysis in SPSS • Let’s look at the tourism data1. let’s answer the following question: Is there a relationship between satisfaction with prices at the destination and shopping expenditure? Two variables: satisfaction with prices and shopping expenditure.

.Table 1 Correlation between Satisfaction and Expenditure Correlations Shopping Satisfaction Expenditure with Prices in per person Destination per night Satisfaction with Pearson Correlation 1 .169* 1 per person per night Sig.05 level (2-tailed). (2-tailed) .025 N 322 176 Shopping Expenditure Pearson Correlation .025 N 176 176 *. (2-tailed) .169* Prices in Destination Sig. Correlation is significant at the 0.

17. Higher levels of satisfaction with prices were associated with higher levels of shopping expenditure (see Table 1).” . The correlation was weak in strength. p = .Sample Write-up Is there a relationship between satisfaction with prices and shopping expenditure? – Sample write-up: • “A Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to examine whether there is a relationship between satisfaction with prices at the destination and shopping expenditure. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship (r = .03). N = 176.

Correlation Analysis in SPSS • Let’s look at the tourism data1. Independent variable: number of children Dependent variable: total expenditure Both variables are quantitative/numerical. . let’s answer the following question: Is there a relationship between the number of accompanying children and total expenditure? Two variables: number of children and total expenditure.

020 156 1 156 How many children do you have? Total Expenditure per person per night Pearson Correlation Sig.Table 1 Correlation between Children and Total Expenditure Correlations How many children do you have? 1 322 . .05 level (2-tailed). (2-tailed) N *.186* . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. Correlation is significant at the 0.020 156 Total Expenditure per person per night .186* .

The correlation was weak in strength. N = 156. Higher numbers of children were associated with higher levels of total expenditure (see Table 1).02).19.Sample Write-up Is there a relationship between number of children and total expenditure? – Sample write-up: • “A Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to examine whether there is a relationship between number of children and total expenditure. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship (r = .” . p = .

Do this correlation: • Using tourism data1. . answer the following: Is there a relationship between the number of visits to the destination and overall satisfaction.

Regression Analyses .

One examines whether if one variable predicts (explains/impacts) another variable. • The use of the term “prediction” is central to regression analyses.Regression • Regression analyses are used to examine the effect of different (predictor/independent) variables on a single outcome (dependent) variable. .

Produces the same results as a bivariate Pearson correlation. • The dependent variable must be a quantitative/numerical variable. • Let’s see a previous example on tourism data1. .Regression • The independent or predictor variables must be either dichotomous (categorical variable with only 2 categories/groups) or quantitative/numerical variables.the number of children and total expenditure example. . • Simple Linear regression examines the relationship between one predictor variable and one outcome variable.

Multiple Regression • Multiple regression is a more popular extension of linear regression. . • Same output as the linear regression analysis. • Multiple regression examines the effects of the multiple predictors or independent variables on a single outcome variable. and interpretation.

and satisfaction with prices in the destination predict (impact) overall destination satisfaction There are three general tables that must be interpreted in the write-up of the regression analysis. satisfaction with restaurants.Multiple Regression in SPSS • Let’s look at tourism data1.sav: Do nationality. .

133 Adjusted R Square .902 .First Table Model Summary Model 1 R R Square .133). . Satisfaction with Restaurants. The R-square is the proportion of variation in the dependent variable (overall satisfaction) that is explained by the three independent variables. So 13.365a a.3 percent of the variation in overall satisfaction can be explained by three independent variables in the model. Predictors: (Constant).121 Std. It is expressed as a percentage. Nationality of Tourist. Satisfaction with Prices in Destination The information that needs to taken from this table is the R-square (. Error of the Estimate .

It also tells whether the overall effect of the three independent variables on overall satisfaction is significant.068 175. .709 202. Predictors: (Constant).000a a.092 Sig. we conclude that the overall model is statistically significant. . Satisfaction with Prices in Destination b.000 which is below the .023 . Dependent Variable: Overall satisfaction with the destination The table shows whether the proportion of variance explained in the first table is significant.777 df 3 216 219 Mean Square 9. Nationality of Tourist. Satisfaction with Restaurants.813 F 11. (or p-value) is . The sig.05 level.Second Table b ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 27. or that the variables have a significant combined effect on the dependent variable. hence.

The standardised beta tell us the strength and direction of the relationships (interpreted like correlation coefficients). Error 1. Satisfaction with restaurants is positively related to overall satisfaction (.253 Model 1 (Constant) Nationality of Tourist Satisfaction with Prices in Destination Satisfaction with Restaurants t 5. .533 . (p-values) first.354 .Third Table: Look at the effects of individual independents.131 .355 4.000 .000) are significant predictors (or significantly related to) of overall satisfaction.000 a.898 .039 .273 . Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. We can see that nationality (.013 .008 .052 .000) and satisfaction with restaurants (.26).987 Sig.068 Standardized Coefficients Beta . Dependent Variable: Overall satisfaction with the destination Look at the sig. High levels of this satisfaction correspond to higher overall satisfaction.000 .838 . .204 3.259 .

068 Standardized Coefficients Beta . Error 1.898 .354 . high levels of overall satisfaction).259 . . . Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.000 a.S.S tourists (=2) reported higher levels of overall satisfaction compared with European tourists (=1).533 .987 Sig.838 .e. and 2 = U.204 3.013 .355 4. The positive coefficient (correlation) for nationality suggests that high value on this variable (which is 2 = U.052 .000 .131 .253 Model 1 (Constant) Nationality of Tourist Satisfaction with Prices in Destination Satisfaction with Restaurants t 5.039 .273 . Dependent Variable: Overall satisfaction with the destination Nationality is a dichotomous variable where 1 = European. It is interpreted as U.S) corresponds to higher scores on the dependent variable (i.008 .Third Table: Look at the effects of individual independents.000 .

p < .25. p < . The overall model explained 13.09.Sample Write-up • “Multiple regression was conducted to examine whether nationality. and U. and satisfaction with prices impact on overall satisfaction with destination.26.S tourists reported significantly more overall satisfaction than did European tourists. p < . which was revealed to be statistically significant.3 percent of variance in productivity.001. Higher levels of satisfaction with restaurants are associated with higher levels of overall satisfaction with the destination.001) are significant predictors of overall satisfaction with destination. satisfaction with restaurants. F (3.216) = 11. . An inspection of individual predictors revealed that satisfaction with restaurants (Beta = .001) and nationality (Beta = .

and number of children affect overall satisfaction? There are three general tables that must be interpreted in the write-up of the regression analysis. . and with local transport.Multiple Regression in SPSS (2) • Let’s look at tourism data1: Do satisfaction with accommodation.

First Table Model Summary Model 1 R R Square . satisfaction with restaurants.846 .277 Std.538a a. How many children do you have?.289 Adjusted R Square . of children. Error of the Estimate . So 28. It is expressed as a percentage.9 percent of the variation in overall satisfaction can be explained by three independent variables (no. Predictors: (Constant). and with transport) in the model. Satisfaction with Local transport The R-square is the proportion of variation in the dependent variable (overall satisfaction) that is explained by the three independent variables. . Satisfaction with Accommodation.

. Dependent Variable: Overall satisfaction with the destination As stated before.054 df 3 181 184 Mean Square 17. How many children do you have?. F (3.55. Satisfaction with Accommodation.Second Table ANOVAb Model 1 Sum of Squares 52. p < .000a Regression Residual Total a.715 F 24.551 Sig. 181) = 24. Satisfaction with Local transport b. .399 182. or that the overall model is statistically significant – all three independent variables have a significant combined effect on overall satisfaction.655 129.001. Predictors: (Constant).552 . this table shows that the overall model explains a significant proportion of variance (see Table 1 on prior slide).

p < . .401 .001) and satisfaction with accommodation (Beta = .000 .074 Standardized Coefficients Beta . Error 1.890 4. Number of children is not a significant predictor of overall satisfaction (p = .289.321 .289 . suggesting that higher levels of satisfaction with the two categories are associated with higher levels of overall satisfaction. p < .000 .12).387 .099 Model 1 (Constant) Satisfaction with Local transport Satisfaction with Accommodation How many children do you have? t 4.336 1.062 .304 .604 3. .242 .Third Table cont’d Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.001) were positively correlated with overall satisfaction. Dependent Variable: Overall satisfaction with the destination The table also shows that satisfaction with local transport (Beta = .116 a.116 .32.089 .000 .579 Sig.

32. p < . p < .001) are significant predictors of overall satisfaction.” . which was revealed to be statistically significant.181) = 24. and with local transport were associated with higher levels of overall satisfaction.29.55. satisfaction with accommodation.Sample Write-up • “Multiple regression was conducted to examine whether satisfaction with local transport. F (3.9 percent of variance in overall satisfaction.001. An inspection of individual predictors revealed that satisfaction with local transport (Beta = . The overall model explained 28. Higher satisfaction with accommodation.001) and satisfaction with accommodation (Beta = . p < . number of children and impact on satisfaction.

number of children. • Do satisfaction with accommodation. and overall satisfaction with destination impact on total expenditure? .Do this example: • Using tourism data1. answer the following.

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