Introduction “Change is the essence of progress” and development with in any society.

The status of women in the Indian society is in a process of change. The women are now able to lead a more independent lifestyle and have more options open to them than in the traditional society of the past years. At that time they were totally dependent and have similar life style. But now the field is open and they are trying to be independent and this causes a big change in their life style and role of daily life. This opening of the system has lead to a temporary state of imbalance where the role expectations from women and their pattern of socialization is still at times, governed of by the old codes of conduct even though they have newer fields open to them. They are joining all the field as medial, engineering, management, educational field, forces etc. Since 1900 a new socio economic phenomenon has been developed; women’s participation in out of house economic activities. This has caused fundamental changes in social, economical and cultural factors of the society. Women more and more were involved in activities outside house and fields. Governments has finished forbidding sex discrimination in lows and working place, women were provided with more job opportunities. In fact women’s employment can be dated back to 100 years ago. Emphasizing the need for economic freedom for women, Pt. Nehru has rightly stated that freedom depends on economic conditions even more than political, and if woman is not economically free and self-earning, she will have to depend on the husband or someone else, and dependents are never free. Women’s employment is one of the significant issues in society. Since women participated in the society, half of the society’s population, otherwise passive, will become active and women’s attitude towards growing up their children will change. Women’s entry into economics is caused by a variety of factors having various effects which sometimes encourage and sometimes discourage women. The most influential factors included age structure of immigration, pregnancy rate, population growth, Socio- economic, political and cultural factors play a much more significant role than the demographic factors in women’s employment. The major role of women, considering their nature and divine creation, is motherhood bringing up their children. On the other hand women, as half of the thinking force of the society, have the competency in cultural, political, educational and scientific fields. This is because women’s are getting education and want to do something. Thus women’s participation in social and culture activities is of high importance in order to help women themselves, family and society promote. Each of three different environments were women may get; i.e. working, middle class and professional settings,

involves a special network of different factors which in turn results in culture differences in employment environments . in fact, 74% of middle class of working women believe the employment is necessary for women. 14% of them believe it is an allowance for living expresses and only 3% recognize their wish to be independent as their maturation. On the other hand, in professional settings 85% of women as sets that this desire is their motive for working. Women get financial resources as a result of their employment and working outside their house and conquering new room in the society. This has changed the traditional organization and structure of the family and consequently requires forming a new kind of balance in the house. Women of different social classes cannot have a common motivation to get a job outside home. Some with low levels of education and expertise simply want to get employed in order to solve financial problems of the family. Hence they cannot choose their job, accordingly, this leads to job dissatisfaction, lack of cultural efficiency and personality growth. Social and family activities in accordance with the nature and capacity of men and women can be of highly fruitful but what should be taken into consideration regarding the women’s employments outside their houses and their different family roles in this fact that such employment should, have no threat and damage for rearing children, of course, this does not mean that in traditional distribution of family duties between couples within the house, men’s crucial participation in rearing children is ignored. Evidently, due to women’s nature, their creation and their better ability to communicate emotionally with the children, this heavy responsibility is usually assigned to women rather than men. In the present society there are two groups of women are found to be as working women and non-working women. Working women are those who have a salaried jobs and work out of their houses, where as non- working women’s are those who are not gainful employed and are totally involved in the house hold jobs. Most societies describe and encourage the role of child bearer and rarer for the women and disapprove alternative roles such as gainful employment outside the home (Blake, 1969). Both employed and unemployed women play a significant role in household activities of their families. There life is more family centered than of men. The happiness of a family to great extent depends upon her. Women fulfill their duties and responsibilities sincerely in their outside profession. The double work pressure creates frustration, stress and many other problems. Working women have wide area of interaction. They learn new things daily and share there problem to friends and they suggest solution to her but a nonworking women have a small interaction area. They spend their minimum time in the four wall of houses. This situation is different from working women. There are two views of the status of women in India. One is the classical text view and the other is empirical view. The empirical view of the contemporary role and status of women

has been emphasized widely, but since many of the contemporary , attitudes towards the status of women are rooted in the past a brief historical survey of the changing status of women becomes worth importance. The women in the contemporary society are in the process of acquiring a status position and role which is different from the earlier conception. The Indian society like a number of classical societies has been patriarchal and the ideal women are those who do not strived to breaks the bonds of control. A look into the history, however, shows that the situation was not always so. In the vedic age (2500 to 1500BC) women had considerable freedom to move about in the family and society and they took an intelligent part in public affairs. They were educated like boys. Marriage used to take place at the age of 16 and 17. They had effective voice in the selection of their life partners. Occasional accounts of love marriages are also found. In social and religious gathering they occupied a prominent position. Women had absolute equality in the eyes of religion. In the family status of wife and mother was an honored one. Ordinarily monogamy was the rule. Widow marriage was permitted but this was usually with in the family. But women could neither hold nor inherit family property. So in this culture woman had better status in terms of education, religion rights, freedoms of movement etc. In age of Brahmans(1500 to 500 BC) gradual changes in the status of women has started. According to Alteker (1958), girls who went through a course of education were commonly from the higher section of society in which some of the women attained distinction in the realm of theology, philosophy and a considerable number of them took up a teaching career. The age of marriage for girls continued to be about 16 and they had some voice in the selection of their life partners. Desai(1976) found that in ancient Indian, girls had equal right to undergo the Upanayana sanskar, and hence they had the eligibility to study the sacred vedic literature and participate in sacrificial ceremonies. Around the third century B.C., The Aryan’s marriage to non-Aryan women restricted the girls from studying the vedic literature. It was in the age Sutras and Epics (500 BC to 500 A.D.) that the status of women changed considerably. Certain force in society began to calmour for early marriage at 9 to 10 years of age. Girls education was discontinued and as such young brides ceased to have any voice in the choice of marriage partners. The dictum that a wife ought to respect her husband as a ‘god’ even if he were vicious a drunkard and devoid of merit was accepted as applying to all women (Kapadia, 1958). The theory of perpetual tutelage of women was clearly formulated by Manu- the low- giver of Hindu society according to whom women was to depend on her father in childhood, on her husband in young age and on her sons in her old age. Thus she was

socialized and was expected to play the role of a person completely dependent on man with no opportunity to take decision on her own (Indra, 1955). The status of women continued to deteriorate during the age of Smritis (A.D. 500 to A.D 1800) and Muslim rule till they had almost no status in the society and none in their own estimation. Thus the position of women declined and there was over whelming concern for purity and honours. The mantle of which fell on women and they were closeted with in the four walls of home in the roles of wives and mother (Desai and Krisnaraj, 1987). When the Britishers obtained possession of our country. A small section of the India women was educated up to the modest requirements of household life. (mathur.1973). During the British rule legislation aimed at raising the status of women was passed owing to the pressures of various movements initiated by reformers like Ram Mohan Roy, Mahatama Gandhi, Vivekananda, Dayanand Saraswati, Annie Besent. The Indian National Congress and organization such as Women’s Association founded by Sarojini Naidu, Arya Samaj, Ram Krishana Mission. The social reform movement of nineteenth century and national movement of twentieth century, both drew the women outside the home, initially to provide support in freedom struggle, but once drown outside the confines of the home this pattern continued for the women even in the post independent era. In this period education of women was encouraged, the age of marriage raised, employment for women was made feasible. The second world was also played a part in the emancipation of women. But this influence was almost entirely restricted to the women of urban middle class since industrialization and the mobilization of men is armed force created vacancies for women in factories and the profession (Promila Kapoor, 1970). Rai (1955) studied society and education in India and gave a comprehensive and coherent picture of social life in India during the period of 1813-1857. The study probed into the problem of caste, religion and social system, then prevalent in India. Education of women, abolition of sati tradition and widow marriage were also accounted for. The study revealed that Mr. May, a missionary has established a girls school even before 1815. There were several organizations and institution for the education of girls, but it was found that respectable Hindus were not prepared to send their daughters to the school without proper protection. In 1854 wood’s Despatch obenly advocated for female education. Although, the first was of independence in 1857, caused a set-back for the progress of girls education. In Bombay and other parts of south India, the Prejudice against female education begin disappearing rapidly, and it was found that the new race of men stated giving regard to women as equal partners in the great task of social and National reconstruction . During the British role (Nanda, 1976), legislation aimed at raising the status of women, but the real break through, however, come in the twentieth century. When Gandhi launched the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’, and with unerring instinct asked the women to come out of their homes to take part in it, shoulder to shoulder with their men folk. Hence, by the end of the British rule, females were sharing the economic aspects of household and were engaged in many professions.

During the period from 1937 to 1947 the medium of education change from English to mother tongue and the number of schools for girls increased rapidly. The equal rights of women have been guaranted by Articles 15 and 16 in the Constitution of India. With the advent of Independence, the place of change in the role and status of women in India was greatly accelerated by the virtue of various Acts which forbade discrimination among citizens on the ground of sex. The number of new jobs, now available to women, is a significant achievement of the emerging new India. Today, women’s economic horizon once limited to household charge and form lab our, has evident considerably. The status of urban middle class women has improved and the urge towards economic independence has been awakened. Economic necessity has led women to all types of employment, where their presence has been accepted by men. Women can claim all the rights and privileges of men. Urban women have entered higher education and are holding official position in various type of salaried jobs and acceptation. There was greatest stress on education and the number of women entering salaried remunerative occupations and professions has kept on increasing substantially.The census data for literacy rates from 1941 -2011 clearly shows that where on literacy rates for females recorded in year 1941 and 51 as low as 7.30 & 8.86. There was a steady increase in the following decates. The rates shot up to the levels of 15.35 in 1961, 21.97 in 1971, 29.76 in 1981,39.29 in 1991. A big increase was found in 2001 & the literacy rate of woman was 53.67 where as in 2011 census literacy rate of women is 65.46

Year Literacy role 1941 7.30 1951 8.86 1961 15.35 1971 21.97 1981 29.76 1991 39.29 2001 53.67 2011 65.46 Source: Census of India; 2011 The percentage of growth in enrolment of various levels of education also shows that during these year, the greater increase has been at the University level. In the service and professions the number of female works has been growing steadily though slowly of their professional. Women are mostly concentrated in the teaching profession. Commenting on the increasing trend of women entering into employment Moorthy, 1945 had commented that “The increasing entry of our women into grainful occupation has

psychological motivation(page13) . Millions of married working women constitute proof of the contrary. They now seek the employment not only as economic necessity but as a means of self. Kapur (1974) further states that educated urban women have now began to realize that job con raise their self – esteem and self. Montague (1954) writes – for a married women to be grainful employed outside the home is in no way incompatible with her being a good wife.1976). The educated women now prefer occupation out of personal interest as a vocation and not as temporary measure. thus. The employed women. on the basis of her survey of 300 urban women had come to the conclusion that “ educated married women of urban India are impelled to get into employment or professions not only by economic insufficiency but also by various “Man for the field and women for the hearth. Other authors however are less doubtful about the ability of the women to manage the two roles together. socio. Women in India are gradually getting more concerned about employment and profession and holding more positive attitudes towards employment and have a clears perception of the chosen occupation (Rao.fulfillment. Even though initially women moved outside the home to strengthen the hands of men economically or politically.broken the old world viewed of division of labour. 1976).role . find themselves in a role which is non traditional and has till lately been played mostly by men. As result of changing values and attitudes of today’s women to words careers more and more women are rejecting the traditional house wife role and are choosing careers (Mason el.confidence and can accomplish their sociopsychological security and freedom. The various studies and surveys as well as statistic show that educated women are now more can and desirous of utilizing their education and training then was the case previously. Kapur (1974).” It has called upon women to make physical and psychological adjustment doubtfully consistent with her dignity. The role of the worker requires the presence of contain personality characteristic which are usually associated with masculine sex. In the content of Indian situation Duke (1963) has pointed out that the traditional conception regarding the place and role of women are slowly changing in contemporary Indian society.

having high self. 6. Promotion of social awareness and insight resulting in women’s developing selfconfidence and intellectual as well as spiritual autonomy. 3.identity man from the earlier age itself are encouraged to develop these characteristic while women are discouraged. 4. Douvan and Adelson. The negative consequences may include: 1. Dutton. But the services that women in various countries rendered during the . 1965). The positive consequences may include: 1. Lacking matual understanding between husbands and wives regarding the scope of their duties and responsibilities. 7. 1966. Becausing more familier with different approaches to improve productivity and efficiency and trying to do so. 3. 2. positively asserting themselves. Of course. women employment has positive as well as negative consequences explaind below. Physical and spiritual fatigue due to extra efforts to meet family and society’s expectations. One may concluded that the women’s primary role is that of child bearing. Maccoby. Contributing to supply part of cost of living and its impact on improving the level of health and education. Having less opportunity to communicate with the family members especially with their young children Prevalent Sex –Role expectation According to the theory that biology determines psychological traits and function. Promoting their management ability and paving the ground for apply it in their home and in basic family decisions. 2. Developing talents. The physical scientists more than other have probably stressed the social differences that arise out of the physical characteristics of the two sexes. Couple’s getting into and becoming sebsitive in home because of the pressure of their job. Thus studies tend to support the motion that women is physically the weaker sex because of which she has a more passive sex and social role (Overstreet. 1961. 1963. Having the ability and power to solve the family problems. Decrease in population growth rate due to personal and social awareness of women.esteem and developing good personality meeting their spiritual needs. Providing women with more social security in time of various crises when they are old since or disabled. 5. 8. child rearing and home making. Lacking balance between job duties and their duties as mothers and as wives. 4. 5.

1968. assertiveness. independence. 1969). (Hor ner. compassionate. believes and values of boys and girls are greatly influenced by their peer group who tend to reinforce the traditional views . ambitions. Moore and Riesman pointed out that the goals. There are sociologist who have studied the effect of socio economic position of the family and of the position of siblings in the family on their sex roles (Kammeyer. 1961 Coleman. 1967. 1967).Brim.first and second world wars amply proved that they are able to do various kinds of work and have much more physical endurance and tolerance for hardship than was commonly believed. 1965) Most societies describe and encourage the role of child bearer and rearer for the women and disapprove alternative roles such as gainful employment outside the home (Blake. . competitiveness . having spiritual values. 1961). To be successful in a profession characteristic like achievement motive . analytical thinking . and that these are reinforced by the mass media and by peers(Ellman. Atkinson published an entire volume “ Motives in fantasy and society. conversely a behavioral orientation towards power . O. The literature dialing with female role behavior suggests that women are expected to be sympathetic. interest . and dependent on one another (Tyler. 1965). Glazer and Danny. non aggressive (Hilgard & Alkmson. 1969). initiative and prestige in frequently viewed as more appropriate for males. having initiative etc would be discrable but in a large number of research investigation it has been found that these very characters are not included within the acceptable role expectation from women. The studies of Steinmann and Fox(1966): and Sheriff and Mckee(1967) point out that the stereotypes of male and female behavior in north American society are still rather distinct. The 1958. artistic inclination and concern for the welfare of others (Miner 1965) . The psychologist from Havelack Ellis onward seen to have been less certain than the physical scientists about the relation between anatomical structure and social behaviors among the sociologists there seen to have been an implicit acceptance of some what distinct expectation of the two sex roles but there have not been enough studies of the actual differences or change in the sex roles. Riesman. humanitarian.” And it included only one footnote about women’s achievement that time. compltency. self-confidence. The studies of Hartley (1961).

role identity.role identify with in the women. neat. self-confident. helplessnes. analytic thinking. and high motivation for achievement. was found to be the desire to make use of higher or professional education. Associated with feelings of dependency. order and succorance. Rani(1975) studied role conflict in working women and conduced that the decision to take up a job. always acting as a leader. adventureous. competitive . interested in art and literature.Ruddel (1982) found that women described themselves as less achievement oriented. because of desire for affiliation and social approval. The female valued stereotypic items are characterize of by relative absence of there traits and consist of attributes such as gentle. Broverman . religious. logical skilled in business worldly. In the Indian society. if at all. active. sensitive to the feelings of others. tactful. Female achieve. Rosenkrantz and his colleagues (1968) found that “competence” and “assertiveness” are socially desirable traits for males where as “warmth” and “expressiveness” are considered to be desirable for female. Broverman. less dominant and less autonomous that men but they scored higher on affiliation. nurturance. 75) and Broverman. Harm avoidance. Hoffman (1972) found that males achieve because of internalized motives to do well to strive for excellence. ambititous. Under those circumstance when women enter the worker role then the possibility exists that they may find the demands of the role not in consonance with their sex.role identity is still quite clear out. quiet. aggressive tendencies. over emotionality and subjectivity. Clarkson and Rosen Krantz(1972). able to make decisions. passivity. the dichotomy between the female and male sex. al (1970) report that male valued stereotypic items reflect a “ competency” cluster including attributes like being independent objective. able to express tender feelings. The earlier socialization of a woman and the process of development of the sex role identity would be expected to instill personality characteristics consonant with the female sex.Concluded that sex roles have revealed consistent expectation for different traits and behavior for men and women. . Vogel. femininity emphasized feeling as opposed to daing -Masculinity on the other hand is associated with independent action. Man are stereotypically perceived as lacking in these characteristics. Brandt(1978) also suggests that movement away from traditional feminine role may be accompanied by a broadening of personality options and integration of both masculine and feminine traits. vogel and Broverman et. Bem (1974.

however.psychosomatic theory which also stresses family interactional patterns in the development of mental illness. family pathology has been suggested form time to time to be important. one can say that in principle women has the status of equality but in day to day life . looking at things. which are by and large from urban centers. In the consideration of the etiology of mental illness many factors have been suggested. are slowly changing the traditional conception of the role and status of women in contemporary Indian society .(1956) . Wynne. it is inevitable that her ways of feeling. which have been considered. welling and of doing things should also be affected. Hill. A new approach had been developed .Gove (1972) and Gove and Tudor (1973) also suggested that change in female role have promoted conflicting and contradictory normative beliefs about the women’s role. It is this empirical view of her role and status that is vital for the understanding her role and status. In India the women’s participation and achievements in extra familiar activities and spheres. especially after Independence. The patterns of socialization are considerably induced by the value system and religious ethos prevent in a particular society at a particular of time. Dubey (1963) and Kapur (1960) indicated in their studies that attitude of the educated women have certainly undergone a considerable change regarding their role and status in society. Lidzetal . Wolman (1963) has suggested a socio. (1955).independence India”. (1985) have reported that parental pathological patterns of interpersonal relationship in the family are of etiological significance in the development of schizophrenia. “From a sociological point of view social role are among the most important ‘object’ that are internalized in the course of socialization. New opportunities for education and employment. resulting the greater psychological strain. thinking. environmental stimulus and opportunities given to them.image which will be created in her by them . quoted. the emergence of new socioeconomic pattern and privilege of new and equal legal and political rights to women. which broadens the focus of investigation to include the entire family in order to understand the developments of mental illness or mental health. Of the many determinants. Hate(1970) in his study of “Changing status of women in post. a specific etiologic determinant has not been isolated. According to the role theorists like Newcomb (1965) a person’s attitudes are influenced by the “role” he occupies in a social system. in the family and in society as well”(Harry. Since in the ultimate analysis of women’s internalized role and status will be determined by the attitudes and behavioral patterns of the other members of society towards her and by her own self. as per statistical and case data available. with this “changed. has proved that psychological traits and their concomitance behavior patterns are developed by the socialization patterns. 1966).role of women.

nursing. It has been found that it is no longer considered derogatory for the wife or daughter. Marital mal adjustment resulted when working women. especially in the lower middle and lower social streta . Women is nontraditional careers had higher levels of mastery and competitiveness. In many study it was found that if the employed wife demands the assistance of her husband and in-lows in the performance of household duties . This is mainly and almost exclusively for the financial gain to the family.. This empirical study is conformed to middle class educated working women. In may study. the tradional view of the role and status of women in society still largely prevails. the institution of caste and the patriarchal family. Kapur(1970) pointed out that the findings of her study of working women exemplify the actual role and relationship of middle class educated working women with reference to their changing – law of a middle class or even upper class to hold a job.she is still away from the ideal. inefficient and not a good wife and daughter-in-law . economics. self-esteem than women pursing traditional careers. she is accused of being vain. who had to carry out household chores along with their jobs and who needed and expected help from their husbands. impertinent. feeling that by virtue of being a working wife she could legitimately claim to have such assistance . education library science. 86 percents of the husbands of working wives want their wives to work an at least do not mind them doing so. engineering and management with a second sample of women. Even the elderly women of the family want their daughter –in – law to take up gainful employment. religious more and the dominant value systems as still surcharged with the spirit of male dominance. 1970). lower level of feminine traits and higher levels of social competence. Thought the – oreticlly women is recognized as the socialy equal of man. Garcia (1985) compared women possessing non-traditional careers in selected professional schools of law. Inspite of the formal equality which she enjoys. “The attitude towards working married women has changed considerably. enrolled in more traditional graduate programmes of home science. did not receive husband’s assistance in carrying out these responsibilities. the attitude of the husband and of the in-lows towards her role and relationship in the family and towards her status her rights and privileges hence remained comparatively unchanged.” (Kapur. higher levels of masculine traits. While attitude towards wife’s or daughter –in-law’s employment as such has changed. There is still a large gap between the legal rights and the social attitudes and beliefs which come in the way of actual emancipation of women. yet they do indicate broad national trend. “Conflicting situation of husband and working wife proves detrimental to marital harmony is seen from the fact that 84 percent employed wives who had exceptions form . medicine. specially to the working women of urban areas who may not present a truly representative picture of India.

Attempts have been made to study. 1970).working women display higher degree of acceptance. Venkataramana ( 1987) referred that the impact of traditional women’s professions (officers. The number of working women is gradually increasing. independence and reward whereas less equated women expressed dependence and punishment to a greater degree. In 1971 census . However working and non working women of all categories were found to be similar with respect to dimensions’ of acceptance.working women differed significantly on reward punishment dimension.their husbands denial in sharing the household responsibilities were found to be maladjusted in their married life . rejection and independence – dependence. As a result women are being provided with various jobs in the society. Then every person both worker and non worker was asked about his secondary activity. The introduction of the concept of ‘main activity’ made inter. the concept of main activity introduced explicity and every persons was asked what his/her main activity was that is how he or she engaged himself mostly . Working and non. The husband’s attitude towards his employed wife’s status or rights in the family with respect to her privilege is also a source of tension. Verma (1986) concluded that the children of working mother were less affected in respect of emotional stability more egoistic feeling relation with other children and more unusual behaviour than that of the children of non working mothers. Singh and Sharma (1976) compared working and non working women (N.census comparison of data still more difficult. the psychological dimensions of women development. The working wife experiences marital frustration and disappointment if the members of her “role –set” do not simultaneously make necessary modifications in their expectations” (Kapur. marital frustration and ill mental health. The introduction of the concept ‘main activity’ affected to a considerable expend the employment status of women as the preferred to be categorised as ‘house wives’ and their secondary activity was not seriously analysed. It was revealed that more educated working and non. It is aften advocated that in order to bring women to equal status with man economic independence of women is necessary. Doctors) on the personality trail and parent child interaction of 197 working and non -working Indian women compared to house wives the employed mothers parent child interaction were concluded to be significantly more positive and effective. It has been realized that studies of the problems related to women have not been given adequate attention. .892) of Patana (Bihar) for their child rearing practices. The main activity reported by the person entitled him to be categorized either as a worker or a non worker.

If women . their work related behaviour is also affected. Hence whenever work completes with prevalent sex.role related behaviour even in work situation like submissiveness. dominance or aggressive behaviours. Family and work are considered to be separate institutions that make competing demands on women. This socialization pattern lays a great stress on the fact that women have a primary commitment to these family roles and work or career can only be a second importance. 1946). they can perform with greater freedom in the worker role. lack of autonomy.role identity. This approach posits that family and work situation are social structure in which person act and behave according to the structure demands. The women who do not marry can escape the constrains of the family role hence. 1961) Horner’s (1968) concept of fear of success also propagates the same line of argument that women may hide or lower their achievement for fear of being considered deviant from the prevalent sex. They are freer to exhibit characteristic which may be different from their sex role identity and consonant with the works identity. Socialization Hypothesis This hypothesis focuses on the family centered roles of women.Theoretical Approaches In context to the women’s work behaviors two approaches described by Kanter(1975) and Stromberg and Harkess. wife and mother. They can more easily manifest some of the masculine characters which are associated with the worker role. or to for ego demanding occupations in the interest of motherhood and marriage (Simpson and Simpson. They may scale down their achievement and aspirations is order to avoid competing with potential mater (Komarovsky. Social Structural Approach This approach explains women’s work behaviour and consciousness on the besis of their work position. These theoretical explanations have not been followed up by systematic research and hence explorations in the field are lacking. sister. women are socialized to give priority to family role hence. The women from the earlier age are socialized to play the family centered roles like daughter.role identity and family responsibilities accommodation are made in favours of the family and the sex. It would appear that on the basis of the socialization hypothesis the married women irrespective of their career status are likely to be more similar and different from career women who have remained single. Since. (1978) are (1) Socialization hypothesis and (ii) Social structure approach.S.

personality factors etc. Personality People continue to grow and change throughout their lives. It seems essential to explore the differences between working and non -working women at some points such as selfesteem. Their behaviour is that of powerless and opportunity less people. They both would be expected to differ from the house wives who are only playing the family role and are not force with the situation requiring the manifestation of a worker identity. it may be not because of their earlier socialization or sex-role identity but due to their positions within the social structure. Since both are in a situation which demands a reflection of their worker identity. Gerth and Mills and symbolic interactionists. after all. 1978. In context to the employed women the most important aspect of the personality to be investigated appears to be their self-esteem aspiration. adjustment patterns. Even men may behave in similar fashion if they find themselves in similar position with in social structures. Women’s occupations are subordinate to male ones and women accommodate to their subordination by manifesting characteristics which would meet the circumstances. mostly a matter of flexibly adopting to the changing .) They are characterized by limited opportunities and power (Kanter. adjustment.identity or a competing commitment to family roles. 1975). mental health.eastern as earlier sociological studies have pointed out that women may seek the employed station enhance their selfesteem.appear to be exhibiting behaviours like denying presence of aspiration or need for achievement. Most of the women are concentrated with in certain female type occupation. these occupation have secondary position( Graim and Stern. Another aspect of relevant was coincident to be self. Mannheim. Thus in the social structural view the women’s work behavior reflects their work situation and not latent sex. Successful adjustment thorough the life cycle in. According to this approach we should find working women irrespective of their marital status to be similar. Working women when moving out of the boundaries of home. The social structural hypothesis implies that women have high worker consciousness and express it when situation are relevant to their work interest. enter those area of activity which are man dominated. This structural explanation is consistent with writing as diverse as those of Morx. Research is needed in order to ascertain the comparative merits of the two theoretical approach and the present study is an attempt to fill this lacuna.

In addition to this. Block (1995) her criticized the five factor approach as. Personality can be defined as a dynamic organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cogritions. Each individual endeavors to adjust himself to environment suiting to her/ his personality. interest. feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. Hough(1992) makes a similar argument. Feelings. Personality has been defined by different authors reflecting their view paints . During more than five decades. close relationships and other social interactions.” Personality is a prediction of what on individual will od in a given situation. According to catlell R.demands opportunities and limitations associated with different stages of life. According to Munn. Mental and physical traits influence each other that is reflected in the personality. This patterns constitute the individual’s personality. psychological research has tried to find out why some people are more stressed .” To sum up it can be said that1. coping styles and ways of interacting in the social environment emerge during childhood and normally crystallize into established patterns by the end of adolescence or early adulthood. 2. but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs . it can also be seen in aur thoughts. Hence ability of adjustment to environment varies with individual to individuals There is a new approach to study personality patterns that is known as big live factors model of personality. There qualities are not static. attitudinal and behavioral response patterns of an individual . Personality is the particular combination of emotional. Personality is made up of the characteristic pattern of thoughts.Personality is an organization of psycho-physical qualities.the unique patterns of traits and behaviors that characterize the individual. motivations and behaviors in various situations.Perso. Personality is a psychological construct . a person’s broadly characteristic. traits.” Personality as the dynamic organization within the individual of psychophysical system which determine his typical adjustment to his environment. personality arises from with in the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. personality is the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of o living being. Hence personality is a dynamic organization.” Allport defined as. Being to global to be of much use in understanding actual behavior. Nevertheless. mone of his behavior. claiming the Big Five factors arte to broad to adequately predict important live outcomes or an integration of psycho physical system.B. attitudes capacities and abilities. “Personality so the most characteristic integration of individual’s structure. they vary from person to person to suit environment.

Within the personality approach.than others. that are influenced both by basic tendencies and by contextual factors as “ Characteristic adaptations.g. Gylje. and prejudice fall within this category. Also they are likely to be causally prior to prejudice. Sidanius & Pratto. we argue that SDO. 1998). Research suggests that RWA and SDO fall between personality and social psychology with distinct roots in core personality (e. Reynolds. Bouchard & Loehlin. social identity. Ekehammar & Akrami. Frenkel-Brunswik. Surface traits. This research has highlighted two major lines of explanation based on personality or social psychology.g. agreeableness. our previous. Clark & Waston. 2002.g. Wagner. This is in accord with the model of McCare and Costa(1996. & Birum. social self-categorization. the “Five Factors Model” of personality (neuroticiss. previous research suggests two major theoretical frameworks to explain individual differences in prejudice. Rather. 200) and should be placed in the social psychology rather than the personality domain.g. Levinson. McCare and Costa denoted various phenomena. 1950. these critics suggest that RWA and SDO are measures of social attitudes. Saucier. and conscientiousness) has emerged as a . some recent research has questioned if RWA and SDO are personality variables at all.Michinov. and situational factors(e. 1999. Krendler. Dambrun. The Five-Factor(Big Five) Model of Personality (McCrae & Costa.. 2005.. The social psychology explanation implies that stress is caused by people’s social group membership. & Ryan. such as attitudes. The other is social dominace theory (e. social beliefs. Haslam. extroversion. openness. in contrast.g. Guimond.” In our case. social position. 1950). are personality characteristics that are susceptible to social and environmental influences. However. 2006b.2004). 1981. 2003). On the other hand. One line originates from the authoritarian-personality theory(Adorno et. 1999) where the central individual difference variable is social dominance orientation (SDO). & Duarte. who classified the Big Five personality as “ basic tendencies” positioned first in a causal chain.1999). It seems reasonable to classify these factors as core personality factors because of their substantial heritability coefficients and their early expression in temperament in human infants and in other animal species(e. du Plesiss.. Turner. Altemeyer. & Zakrisson. is the relationship between core personality on the on hand and stress on the other? Drawing on the distinction suggested by Asendorpf and Van Aken(2003). Duckitt. core personality traits are based on genetic differences and /or early childhood experiences. 2001. 2001). with limited susceptibility to social and contextual influences later in life. The personality explanation suggests that stress is caused by people’s personalities or personality related characteristics (Adorno. 1999). Ekehammar. or social evaluations ( & Sanford. Further. RWA. Akrami. Plomin & Caspi. 2003 . In recent years. which is further developed in the theory of right-wing authoritarianism(RWA. Akarami & Ekehammar. 1999) is probably the most widely accepted model of personality structure. Altemeyer. What then. 1996..

Paunonen & Ashton. agrued that discrimination stemming from the individual’s stress is observable behavior that fall within this category. Haddock. Because most trait models of personality are hierarchical (e. labeled “ new Big Five” by the authors. MCFarland(2001) reported that these two Big Five factors displayed the larges correlation with his generalized prejudice measure.2001. Paunonen and coworkers9e. (Ekehammar & Akrami. Paunonen.” which agree with Mc Crae and Costa’s corresponding concepts. there is always the question of which level to choose for the study of personality and its relations to other variables. and more research is appearing that explores the influence of these five general personality dimensions on Adjustment & self. This set of principles. & Keinonen. such as the Big Five factors and facets. 1988) have made a strong case for suggesting the trait rather than the factor level for predicting. Paunonen. Paunonen. with traits(facets)subsumed under factors(domains). 2003) examined the relation of the Big Five. McFarland(2001) found that only Openness and Agreeableness made significant contributions to the regression equation.(2004) replicated this general picture using causal modeling . “objective biography” is about the individual’s action and behaviors and is positioned at the end of the causal chain. Flynn(2005)found significant correlation between Openness and various measures of racial stress. 2003) arrived at a high predictive power(R5. Finally. the larges regression weights. Forsterling. Also. Finally. see also Mershon & Gorsuch. we suggest that prejudice falls within the category of characteristic adaptations and can be explained by basic tendencies. within “characteristic adaptations. Also. According to Paunonen(1998). we(Ekehammar & Akrami. In conclusion.” SDO and RWA are prior to stress. Agreeableness and Openness displayed . When using all Big Five factors for predicting generalized stress in a linear multiple regression analysis. Personality factors with generalized stress. and “characteristic adaptations. and the predictive power was comparable to ours.g.eastern It also maintain that. 2003.56). it seems that Agreeableness and Openness are those single Big Five factors that are most closely associated with prejudice. Whereas Allport(1954) regarded prejudice as personality factor by itself. 1998. there is reliable specific . 1990. McCrae. and understanding.” within which the Big Five factors are placed. 1992).unifying framework for understanding the complete domain of normal personality (Digman.1998). includes MccCrae and Costa’s “basic tendencies” as “dispositional traits.g. various external behaviors and construct. as expected. The Mc Crae and Costa(1996) conceptualization has recently been further developed in a framework of fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality that has been put forward by McAdams and Pals (2006).. in an unpublished study. Ekehammar et al. Recently. In the case . The results showed that Openness ot Experience (denoted Openness in the following) and Agreeableness displayed rather strong correlation with generalized stress.

Though debate ensues concerning the exact name of each domain(Loehlin. they believe people are basically honest . Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature . Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. Though there is still some disparity with regard to the comprehensiveness and conversely the succinctness of the model. deliberate. Openness to Experience. 1992). 1943). but see ones & Viswesvaram. Introverts lack the exuberance. assert themselves and drow atlention to themselves. the introvert simply needless stimulation than on extravert more time alone to recharge their batteries Agreeableness Agreebleness relflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony. The Five-Factor Model(FFM) consists of five broad domains and 30 lower-order facets that surface over decades of research and factor analysis (Cattel. There lack of social invaluement should not be interpreted as shyness or depresson. They tend to be enthusiastic. Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. action oriented individuals who are likely to say ‘Yes’ . they are full of energy. and often experience positive emotions. there is no other model as well supported by research than the FFM(McCrae & John. The emergence of the Five – Factor Model(FFM) over the past 10 to 15 years has provide a valuable paradigm from which to gain deeper understanding of important adaptational characteristics . 1995. 1996. They are therefore considerate friendly generous. comprehensive theory of personality. the field has lacked consensus regarding an overall. They are generally unconcerned with other’s well –being and therefore they are unlikely to . 1992). decent and trust worthy. energy and activity levels of extraverts. Until recently. low-key. The empirical results of Paunonen and coworkers have shown substantial benefits in using the fact rather than factor level when examining the relation of the Big Five factors with various external variables(see also Costa & McCrae. helpful and willing to compromise their interests with others. Extraverts enjoy being with people. In group they like to talk. and Conscientiousness. and less dependent on the social world. it is generally agreed that five is the true number of mutually exclusive domains. They tend to be quiet. Agreeableness.variance in most facets because the facets underlying a personality factor are obviously not perfectly correlated. Extraversion. Extraversion : Extraversion ( also “ extroversion) is marked by pronounce engagement with the external world. The five domain names used by Costa and McCae(1995) will be described for our purposes: Neuroticism.

earth. At the other end of the scale. critics or soldiers. Sometimes their skepticism about other’s motives causes them to be suspicious. they can be compulsive perfectionist and workaholic. Disagreeable people can make excellent scientists. boring .. individuals who score low on this subscale are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. Those who score high on neuroticism may experience primarily one specific negative feeling such as anxiety. Impulsive individuals can be seen by others as colorful. People high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive. appreciative of art and sensitive to beauty.extend themselves for other people. lack of ambition and failure to stay with in the lines. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness concerns the way in which we control. also known inversely as emotional stability. curious. occasionally time constraints require a snap decisions and action on our first impulses can be on effective response. anger or depression but are likely to experience several of these emotions. They tend to be. dull. compared to closed . Can the negative side. but they will experience many short-lived pleasures and they will never be called stuffy (i. Neuroticism Neuroticism . Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long period of time.with and zany. Impulse are not inherently bad. regulate and direct our impulse. Agreeable people are better liked them disagreeable people Agreeableness is not useful in situations that require tough or absolute objective decisions. unimaginative). They tend to be calm. creative people from down –to. Agreeableness in obviously advantageous for attaining and maintaining popularity. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions. Conscientiousness includes the factor known as need for achievement. Openness Openness describes a dimension of personality that distinguishes imaginative. They respond emotionally to events that would not offect most people and their reactions tend to be more intense than normal they are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. Unconscientious people may be criticized for their unreliability. unfriendly and uncooperative. emotionally stable and free from persistent negative feeling.e. conventional people open people are intellectually. fun-to-be.

this domain has shown to describe a person who appreciates aesthetic value and who has a creative lifestyle (McCrae & John. Therefore. They definitions of Extraversion is historically not as parsimonious as that of Neuroticism. The implication is that as people in diverse cultures age. An agreeable person would tend to work well in a group setting. P. and situational factors. and . Agreeableness is a domain that has often been associated with morality and the ability to get along with others (McCrae & John. the NEO-Pl-R. driven and goal oriented (Hogan & Ones.. Conscientiousness is often used to describe one’s ability to be in command of their behavior. 2000) that investigated “intrinsic maturation”. The final domain is conscientiousness.. For example. Instead. Pan –cultural age. In a more recent study (McCrae et al. openness to Experience. the model suggests that personality is related to temperament. 1992). 1992. 1992). People with low scores on openness tend to have narrow.people. ambiguous. Further. uniform changes in their personality profiles are observed. 1987). encompasses intellectual curiosity as well as other affinities that are not related to intellect. developmental influences. 1997) is usually evident in a person who is highly extraverted. and is not influenced by environmental factors (McCrae et al. 1997). Close people prefer familiarity over novelty. The next domain. Further. Moreover. Conscientious persons are “governed by conscious” and “diligent and thorough “ (McCrae & John. First. common interests. The FFM is strong in several respects. Extraversion. 2000). straight forward and obvious over the complex. and subtle. McCrae and Costa showed that six different translations of their FFM-based personality test. i. because Extraversion encompasses a broader them.. Another research on the FFM shows that the five factors are legitimate in a crosscultural context (McCrae & Costa. 1997).197). They tendency toward social interaction and positive affect (Watson & Clark. a person’s personality can produce several different response patterns depending on the environment.e. the ways traits are expressed are affected by culture. personality can be considered and enduring and relatively stable trait. more aware of their feelings. they prefer the plain. They therefore tend to hold unconventional and individualistic beliefs. although their actions may be conforming. they are conservative and resistant to change. Neuroticism is best understood as “individual differences in the tendency to experience distress” (McCrae & John. because agreeableness is often expressed as person’s tendency toward pro-social behavior (Graziano & Eisenberg.related changes in personality profiles were evidenced. the same five factors were evident and dominant in many different cultures that utilize extremely diverse linguistic patterns(1987). supported the validity of the previously described five factors. Neuroticism is ways in which a person thinks about and deals with problems and experiences that arise due to their susceptibility to unpleasant experiences. 1992). The emergent pattern showed that levels of Neuroticism.

Williams. Adjustment is the interaction between a person and his environment. despair..self-regard. or will be fulfilled. enduring. According to Baring (1966) “Adjustment is a process by which a living organism maintains balance between its need and the circumstances that influence the satisfactions of needs. “ Adjustment is the establishment of a satisfactory relationship. Self- . a representing harmony. a one way process. such as coping ability. these tendencies and outcomes are derivatives of a diathesis that is create by personality traits (Costa & McCrae. it is remarkable that gender stereotypes along would relate so distinctly to the FFM. Adjustment is all its meanings implies a satisfactory adaptation to the demands of day –to-day life. So. selfintegrity & self-respect) is a person’s overall self-appraisal of their worth. adaptations or the like. An individual maintains the balance between himself and his surrounding either by modifying his own behavior or by modifying the environment Shaffer (1961) stated that adjustment is the process by which a living organism maintains and balance between its needs and the circumstances that influences their needs. pride and shame. The FFM has amassed plenty of evidence that personality is pervasive. Self Esteem In psychology self-Esteem (also called self-worth. Thus. A sequence of adjustment beigns when a need is felt and ends when it is satisfied. 2000). and Best (1999) used data from 25 countries that had previously been used in the identification of gender stereotypes.Openness to Experience decrease with age. An individual’s is adjusted if he is adjusted to himself and to his environment. it is practical to use personality to predict adaptation characteristics. Adjustment Adjustment involves the gratification of a person’s as governed by the demand of various environment situations. Satterwhite. and basic. Gender differences in personality also seem to be cross-cultural. both personal and environmental factors work side by side in adjustment. al. Conformance. Though these data do not represent actual male and female responses on a personality inventory. A re-analysis of these data in the context of the FFM showed that the cross-cultural gender stereotype for females was higher on Agreeableness than it was for males. and the cross-cultural gender stereotype for males was higher than females on the other four domains. How one adjusts in a particular situation depends upon one’s personal characteristics as the circumstance of the situation. though individuals experience circumstances that cultivate certain abstract characteristics and promote particular outcomes. and that levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness increase with age in many cultures (McCrae et. So adjustment is a condition or state is which he belongs and he feels that his own needs have been . 1992). This is not however. Self-esteem encompasses both beliefs and emotions such as triumph. self-confidence .

Self –esteem as on automatic and inevitable consequence of the sum of individual’s choices in using their consciousness. According Branden. “self. to understand and solve problems. All of the individuals thoughts. It makes on essential contribution to the life process:…………… in indispensable to normal and healthy self-development.esteem as a basic human need. short-term variations (“State” self. According to American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.” 2. It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment.esteem is often related to behaviors. and on the other side his right to achieve happiness. though normal.the experience of being competent to cape with the basic challenges of life being worthy of happiness”.e. or . his/her ability to face life’s challenges. Something experienced as a part of or background to.esteem as an enduring personality characteristic (“trait” self-esteem). in other words . Feelings and actions. that is. “….lone” is “the instinct or desire to promote one’s well –being.esteem) also exits. Psychologists usually regard self.”. that every person does about on one side. and has value for survival. Nathaniel Brandem (1969) defined self esteem as “------. to respect and defend his own interests and needs . 3. . “Self-esteem is the sum of self-confidence (a feeling of personal capacity) and self respect (a feeling of personal worth). 1. Self. In the mid 1960 Morris Rosenberg and social learning theorists defined self-esteem in terms of a stable sense of personal worth or worthiness self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension or have global extent. i.Brander’s descriptions of self-esteem includes the following primary properties.

The happiness of a family to a great extent depends upon her. In that new home. think of many instances where the appointments of men has not been justified.“ Indian women have awakened their part slumber” . If a girl’s parent died. The status of Indian women had wide spread misconceptions since ancient time. she has an honoured place as mistress of the household. in which laws. the power of the nation is also in the hands of woman. where the appointment has not Justified itself. As a house wife she is source of joy comfort and inspiration to her husband and as a working woman she work outside from the houses offices. the age of reasons the nineteenth the age of progress and the twentieth the age of anxiety. the eightieth. They look part with her husband in his religious ceremonies. I cannot however. women are found as the real builders of our nation. The time has come when women must come out of their homes and take their post is public life. The marriage hymn points to the practice of the bridegroom going to the bride’s house. I cannot think of a single instance . hence widows were not remarried. “The seventeenth century has been called the age of enlightenment.” May I add that experience we have regard with appointment of women in our delegation to foreign countries as well as appointment made by united nations it self. banks etc. Their life is more family centered them that of men. Thus.“AIMS AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY” Over recent decades. As matter of fact.” Both groups of women play a significant role in house hold activities of their families. like Sruti and Smriti. However appears that society still views women as the primary carriers of children and other family members and as a result. Rigveda society was based on monogamy and was patriarchal. healthy and responsible citizens. after the marriage. looking after her father-in-law. through the ages has been derived and followed in so many streams. where he marries her and where . Sanskrit texts. The Rigveda shows abundant evidence pointing to fact that women were fully the equals of men as regards the access to and capacity for the highest knowledge . Women fulfill their duties and responsibilities sincerely in their outside profession. Pt. customs and tradition are to be found which define the true status of women in early times. many women are now faced with juggling the role of mother partner and daughter as well as employee. he conveys the bride to his own house. The best role they can play as working women and a good housewife and mother. the Rigveda contains the seeds and sources from which the entire course of Hindu though. there has been an enormous increase is the number of woman entering the Market. While the term of non-working women is used for those women who are not gainfully employed and are totally involved in household jobs. she can make her children happy. As a dutiful mother. mother-in-law and her husband’s brother and sister. The hymn also indicates that marriage was a sacrament and indissoluble. her brother looked after . They are not slaves of men now. Jawaharlal Nehru.

As for back as 1878.her. The advent of British marked an entirely new phase in Indian society. Article – R. 1959). the women of middle class began gradually to adjust themselves to this world . Under these circumstances. for the first time an Indian women went abroad to study medicine. voyaging to for off countries. (Kamala Devi Chattopadhya. for they did not wish to remain for ever isolated and away from the main stream of national life. In 1888. therefore. The introduction of a new system of education through English created a wide gap between the few fortunate ones who could take advantage of it and the general masses to who it was denied. The weakness of Indian womanhood during the period arose from the fact that there was no central direction to social thinking and there was no machinery like organized public opinion or giving effect to essential reforms.(Quoted in “ Women in Ancient India”. In the area south of the Vindhyas the evolution of social life was more normal and consequently. 1959. The institution of monogamy is it self eloquent recognition of the high social status of women. and were rendered destitute. The economic factor was perhaps most decisive. Slowly though in small numbers. for it was not favoured by the conservative British . a factor accelerated by the breakdown of settled government with the decline of mogul power. Women has always been the repositories of culture and kept it alive in song dance and story through more than 200 years of British rule. the cultural collapse of Indian society was inevitable. Provision for higher education was slow and halting. a decade later. Pages 1-10. Medicine and even law attracted women in the age. When the old economic order was swept away . even America. in almost every field. The old order had already undergone many changes under the blows of constant invasions and the conflicts that followed.) In the period of Muslim invasion’s the position of Indian women in northern India tends to deteriorate. Large numbers of women lost their only means of livelihood. undoubtedly tended to stagnate. Nevertheless. Social customs.K. and for the first time one of them took the Bachelor of Civil Law course at Oxford in 1892. women took to the new education. The destruction of hand industries struck the deadest blow. one of the mainstays of the titler and the artisan. who were still imposing a great many restriction on women in their own country and naturally had no intention of promoting such progressive measures in their colonies. in the period immediately following there was sufficient social integration which enabled Indian womanhood to retrieve some of the position which it has lost. But the British conquest of India paralysed the country both because of ruthless colonialism and because the new culture was so alien. we find Indian girls studying in Universities and . . South India produced women of note. Mookerji. with it went the barter system.

The political leaders now had become convinced that the road to Indian independence did not lie through negotiation and discussion and the tortuous path of niggardly reforms. Montague. He not only respected women. the fundamental necessity. but through direct nation-wide action. In twentieth century Gandhi Ji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement and asked women to come out of their homes to take part in it. . and her home rule movement. in Madras under the inspiration and leadership of that magnetic personality. Indian women demanded the franchise and the right to participate in the political life of the country. and the indifference to social legislation. Before it everything else pale in to insignificance. women in India would have had to plod the slow way to the heights they have now been able to attain. were its not for leadership. Never perhaps since Buddha preached his message has any single individual swayed and transformed the destinies of so many millions as did Gandhi Ji. hence little hope for women to achieve any thing in a big way. In the social field . It was daily growing on the people that independence was the pivot point.The various socio. often vigorously opposed by the Government on grounds of neutrality. He not only respected women. The first modern organization of women was started in 1917 by the great pioneering woman. He had a place and a mission for each one. In his social concept here were no superiors or inferiors. Swiftly the tide set in course towards polities. but definitely a reflection of the moored of those times the mighty awakening that was seeping the country . Mrs. women felt keenly the neglect of education by the then Government. In this activity was obviously not the result of literary education. Without it there could be no progress for the country. but also valued them. The deputation was led by Sarojini Naidu. The First World War. which was then a dynamic stream giving expression to the people restless urge for freedom. gave added impetus to this awaking of education in women. but also valued them. then raging. which was still very searce and show. with its wide vision and practical sense. infusing breath in to the deadened old limbs and stirring lethargy in to action. One of first venture was to led a women deputation to Mr. had lent urgency to the situation.religious reform movements. He regarded them as general colleagues. This is the starling of raising the status and position of women in Indian society as a independent personality. such as the Araya Samoa and Brahama-Samaj. as men and women felt thwarted at every step. Annie Bescent. especially when the magnetic Mahatma Gandhi took the helm. He regarded them as general colleagues. then secretary of state for India touring this country in 1919 to formulate political reforms to meet the rising demands of India. The political issue therefore began to press on every section of the people from all angles. Mrs. Margaret cousins.

Many women distinguished themselves in various roles during freedom struggle. The recognition of the right of women to complete equality opened up new pathways of service and encouraged women to play an important role in public affairs. But it is encouraging as compared with the number of educated women. In India. women began to come into their own. this smooth evolution has been in keeping with India’s tradition and genius. Much of the credit for this is due to the liberal attitude adopted towards women by social and political thinkers of the day. Today large numbers of women hold important posts in the home as well as the civil and foreign services. both of whom carried on as underground leaders and Usha Mehata of Bombay who ran an underground radio. violence and hate. it was only when India gained her political freedom and emerged as an independent Sovereign Republic that women truly came into their own as equal partners with men. Therefore . giving to it a fresh dignity and importance. MP’s. There contribution to scientific research and armed forces is also to be noted. The number of women in public life. The position that Indian women occupy today is very largely the very result of little more than a century of earnest endeavour on the part of social reformers. Among them were Aruna Asaf Ali and Sucheta Kripalani. Education is also improving in proportion to the demand. must. be small compared with the population. for some state has yet to make adequate provision. therefore. because of her political subjection at the time. MLA’s and political organizers. This has not been marred by ugly and unseemly fights and struggles. The women’s movement was no exception to the rule. (“Struggle for freedom” written by Kamal Devi Chattopadhyay). it naturally include a women. India’s social and political tends in the decades prior to her independence regard the rapid advances of women and their easy adaptation to new ways of the life as staggering achievement. Indeed. when India finally became free . What has also been remarkable in the very natural manner in which women have been able to find their place. Women’s economic horizon. once limited to . progressive movements had a political tinge and were the reflection of a people’s determination to through of all shackles of bondage. They have proved their worth as minister. educationist and political leaders. Several women were also included in the constituent Assembly and made significant contributions to its deliberations. The impact of education on the economic status of women has been as strong as its impact on other aspect of women development. Their rise to responsibility and positions of importance has been remarkable. In 1947. When the transfer of power to Indian hands began in 1946 and the first Interim Government was setup at the center . For it was the 20th century that really ushered in an era of dynamic change and new concepts which fundamentally affected the status of women.

particularly those concerns with sociological reform to study the various causes for frustration and adjustment related problems among working women and to think of measures to remove them. on the basis of research finding. both within and outside the family. that working women encounter a large number of frustration situation at home as well as in the society.working women. Women’s first response was to the call for teachers. socio-economic development of women. But the working women have dual stress due to their job demands and family demands. It is therefore relevant to study the personality. political and cultural rights. There is scarcely any avenue of the employment which women have not entered. layers. they invaded their precincts also. As each new need arose. of society. sexual. Thus they have additional mental health & personality problems as compared to non-working women. it become the prime responsibility of the responsible members. For example teacher. And today they constitute approximately twenty eight percent of the million teachers in this country. Now they are working in almost every field with their men counter parts. journalist. engineering and other professional institute opened their doors to them. It has been realized that studies of the problems related to women have not been given adequate attention and there is need to conduct such study. More and more jobs have been made available for women in India after independence. More than a hundred years ago they took to this profession. It was also conduced. nurses. It was found that the social and educational status of women is not up to the mark. doctor. the job opportunities available for women. police. occupational. Any effort in this direction will help women adjust better in their family as well as in the society. In ancient times the women were confined to home as servants and helpers to their men folk. engineering services etc. a new service was released. With the establishment of hospitals and health centers women have qualified as doctors. has expended considerably. Various factors that contribute to the frustration of women and subsequently to their personality and selfesteem. Some of the most significant aspects of women education . Therefore . and we have travel a long way in order to bring about as improvement is it. Although due to availability of various jobs the women are getting due respect in society. social.household chores or labour on the farm. They were deprived of their legal. and when law colleges. It is often advocated that in order to bring women to equal status with men economic independence of women . self –esteem and adjustment patterns of working women and Non. bank employees. status of working women is India and problems of working women at work in particular and in the society is general have been discussed. economic. But now through at the world women have moved toward greater freedom and have achieved greater equality with men. health visitors and midwives. nurses. agricultural. Attempts have been made to study the psychological dimensions of women development.

So how the women adopt and reaming well adjusted within these situations is the focus of this research. self –esteem . the problems of women in general and working women in particular in our society. There is different kind of problems attached with the womens. It is noticed that working women have additional problems of mental health in the process of making adjustment with their job demands and family demands. So an attempt is made to compare personality .’ . How they adjust with in their workplace role. It is therefore relevant to study the personality dimensions of working women and non-working women. Such analysis may be helpful to suggest some measure of improving the personality dimension of women at least to reduce the effects of those factors which lead to poor adjustment.working women. and unemployed employed women in the present study entitled ‘personality factors and adjustment patterns of working and non. their domestic role and their personal life necessary. The number of working women is gradually increasing . and adjustment of employed. Thus decides the theoretical gains of the study it has practical implications in the field for psychology. As a result women are being provided with various jobs in society.

But in the past few decates there has been a revitalization of interest in the selfconcept specially with in social psychology and has acquired a central position in theoretical frame works and researchers.(1979) found that working mothers do not differ from mothers at home in terms of psychological symptoms and may even be more satisfied.Most researchers on the self. In the review those studies have been included which may. Self –esteem and adjustment are considered to be strongly associated with a sense of competency power or efficiency. It may be pointed out at the outset that studies directly related to comparison of employed women and housewives on self-esteem and other factors are very. Numerous dimension of self. Feld(1963). (1967) found that working and non-working mothers both suffer from anxiety to maintain the integrity of the self.concept have been considered in social psychology but the most elementary distinction is between the content of self. al. (Wells and Marwell. Similarly adjustment involves the gratification of a person’s behaviour as governed by the demand of various environmental situations. the core concept of self.esteem has been a central concept with in symbolic interactions since the seminal writings of Mead (1934) Cooley (1902) James (1890). Dellared et. Deutsch(1944) . .g.concept focus on self.conception (e. Adjustment is the major problems relate to the women’s specially is the contest of working women due to their double work presser. Nye and Hoffman (1963). Dohrenwend et.Review of the literature This chapter contained review of the relevant literature on working and non working women’s healthy personality and other aspects. al.esteem dimension. identities) and An individual maintains the balance between himself and his surrounding either by modifying his own behavior or by modifying the environment. they are bound to adopt defense of one order or other. if not directly then at least indirectly.esteem. Birnbaum(1971) and Newberry et. Kligler(1954) and white (1972) reported that employed mothers express greater feelings of inadequacy and exhibit higher levels of guilt and anxiety about their roles as mothers than the non-working women. (1944). 1976).evaluation or in other words self.esteem refers to the evaluative and affective aspects of the self concept. hence a greater attention has been given to this aspect in research on women in employment. throw some light on the aspects relevant to the present investigation. Self – concept. Shibutan (1961). Self evaluation or self..

It was found that wife’s contribution of monetary recourse given her the new role of household co. 1989 found that mothers whether they are employed or not employed more or less anxious. Lillian et. Working women have dual work pressure and busy life style than the non-working women which causes anxiety in them. Horner (1972) found that by adolescence boys are urged to do well in school and to plan for their careers . (1983) found that women were more inclined toward artistic and domestic interests and helping other.J & Weir(1987) found that working married women would report more stress and less satisfaction than house wives in a sample of 200 Canadian couples.provider but does not significantly increase her husband’s share is housework. Dollers and David (1978) concluded that level of development of the children of working mothers was good than that of the children of non-working mothers. marital maladjustment and it also helps them to bringing up their children properly. Robbins. This may be due to employed mothers have to deal with harder reality of dual work situation.working married women feel more depression in their daily life than the less educated married women. So researchers encourage high education for women to solve their problems. emotional needs where as men are more work and achievement oriented. Nelson (1978) studied on a big sample of working and non-working women’s children’s and concluded that there was no significant differences in the personality adjustment of the children of working and non-working women’s.Sex-difference related studies also conducted that women are governed by social. Kaba (1977). men were more interested in scientific investigation. Apter(1985) concluded that self. investigated the effects of women’s employment on household activity and expectations. where as achievement by girls is discouraged. Burke R.esteem and trait anxiety level is found higher in working women than the non-working women. athletics and adventure. & Walsten (1978) found that graduate Baruch(1979) studied panning tendency in working women and non-working women in different situation on a large population and found that blaming tendency is more in non-working women than working women because of lack of satisfaction in life in terms of financial independence and higher self-esteem. . Whereas Mukhopadhyay. Hoffman (1986) Kessler and Mac Rac (1982) found higher state anxiety in working women than the non-working women. Hatfield E.

demonstrate the ambiguous impact traditional marriage has on woman since marriage is traditionally a basis for a women’s identity. “Result was that only husband’s income has a direct positive effect on self-esteem of women while other success of her husband actually lowers her self-esteem. socialized decision taking and more well behaved as compared to children of non-working women’s. Employments offer a person with greater opportunity to feel a sense of competency efficiency and greater power over one’s own circumstances. These findings. However.esteem was positively correlated with occupations and reading achievement. In the initial phase care of children and bringing them up may prove rewarding and result in heightened self –esteem. Crowther and More (1972) and Suchner and More (1976) for example found a consistent relationship between occupational prestige and perceptions of such traits as responsibility. the specific role arrangement may reduce her feeling of personal competence. George & Bohrnstedt (1979) study on “House wives self-esteem and their husband’s success. Borgatta and Evans (1967).esteem forced by women in science and concluded that interaction with follow professionals led to heightend self. competence and intelligence. Researches support the view that employment can have a positive effect on the self. White(1970) discussed the special problem of identity and self. Parry & War (1980) found that non-working women trying to express their inner frustration and aggression. But question concerning the relationship between self. Because financially they are dependent to their husband or other members of family. In general. Successful marriage increases her feelings of worth. women are expected to primarily remain involved in housework and household activities.esteem among then.esteem and achievement levels have only recently become important in psychological research. They seem to be frustrated and dissatisfied due to lack of independence. Women’s who are highly educated and have employment in salaried job have higher level of self-esteem. They have no right to take any decision about the family and the career of their children . none of the above effects appear . Anne Statham. more adjusted. . made more dramatic by a comparison with waring married women for whom. however. The myth of vicorious involvement.Juneja(1979) reported that children of working women were more independent.esteem Power and Sanchez (1982) Found that self.

esteem depends on the adequacy of earlier preparation for a shift to . the statistically more deviant . Rossi(1968) worm us that we must face the alarming possibility that most women loss ground in personal development and self. Holohan and Gilbert (1979) found contrary to prediction. or perhaps more ideally. Vonder Velder (1974) suggests “ decompensation” in the role of housewife as causal. personal achievement.” A number of studies reported that being merely a housewife may have negative psychological consequency. Thus .esteem during her twenties and early thirties. In sharp contrast. At this point in their lives. with growing pattern for smaller families. continuing involvement in major adult roles other than or in addition to marriage and maternity. may suffer from what is termed as “ House wife syndromes. However.oriented young women is for more trouked with self doubt and has low self. 1972. This may be due to their frustration and anxiety. women hardly are left with any useful activities apart from drudgery of the daily work routine commenting upon this phase . because they are totally dependent to the other members of the family. Oakley. frustration . Welch and Booth (1977).Rossi’s (1964) studied (1981) concluded that despite their insulation from job related stresses housewives seem to have either similar an higher levels of psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. And data indicated that traditional socialized young women indeed do fore well during these bussy years of early motherhood.esteem and generally feels good about herself.esteem during the middle year of adulthood where as most men gain ground women maintaining a high level of self. the family oriented women has high self. Marecek et.esteem of work and non-working women in relation their motherhood patterns. depression. 1974 a and 1974 b) finding of their works was that homemakers or house wives have higher level of anxiety. while Bernard (1972) concludes flatly that being a housewife will make healthy women sick. women who have not engaged them solves for any other role than home maker. Walker and Walker (1980) found that women not employed outside their homes have slightly higher level of anxiety than employed group. Various types of well know problems with the role have been listed by numerous researches (Bernard. Gove and Tudor (1973) studied on homemakers and employed women and also suggest that decline in prestige and skills required in homemaking have led to greater dissatisfaction with home making and it has been linked to a higher probability of mental health problems among housewives. greater role conflict was reported by the non career group than the career group.

House wives reported major physical health problems . spending more time at work . also many other research work. Employed women have responded more favorably than housewives on physical and mental health items in a variety of studies. No sex. found less depression in middle class working women. Because they have two kinds of work situation and surrounded by many people. which greatly enhance her general sense of self. receiving help from other and higher self. 1974. Field (1963) found that. age and years of education. They are independent and have right to take decision. The professional woman. Hacker 1971).worth and confidence. Bart 1970 in a small .esteem than women is the labour force.studied a large sample of working women and concluded that nontraditional sex. Employed women have been found to have better emotional health then housewife in terms of both psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms. Personal self. Mackies (1983) hypothesized that there would be no male female differences is self –esteem but that full time housewives would have lower self. anxiety and frustration. more depression. The highest index of relationship was obtained when feminism was correlated simultaneously with self. whether married or single by the middle adult year hold themselves in higher regard than equally gifted nonemployed women. on the other hand whether married or single.and anger than the women who want employed in outside jobs. in a national probability sample of actual women. Which directly offected their self-esteem and adjustment. Shaver and Freedman (1976) found lower anxiety. loneliness and feelings of worthlessness among employed women. finds a vital source of personal identity and satisfaction in her work. nonrandom sample.role orientations.esteem has generally been found higher among employed women (field 1963. Sharp 1963) Kaith and Schafer (1982).difference were found in greater . DeMan and Benoit (1982) found that feminists and males reported higher levels of self.esteem. Result supports the hypotheses. No differences were found between feminists and males. employed women reported fewer physical health problem and fewer major illness than housewives.esteem than non feminists. while fewer psychiatric symptoms were found by feld (1970) in employed women as compairs to house wives.esteem were linked to less depression in employed women. Although feeling of self-esteem do not generalized to confidence regarding motherhood among the employed (Nye. Birnbaum (1971) found that working professional women.

Joshi. Because approximately two thirds of the housewives were as healthy and satisfied as employed women. however. For those with conservative nations about the proper role of women. Donelson and Gulla harn’s (1977) suggested that those lacking a strong sense of personal identity would suffer from the syndrom seems more consistent with the findings. Erdwins and Mellinger (1984) studied on self-esteem of women in different situation and did not find any difference between married career women single career women and homemakers on self-esteem. the family retained its priority for both categories of women.employed” housewives.esteem. more children and higher education all were associated with being satisfied as housewives. house wife would appear to give as much satisfactions as employment does for women with different attitude. quite the opposite seems to be true. Result of study by Phadke and Kulkari (1977) show that the “ employed” and non.satlience or self. Keith and Schafer (1980) found that full time homemakers and employed women did not differ in levels of depression. Fidell (1976) concluded that house wife syndrome would appear to be real phenomenon. Marriage. however are there to show that a large number of housewives may be perfectly satisfied within their home maker role and may have self-esteem equal to or higher than employed women. Hops. A dissatisfied pattern of responses among housewives by this analysis would not result from the role itself but rather from the characteristic of persons who found the role of housewife easier than employed. Bernard (1972) suggested that those with primary identity as wives and mothers would be sufferers. Garon and Lechasseur (1984) found no significant difference is self. but perhaps misleadingly labelled.esteem and loneliness of 40 unemployed women and 40 working women. Because housewives have more time to salve their problems and maintained their relationship. Evidences . .independents or field dependents do not differ in their adjustment. It is difficult to argue that adopting the role of housewife will make a women sick . Patterson & Weiss (1972) found that working married women can not properly adjust within their married life because they have many tasks to perform at a time where as non-working married women have good adjustment in marital life.esteem of working wives was significantly higher then that of housewives. irrespective of whether they are field. The self. A negative correlation was obtained between loneliness and self –esteem for both groups.

1968). the women’s participation in the organized sector and white collar job is not considerable. In fact. group dependent and sensitive . Lipman. there is no single prescription for or description of psychological health on which all psychologist or personality theorist would agree Perhaps the only paint on which most of the theorists are agreeable is that psychologically healthy persons are in conscious control of their lives. because heavy work puts a has effect on their lives and it creates stress in their personalities. Women are for behind to their male counterparts in the field of higher . but had attitudes that were discrepant from those standard in many ways.achievement and high n-Affiliation but Pathak (1974) has painted out that girls who go for higher education are most likely to have higher achievement. (Gysbers & Johnston. Crandall & Battle (1970) found that young women who were highly motivated to achieve in the intellectual sphere also felt that they were able to meet conventional sex-role standards. In one form or other theorists also seen to agree that psychologically healthy person know who and what they are another generally agreed upon characteristics of psychological health is a firm anchoring in the present. These similarities are not unanimous. Consequently.Blimen. intelligent and adventurous than women is general population and less sociable. Evaluating the major models of the healthy personality . stein 1971). Krawitz & Packard. Schulz (1977) has drown the following conclusions. radical . confident.L. C. practical.Cooper. 1963. conscientious and uncontrolled. Bachtold and Werner (1972) found women scientists to be serious . Some theorists have not made themselves clear on all these points. 1983). Women in general are seem to be having low n. Bledsa l(1978) found that women favoring the career role were more radical and imaginative. . The young women favouring a the homemaker role were more likely to be conservative. Personality profiler on the 16PF of men and women scientists showed strong similarity. Some of the studies do point out that females who are likely to opt for a career are different from those who are planning to be only homemakers. There is some evidence that females who engage in achievement striving define achievement in intellectual activities as more feminine that those who do not pursue these activities (Lesser. excitable. Employment in organized sector require certain minimum academic/ vocational qualification and in such case logical trend would be “The lower the level of educational facilities the lesser will be opportunities for employment in it” (Manohar. 1972. (1981) found that many working married women experience high stress levels. dominant . submissive.

It is quite likely that women’s belonging to middle class of the society are torn between the conflicting pulls of the twin roles as home and the job. to some extent offers wide scope for women’s employment. In this study the effects of personality characteristics on psychological/ Physical well begin of 91 Japanese working women were investigated with second order factor of the 16 PF questionnaire. support from family and relatives. scientific and clerical work. Most of the educated working women are drawn from middle and richer section of the society and a very few women from the lower classes get a chance in this jobs. Jain(1990) conducted a study for adjustment tension and expectation for children of working and non-working mothers and concluded that there is a significant difference between both the groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant. women have room for job in communication. prevailing stereotype customs and attitude of society have not yet motivated majority of educated women to join a profession. The role conflict may not be therefore professional woman affluent families as they are not expected to look after their home front the some way the middle class women have to “ Then there are many numbers of housewives of affluent families. sales and secretarial functionaries. Professional women are satisfied with their jobs or not? Whether they are able to adjust with these conflicting situation or not? Answer to these questions are yet to be explored. Beside the profession of teaching. medicine and nursing. home and job) performances play their part and she become unable to cope up with the conflicting situation resulting in her maladjustment and dissatisfaction with the job. However . Nokano (1993) Studied Personality hassles and psychological and physical well being. the proportion of the working women in different profession from upper class of society is very low and yet to emerge nature of employment working condition on the jobs. “The state of job satisfaction among currently working women in urban occupations may also influence the future female participation in modernized sector of the economy (Chaudhary 1976). above mentioned complexities on the job and conflicting pulls of the dual roles (i. None of the personality factors predicted physical . Even if a women joins it. act as deterimental women’s position is the white collard world (Manoher 1983). Among the organized sector service who employ full time female domestic help to bring up infants instead of doing it themselves (Chaturvedi 1985). However adding hassles as perceived stress to the regression equation marked by cleareased the amount of depression variance explained by these personality variables.” Limitation of marriage and family life norms of the social status nation of social responsibility.e. nature of work. negative contribution of extroversion and independence to depression. place of work. while performing the dual role. service condition of the employment etc.

There were be significant differences among the sex role orientation types on role conflict scores. income.esteem scares and lower life satisfaction scare than the erogenous and cross – typed groups. which was further confounded by race. role conflict. in the sample of 148 American India working women from the Midwest. in this study sex role orientation. (1994) while studying “ Indices of psychological well being and sex role orientation among working women”. self –esteem and life satisfaction were measured in working women. lower self. Napholz (1995) while studying “Mental Health and American Indian Women’s multiple role. Analyses of the data revealed that participants who were undifferentiated is sex role orientation has significantly higher depression scares. physical and social aspects of their work environment . social class. self – esteem life satisfaction and sex role orientation were found. 60 females Brazilian clerical worker reported to a self administed questionnaire describing what they liked disliked and found stressful about the structural.typed and androgynous group. intriguing comparison among depression .symptoms and only hassles significantly contributed to their prediction medicating strong association between hassles and physical symptoms conceptual overlap and confounding effect between hassles and symptoms measures are discussed in the light of these findings. The sample consisted of nine African American working women ranging in age from 29 to 55: Participants reported role conflict with their professional roles. housing and marital status are likely to affect the health of mothers of young children just as the health of other women Naphoz. The majority are employed primarily in low-income and low –status occupations. Areas of role conflict included (a) serutinization (b) de legitimization of the professional role and (c) horizontal abuse. reported that. the sex typed group had significantly higher depression scores. Melesis Messias and Arruda (1996) in study of “women’s work environment and health: clerical workers in Brazil”. depression. lower self. mostly white ranging in age from 22 to 62 years.” found that.” found that variables such as education . It was conducted that African American working women experienced anadditional element of role conflict that is related to their ascribed role rather than their achieved role. As part of an international study. Romito(1994): in a study of “ Work and health in mothers of young children. higher role conflict scores. Reported that although women are participating more in the formal work force. The convenience sample consisted of 106 working women.esteem and lower satisfaction score when compared to the cross. Sims and Napholz (1996) studied what are some African American working women expressed experiences of role conflicts: the purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of African American Working women who attended a six week intervention group to decrease role conflict and enhance psychological well being.

For depression. based on data for 3. family and health characteristic .499 female respondents to the Wisconsin longitude study (W. does it matter for women’s psychological health?. safety. Corr (1997) while studying ‘The fulfillment of career dreams of mid lifer. valuation. The results strongly support the possibility that psychosocial factors at work are predictive of depressive symptoms. Although women who aspired to be housewives evidenced lower levels of purpose a in life at midlife then women with work aspiration. Dimensions of healthy environment identified in the data included utility.participants also identified strategies they used to cope with stress in the work environment. participation . Two dimension of mental health are confident: depression and purpose in life. This study followed the Gazel Cohart by means of annual self-administered and personal departments of the company depressive symptoms were assesced by the Center for Epidemiologic studies depression (CES-D) scale in the 1996 questionnaire. They nevertheles reveal serious underlying psychopathology.). challenge.patients . The result indicated that women who have fallen short of their earlier career goals suffer from lower level of purpose in life and higher level capital of family and health characteristic. the harmful effects of falling short of one’s goal decline considerably one’ health characteristics are considered. L. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed. S. Nicdhammer(1998)-In their study attempted to establish whether psychosocial factors at work are predictors of depressive symptoms in a prospective cohort of men and women employed in a wide variety of occupations by the French national company. The findings are consistent with the assumption that although EWR women were socially well functioning and fairly early in their drinking career. unhealthy environments were characterized by hazards . examined whether a women’s mental health at midlife is affected by the degree to which her earlier career aspirations have been fulfilled. human capital . Rorschach personality profiles of the 60 women differed significantly in almost all investigated aspect in a psychopathological direction from norms reported by Exner for a reference group of female non. Women who at age 45 “ did not know” what they hoped to do in the future has significantly lower levels of purpose in life is their 50’s. even after controlling for social back ground. this difference was not statistically significant one human capital characteristics were controlled . For purpose life. the harmful effects of falling short of one’s goal attenuate considerably when current family characteristic are controlled. The result and their relationship to healthy work environments are discussed within the context of the large sociopolitical environment of Brazil. . Bergman (1998) study identifies personality characteristics in group of Swedish women (N=60) attending their first treatment for alcohal problems. clarity of roles and empowerment . pleasing work place .

Result was that employment may benefit women but stress their husbands. The aim of investigation was to study the ageing peculiarities of human mental working capacity with mathematical models. perceived health than husbands in one-working families. Yvan & Stephane (1999) worked on personality and marital adjustment utility of the five factor model of personality. Sermet and Le. Tracey and Shaw (1999): studied to investigate the role of women general practitioners (GPS) in New Zealand. Husband in both working families experienced better social support but less social contact less mental masterly and poores .reported marital adjustment for the both men and women. Personality traits were found to contribute to the predictors of marital adjustment over and above the effect of neuroticism.being than their husbands. undergraduate students In psychology were randomly assigned to audiotape. video-tape are control conditions and given the state-trait anxiety inventory and Rorschach inkblot method. In this paper the health of women aged 30 to 55 years is analyzed according to the family and work roles which they exercise based on the 1991-1992 French National health survey. Sample was urban and randomly selected middle class couple in one working and as well as both working families. A one way multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among these conditions. Andrade. Husbands of working women may also experience pressures and hence poorer well-being. “Result of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that self-reported and partner reported personality of self. Korobeinikov (2000): studied the ageing peculiarities of human mental working. Wives experienced less well. Working wives experienced more confidence in coping than non working women. Thus were examined 150 women and 125 men in the . A five page questionnaire was posted to 200 randomly selected women.Lichton and Wachler (1999) : In the study examined the passable influences of audio and video recording of personality assessment . Geneview. well-being in working couples. Tape recording itself did not seen to effect the anxiety indices of these frequently used personality. The findings are discussed in terms of role enhancement and role strain health selection the nature of the health disadvantage associated with specific role patterns and the importance of the structural context in the role framework.Pape(2000): Prerated a paper. Result was that women GPS suffer both professional and financial difficulties because of their dual motherhood/professional roles. measures on anxiety. The subjective well being inventory was administered to 46 one working and 51 both working partner. Few or no sociodemoraphic variables were associated with well being. Postma and Abrahamk(1999): made an effort in urban Indian working women are expected to continue to discharge their traditional domestic duties: the likely result is compromised well-being due to role strain. Khlat.

Theorell Alfrcdsson and Westerholm(2000): studied the aggression and hypertension in working and non – working men and women. The coping pattern was studied by means of a Swedish version of a self administered questionnaire that was originally introduced by Harburget for women. smoking .830 adult worker. In women there tended to be a relationship between low scores for open coping and hypertension.human mental activity was presennted with special computer test. The study showed that high level of human mental working capacity is determined with decreasing of mental experience variation and the increasing of speed of remaking the information. socio -economic and work related factors. Moving from standard to long hours was associated with unhealthy weight gain for men. work and work-related and social life context variables) alongside a range of mental and physical health outcome variables. drinking and exercise. while controlling the potential. Interview . (Sociodemographic. 5720 working men and women aged 15-64 years participated in the study. Shields (2000): In this article examine associations between long working hours. The present study was designed to answer the question. However no significant result were found. depression and changers in selected health behaviors. . The data are from the household longitudinal component of the national population Health survey Canada. Coping patterns were correlated with psychosocial work environment factors in particular decision latitude. Based on an analysis of people followed over a two year period the relationship between changes in work hours and changes in health behaviors is explored . This study aimed to research on the impact of work on mother’s health in Tehran within a role analytic framework. In man covert coping was associated with prevalence of hypertension. with and increase in smoking for both men and women and with an increase in drinking for women. Ahmad Nias (2002) studied on women’s work and health in Iran: a comparison of working and non-working mothers. The regression ageing models for assessment of mental working capacity is proposed. In this study coping and hypertension in women was confined to low than men. 1065 women’s were taken as the sample of the study. Results are based on 3. Three main explanatory factors were examined. multivariate analysis were used to estimate associations between work hours and depression and changes in weight. whether the pattern of coping primarily directed towards the aggressor (open) or directed inwards or towards other (covert) is associated with hypertension among working men and women. No associations were detected for physical activity. Results: Women who worked long hours had increased odds of subsequently experiencing depression.

Worked on Anxiety and defense mechanism: A comparative study of working and non-working life situation.K.Studied the impact of unemployment on the mental health of women is the content of massive unemployment. They found groups of women were experiencing high level of distress. Sixty married. Basu. specially financial deprivation had a greater negative association with self.They examine the role of work related factors . Gien . Sandra.esteem and these variables interacted with genders to affect selfesteem. alternate roles and social support each had a main effect on self. Cynthia L.Trait anxiety Inventory and Defense mechanism Inventory were administered individually to 100 working and 100 Non working mothers. Lan & Solber Shirley M(2003). Moore Kathleen. Results revealed that state anxiety is significantly more is working mothers were as defense. Worked on long term employment of African-American and white welfare recipients and the role of persistent health and mental health problems. Comparison were made between the level of mental distress experienced by unemployed and employed women. Urmi(2003). Apte. In the present context an attempt had been taken to verify the nature and degree of anxiety and defense mechanism of working & non. They found that in working women with multiple roles enhancing problem and emotional focused coping by strengthening the use of support network is important for well being.esteem in men as compared with women. number of alternate sales. Saujata and Bandy upadhyay. use of social support and gender and found that financial deprivation. Danziger. Sanyal. Richard(2004) .employed women’s Over 60% . Lea E. But especially for those without work among the working women post experience with unemployment and level of education had significant correlation with their mental well being. Mary. Maridula and Subhakrishna D. (2003) worked on coping and subjective well being in women with multiple roles . Waters. A (2002) studied on 201 unemployed men and unemployed women in a cross-sectional study that assessed the relation between selfesteem and financial deprivation. availability of supports and coping styles as predictors of well being . In contrast alternate roles and social support had a stronger positive relationship to self esteem in women than in men.working mother. Kiran. Murray. Tolman.working mother of age groups 35-45 years. They found that rate of health problems were disproportionably high in employed women’s than non. working women were individually interviewed with regard to reason for employment and support availability and administered the coping checklist and subjective will being inventory.Rao . Corcoran. Nilanjane. Indian adopted version of State. projection in the actual behavior level is significantly used more by non. The moratonium financial problems and feeling of uncertainty identified as by stressors for all the women.

allowance by family to take family decisions independently 3. stress and depression. 1. Working women were more stressed due to factors viz. work and depressive symptoms among low-income mothers”. coping patterns and level of depression. aged 25-55 years who were living with their husbands and working at least 20 hours weekly.working women for this study 150 women’s were taken as the sample in which 75 women were working and 75 were nonworking . which was having questions to find the background information of the respondents and questions were made to know various physiological and psychological factors of stress among the women. Perception of their work role. 2.working women. Hindi Hashmi.involvement in decision making by family 4. South Korea. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working women. Women who owned their house had lover level of depression. Higher level of depression were found in women who perceived motherhood and career roles as incompatible. working women were experiencing more physiological and psychological factors of stress. overburden of work and non. Where as over 70% of current and former welfare recipients reported limitations in physical functions. Um.women shows mental health disorders. Kwang Jo. Harshpinder and Aujha Parmjit (2006) worked on “physiological and psychological stressor among working and non. study was aimed to exploring the relationship between marital adjustment. those who coped by working harder and those who spent less time helping children with home work. Press. pleasing others. Participants completed five edon “child care. They belong to . Chae Chung and Kim Susie(2004). Age ranged between 18 to 50 years. and result was that mother who had concerned about child care were more likely to report depressive symptoms when they had good quality jobs (higher wages) or when they had only one job or were not unemployed. On an average. Studied the relationship between roles of employed married women in Seoul. Lee. The data were collected through interview schedule. Maryan Khurshid and Ishtiaq Hassan(2008) worked on marital adjustment stress and depression among working and non-working women is Pakistan. Fagan and Bernd(2006). The convenience sample contained 382 women. The education was at least graduation and above. Unfinished tasks compulsion of doing disliked activities death of a close relative and improper sleep were the common factor of stress in both working and non. Non.working women were more stressed than working women due to worng working posture and her non. As the result following conclusion were found .

” It owned be evident from the review of the literature that many studies were available related to working women. or even the wife they are also encompassed in the work role in extra – familial context. Therefore. Currently women have two distinct role. Even the attempt to do so produces is likely to produce anxiety. Statement of the problems Over the past few decades there has been a gradual acceptance of women in work roles. They are no longer arraying their self-identity as just the daughter or the mother. socio-economic status and personal value patterns. The most important factor for efficiency in non worker women’s family is “seeing family member’s sufficiency” and for worker women’s family is “trust family members together. Mothers those who have rebelled most sharply against traditional standards of femininity. Aitin Saadat (2009) compared efficiency with working and non-working women. marital roles and social customs were also found to be relevant and significant contributors to the frustration among working women but all these . The results further show that highly educated non-working women can perform well in their married life and they are free from depression. It concludes that on some aspects working married women cannot contribute significantly for the well being of their family. Their attention diverted because of working in two situations. The finding of the results also shows that working married women have to face more problems in their married life as compared to nonworking married women. who deplore the thought of devoting their lives to taking care of a house. and stress. The result was that. are the two most significant contributors. Although many other variable such as family. and adjustment. tradition. This study aims at investigation whether employed mother are more compliant in home or the housewives of course as far the attitude of their children and husbands is concerned. want full independence both financially and psychologically. feel the pull of tradition. husband and children. problems with them. 200 subjects were asked to response to a researcher-made questionnaire and he get 100 questionnaire form employed mother and 100 questionnaire form housewives mother. especially mothers. Due to the pressures of modern life. Brought up to the femininity they developed inner standards that are hard to shake. They cannot give proper attention to their marital lives and this causes depression and stress. adjustment with the husband. It was generally found that among a large number of causes for which women seek employment. the present study was continued the need for more work. one at home and one outside. anxiety & frustration are very common phenomenon for women. But more studies were not available in the Indian context. There are very few work done on this a big topic related to society in India.middle and high socio-economic status.

to come out from the narrow walls of family life and enjoy social environment and to compensate for inadequate adjustment in the family there are some women who want to get rid of the household work. To be a successful wife is a career in itself. in our modern time. to utilize their educational and professional training. Being subjected to the dual demands of home and work. In addition to the biological function that they have to perform because of their sex and the culturally defined women’s role in which they have to act. The married working women are required to play dual role. it becomes very hard for the family to pull on with the earnings of a single individual. in most of the cases. has its own code of conduct which should be followed by each employed. which may result in serious frustration causes major adjustment problems. For a family to be happy and prosperous . and consequently invite frustration and adjustment problems. she has to make reconciliation between the two roles in order to bring about harmony within hersely. who could share the responsibilities of both household work and child care .variables some how or the other are related with socio-economic status and the personal values. without sufficient. they are confronted with the responsibilities and duties connected with their employment. and if a women chooses another career. when the family size is large. socio-economic background is a very important factor in this age of scientific and technological development. and housewives . wife and children .but . rules are contradictory to the personal and social values already existing in the women. Hence they get frustrated. Thus value pattern in also another significant factor which leads to adjustment situations. They are employed women who have come to jobs not because of poor socioeconomic background. and the others. they are liable to face the problem of adjustment. The system in which a woman is employed. mothers. and hence prefer to be employed. aunts and elder sisters etc. the cost of life is increasing multiplicatively. as employees. Sources of income. but because of certain other reason. without questions. one are wives. women are forced to look for suitable jobs. Therefore socio-economics status stands out as a significant variable which compels women to go for job even by they are not interested. Under these circumstances. This creates a confrontation between social and familial expectations and personal values. . there were other family members like grandmother. specially. as frustration is closely related with the problem of adjustment. so that they may be able to contribute to the family expenses. thus making the existence of human being difficult. when the family unit is composed of husband. In older days. when there was the joint family system. Some times . such as-to utilize leisure time in socially useful manner. the women’s responsibility is much more than before.

efficient administrators and good jurists.w. When similar question was used to explore house work the responses showed more dissatisfaction and alienation from house work them had been revealed in the discussions of jobs. jobs and housework. Parvathamma( 1975). the traditional triangle of children kitchen temple has been or is still in the process of being replaced by a new one. This fact is supported by a research study conducted by Ramachandran. . Women feel that they must engage themselves in physical or mental work. The main reason and area of these changes are good facilities for high education. they are improving their own social status as well as playing a significant role in the socio-economic and political development of the country. They have proved their worth as ministers. new economic opportunities and freedom given to women now legal status to arising out of social legislation etc. Although some women thoroughly enjoyed housework. Nuclear family roles were always most important for the women who were wives and mothers. It was found that science and technical courses has preponderance of men while arts subjects seemed to be the favorites of women students. It requires not only spill but also physical and psychological acceptance of and adjustment to the change brought about of this combination. Nelson (1975) done work an women’s work. It was found that the e. western influence. It. because work outside home confers on them prestige and status as compared to housework. therefore. & they found that the role of women today. and their descriptions of work indicated considerable autonomy meaning and intrinsic. these women indicated that neither jobs nor housework were the most salient roles is their lives. Thus. They have now started playing a growing and important roll in many walks of life. Mutakar and Fernandes(1963). satisfaction on the job. The old order which confined women to the home. the roles of men and women overlap. were quite satisfied with their jobs. presents a great many problems that cause frustration among working women. There contribution to scientific research and armed forces is also to be noted.whether out of their own choice or out of economic necessity combining the two roles home and work is not an easy or a smooth task . conducted a sociological analysis of the problems of employment of university graduates in Mysore. They have achieved reputation as active politicians. MLA’s and political organizers. MP’s . there were more spontaneous complaints about house work and the responses to alienation scale items revealed more alienation from housework when asked to rank jobs and house work among their life roles.

Marriage. textile industry . Women from the lower strata of society have always worked for a wages in our country. hospitals and private concerns. but also those from rich homes who wish to live a socially useful life and contribute to the family finance. part-time or whole-time. Women were in favor of professional education. b) Hindu and Muslim women c) Women belonging to higher socio-economic status and those belonging to lower socio-economic status d) Women with higher family education background and those with lower family education background. In independent India a significant and characteristic development is that women have started coming out of their homes in an investigation of the socio-economic condition of educated Indian women. officers. Politics is not a relatively new field for women but today we found large increase of women in the parliament. look for jobs. Majority of the unmarried as well as married women belonging to middle and upper-middle class families. Government. Artists. Consequently. studied women’s attitude towards social issues like education. has force them come out is the healthy atmosphere of social life. women are feeling the necessity of their cooperation with the male members of the family. different professions and participation in political. feel and act. Hate(1930) found that deep and vital change has taken place is the economic condition and personal status of women. These days. but those from upper classed were mostly confined to their homes. religions and cultural life. They feel that this would enable them to add to the family income and utilize their talents and energies in an adequate manner. Offices Education institutions.S. . not only the women from economically poor homes get engaged in paid jobs. social. The major area of work for women in Indian are agriculture. So it has become essential for every family to increase its sources of income. Marriage and jobs were considered equally important and women showed a highly favorable attitude towards politics . the economic needs of the family life have increased unexpectedly. They have come to realize . Vice-Chancellors. This indicated that women are in no way less capable than men. Women are these as I. every human being wants freedom to think. in order to meet the economic requirements easily and satisfactorily.A. want to secure some employment. and Scientists etc. This is true for women also their need to free themselves from traditional narrow walls of home and suffocating environment of kitchen life. with the scientific and technological advancement. The reason for more and more women taking up jobs is two-fold. the study revealed that there was no significant difference in the attitudes of a) Married and unmarried women. Psychologically. At the same time.Mehta(1974). Ministers Advocates.

and that their mission in life does not end only with becoming good wives and wise mothers . are avoided or directed. it is necessary that one should get the type of job are is interested in. including the care of young children. Specifically. suitable jobs are not available is our country. Most of the woman prefer jobs outside home as the might be bored of monitory of housework. their outlook in the different situation and their reactions is certain others situation The situations in which educated employed women are placed in foreign countries are entirely different from those in India. to get a job is.that work given them personal status . Moreover. of course. The technical as well as commercial trader are made available to educated ladies in completion with men and the necessary amenities are made available to them. This conflict between social demands and family expectations often brings about frustrating situations. This change in behaviors sometimes is not liked by the elders. for freedom and independence. situation have not yet developed to that extent and the educated ladies have not crossed the boundary of professions . the sociological structure in India.employee relations spare-time activities. social and emotional adjustment. does not permit the educated employed ladies to be entirely independent.” Occupation is not merely a means of earning a livelihood. employer. Under these circumstances. which results in a change in their personality. career orientation. satisfaction and am independent social standingwith the change in women’s personal status and social status . In foreign countries. women take up jobs for self-esteem. Desai (1957). quotes a passage to describe this development. Therefore. in the case of women. but also in realizing that they are all members of the civic community and of the body politic. these days. but also influences one’s way of life. a difficult task . . and is some cases just to avid clash and conflict is the family. In some cases . personality etc. there have come a change in her way of thinking and feeling. the major problematic areas for the both married and unmarried working women. however. While confronted with the problems at home . in India. at office and also in social life. studied and found that home adjustment . but to get a suitable job is more difficult. Paranjapa (1974). health care. they have to go for whatever jobs are available. The problems are still more diversified for married employed women. The job may also sometimes operate as safety value when by frustration that would otherwise be expressed in the family. “ women are gradually realizing that they have personalities of their own as human beings. married educated ladies are required to adjust themselves at every stage. etc.

educational presser and other things related to family and society creates disturbance is a working and non-working women’s life and this effects their adjustment. automatic or unconscious manner. Thus self-esteem reflects a persons’ overall evaluation or appraised of his or her oven worth. It also be seen in our thoughts. has it own disadvantages. but also influenced by biological process and needs.esteem. they can take better responsibility in their family women employment . not having enough time for family members and many others problems so many kinds of family problems . social . It involves one’s mental perception of one’ qualities not of one’s physical features. personality arises from with is the individual and remains family consistent throughout life. So the research focused on the personality factors and adjustment patterns of working and non-working women. feelings. Similarly self. family. traits. Some women liked to hand an independence income of their won which they could spend on the wish eel. Successful adjustment through the life cycle. there patterns constitutes the individuals personality the unique pattern of traits and behaviors that characterize the individual personality is a psychological construct . The employment of both husband and wife created problems. . one of the oldest concepts is psychology. however . It reflects to a person’s disposition to evaluate themselves positively or negatively in a spontaneous. But how the both groups of women salve their problems and make adjustment with society . raises the standard of living and leads to a rise in the economic status of the family as a whole. The extra income earned by the working women helps to supplement the family incomes. after all. Self-esteem con apply specifically to a particular dimension or have global extent. Working women are trained in the working environment to share responsibilities and be consistent with other is the group for being efficient. a persons’ broadly characteristic. Nevertheless. Therefore of marital adjustment and the role conflict also .In some case. mostly a matter of flexibly adapting to the changing demands opportunities and limitation associated with different stages of life. close relationships and other social interactions. People continue to grow and change throughout their lives. The original definition presents self-esteem as a ratio found by dividing one’s successes in area of life of importance to a given individual by the failures in terms of one’s “success/pretension”. such as mental and physical fatigue. The wives expected that their husband would not interfere this independence some women continued to work even when there is no economic need. coping styles and ways of interacting in the social environment emerge during childhood and normally crystallize into established patterns by the end of adolescence or early adulthood . and other things are depends an their personality factors .

fatigue. In more serious cases there may be suicidal thoughts or a feeling that “life is not worth living. In the present research work we have a comparative study of personality factors. & non-working women) . non-working women have more time to short out their problems and to adjust with situation where as working women have less time due to her busy life style.” (Comer. low energy and reduce activity level are common and there is also withdrawal from social contact and loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities. agitation. . Adjustment and self-esteem of both kinds of groups working women. Adjustment is a process by which an living organism maintains a balance between its need. one is the office environment and the other is have environment. her we study the personality . There may be change is appetite. self-esteem and adjustment patterns of both working and non-working women groups. So . Working women may be prone to depression because of they bear the double burden of house work and job outside the home. anxiety. selfesteem and adjustment of employed (working) and unemployed (non-working) women is the present study. Thus we found that both women groups have different situation. Symptoms of depression include feeling of sadness. Where as non working wome n have only house hold jobs. This is because women’s are getting education and want to do something. Working women have to work to in environment. and many other fields. But now the field is open and they are joining all the fields as medical. This may affect their personality characteristics. Often there are feeling of worthlessness or inadequacy and a lowered sense of self-esteem. At that time they were totally dependent and have a similar lifestyle. Working women have additional problems. irritability. The status of women in the Indian society is in a process of change. in the process of making adjustment with their job demands. an attempt is made to compare personality. different problems. hopelessness. Both are vastly different from one to another. engineering. The demands of both the places (home and office) are different which may be stressful for the working women . Along with the house holding. weight or sleep patterns.Where as adjustment is the establishment of a persona according to his or her environment or situation. But how the women adopt and remain well adjusted within there situations in the focus of this research. The women are now able to lead a more independent lifestyle than the traditional society of the past year. included sex. And the circumstances that influence the satisfaction of their needs. Both the groups have its different environment is which they exits. educational fields forces etc. 1996). management. How a woman adjust in any problematic situation it depends on her personality patterns self-worth so. memory problems or other personality problems. helplessness. & what a person think about herself (selfesteem). She have a small area of problems which may be related to family & personal problems.

Waters. These are self evaluation or self-esteem refers to the evaluative and affective aspects of the self concepts (Wells and Marwell 1976) . availability of support and caping styles as predictions of well being & found that in working women with multiple roles. This creates adjustment problems among them. Gove & Tudor(1973) Suggested that a decline in prestige and skills required in home making have led to greater dissatisfaction with home making and it has been linked to a higher probability of mantel health problem among house wife . A negative correlation was obtained between loneliness and self-esteem for both groups . Roa. Mockie(1983) hypothesized that there would be no male –female differences in selfesteem but that full time house wives would have lower self-esteem than women is the labor force. Power and Sancherz (1982) found that self-esteem was positively correlated with occupations and reading achievement. alternate roles and social support each had a main effect of on self-esteem and these variables interacted with genders to affect self-esteem. irrespective of whether they are field independents or field dependents or do not differ in their adjustment. Lea Moore & Kathleen (2002) studied on 201 unemployed men and unemployed women and found that financial deprivation. . Shibutan (1961) most research on the self concept focus on self –esteem dimension. specially financial deprivation had a greater negative association with self-esteem is men as compared with women. Basu et. single career women and homemakers an self-esteem .Personal self-esteem has generally been found higher among employed women. Conducted that non-traditional sex-role orientation. Phadke and Kulkarine(1977) found that the ‘ employed’ and ‘non-employed’ house wives . enhancing problems and emotional focused caping by strengthening the use of support network is important for well being. receiving help from others and higher self-esteem were linked to less depression. Hacker(1971). Kaith and Schafer (1982). (2003) found that state anxiety is significantly more is working mothers where as defense projection is the actual behavior level is significantly used more by non-working women. Apte & Subhakrishna(2003) examine the role of work related factors. Joshi. Goron and Lechasseur(1984). spending more time at work.found no significant difference in selfesteem and loneliness of 40 unemployed women and 40 working woman. Erdwings and Mellinger(1984) did not find any difference between married career women. field(1963).There are many studies which have been done directly related to comparison of employed women and housewives (non-employed women) on self-esteem and other factors.

Um Ehane Chung & Kim (2004) found higher levels of depression among the women’s who spend more time out of their houses away from their family . 3. self-esteem & personality factors. 2) There would be significant differences between working and non-working women on the level of Agreeableness on NEO-PI-R Scale. To assess the status of personality factors is working and non-working women and to find out the differences an various dimensions of personality. To assess the level of adjustment of working and non-working women. To assess the level of self-esteem of working and non-working women. It has been noted that working women have additional problems along with the house holding and family demands in the process of making adjustment with their job demands. The objectives of the study are1. Danziger &. where as women who owned their house has lower levels of depression . PI-R scale. teachers & bank employees. for understanding their psychological behavioral manifestations . It is therefore. 2. the present problem “personality factors and adjustment patterns of working and non-working women” has been chosen. nurses. The hypothesis is given below as such. The findings of the present study will be helpful to reduce the problems of working and non-working women & helpful to suggest some measures for improving their mental health & regarding their other problems. Few objective have been given below is relation to the present research problem. Married employed and single employed women and expected to be similar and both the groups are expected to be different from married unemployed women on the level of adjustment. The above studies done so for four that more studies have to be done is context of the working (employed) and non-working (unemployed) women. In the present study working women’s category has been described on those women who are holding full time salaried jobs such as doctors. 1) There would be significant difference between working and non-working women on the level of extraversion on NEO.Corcorain. Hypothesis: The design of the study and review literature many hypothesis related to the nature of the sample group and the tools of the study. . Whereas Lee. Tolman (2004) found that role of health problems were disproportionably high in employed women’s than non-employed women’s over 60% women’s shows mental health disorders.

3) There would be significant difference between working and non-working women on the level of conscientiousness on NEO PI-R Scale. 5) There would be significant difference between working and non-working women on the level of openness on NEO PI –R scale. 7) There would be significant different between working and non-working women on the level of self esteem. 4) There would be significant difference between working and non-working women on the level of Neuroticism on NEOPI-R scale. . 6) There would be significant difference between working and non-working women on the level of adjustment.