TECHNICAL BACKGROUND DOCUMENT FOR THE REPORT TO CONGRESS ON REMAINING WASTES FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION: WASTE CHARACTERIZATION

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Waste Characterization

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 1.0 2.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1 COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES AS GENERATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.1 Large-Volume Coal Combustion Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.2 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2.2 COMANAGED COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2.3 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS GENERATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 2.4 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS MANAGED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17 2.5 FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION (FBC) WASTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18 LEACHATE CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1 COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES AS GENERATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1.1 Large-Volume Coal Combustion Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1.2 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3.2 COMANAGED COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.3 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS GENERATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 3.4 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS MANAGED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 3.5 FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION (FBC) WASTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

3.0

4.0

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LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1. Table 2-2. Table 2-3. Table 2-4. Table 2-5. Table 2-6. Table 2-7. Table 2-8. Table 2-9. Table 2-10. Table 2-11. Table 2-12. Table 2-13. Table 2-14. Table 2-15. Table 3-1. Table 3-2. Table 3-3. Table 3-4. Table 3-5. Table 3-6. Table 3-7. Table 3-8. Table 3-9. Table 3-10. Table 3-11. Table 3-13. Table 3-14. Table 3-15. Table 3-16. Table 3-18. Table 3-20. Table 3-21. Table 3-22. Table 3-23. Table 3-24. Table 3-25. Table 3-26. Table 3-27. Table 3-28. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Bottom Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . 2-4 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Boiler Slag Total Concentration Data . . . . . . 2-5 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: FGD Waste Total Concentration Data . . . . . . 2-6 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Mill Rejects Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Total Concentration Data for Wastes Comanaged in Landfills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Total Concentration Data for Wastes Comanaged in Surface Impoundments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: PCDDs and PCDFs Concentrations in Coal Combustion Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Oil Combustion Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15 Oil Combustion Wastes: Bottom Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16 Oil Combustion Wastes: Solids Settling Basin Solids Total Concentration Data . . . . . . 2-17 FBC Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19 FBC Wastes: Bed Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20 FBC Wastes: Combined Ash Total Concentration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Bottom Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Bottom Ash EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Boiler Slag TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Boiler Slag EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: FGD Waste TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: FGD Waste EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste EP Toxicity Data . 3-9 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Waterside Rinse EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Coal Pile Runoff EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Mill Reject TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Mill Reject EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Waste: TCLP Data for Comanaged Wastes . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Surface Impoundment Pore Water Data . . . . . . 3-15 Fired Combustion Wastes: Fly Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Oil Combustion Wastes: Bottom Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 Oil Combustion Wastes: Bottom Ash EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 Oil Combustion Wastes: Solids Settling Basin Solids TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 Oil Combustion Wastes: Solids Settling Basin Solids EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 FBC Wastes: Fly Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23 FBC Wastes: Fly Ash EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 FBC Wastes: Bed Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25 FBC Wastes: Bed Ash EP Toxicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 FBC Wastes: Combined Ash TCLP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27

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Waste Characterization

1.0 INTRODUCTION
This document presents the data used to characterize fossil fuel combustion (FFC) wastes for the Report to Congress on Remaining Wastes from Fossil Fuel Combustion. The purpose of this document is to compile the data used for this purpose into one report. The Report to Congress itself further summarizes the data and discusses its ramifications.

This document is composed of two major sections: chemical characteristics (Section 2) and leachate characteristics (Section 3). The chemical characteristics section focuses on the total concentration of primary constituents of concern (e.g., metals) in FFC wastes. The leachate characteristics section focuses on the results of leaching analyses on FFC wastes. The primary analyses included are the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and extraction procedure (EP) analysis, because these were the analyses used to characterize FFC waste leachate for use in the risk assessment portion of the Report to Congress. In a few cases, other analyses that are believed to be relevant to the characterization of FFC waste leachate (e.g., porewater data from surface impoundments managing coal combustion waste) are also presented. Physical characteristics (e.g., physical state, particle size) were described using standard industry texts and best professional judgment. They were not the subject of any detailed sampling efforts. Therefore, while these characteristics are summarized in the Report to Congress, they are not included in this data compilation.

Sections 2 and 3 each are subdivided into the following subsections: coal-fired utility waste as generated, comanaged coal-fired utility waste, oil combustion waste as generated, oil combustion waste as managed, and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste. Because EPA did not have any data specific to coal-fired nonutility combustion waste available, there are no sections corresponding to this sector. The specific sources of data used and methods used to summarize the data are described in the appropriate sections.

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Waste Characterization

2.0 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
This section compiles and summarizes data used to describe the chemical characteristics and properties of remaining wastes from FFC. The tables presented here focus primarily on the total concentration of constituents of concern (e.g., metals). These data and their ramifications are discussed in greater detail in the Report to Congress.

2.1

COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES AS GENERATED

This section describes the chemical characteristics of large-volume coal combustion wastes (CCWs) (i.e., fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization [FGD] waste) and low-volume combustion wastes as individual waste streams. That is, it describes those wastes separately before they are mixed together and comanaged, as is the common practice at many coal-fired utilities. The two subsections below present data on large-volume and low-volume wastes, respectively.

2.1.1

Large-Volume Coal Combustion Wastes

Large-volume utility CCWs, managed alone, were the subject of, and characterized in detail in, the previous 1988 Report to Congress and the 1993 Regulatory Determination (58 FR 42466, 8/9/93). Therefore, a great deal of additional characterization data for these wastes has not been collected for the current Report to Congress. Instead, this section summarizes the characterization data originally collected for the 1988 Report to Congress and the 1993 Regulatory Determination. The original sources of these data are described in detail in those documents. Tables 2-1 through 2-4 present total concentration data for constituents of potential concern in coal-fired fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and FGD waste, respectively.

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3 101 430 3.8 13.10 3.60 136 35.3 52 205 0.3 130 41.8 4.501 775 248 (Fine Boron Fly Ash) Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Lead Manganese Mercury Selenium Silver Strontium Vanadium March 15.0 3855 570 Median 25.Waste Characterization Table 2-1.3 305 76.10 24.2 123 0.005 0.0 11.97 0.22 42.08 396 100 56.90 33.6 4.0 0.0 2430 377 215 279 5400 1300 18.40 3.10 9.9 Maximum 160 1152 714 14.008 0.3 110 10.7 2.5 250 0.0 437 79.2 872 258 4.0 66.04 30.13 0.70 931 251 155 56.3 6. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Data Source Tetra Techa (Mech.7 991 371 1.00 11.50 5.52 0.27 172 48.9 326 83. 1999 2-2 .9 116 29.0 8.073 5.60 0.50 19.0 191 0. Hopper Ash) Constituent Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Lead Manganese Mercury Selenium Silver Strontium Vanadium Zinc Tetra Techb Arsenic Barium Number of Samples n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Number of Non-Detects n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Minimum 3.0 2.40 83.0 0.5 0.0 349 320 252 750 2.

0 Maximum 2.1 129 123 67.6 43.7 3.0003 0.20 0.7 19.98 0.4 806.02 0.5 5.28 Maximum 205 391.02 0. values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit n/a = data not available March 15.5 49.0 5015 2200 Median 4. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Data Source Constituent Zinc Number of Samples n/a Number of Non-Detects n/a Number of Sites n/a Mean n/a Minimum 14.0 4.19 0.2 397 286.2 9.5 6.0 651 655 273 49.0 252 148 Mechanical hopper fly ash data from Tetra Tech (1983) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress Fine fly ash data from Tetra Tech (1983) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress c Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) (continued) Data Source 1993 Datac Constituent Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc a b Number of Samples 46 81 74 12 27 66 83 78 76 27 71 81 62 11 61 79 Number of Non-Detects 35 3 3 0 0 41 8 1 2 7 0 16 42 4 5 0 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 10.01 0.200 2.Waste Characterization Table 2-1.0 10850 2105 2050 76.5 76.8 0.300 Median 210 Table 2-1.5 85.0003 0.0100 0.6 7. 1999 2-3 .4 90 112 56.5 0.0 311 3.7 3.8 469.4 1589 201.5 8.5 Minimum 0.5 1270 49.1 77.15 43.3 117.2 0.013 0.1 0.

values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit n/a = data not available --.4 56.003 1.2 0.0 24.18 0.1 50.6 0.3 843.86 0.2 109.7 0.9 2.50 300 41.0 0.39 0.7 2. 1999 2-4 .0 264 717 Median 4.Waste Characterization Table 2-2.1 3.7 350 60.9 390 5.601 0.005 0.2 1.0 0.7 633 2.1 297 0.0 --141 52.009 79.1 13.0 7.06 2.7 411 61.80 24 1.4 1.08 0.= too few data points to calculate statistics March 15.8 3. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Bottom Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Data Source Tetra Techa Constituent Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Lead Manganese Mercury Selenium Silver Strontium Vanadium Zinc 1993 Datab Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc a b Number of Samples n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 36 48 46 2 11 48 48 48 48 12 48 48 40 1 37 48 Number of Non-Detects n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 35 5 1 0 0 38 4 0 1 7 1 31 33 0 7 0 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 4.2 90.0 3.1 3.0 0.86 120 24 68.040 1267 9.5 0.41 2.1 121.6 769 4.023 0.20 800 141 99.0 --143.4 36.9 0.5 4710 146.5 9360 2.1 Minimum 0.80 Maximum 168 5789 513 4.7 1526 2.0 4.6 Bottom and boiler slag (combined) data from Tetra Tech (1983) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.0 3.51 1800 377 798 8.2 14 0.9 0.013 161.1 2.0 61.0 4.4 7.45 1600 161 0.1 170 12.0 7.4 250 104 90.6 4.4 35.1 123.050 3.1 3.79 0.0070 0.1 7.

25 0.010 0.7 7.0 34.43 Maximum 1.5 413 7.5 177 14.1 52.0 4.3 0.0 38.0 698.40 0.1 81.0 35.7 23.0 31.1 79.37 0.5 5981 156 120.Waste Characterization Table 2-3.5 37.01 6.0 74.0 40.5 75.5 158 32.10 0.8 4.5 75.0 9.2 37.2 Minimum 0.0 0.19 7.4 592.7 22.8 22.01 33.0 530 Median 0.0 254.0 40. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit March 15.0 55.5 83.4 4.0 8.016 3.6 5.0 9. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Boiler Slag Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 3 15 15 3 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 15 3 11 15 Number of Non-Detects 0 7 7 0 2 11 1 2 6 15 2 8 13 0 7 2 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.0 320.3 146.8 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.01 1.43 1.0 4.0 1720 7.5 40. 1999 2-5 .0 49.

Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: FGD Waste Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 31 36 35 14 18 36 36 36 34 15 35 34 29 6 33 36 Number of Non-Detects 25 5 3 7 11 22 5 0 2 7 1 9 20 6 16 1 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 15.6 352.0150 0.1 25.00 0.0 302.8 53.0 191.7 62.17 0.Waste Characterization Table 2-4.005 0.7 144.01 Maximum 90.0 527.7 5.3 9.0 341.8 19.4 121.1 4.0 162.0 39.9 921.5 9.2 72.0 3.1 3.0 46.04 0.65 0.5 633.073 3.900 5.3 60.0 5070 Median 6.5 12.01 0.1 27. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit March 15.0 2280 49.01 0.01 9.0 104.3 4.0 251.9 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.0075 0.08 0.9 73.8 68. 1999 2-6 .0 0.0 Minimum 3.0 90.7 0.0 81.9 312.2 90.5 162.0 65.3 9.5 3.5 29.0 32.0 10.

low-volume combustion wastes are of concern when they are comanaged with large-volume CCWs.2 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes In the current Report to Congress.1. because coal mill rejects (and particularly their pyrite component) have been identified as a waste of particular concern. Table 2-5 presents ranges of total concentration data for constituents of potential concern in several types of low-volume combustion wastes. Therefore. collection of characterization data has focused on mixtures of largevolume and low-volume wastes as comanaged in practice (see Section 2.Waste Characterization 2. In addition. Table 2-6 summarizes these data and data from the 1988 Report to Congress for coal mill rejects. These data were originally collected for the 1988 Report to Congress. sources of these data are described in detail there. 1999 2-7 .2). this section includes recent data collected by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) for coal mill rejects. March 15.

3 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 3.0800 0.01–5.Waste Characterization Table 2-5.676 1.470 0.168 n/a n/a 0–3.658 0.1–32.1 0.005–0.9–180 0.006–26 Cooling Tower Blowdown 0.375 n/a 6.001–0.8 6.4 n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.12 n/a n/a 0.500 0–2.3–11.01–0.2 0.024–0.700 n/a n/a n/a 0.025 0.01–6.405 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.7 n/a n/a 8–1.2–960 1.580–6.02 0.5 0–0.07 n/a 0.13 n/a 0.22 0.001–0.03 n/a 130–20.2–20.720 10–400 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.300 0.00002–0.6 n/a 0.8 n/a n/a 2.003 3.0001–1.2–220 4.002–0.56 n/a n/a 4. Radian. 1987 March 15.03 n/a n/a n/a 0.4 0–0.947 0–4.1–0.235 n/a n/a n/a n/a 0–0.5–9.7–8.0015 0.823 3.127 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0–18 0.74 0.002 3–500 0.002–35.00003–0.00002–3.2–7.949 n/a n/a 30 n/a n/a 299.1–14.6-481 0.1 n/a 0.7 Constituent Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Aluminum Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chloride Chromium (total) Chromium VI Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Sulfate Zinc Boiler Blowdown 2.912 180–1.58 0.5–8. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Total Concentration Data (mg/l) Boiler Fireside Cleaning Waste 119.0 Demineralizer Regenerant 0–300 283–25.0001–1.100–1.001–0.004 0.02–2 0.1–5.25 0.01–0.1–3.9–840 n/a = data not available Sources: Envirosphere. 1981.9–29 0–0.0002–0.00001–1.02–0.5–1 n/a 5–16.03–1 n/a n/a 0.01–0.03–1.753 0–3.05 Coal Pile Runoff 8–2.16–37.125–6.004–23 n/a 0.2 1–10 0.16 0.970 20–1.250 n/a 0–174 0.1–390 Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste (Acid) 8–2.00 7 0.005–16 n/a 0.949 2–28.1 n/a 0–20.009 n/a 0.200 0.005–0.7–31 11–1.000 0.500 270–28.005–16.1 0.091 0–2.00005 0–0. 1999 2-8 .2 5.5 0.004 0.4–11.1–4.5 Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste (Alkaline) 5.3 30–900 n/a 190.1 0.15 n/a n/a 7.

04 9 2.000 357.000 100 50 200 10.000 1.6 23.78 64.100 19. 1997l.600 7.5 6.Waste Characterization Table 2-6.070 9 3.380 69 121 0.35 48.200 8.5 0.5 9 4.32 25 7.000 1.000 10. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Mill Rejects Total Concentration Data (ppm) Data Source Envirospherea (Pyrites) Constituent Arsenic Cobalt Copper Lead Manganese Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc EPRIb Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese Potassium Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Zinc a b Number of Samples n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Number of Non-Detects n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 19 0 2 14 0 0 9 10 18 Mean n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 91.300 146.000 5.50 58.50 Major Constituents (maximum concentration greater than approximately 1 percent) Trace Constituents 104 370 3.3 11.400 14.4 0.50 48.0 3.0 20 4.000 267.900 130.5 4.000 5.5 18.700 132.600 37 293 3.88 464 50 41 225 c Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 51.700 600 4.5 Maximum 5. 1999 2-9 . values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit c Considered to be an outlier (not included in statistics) n/a = data not available March 15.75 4.300 60.500 6.100 447 1. data are for pyrite portion of mill rejects Data from EPRI.100 Minimum 500 100 10 200 10 10 10 10 100 500 6700 9500 1800 100 50 1.05 Data from Envirosphere (1981) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress.1 12.5 0.5 4.5 4.8 23.

Fifteen samples were taken. it describes mixtures of large-volume CCWs and low-volume combustion wastes after they have been placed together and comanaged. Table 2-9 summarizes these data. This study analyzed samples from 11 disposal sites for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that are currently considered to be of toxicological significance. Table 2-7 summarizes the data for landfills and Table 2-8 summarizes the data for surface impoundments. 1999 2-10 . March 15.Waste Characterization 2. data characterizing dioxins and furans in comanaged wastes are available from an EPRI (1998) study. In addition. for a total of 17 analyses.2 COMANAGED COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES This section describes the chemical characteristics of comanaged coal-fired utility wastes. They include 14 EPRI site investigations. plus 2 additional reports characterizing the comanagement of FGD sludge with low-volume wastes published by EPRI (1994a and 1994b). That is. Comanaged coal-fired utility waste characterization data are compiled from 16 reports. as is the common practice at many coal-fired utilities. 2 of which were analyzed twice. each detailing site investigations from the late 1980s to early 1997. The 16 reports include characterization data for comanaged wastes as managed in both landfills and surface impoundments.

All concentrations are facility-averaged. March 15. 1999 2-11 .1 Not calculated* 23 35 160 160 77 53 * The constituent was not detected in any samples or detected in a small number of samples. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.800 Maximum 38 3.. meaningful statistical values cannot be calculated. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table. i.2 1. Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations. therefore.800 Median 16 3200 Not calculated* 35 97 6. Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Total Concentration Data for Wastes Comanaged in Landfills (ppm) Constituent Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Number of Non-Detects 0 0 6 2 0 1 0 3 5 0 3 Number of Sites 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 86 84 50 105 17 51 14 Mean 20 2.5 33 0.Waste Characterization Table 2-7.8 78 120 29 65 32 38 99 16 54 9.e.900 Minimum 6. Includes wastes sampled within the landfills. Source: EPRI Comanagement data.

6 5.5 0.2 5.88 0.7 2.Waste Characterization Table 2-8.3 140 5.0 1.3 23 60 79 * The constituent was detected only in a small number of samples.6 20 17 150 8.20 5. 1999 2-12 .4 86 34 86 24 71 6. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table..025 0.600 8.7 150 0.7 4. meaningful statistical values cannot be calculated.0 85 29 78 42 68 37 5.e. Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Total Concentration Data for Wastes Comanaged in Surface Impoundments (ppm) Constituent Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 26 45 45 11 15 45 45 17 45 45 45 45 39 11 45 45 Number of Non-Detects 24 9 6 0 6 36 17 6 2 5 6 17 30 1 21 0 Number of Sites 7 15 15 3 5 15 15 4 15 15 15 15 14 3 15 15 40 1. i. Source: EPRI Comanagement data. All concentrations are facility-averaged. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged. Includes wastes sampled from within the impoundments.4 190 6. March 15. Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.400 16 420 24 290 42 150 150 160 320 14 48 350 860 18 510 8.2 27 120 150 Mean Minimum Maximum Median Not calculated* 6.03 0.03 10.

1 0.24 0.05 0.7.2.25 0.45 0.3.4.3.7.7.05 0. summary statistics do not include the two blank or reference samples.7.3.1 0.7.4.6 0.8-HxCDF 2.8-PeCDD 1.7.3.3.2.28 0.18 0.8.75 0.9-HxCDF 1.25 0.15 Maximum 0.3.54 0.25 0.65 0.28 0.7.8-HxCDF 1.2.1 0.8-HxCDF 1.05 0.2.7.8-PeCDF 2. ppt) Type of Analyte PCDDs Analyte 2.3.30 0.8.4 0.8-PeCDF 1.3 0.7.15 0.4.3.29 0.2.65 1.19 0.15 0.17 0.4.25 0.8-HxCDD 1.7 0.7.4.15 0.3 0.85 1.5 0.45 Source: EPRI Sampling Data from EPRI.8.59 Minimu m 0.35 0.1 0.3.25 0.2.55 Median 0.8-HxCDD 1. March 15.6.6.3.05 0.23 0.8-TCDD 1.8-TCDF 1.3.7.25 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2.Waste Characterization Table 2-9.25 0.4.9-HpCDF OCDF Number of Samples 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Number of Non-Detects 17 17 17 17 16 11 5 14 17 17 16 17 17 17 16 17 15 Number of Sites 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mean 0.9-HxCDD 1.35 0.6.17 0.3 0. 1999 2-13 .2.65 9.3.4.7.05 0.1 0.2 0.17 0.2.7.1 0.41 0.15 0.6.7.3. Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: PCDDs and PCDFs Concentrations in Coal Combustion Wastes (ng/kg.3.2.59 10.3 0.4 0.8-HpCDF 1.1 0.8 0.3.1 0.7.6.2.15 0.0 32.15 0. 1998 (Table A-3).8-HpCDD OCDD PCDFs 2.5 0.

it describes fly ash and bottom ash before they are placed in a waste management unit (and possibly mixed together with each other or other combustion wastes). composite ash. they are not summarized here. respectively.Waste Characterization 2. and other ash at oil-fired facilities.3 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS GENERATED This section describes the chemical characteristics of oil combustion wastes as generated. Data also are available from the same source for a small number of samples of washwater solids. March 15. The source of these data is a database compiled by EPRI and submitted to EPA. however. Because of the small number of data points. Tables 2-10 and 2-11 present total concentration data for oil-fired fly ash and bottom ash. That is. 1999 2-14 .

.447 0.450 60.9 8.100 9.447 17.5 5.900 18.016 233 587 515 331 5. i.009 Median 29775 7413 24300 25.000 59.137 17.646 2.3 2.300 3.876 1.96 5.228 72.0 1.105 880 Maximum 45.88 3.000 7.647 442 198 2500 50.8 180 50 374 233 655 370 175 0.1 3.562 21.0 330 21.870 4.9 6. Source: EPRI.660 8.98 4. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.000 71.98 180 5.147 5.447 15.049 4.428 64.93 180 15.000 233 920 1334 698 23.500 7.06 3.92 180 23 138 233 270 288 120 0.543 71.16 3.281 12.0 907 35.735 Minimum 18.150 131.997 9.450 60.400 70.000 103.830 110.214 28.291 1.948 45.605 25.7 5.4 9.447 11.281 11. Oil Combustion Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Aluminum Calcium Iron Magnesium Nickel Potassium Silicon Sodium Sulfate Sulfur Vanadium Antimony Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Cerium Chloride Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Manganese Mercury Phosphorus Selenium Silver Titanium Zinc Number of Samples 17 17 18 18 19 11 11 17 2 10 34 3 18 18 4 19 3 5 24 1 12 21 8 11 3 14 13 6 13 Number of Non-Detects 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 7 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 7 10 0 0 Number of Sites 4 5 5 5 6 3 2 5 2 2 10 1 6 6 2 5 1 3 8 1 5 6 3 4 1 5 5 2 5 Mean 30.876 1.253 9.143 59.067 22.386 442 64 504 35.337 24.700 225.205 53.e.816 442 82. 1999 2-15 .800 4.400 90.948 48.06 5.425 8. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.Waste Characterization Table 2-10.789 11.927 Major Constituents (mean concentration greater than approximately 1 percent) Trace Constituents Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations. 1997f March 15.4 1.528 442 34. All concentrations are facility-averaged.

098 6. All concentrations are facility-averaged. Oil Combustion Wastes: Bottom Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Number of Samples Number of Non-Detects Number of Sites Mean Minimum Maximum Median Major Constituents (mean concentration greater than approximately one percent) Aluminum Calcium Iron Magnesium Nickel Silicon Sodium Sulfate Sulfur Vanadium 16 18 18 19 17 11 13 3 1 47 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 8 8 8 9 4 7 3 1 13 67048 23091 44377 65148 13654 128823 18957 14902 56800 55541 2000 6823 4767 14622 1950 42519 3500 1974 56800 8749 150882 59000 100871 243774 44136 189360 32000 35000 56800 200000 63993 22574 45381 42400 3730 141708 15400 7732 56800 42359 Trace Constituents Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chloride Chromium Copper Lead Manganese Mercury Selenium Zinc 1 14 15 1 2 14 6 27 17 15 3 11 11 7 0 4 1 0 1 7 3 2 0 3 0 10 9 0 1 5 5 1 2 3 5 4 5 3 3 3 3 5 1030 23. Source: EPRI.80 10 744 1030 19.e. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.4 662 67 33.5 594 67 33.081 2.12 5844 205 789 108 327 0. i. 1997f March 15.05 504 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations..6 248 67 12 0. 1999 2-16 .5 3.3 320 92 260 0.50 5 33 154 57 200 0.77 28536 675 2860 176 520 2.16 183 1030 52 820 67 55 4. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.10 153 55.993 6.07 458 1030 3.Waste Characterization Table 2-11.5 4.

i.4 13.2 13 51 69 6.2 7150 24.10 880 74 Maximum 66 1.9 2. 1999 2-17 .010 Median 66 16.4 319 665 0. Table 2-12 presents total concentration data for constituents of potential concern in solids dredged from solids settling basins (SSBs) at oil-fired utilities. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.4 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS MANAGED This section describes the chemical characteristics of oil combustion wastes as managed.580 830 Minimum 66 6.18 160 0.05 210 160 3.670 4.410 24. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.4 0. The source of these data is the same as that in the previous section.4 1.4 622 868 0.28 7.6 354 51 529 6.5 456 51 2.79 <0.4 3.250 6.460 6.7 27900 437 Notes: Only constituents evaluated in the risk screening assessment are presented here. Oil Combustion Wastes: Solids Settling Basin Solids Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Antimony Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluoride Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Nitrate Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 5 62 60 1 50 56 5 54 1 43 6 22 69 1 23 23 85 48 Number of Non-Detects 2 7 12 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 9 22 0 0 Number of Sites 1 17 15 1 10 14 1 17 1 10 5 5 17 1 6 6 19 17 Mean 66 210 317 160 5.7 69.600 0.22 9. Table 2-12..4 46 72 0.e. 1997f.7 1.9 31. Specifically. All concentrations are facility-averaged.108 2410 24.650 980 160 21.0 9.350 24.4 35.250 51 16.4 9.38 32.773 2. Source: EPRI. March 15. All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.Waste Characterization 2.

representing 37 percent of the total population of U. The data used here were submitted in response to a survey by the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) of all U. 1999 2-18 . Thirtyone respondents to the CIBO FBC survey. respectively.S. provided a total of 211 total concentration samples. rather than two headings as for conventional coal-fired and oil-fired combustion wastes.Waste Characterization 2. Because the data were not identified as being from as-generated or as-managed samples. Thus. the FBC data presented here represent a large number of samples from a substantial fraction of the FBC population. Tables 2-13 through 215 present data for FBC fly ash. FBC facilities. they are presented under one heading. March 15. FBC facilities. and combined ash.S. bed ash.5 FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION (FBC) WASTES This section describes the chemical characteristics of FBC wastes.

25 1.25 36.5 2.03 3.6 923 10.300 7.900 259 176 2690 11.25 44.5 31. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table. All concentrations are facility-averaged.35 9.300 25 165 0..68 97.2 1.28 194 38. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.13 0.3 223 7.17 2.75 27.8 19 41.05 1.500 105 548 129 48.Waste Characterization Table 2-13.830 143 Median 42.05 0.700 33.3 40.025 0.125 2.8 99 76.570 19.1 79.23 39. 1997 March 15.86 13.36 1.1 1.545 348 2.00005 2.9 179 4.79 46 22. i. FBC Wastes: Fly Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 40 66 73 72 39 60 72 76 47 71 44 75 40 73 67 75 43 69 64 34 39 73 Number of Non-Detects 0 34 15 4 15 15 38 1 7 12 0 25 1 27 14 2 13 27 40 22 0 1 Number of Sites 12 16 19 18 10 11 19 19 13 17 13 19 13 18 19 20 10 19 18 8 10 18 Mean 42.1 542 3.6 39 3.4 38.700 30.25 41. Source: CIBO.5 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.31 366 1.35 6.8 31.5 2470 6.46 771 53 Minimum 20 0.1 25.4 24 Maximum 88.200 166 11.08 0.5 2 22.013 5.03 0.323 6.4 3510 8. 1999 2-19 .e.47 0.3 1.

16 86 75.05 0.1 19.025 0.4 945 8.. FBC Wastes: Bed Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 34 58 62 68 38 52 61 68 47 65 33 67 33 54 52 63 41 56 55 29 37 65 Number of Non-Detects 0 37 16 5 14 18 40 0 10 15 0 30 0 46 15 3 22 39 40 23 0 2 Number of Sites 9 13 14 15 10 8 14 15 12 14 8 15 9 12 11 14 7 13 13 6 8 14 Mean 22. i.125 2.79 36.000 10 14.152 0.5 11.5 7.1 1.03 69 34 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.4 1.2 0.65 6.00005 6 1 1.3 13.9 311 1.02 37 11.2 0.63 987 64.5 241 0.980 45 87.57 7.1 190 3 79.6 25 5240 399 Median 18.Waste Characterization Table 2-14. 1999 2-20 . and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.4 16.5 12 17.8 190 177 5.1 25.952 1 3.800 40. 1997 March 15.0125 4.e.9 17.6 184 1.1 1.45 8.7 22 584 0. Source: CIBO.848 52.5 0.800 361 80 453 8 304 7.3 0.7 Minimum 9 0.8 11.300 58 751 16.43 20.8 37.2 63.100 12.1 1. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.3 0.000 18.21 14.05 14. All concentrations are facility-averaged.4 Maximum 68.

5 5.3 25.600 67 211 1.148 1.2 88.09 26. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.5 1670 5.86 2.8 0.2 0.6 1.9 850 0.7 192 27.700 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.56 144 3.8 1. i. All concentrations are facility-averaged.65 142 3. Source: CIBO.404 0.1 13.808 36.e.25 23 181 2.065 1.550 5.220 4.479 0.82 0.120 23.97 149 1.15 440 26 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.7 0.1 258 2. 1999 2-21 .53 43.160 18 21.19 20.4 39.431 9.300 Median 26.68 41 985 9.700 19 74.Waste Characterization Table 2-15.000 45.75 5.2 0.9 181 18.3 11 Maximum 51.6 4. 1997 March 15.25 0.500 14.16 5. FBC Wastes: Combined Ash Total Concentration Data (ppm) Constituent Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 48 45 60 57 12 45 50 58 30 56 48 57 47 57 50 59 26 59 48 8 11 57 Number of Non-Detects 0 28 7 3 3 3 24 0 4 0 0 6 0 8 14 3 0 12 25 4 0 0 Number of Sites 13 15 16 14 6 13 16 16 12 16 13 16 12 16 14 16 12 16 15 6 5 15 Mean 24.2 4.07 18.286 8.6 40.2 690 9.56 29 10.150 Minimum 1.7 5..900 62 77.125 0.0113 0.45 20 0.009 12 0.700 7.77 2.8 12.

as is the common practice at many coal-fired utilities. were the subject of. The two subsections below present data on large-volume and low-volume wastes. a great deal of additional characterization data for these wastes has not been collected for the current Report to Congress. Instead.1. 3. this section includes results from toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and extraction procedure (EP) analyses. Tables 3-1 through 3-8 present TCLP and EP data for constituents of potential concern in coal-fired fly ash. and characterized in detail in.1 Large-Volume Coal Combustion Wastes Large-volume utility CCWs.g. the previous 1988 Report to Congress and the 1993 Regulatory Determination (58 FR 42466. other analyses that are believed to be relevant to the characterization of FFC waste leachate (e.. respectively. and FGD waste. Therefore. managed alone. March 15. porewater data from surface impoundments managing coal combustion waste) are also presented. 1999 3-1 . it describes the leaching characteristics of those wastes separately before they are mixed together and comanaged. In a few cases. boiler slag. The original sources of these data are described in detail in those documents.1 COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES AS GENERATED This section presents leaching analyses of large-volume CCWs and low-volume combustion wastes separately. this section summarizes the leaching data originally collected for the 1988 Report to Congress and the 1993 Regulatory Determination. For most waste types. That is. bottom ash.Waste Characterization 3.0 LEACHATE CHARACTERISTICS This section compiles and summarizes data used to describe leachate from remaining wastes from FFC. 8/9/93). These data and their ramifications are discussed in greater detail in the Report to Congress. 3.

64 n/a 2.0025 0.499 103.005 0.150 0.0495 0.563 0.111 0.455 0. 1999 3-2 . values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit March 15.120 0.0048 0.020 Maximum 2.02 0.203 n/a 0.0 Median 0.113 0.94 0.020 0.025 0.010 n/a 0.0495 0.066 0.564 4.382 4.0 Minimum 0.289 0.556 n/a 0.0039 0.910 17.0005 0.005 0.0025 0.025 0.933 0.4 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-1.285 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.181 20.0001 0.012 0.078 0.037 0.68 0.0001 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 12 12 8 12 12 n/a 12 12 12 12 8 8 Number of Non-Detects 1 0 0 5 3 n/a 7 11 4 10 1 0 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.012 0.

03 0.0001 0.0003 0.47 10.9 111.0023 4.001 0.001 0.0495 0.20 0.0968 0.1 0.005 0.001 --0.012 0.01 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Fly Ash EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Data Source Tetra Techa Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver ADL b Number of Number of Samples Non-Detects n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 76 76 5 8 78 78 8 77 74 7 77 75 1 14 16 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 19 16 3 0 21 25 1 39 67 1 18 59 1 3 1 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.665 0.83 0.6 1.17 0.520 0.25 0.0007 0.036 --0.1 0.08 0.548 8.955 0.008 0.0187 4.002 <0.37 6.4 0.4 22.027 0.0342 0.46 7.002 0.005 --0.00064 0. values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit n/a = data not available --.001 0.0698 0.340 --0.393 1.126 0.038 0.003 0.007 0.002 0.002 0.0001 0.0001 <0.0005 0.54 0.005 0.05 <0.0495 0.7 0.193 0.= too few data points to calculate statistics March 15.888 0. Tetra Tech’s results are for coal ash in general b Data from Arthur D.002 0.5 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-2.45 0.410 0.009 Maximum 1.0161 --4.68 0.0405 0.4 0.001 <0.0495 0.16 0.008 0.28 0.0001 <0.003 <0.0495 29.82 Minimum <0.0495 16.0495 17.376 0.930 0.0 Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a --0.3 1.0036 0.004 0.22 0.222 0.01 0. 1999 3-3 .00042 0.01 0.002 0.00004 0.0001 <0.34 0.005 0.01 <0.0001 0.001 0.249 0.01 0.17 0.0047 0.372 Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium VI Lead Mercury Selenium Silver 1993 Data c Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc a Data from Tetra Tech (1983) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress.0495 26. Little (1985) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress c Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.036 0.

0001 0.0001 0.0088 0.0013 0.0001 0.43 0.042 Minimum 0.0495 0.0003 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-3.0003 0.010 Maximum 0.0135 0.087 0.0001 0.060 0.010 n/a 0.0495 0.280 0.0051 0. 1999 3-4 .0495 0.176 Median 0.100 23.005 0.013 1.050 0.163 0.015 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.005 0.0199 0.59 0.007 Maximum 0.0079 0.0001 0.0001 0.025 n/a 0.290 0.002 0.049 0.033 0.8 1.002 0.002 0.001 n/a 0.010 0.010 0.0003 0.0001 0.005 0.049 0.61 1.013 0.080 0.308 0.250 0.065 Minimum 0.005 0.100 0.009 0. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit Table 3-4.099 0.005 0.0112 n/a 0.049 0.67 0.0058 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Bottom Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 13 13 10 13 13 n/a 13 13 13 13 10 10 Number of Non-Detects 6 0 0 13 11 n/a 10 13 10 13 10 5 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.0050 0.0001 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Bottom Ash EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 30 29 10 30 30 30 29 30 29 10 10 Number of Non-Detects 17 5 2 25 23 21 25 22 25 10 4 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.500 0.0005 0.0328 1.014 0.005 0.0004 0.005 0.380 0. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit March 15.002 0.029 0.00005 0.004 0.092 Median 0.0050 0.277 0.009 0.003 0.030 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.0495 0.005 0.0495 0.0050 0.

0001 0.0005 0.80 1.0005 0.00 0. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit March 15.0001 0.0437 0.0002 0.100 0.0811 0.005 0.260 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Boiler Slag EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Number of Samples 11 10 11 11 2 11 9 11 11 Number of Non-Detects 11 3 11 11 2 11 9 11 11 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean n/a 0.100 0.010 0.007 0.001 0.002 0.0025 0.050 0.005 0.500 0.015 0.0018 0.100 0.0005 0.0005 n/a 0.0009 0.0015 0.0087 0.003 0.075 Maximum 0.006 Minimum n/a 0.003 0.015 0.0025 0.60 1.010 0.100 0.009 n/a 0.0001 0. 1999 3-5 .400 7.0111 0.050 0.260 0.0306 0.02 0.020 2.050 n/a 0.025 Median n/a 0.0000008 0.002 n/a 0.490 0.020 0.110 0.0127 0.0003 0.002 0.331 Minimum 0.002 0.0001 Maximum n/a 0. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit Table 3-6.0093 0.118 5. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: Boiler Slag TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 33 33 33 33 9 33 33 33 33 9 9 Number of Non-Detects 31 7 26 7 8 20 32 33 32 8 7 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.050 0.0001 0.010 0.0036 0.001 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.005 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-5.30 Median 0.001 0.157 0.075 n/a = data not available Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.

012 0.010 0.188 Median 0.0015 0.001 0.910 0.139 0.749 --0.4 0.160 0.023 0. values below the detection limit were treated as onehalf the detection limit March 15.0009 12.360 0.229 0.291 0.4 0.0608 ----Minimum 0.0086 0.0001 0.031 0.30 12.229 0.= too few data points to calculate statistics Source: Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.188 Maximum 0.120 0.290 0.0045 0.280 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: FGD Waste TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 13 13 1 13 13 13 13 13 13 1 1 Number of Non-Detects 1 0 0 4 0 3 11 1 3 0 0 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-7.0003 0.146 0.060 ----- n/a = data not available --.300 0. 1999 3-6 .001 0.120 0.910 3.532 --0.354 0.0001 0.002 0.

008 <0. 1999 3-7 .007 Data from Arthur D.050 0.0015 0.= too few data points to calculate statistics March 15.0005 0.051 0.013 0.050 0.02 0.074 0.070 0.005 0.680 0. Coal-Fired Utility Large-Volume Wastes: FGD Waste EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Data Source ADLa Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium VI Lead Mercury Selenium Silver 1993 Datab Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium VI Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc a b Number of Samples n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 10 25 23 10 12 25 23 11 22 23 11 25 22 10 11 12 Number of Non-Detects n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 6 9 5 6 1 17 8 1 19 18 3 9 10 8 0 2 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.00005 0.0015 Maximum 0.020 0.065 0.0025 0.20 0.030 0.126 0.200 0.002 0.056 0.0055 0.01 0.230 0.230 0.0195 0. Little (1985) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress Data from supporting documentation to the 1993 Regulatory Determination.60 2.0015 0.011 0.120 0.026 ----0.030 0.003 36.040 0.045 0.002 0.030 0.001 0.001 0.020 <0.043 0.18 0. values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit n/a = data not available --.0005 5.037 0.0 1.0013 9.0003 0.045 0.040 0.129 0.01 <0.15 0.002 0.170 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-8.270 0.448 0.220 0.066 0.80 0.172 Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.022 0.005 <0.002 0.570 1.040 Minimum 0.006 0.075 0.200 0.23 0.0005 0.049 --0.009 0.50 0.95 0.075 0.11 0.0005 0.0003 0.010 0.002 0.001 0.60 0.

Waste Characterization 3.1. These data were originally collected for the 1988 Report to Congress.2). collection of characterization data has focused on mixtures of largevolume and low-volume wastes as comanaged in practice (see Section 2. this section includes more recent TCLP and EP data collected by EPRI for coal mill rejects. Tables 3-13 and 3-14 summarize these data. Tables 3-9 through 3-12 present EP analysis data for constituents of potential concern in several types of low-volume combustion wastes. sources of these data are described in detail in there. low-volume combustion wastes are of concern when they are comanaged with large-volume CCWs. because coal mill rejects (and particularly their pyrite component) have been identified as a waste of particular concern.2 Low-Volume Combustion Wastes In the current Report to Congress. March 15. Therefore. 1999 3-8 . In addition.

002 0.022 0.001 Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste (Oxidizer) <0.065 Minimum 0. data are for individual samples of three types of boiler chemical cleaning waste n/a = data not available March 15.007 Data from Radian (1987) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress Data from Radian (1985) and presented in the 1988 Report to Congress.76 3.0002 5.603 0.002 0.002 <0.0002 3.002 <0.0 4.002 Maximum 0.64 20.008 0. 1985b Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Mercury Lead Selenium Silver a b Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste (EDTA) 0. 1999 3-9 .002 Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste (Hydrochloric Acid) 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-9.21 35 23 0.6 0.181 8.6 <0.67 3.002 <0.7 <0.0042 <0.003 0.006 0.629 0.02 0.001 0.36 2.467 2.0039 0.2 Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Radian.051 0.7 <0.002 0.0 4.002 0.0 0.6 <0. 1987 a Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Number of Samples 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Mean 0.002 0.0002 0.002 0. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Data Source Radian.91 0.112 0.

019 0.002 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-10.012 Maximum 0.0002 0.002 Maximum 0.04 0.134 0.0002 0.005 0. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Coal Pile Runoff EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Number of Samples 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Mean 0.002 0.03 Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a = data not available Source: Radian (1987) as presented in the 1988 Report to Congress March 15.0003 0.01 0.015 0.097 0.0002 0.002 0.02 Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a = data not available Source: Radian (1987) as presented in the 1988 Report to Congress Table 3-11.0002 0.002 0.002 0.0023 Median n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a = data not available Source: Radian (1987) as presented in the 1988 Report to Congress Table 3-12.064 0.005 0.025 1.011 Minimum 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.18 0.078 0.002 0.002 0.002 Minimum 0.148 0.014 0.0003 0.002 0. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Wastewater Brine EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Number of Samples 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 0.032 0.0002 0.002 0.005 0.52 0.005 0.013 Minimum 0. 1999 3-10 .018 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.029 0.019 0.77 0.1 0.006 0.303 0.194 0.181 0.31 0.04 0.005 0.08 0.054 0. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Waterside Rinse EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Number of Samples 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Mean 0.04 0.002 0.002 Maximum 0.5 0.46 0.314 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.

72 0.005 0.0768 Minimum 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-13.054 0.15 0.0288 0.832 0.015 n/a 0.29 0.13 0.024 Maximum 0.36 5.099 Median 0.10 0.29 0.398 0.092 Notes: Values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit.0344 0.03 0.005 0.47 0.0005 n/a 0. 1999 3-11 . Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Mill Reject TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Fluorine Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 12 12 4 12 12 4 12 4 12 8 12 12 8 4 4 Number of Non-Detects 6 0 1 4 5 1 5 0 8 0 3 12 6 4 0 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.0028 0.09 0.101 1.131 0.0623 0. n/a = data not available Source: EPRI.276 0.030 n/a 0.154 0.135 n/a 0.065 0.80 0.07 0.025 0.27 n/a 0.56 0.0001 2.128 n/a 0.0001 1.010 0. 1997 March 15.0108 0.025 0.20 0.005 0.010 0.119 n/a 0.09 0.0003 3.30 0.0025 n/a 0.0001 2.

087 0.005 0.0653 0.119 n/a 0.051 Notes: Values below the detection limit were treated as one-half the detection limit.0300 0.0181 n/a 0.010 0.053 Minimum 0.4 0.003 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-14.10 Median 0.0092 0.6773 n/a 2.26 0.0003 0.20 0.0433 0.1526 0.0726 0.080 n/a 0.04 0. Low-Volume Combustion Wastes: Mill Reject EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Fluorine Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 12 12 4 12 12 4 12 4 12 8 12 12 8 4 4 Number of Non-Detects 8 1 1 7 8 1 9 0 12 0 3 8 6 4 2 Number of Sites n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Mean 0.01 0.01 Maximum 0.42 0.6150 n/a 1.0085 0.5788 0.0025 n/a 0.60 0. n/a = data not available Source: EPRI.0025 n/a 0.2013 0.0035 0.010 0.36 n/a 12.020 0.005 0.03 0.020 0.12 1.010 0.0465 0.13 0.125 0. 1997 March 15.04 0.173 0.0312 0.005 0.005 0.09 0.039 0. 1999 3-12 .025 0.

March 15.Waste Characterization 3. and Table 3-17 presents the landfill extract data. The data presented here are from the same sources described in Section 2. Table 3-16 presents the pore water data from surface impoundments.2. These sources provided a limited number of TCLP analyses for wastes comanaged in landfills and surface impoundments. These include data characterizing pore water from within the matrix of wastes comanaged in surface impoundments and water extract data from wastes comanaged in landfills. They also provided a number of other analyses that EPA believes are potentially representative of leachate from these wastes.2 COMANAGED COAL-FIRED UTILITY WASTES This section describes the characteristics of leachate from comanaged coal-fired utility wastes. Table 3-15 presents the TCLP data. 1999 3-13 .

00192 0.9 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.00005 0.5 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-15. Source: EPRI Comanagement data March 15.192 0.001 566 0.00483 0.0 Maximum 11.23 0.0155 0.00105 0.000875 0.155 0.00431 0.0686 0.54 0.0443 1110 0.0589 0.0508 10.00675 184 2.0253 5.0876 0.0031 0.00196 0.008 0.00106 2.0245 0.0444 0.0382 1..00151 3.00015 44.00134 1379 0.33 0.0066 2.00185 0.63 0.26 0.00542 549 0.63 0.087 10.0211 0.00005 0.0054 0.000118 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.69 0.00758 0.0125 0.122 1.114 0.08 0.236 3.86 0.e.766 0.7 0.16 2025 Median 1.00528 0.0240 0.0399 0.00105 0.5 0.0206 4.00365 48.000847 2.0058 0.00225 1545 0.09 0.0307 1.018 14.00353 33.00675 9.00137 1365 0.71 0.103 0.00607 0.75 0.0152 0.000005 0.44 0.727 0.0167 0. i. 1999 3-14 . and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.06 0.00005 0.094 292 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit.0006 1253 0.00067 0.192 479 Minimum 0. Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Waste: TCLP Data for Comanaged Wastes (mg/l) Analyte Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Calcium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Sodium Thallium Vanadium Zinc Sulfate Number of Samples 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 26 Number of NonDetects 0 12 5 0 10 11 7 0 0 7 3 5 4 0 1 20 5 1 2 23 0 23 1 0 0 Number of Sites 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mean 3.0137 0.9 0.440 0.

00085 0.47 0.13 Not calculated * Not calculated * 0.3 1.00080 0.005 0.048 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-16.00080 0.13 0.0008 0.6 2.001 9.0 0.0033 0. i. meaningful statistical values cannot be calculated. Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Surface Impoundment Pore Water Data (mg/l) Analyte Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 11 152 157 11 160 151 155 18 111 137 4 156 139 49 11 154 166 Number of Non-Detects 11 35 21 10 9 110 104 17 65 107 0 68 46 49 11 34 106 Number of Sites 2 14 14 2 15 14 15 3 13 12 1 15 13 7 2 14 15 0.00075 340 0.25 0.70 0.10 0.00099 0.00080 8.131 0.1 Mean Minimum Maximum Median Not calculated * 0. All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit.7 0. Notes: Leachate is laboratory extracted pore water.21 42 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.18 1.03 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged. Source: EPRI Comanagement data March 15..0075 0.3 0.084 0.014 0.e.025 0.670 0.049 Not calculated * 0.6 27 0.085 Not calculated * 0.00080 0.00460 0.75 11.24 1.096 * The constituent was not detected in any samples or detected in a small number of samples.034 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.012 0. 1999 3-15 .17 0.80 2. therefore.012 0.

48 6.036 * The constituent was not detected in any samples or detected in a small number of samples. Notes: Leachate is generated as a 2:1 distilled water to solid extract. Source: EPRI Comanagement data March 15.74 Maximum 0. meaningful statistical values cannot be calculated.Waste Characterization Table 3-17.25 0.0041 0.0110 1.0059 0.005 0.010 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.14 Not calculated * 0.028 0.96 0.105 0.9 Minimum 0.15 0.014 Not calculated * 0.17 0.0090 0. therefore.16 0.12 Not calculated * 0.077 0.25 1.043 0. i.36 0.04 19 Median 0.063 0.11 0. 1999 3-16 .13 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged. All concentrations are facility-averaged. All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit.14 0.0069 0.044 Mean 0.e.093 0.. Coal-Fired Utility Comanaged Wastes: Landfill Extract Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 35 37 37 Number of Non-Detects 17 0 0 37 17 22 34 14 13 35 3 23 Number of Sites 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.27 0.64 0.36 0.

March 15. it describes fly ash and bottom ash before they are placed in a waste management unit (and possibly mixed together with each other or other combustion wastes). That is. The source of these data is the same as that described in Section 2. they are not summarized here.3 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS GENERATED This section presents leachate analyses for oil combustion wastes as generated. Of 57 samples. however. Because of the small number of data points. and other ash at oil-fired facilities. these organics are not shown in the tables below. 1999 3-17 . and one for chloroform and 1. Data also are available from the same source for a small number of samples of washwater solids. Tables 3-18 through 3-21 present TCLP and EP toxicity data for constituents of potential concern in oilfired fly ash and bottom ash.2dichloroethane). only 6 resulted in analyses above detection limits for one or more organics (one sample for benzene.3. one for chloroform. composite ash. TCLP and EP leachate data also are available from 25 sites for toxic organics in oil combustion wastes. two for chloroform and methyl ethyl ketone. The majority of constituents shown in Tables 3-18 through 3-21 are metals. one for methyl ethyl ketone.Waste Characterization 3. Because of the limited number of analyses above detection limits.

96 0.00108 0.96 0.025 0.40 1.183 0.520 1.005 0.867 0.319 0.28 0.0210 244 2.370 0.0907 0.23 0.160 0. Fired Combustion Wastes: Fly Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Vanadium Number of Samples 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 8 Number of Non-Detects 14 20 7 11 17 24 20 20 0 Number of Sites 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 Mean 0. 1997f Table 3-19.001 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.0025 0.35 Minimum 0.063 0.129 49.164 0.03 0..815 49.96 0.2 2.05 0.0699 0.297 0. Oil Combustion Wastes: Fly Ash EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Magnesium Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 11 11 11 11 1 11 1 11 1 11 11 6 1 Number of Non-Detects 0 3 2 3 0 3 0 6 0 4 5 0 0 Number of Sites 6 6 6 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 6 4 1 Mean 0.256 0.0025 0.325 0.013 268 2.101 0.371 0.447 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.025 273 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.01 0.290 0. Source: EPRI.35 Median 0.4 0.0002 10.Waste Characterization Table 3-18.005 49.00052 36.262 49.00082 0.4 0.96 0.35 March 15.0001 0.0765 0.0555 0.052 0.4 0.105 0.05 882 Median 0.05 430 2.5 1 0.01 0.0135 0.00996 0.144 0.00025 0.369 0.4 Maximum 1.001 0. 1999 3-18 .005 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.005 0.25 0.35 Maximum 1.3 0. i.23 0.0248 397 Minimum 0.4 0.225 0.17 0.0622 0.e.085 0.0025 0.23 0.23 0.

012 0.2 Maximum 3 12. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table. Oil Combustion Wastes: Bottom Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Cyanide Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Number of Samples 26 26 26 26 3 26 26 2 26 26 9 Number of Non-Detects 9 10 13 12 2 18 22 0 20 20 0 Number of Sites 12 12 12 12 1 12 12 2 12 12 3 Mean 0.0635 0.00038 1.43 1.001 2. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.0001 3.00095 30.05 0.00133 30.50 0.02 0..08 0.50 0.210 128 0.43 0.025 0.005 48.845 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.025 0.264 13.0025 0.387 0.135 0.3 Maximum 4.41 0.e.62 3.0775 0..002 0. Source: EPRI.9 0.41 0.0765 0.17 0.09 128 0. 1997f Table 3-21.00563 58 0.7 0.1 0.175 513 Median 0. i.02 0.e. Source: EPRI.15 244 Median 0.3 0.43 1. 1997f Table 3-20. Oil Combustion Wastes: Bottom Ash EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Number of Samples 7 7 7 7 2 2 7 2 7 2 7 7 3 Number of Non-Detects 2 1 2 1 0 0 3 0 6 0 4 4 0 Number of Sites 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 2 6 2 6 6 3 Mean 0.56 0.23 0.005 0.4 0.154 0.130 0.15 1 0.1 0.0408 185 Minimum 0.88 0.379 0.0463 0. i. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.0001 0.00375 0.0741 0.253 0. 1999 3-19 .250 0.264 0.7 0.025 0.78 2.3 0.72 0.015 231 March 15.005 80. All concentrations are facility-averaged.391 1.00075 0.0410 0.0542 211 Minimum 0.005 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.00025 1.0002 33.305 0.0887 0.0318 87 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.64 208 0.264 1.44 0.878 0.264 0.Waste Characterization Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.0025 0.273 0.

All concentrations are facility-averaged.0001 13 0.0538 0.01 4. The source of these data is the same as that in the previous section. Specifically.8 0. i.85 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.e.01 0.055 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.49 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged. Oil Combustion Wastes: Solids Settling Basin Solids TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Vanadium Number of Samples 26 26 26 26 26 26 3 26 26 6 Number of Non-Detects 14 8 14 16 16 25 0 14 20 1 Number of Sites 15 15 15 15 15 15 2 15 15 4 Mean 0.005 0.0438 0. respectively.0005 28.0666 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.005 0.0025 0.29 1.0163 0.0187 0.0605 0.0625 0.302 0.4 3. i.5 0. Table 3-22. 1997f 3.0015 0.145 448 Median 0.9 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.00269 28.09 0. Source: EPRI.279 0.321 1.01 Maximum 0.26 0.647 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.0621 0..04 0.0353 114 Minimum 0. for constituents of potential concern in solids dredged from solids settling basins (SSBs) at oil-fired utilities.005 0.Waste Characterization Zinc 2 0 2 1. Tables 3-22 and 3-23 present TCLP and EP toxicity data. 1999 3-20 .8 0.0824 0. Source: EPRI.e. 1997f March 15..00781 44.7 0.85 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.4 OIL COMBUSTION WASTES AS MANAGED This section describes the leachate characteristics of oil combustion wastes as managed.

55 0.02 Maximum 0.32 Minimum 0.0025 0.8 0.0450 4569 475 0. Source: EPRI. 1997f March 15.00968 328 29.005 0.00125 0.9 2.4 0.005 0.0 0.29 0.001 0.16 0.312 1.005 6.26 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.08 0.02 0.3 1.e.5 29 0.0635 0.163 89.920 0.0129 1048 114 0..4 1.0288 254 374 49. i. Oil Combustion Wastes: Solids Settling Basin Solids EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Constituent Arsenic Barium Cadmium Calcium Chloride Chromium Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Sodium Sulfate Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 51 51 51 23 23 58 25 25 58 24 9 51 32 57 50 24 29 34 33 Number of Non-Detects 19 11 14 0 0 13 1 1 15 0 0 37 0 25 20 0 0 0 1 Number of Sites 18 18 18 8 9 25 10 10 25 8 9 18 17 25 18 9 16 18 17 Mean 0.42 27.0174 0.05 0.9 Median 0.6 11. 1999 3-21 .1 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.134 0.5 60 0.4 0.61 0.0001 0.71 0.0 1.42 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.18 972 1360 157.001 28.286 0.767 194 5.80 0.14 0.0126 154 198 41.Waste Characterization Table 3-23.00043 6.216 3.5 0.275 0.9 0.0005 40.0306 11.1 79.973 4.4 0.0 13.0558 0.

the FBC data presented here represent a large number of samples from a substantial fraction of the FBC population.5. rather than two headings as for conventional coal-fired and oil-fired combustion wastes. Thirty-five respondents to the CIBO FBC survey.S.5 FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION (FBC) WASTES This section describes the leachate characteristics of FBC wastes.Waste Characterization 3. Because the data were not identified as being from as-generated or as-managed samples. 1999 3-22 . they are presented under one heading. Thus. and TCLP data for combined ash. representing 42 percent of the total population of U. FBC facilities. March 15. provided a total of 240 leachate concentration samples. The data used here are from the same source described in Section 2. Tables 3-24 through 3-28 present TCLP and EP toxicity data for FBC fly ash and bed ash. (Because there were very few EP analyses conducted for combined ash. these data are not summarized here).

06 0.00005 0.168 0.9 0.0025 Maximum 15.0739 0. FBC Wastes: Fly Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 15 18 54 61 8 18 52 54 5 16 18 53 18 53 15 43 6 53 52 5 29 19 Number of Non-Detects 4 7 39 17 6 4 37 34 3 4 3 39 4 44 6 29 0 35 40 5 3 3 Number of Sites 5 6 13 15 4 8 14 14 3 6 7 13 7 13 6 8 4 13 13 2 2 8 Mean 6..e.0025 0.113 0.0577 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.8 0.09 0.148 0.025 0.190 0.00192 0.0095 0.14 0.0216 26. i.2 0.0725 0.025 0.00763 0.053 0.0488 0.00 0.0025 0.0687 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.0025 0.00005 0.00125 0.35 Median 4.185 0.0175 0.6 0.32 0.042 0.32 0.025 0.66 0.0005 0. 1997 March 15.111 Minimum 0.19 0.005 0.3 44 0. Source: CIBO. 1999 3-23 .077 1.40 0.0125 0.511 0.505 0.0498 3.76 0.045 0.00641 0.0005 0.0229 0.105 0.90 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.025 0.0258 0.00947 0.437 0.0025 3 0.105 0.0229 0.0375 0.0514 0.447 0.224 0.0275 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.025 0.3 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-24.025 0.01 0.002 0.0193 0.025 0.03 0.11 0.0208 0.313 0.17 42 0.000661 0.005 0.0926 24.141 0.

02 0.115 0.583 0.728 0.141 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.114 0.227 0.0259 0.141 0.154 0.00082 0.0285 0.0125 0.1 0.257 0. Source: CIBO.0295 0.00717 0.493 0.e.035 1.15 0.512 0.393 0.49 0.27 1.5 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.0112 0. FBC Wastes: Fly Ash EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Selenium Silver Zinc Number of Samples 5 5 9 9 3 9 9 3 5 9 5 6 4 5 7 7 5 Number of Non-Detects 0 0 3 1 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 2 2 0 Number of Sites 2 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 Mean 19.637 0.00125 0.237 0.455 0. 1997 March 15.637 0.583 0.539 0.0025 0.065 0.533 0.713 0.174 0.29 0.625 0. i.0965 0.0442 0.093 0.648 0. 1999 3-24 .138 Maximum 24.365 0.0729 0.7 0.365 0.00005 0.235 0.0005 0.792 Minimum 15.Waste Characterization Table 3-25.792 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.7 0.0965 0.728 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.45 Median 19.6 0.028 0.0025 0.512 0.475 0..573 0.018 0.98 0.1 0.168 0.

5 0.52 0.00025 0.73 0.245 0.235 1.16 0.025 0. Source: CIBO.5 0.025 2.005 0.941 0.0633 4.125 0.005 0.0415 0.01085 1.0301 0.28 11 0.858 0.141 Minimum 0.00116 0.119 0. 1999 3-25 .27 0.163 0.0175 0.16 0.6 0.218 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-26.025 0.025 0.613 0.119 6. FBC Wastes: Bed Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Thallium Vanadium Zinc Number of Samples 11 12 47 48 4 12 44 47 3 12 13 46 13 46 9 37 2 45 45 3 27 14 Number of Non-Detects 4 4 33 23 4 6 35 38 1 3 0 36 0 41 5 26 0 42 40 2 4 2 Number of Sites 3 4 10 10 3 4 9 10 2 3 4 9 4 9 2 4 2 9 9 2 2 5 Mean 1.5 0.328 0.0168 0.0738 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.0526 0.0715 0.025 0.2 0.0025 0.025 0.0025 0.158 0.14 0.015 Maximum 2 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table..00005 0.0888 6.0005 0.0369 0.29 0.25 0.164 0.025 0.0167 2 0.0533 0.0075 1.025 0.51 Median 1.e.0356 0.0356 0.13 0. i.0463 1.125 2.403 0.0025 0.225 0.051 0.0275 0.002 0.025 0. 1997 March 15.0216 0.91 0.05 0.0403 2.145 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged.16 0.03 0.125 0.0005 0.941 0.5 0.36 0.03 1.

008 0.1 0.39 Median 14.528 0.000692 0. i.04 1.748 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.55 0.00242 0.0245 0.28 0.603 0.429 0.6 0.102 0.01 0.0125 0.115 0.55 0.0646 0. 1997 March 15.44 0.02 0.103 0.0765 0.1 0.00498 0.0025 0.433 0.0765 0.109 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.15 0.00375 0.425 0.748 Minimum 13.0005 0.000664 0.28 0.59 0.27 0.16 0.018 0.85 0.00871 0.00125 0.258 0.0223 0.111 Maximum 15.55 0.528 0.00005 0.3 0.385 0.4335 0. FBC Wastes: Bed Ash EP Toxicity Data (mg/l) Analyte Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Selenium Silver Zinc Number of Samples 3 3 8 6 1 1 7 7 3 4 8 3 5 2 3 6 7 5 Number of Non-Detects 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 Number of Sites 2 2 4 4 1 1 4 4 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 4 4 2 Mean 14.61 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-27.503 0.0167 0.109 0.429 0.035 0.00217 0.28 0.355 0.55 0.e. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged. Source: CIBO.02 0.465 0.552 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.385 0.28 0.3 0.053 0. 1999 3-26 .23 0..18 0.

0469 0.2 0.208 0.0253 0.096 0.114 Minimum 0.106 0.0311 0.0025 0.55 0.9 0.0533 0.0065 0. 1997 March 15.0584 0.074 Notes: All measurements identified as below detection limit were assigned a value equal to one-half the detection limit for use in the calculations.00065 0.00125 0.7 0.00413 0.108 0.0398 0.5 0.00845 0.0033 0.0574 0.44 0.0002 0.347 0. and the resulting population of facility averages used to generate the statistics in this table.157 0. FBC Wastes: Combined Ash TCLP Data (mg/l) Analyte Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Zinc Number of Samples 23 21 32 33 23 30 33 8 26 23 30 25 30 22 25 7 33 31 24 Number of Non-Detects 2 15 9 10 6 22 16 4 13 8 22 5 23 8 12 0 16 21 8 Number of Sites 8 8 12 12 9 11 12 4 10 9 12 9 11 9 10 3 12 12 10 Mean 3.00188 0.00563 0. All concentrations are facility-averaged.00005 0.28 0..13 0.01 0.085 0.0378 0.0223 0.145 0.0125 0.e.115 0.4 0.22 3.0689 12. i.0169 0. multiple measurements from a single site are averaged. Source: CIBO.0025 Maximum 9.23 0.102 1.25 0.Waste Characterization Table 3-28.00198 0.76 0.121 0.09 1 0.0181 0.0808 0.0023 0.507 0. 1999 3-27 .175 0.203 1.46 18.27 0.292 0.0667 0.38 Median 2.0367 0.001 0.00208 0.121 10.21 0.0025 1.5 26.365 10.0038 0.5 0.27 0.

EPRI. Interim Report. Draft Report. May (updated December). Calcium-Based Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Disposal Sites. 1981. Information Responding to EPA’s Request Regarding Burning and Co-Treatment/ Co-Disposal of Low Volume Wastes Generated at Fossil Fuel Fired Electric Generating Stations. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: P4 Site.S. July. EPA-600-7-85-028. Final Report. 1997e. 1996a. April. EPA/530-SW-88-002. 1992. Draft Report. 1985. 1997a. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: OK Site. Comanagement of Coal Combustion By-Products and Low-Volume Wastes: A Southeastern Site. Comanagement of Coal Combustion By-Products and Low-Volume Wastes: A Southwestern Site. Evaluation of the Co-Management of High Volume Combustion By-Products with Other Utility Wastes: CL Site. August. Sodium-Based Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Disposal Ponds. TR-100955. TR 108421. Full-Scale Evaluation of Waste Disposal from Coal-fired Electric Generation Plants. CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners). 1994a. TR-105673. June. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Combustion By-Products: AP Site. Prepared for Utility Solid Waste Activities Group and Edison Electric Institute. June. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). August.S. Final Report. 1991. Draft Report. April. Envirosphere. TR-103915. June. EPRI. EPRI. EPRI. EPRI. Little. EPRI. Final Report. 1996b. Draft Report. Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Coal by Electric Utility Power Plants. 1999 4-1 .0 REFERENCES Arthur D. TR-103914. Draft Report. TR 108420. February. April. June. EPRI. 1988. 1997b.Waste Characterization 4. November. Prepared for U. EPRI. EPRI. 1994b. 1997d. EPRI. TR001015. November. EPA (U. EN-7545. Final Report. Comanagement of Coal Combustion By-Products and Low-Volume Wastes: A Midwestern Site. March 15. July. 1997c. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Combustion By-Products: SX Site. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Final Report. Responses to Fossil Fuel Fluidized Bed Combustion By-Products Survey. Evaluation of the Co-Management of High Volume Combustion By-Products with Other Utility Wastes: MO Plant. EPA.

1997k. August. 1987. 1997g. Tetra Tech. Radian. EPRI. Draft Report. Final Report. EPRI. 1983. March. EPRI EA-3236. Prepared for EPRI. August. May. TR 108426. 1999 4-2 . Radian. Oil Combustion By-Products Database. Final Report. Characterization and Management of Mill Rejects at Electric Power Plants. EPRI. 1997i. 1997j. 1998. 1997f. TR 108425. TR 108427. July. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: PA Site. 1997h. Draft Report. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: LS Site. March 15. TR 108422. Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Utility Solid Wastes. Manual for Management of Low-Volume Wastes from Fossil-Fuel-Fired Power Plants. Draft Report. 1997l. September. July. Final Report. EPRI. EPRI. Prepared for EPRI. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: FC Site. EPRI. August. August. PCDDs and PCDFs in Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBS). 1985. Final Report.Waste Characterization EPRI. August. Characterization of Utility Low-Volume Wastes. August. EPRI. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: CY Site. Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: HA Site.