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134

**Analysis of Spatial Effects of Two-row Pile Structure of Foundation Pit Based on Elastic Resistance Method
**

YUAN Mana; DING Jihuib; ZHANG Qinc

College of Civil Engineering Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, P.R.China, 071002 a eyrommee@126.com; bdingjihui@126.com; cxaviervon@gmail.com Received **** 2011

Abstract

The two-row-pile retaining and protecting structure of deep foundation pit is a complex three dimension spatial problem, while the analysis and calculation in traditional design was based on two-dimensional plane strain theory; the spatial and time effects are not reflected. The concept of earth pressure utilization factor is proposed and calculation method is established based on elastic resistance method. Assumed that horizontal displacement of top beam has an approximate function with simple supported beam subjected uniform load, the utilization factor of earth pressure and deformation of two-row-pile bracing structure are calculated. Practical examples of two-row-pile bracing projects shows that calculation method of utilization factor of earth pressure in considering spatial effect proposed is feasible. Keywords: Spatial effect, Deep foundation pit, Utilization factor of earth pressure, Two-row pile structure

1. Introduction

With the development of foundation pit engineering, the double-row pile bracing structures are widely applied. Deep foundation pit is a complex three dimension spatial problem. Through monitoring for the soft soil pit of some high-rise building, Fook-Hou Lee thought stiffness effect of pit corner may greatly decrease the deformation of the bracing structure and settlement of soil layer. Based on soil plasticity upper bound theory and limit equilibrium analysis theory, Yang Xue-qiang discussed excavation ends shielding effect from soil pressure acted on supporting structure, and gave out soil pressure calculating formula combined with spatial effect. Considering spatial mutual interaction and deformations among ring beam, middle beams, row of piles, braces and foundation soil in the deep excavation structure, Lai Guan-zhou set up the 3-D finite element analysis model based on the mutual deformation theory; and settled specific method to calculate the equivalent foundation stiffness and earth pressure. Han Sen used three methods to calculate the coefficient and intensity of earth pressure, which include the method considering angle of internal friction can be suit a for over consolidated soil, normally consolidated soil and under consolidated soil. Ding Ji-hui and Zhang Qin gave calculation method of soil pressure utilization factor on cantilever supporting structure of deep Excavation and the conventional design method considered the spatial effect of deep foundation excava-

tion. Based on elastic resistance method, the concept and computation method of the soil pressure utilization factor for supporting structure of deep foundation are introduced, and the spatial distribution of the deformation

are given.

**2. Earth Pressure Utilization Factor Computation
**

2.1. Earth Pressure As shown in Fig. 1, active earth pressure on the two-row pile supporting structure is computed as soil volume ratio method. According to the pile arrangement the earth pressure is computed as follow. plum arrangement pile： paf = (1 + α )σ a , p ab = (1 − α )σ a (1)

rectangle arrangement pile： paf = ασ a , pab = σ a − ∆σ a

= (1 − α )σ a

(2) (3)

α = 2 L / L0 − ( L / L0 )

2

**σ a = (q + γz ) K a − 2c K a (4) where, α is the proportion coefficient, σ a is Rankine’s
**

active earth pressure, acted on the

paf is the active earth pressure

front-row-pile,

**pab is the active
**

IJENS

117205-6464 IJCEE-IJENS © October 2011 IJENS

Where m is the ratio as technical Specification to choose value. Deformation Computation of Structure Supporting y = a0 f 0 ( z) + a1 f1 ( z) + a2 f 2 ( z ) + a3 f 3 ( z) + a4 f 4 ( z ) (9) 4 Where. 2 M method computation diagram (a) double-row pile M0 y h Q0 A o y z E M0 Q0 D P ab As shown in Fig. L0 L y h 135 c and ϕ are Using the M method.International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 05 earth pressure acted on the back-row-pile. (7) Where. the supporting structure of the foundation pit is divided into two parts to seek solution. M0 Q0 B hd Pa A P af B D P ab E /2 45-¦ Õ SLIP-SURFACE hd P fh P bho h0 C C z F z Fig. the stiffness coefficient of the soil body is k z = mz . Using to Power Series to solve the equation (7). (8) substituting into Eon. and the another part under the slide plane of the foundation pit is taken as beam with different supporting to solve using elastic resistance method (that is the M method). the soil strength indexes. The part of the supporting structure under the slide plane of the foundation pit is satisfied the differential equation h0 P af B d4y + mb0 zy − pa b0 = 0 dz 4 Where. b0 is the calculation width of the pile. m is the ratio as technical Specification to choose value[4].2. The part of the supporting structure upper the slide plane of the foundation pit is taken as cantilever beam to solve. 3 E5 (k ) 1 (αz ) 5 k +1 k =1 (5k + 1)! α ∞ E 2 (k ) 1 f 2 ( z ) = z 2 + (−1) k ∑ 5 (αz ) 5 k + 2 2 α ( 5 k 2 )! + k =1 f1 ( z ) = z + (−1) k ∑ ∞ f 3 ( z ) = z 3 + (−1) k ∑ 1 E5 (k ) 1 (αz ) 5 k + 3 3 + ( 5 k 3 )! α k =1 ∞ 117205-6464 IJCEE-IJENS © October 2011 IJENS IJENS . the solution form is y = a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⋅ = ∑ an z n n=0 ∞ (8) Eqn. The real active earth pressure is K 'a = ξ a K a (5) Where. f 0 ( z ) = 1 + (−1) k ∑ E5 (k ) (αz ) 5k k =1 (5k )! ∞ As shown in Fig.1.2. pa = ( q + γH ) K 'a −2c K 'a EI 5 (6) hd P fh P bho Let C z α= mb0 . y is the lateral displacement of the pile. 1 earth pressure computation diagram Due to the spatial effect of foundation excavation. ξ a is active earth pressure utilization factor. (7) gives 2. active earth pressure is given partly scope to. the equation (6) is simplified EI F EI d4y + α 5 zy − [(q + γH ) K 'a −2c K 'a ]b0 = 0 4 dx (b) front-row-pile (c) back-row-pile Fig.

ϕ 3 = 29. using condition The unknown constant a0 and a1 are decided by boundary conditions of the pile bottom. concrete C30.3. pile: concrete is C25. The building foundation pit in Handan Hebei，pit depth is 8. as shown in Fig. Fixed hinge： EI ( y ) z = hd = 0 ， EI ( y ' ' ) z = h = 0 (13) Fixed end： EI ( y ) z = hd = 0 ， EI ( y ' ) z = h = 0 (14) d d According to the real engineering. The boundary conditions of the excavation surface of the foundation pit are EI ( y ' ' ) z = 0 = M 0 .2 N/m3. h4 =4. The horizontal displacement and angle of rotation of the pile top of front-row-pile are equal to those of back-row-pile.6N/m3.6°. ϕ 6 =34°. as the above method. Earth Pressure Computation Utilization Factor Knowing the measured (allowed) displacement of the top of the retaining structure w0 . 2. silt clay: γ 2 =19. The pile radius is 600mm. 1 (b) and (c).5kPa.9 N/m3. 117205-6464 IJCEE-IJENS © October 2011 IJENS . c5 =55kPa.8m. ϕ1 =10° h1 =0. fixed hinge and fixed end according to the depth buried under the soil.1m； fine sand: γ 6 =18.1kPa. EI ( y ' ' ' ) z = 0 = H 0 (10) Eqn. 2. the equation of utilization factor of earth pressure and than solved this equation. the axial force and bending moment the pile top of front-row-pile and back-row-pile are obtained. ϕ 5 = 14. They are Free end： EI ( y ' ' ) z = hd = 0 ， EI ( y ' ' ' ) z = hd = 0 (12) w z =0 = w0 .3m.. The angle of rotation: dy ϕ= dz = a0 f '0 ( z ) + a1 f '1 ( z ) + a2 f ' 2 ( z ) + a3 f '3 ( z ) + a4 f ' 4 ( z ) (15) The bending moment: M = EI d2y dz 2 = EI [a0 f ' '0 ( z ) + a1 f ' '1 ( z ) + a2 f ' '2 ( z ) + a3 f ' '3 ( z ) + a4 f ' '4 ( z )] Knowing the measured(allowed) horizontal displacement curve of the top of the retaining structure.2N/m3. sand clay: γ 3 =19. (9) gives a3 = H 0 / 6 EI ， a2 = M 0 / 2 EI (11) (q + γh) K 'a −2c K 'a 24EI Assuming that top beam applies axial force and bending moment to the pile top of front-row-pile and back-row-pile. The elastic modulus of the weighted mean value of soil layers is 8296.22 IJENS (16) The shear force: V = EI d y dz 3 = EI [a0 f ' ' '0 ( z ) + a1 f ' ' '1 ( z ) + a2 f ' ' '2 ( z ) + a3 f ' ' '3 ( z ) + a4 f ' ' '4 ( z )] 3 (17) Passive earth pressure： p = mbzy = mbz[a0 f 0 ( z ) + a1 f1 ( z ) + a2 f 2 ( z ) + a3 f 3 ( z ) + a4 f 4 ( z )] (18) The deformation and internal force upper the slide plane of the foundation is made as cantilever beam under distribute loads. ξa can be obtained. pile length is 16. the spatial distribution of earth pressure utilization factor can be solved. A is unknown constant which is decided as the measured (allowed) displacement of the middle beam. ϕ 4 = 8. the boundary condition of the pile bottom is selected.3. top beam: width×thick =200cm×62cm. h3 = 3. Engineering example As shown in Fig. The pile length of the back-row-pile upper slide plane h0 =4.6°.3N/m3， c3 = 17.2m； clay: γ 5 =19. the spatial distribution of earth pressure utilization factor can be obtained.5kPa. reinforcing bar is 12φ25.6°.2. the supporting form is double-row piles.6m. (9) and part 2.2m. The horizontal approximate displacement of the top beam has (19) Where. (10 ) substituting into Eqn. c1 =10kPa. Using the superposition method the displacement curve of the top of supporting structure can be obtained. ξa can be obtained.3kPa. c 2 = 20.3. h2 = 4. h6 =1. y = Ax(l 3 − 2lx 2 + x 3 ) 3.5kPa. According eqn.3) is decided by boundary conditions. the spatial distribution of utilization factor of earth pressure is solved through assuming the simple supported top beam subjected horizontal uniform loads. partly 10.4°. and the deformation and internal force of the supporting structure under the slide plane of the foundation are solved as follow.5m. c 4 =20. ϕ 2 = 23.International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 05 136 f 4 ( z ) = z 4 + (−1) k ∑ 0 E5 (k ) 1 (αz ) 5 k + 4 4 k =1 (5k + 4)! α ∞ a4 = The unknown constant ai (i = 0. The soil layers along pile length are: mixed fill soil: γ 1 =17.65m. silt clay: γ 4 =18. arrangement of piles and testing point are shown Fig. h5 =2.1. The boundary condition of the pile bottom is simplified free end. If the measured (allowed) horizontal displacement curve of the top of the supporting structure are not haven.6m.2N/m3. c 6 = 25.

5mm than measuring results. -20 0. As shown in Fig. There is a world of difference 117205-6464 IJCEE-IJENS © October 2011 IJENS z/m Front-row-pile -.00 0 5 10 15 20 x /m 0. 7. Computation displacement of the top of the front and back-row pile is greater 8. and using this result the displacement of the middle part is computated shown in Fig. According to the measuring displacement of the middle part in the south of foundation pit.06 Fig.measuring Front-row-pile -.M method Front-row-pile -. 4， the computation results are correspond to measuring law.M method Back-row-pile -. m = 4643 kN/m4. which two-row pile structure of foundation pit is simplified cantilever wall and the limited equilibrium method is adopted.M method Back-row-pile -. 3 -5 0 ξ a of north side Pit 12 14 16 Pile arrangement of Foundation Pit 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 y / mm y / mm 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 18 z/m Fig. the volume proportion coefficient α = 0.04 y /m Measuring M method 0.5 1. 7. the speed of deformation is faster than measuring results of the front-row-pile and The spatial distribution of the active earth pressure utilization factor ξ a of north side Pit is shown in Fig. and the bottom of the pit is less than range 0-5mm.02 0. According to the spatial distribution of the active earth pressure utilization factor. are close to the paper’s results.586.measuring 14 16 IJENS . the utilization factor of active earth pressure is 0. the two-row pile structure design of foundation pit is optimized.m4. the active earth pressure utilization factors ξ a given by reference[1]. 137 back-row-pile.method [1] Fig.0 Disp. The computation and measuring displacement are near under of the foundation pit surface. 4 Middle Part Displacement of North Side Pit -20 -15 -10 -5 0. 6 The spatial distribution of the active earth pressure utilization factor Fig.measuring Back-row-pile -. of top beam Earth pressure case 1. but near the corner two results is very near.0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 x/m 0. 5 Top Deformation of north side Pit As shown in Fig. and the computation displacement of the top structure is larger 1 mm. The bottom boundary condition of front-row-pile and back-row-pile are simplified fixed end.measuring Back-row-pile -. 6. 7 Middle Part Displacement of South Side Pit Fig. 5， the computation deformations of the simple supported top beam along north side of foundation pit is larger than measuring deformation.6135 ， equivalent stiffness EI =159148kN.International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 05 m. Computation results are shown in Fig.M method Front-row-pile -.4~ Fig.5 ξα Limited equilibrium method double-row pile _ M.

therefore. China). 19(3): 63-66. Chinese Jounal of Geotechnical Engineering. Study on the Computation Methods for Coefficient of Earth Pressure in Foundation Pit Bracing [J]. there is a little difference between the computation and measuring displacement upper of the foundation excavation surface. (in Chinese) Nie Qing-ke. Assumed the horizontal displacement of the top beam has the same function form with the simple supported beam subjected to the uniform load. Design Theory and Application on Two-row pile suporting strcture of deep Foundation Excavation[M]. International Workshop on Architecture.3. Soil Engineering and Foundation. the concept and computation method of the soil pressure utilization factor for supporting structure of two-row-pile foundation pit are introduced. Research about spatial effect of deep pit supporting[J]. Liang Jin-guo. References [1] Ding Ji-hui. Beijing: China Architecture Inndustry Press. Calculation Method of Soil Pressure Utilization Factor on Cantilever Supporting Structure of Deep Excavation. and the spatial distribution of the deformation are given. 2005. Liu Zu-de. 2011. 1998.20(2):74-78. (in Chinese) Lai Guan-zhou. 1999. 2007.International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 05 between the computation and measuring displacement upper of the foundation excavation surface. 138 5. Effect of Corners in Structted Excavations: Field Monitoring and Case Histories [J]. Zhang Qin. Spatial mutual deformation analysis method for row of piles of deep excavation [J]. (in Chinese) JGJ 120-99 Technical Specification for Retaining and Protection of Building Foundation Excavations. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 117205-6464 IJCEE-IJENS © October 2011 IJENS IJENS . Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. utilization factor of active earth pressure. (in Chinese) 4. ACEE(Wuhan. 1998. 2008.4. Zheng Yi. Beijing: China Architecture Inndustry Press. Conclusion Based on elastic resistance method of the two-dimensional plane strain problem. retaining structure deformation and spatial distribution of inner force on double-row-pile retaining and protecting structure are calculated. Rock and Soil Mechanics. Civil and Environmental Engineering.28(8): 1749-1752.Kwet-YewYong ， Kevin C. Quan ， etc. Han Sen. (in Chinese) Yang Xue-qiang. Fang Ying-guang and Shi Huang-yan. N. The practical examples of double-row-pile supporting projects shows that the displacement function of the simple supported top beam is nearer to the measuring results. (in Chinese) Fook-Hou Lee. 339-349.

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