Example 1 An adsorption study is set up in laboratory by adding a known amount of activated carbon to six flasks which contain 200

mL of an industrial waste. An additional flask containing 200 mL of waste but no carbon is run as a blank. Plot the Langmuir isotherm and determine the values of the constants.
Flask Mass of C No (mg) Volume in Flask (mL) Final COD (mg C /L)

1
2 3 4 5 6 7

804
668 512 393 313 238 0

200
200 200 200 200 200 200

4.7
7.0 9.31 16.6 32.5 62.8 250

Solution
Flask 1
250-4.7   x= mg/L.(200 mL) 1000 mL/L

Amount of solute  49.06 mg/L adsorbed
Flask No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass of Adsorbate x/m (mg) (mg/mg) 49.06 48.6 48.1 46.7 43.5 37.4 0 0.061 0.073 0.094 0.118 0.139 0.157 0

x 49.06 mg = =0.061mg/mg m 804 mg

0,18 0,16 0,14

0,12
0,10 qe 0,08 0,06 0,04

0,02
0,00 0 20 40 60 80

Ce

K.Ce 0 1 1 1 1  0   0 qe Q K  Q Ce Determine the constants from a plot of 1/qe versus 1/Ce .Ce qe = 1+K.Solution Langmuir Isotherm Q .

19 6.70 10.21 0.02 0.37 0 .03 0.64 8.02 0 1/qe 16.39 13.06 0.Flask No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1/Ce 0.14 0.47 7.

05 0.27x + 5.99 6 4 2 0 0.15 0.10 1/Ce 0.25 .00 0.50 R² = 0.20 0.Graphical Solution Using Excel 18 16 14 12 10 1/qe 8 y = 52.

05 0.25 .20 0.10 1/Ce 0.00 0.18 16 14 12 10 1/qe 8 6 4 2 0 0.15 0.

21.0.7.55 0.189  0.189  Ce .55 0 KQ Q0= 0.Graphical Solution Without Computer 1 Read value of intercept = =5.19  50.39 .189 5.3 1 = 50.198 1 1 1   The Langmuir Equation = qe 0.198  0.3 K Calculate slope = 16.03 K= 1 =0.

A volume of 500 mL is placed in each flask.5 5. and the waste has an initial COD of 100 mg/L.5 33 100 .0 12. Flask Mass of C No (mg) 1 2 3 4 965 740 548 398 Volume in Flask (mL) Final COD (mg C /L) 3.5 500 500 500 500 5 6 7 265 168 0 500 500 500 20.2 8.Example 2 The following laboratory data were collected in a batch adsorption study. Plot the data according to Freundlich Isotherm and determine the values for the constants n and KF.

064 0.25 mg   0.25 47.11 x 48.75 x/m (mg/mg) 0.05 mg / mg m 965 mg 5 6 7 39.5 0 0.5   x= mg/L  500 mL  1000 mL/L Amount of = 48.40 46.05 0.15 0.25 mg solute adsorbed Flask No 1 2 3 4 Mass of Adsorbate (mg) 48.Solution Flask 1 100-3.0 43.75 33.084 0.20 0 .

0.20 0.25 0.05 0.15 qe 0.10 0.00 0 10 20 Ce 30 40 .

Solution Freundlich Isotherm q e  K FCe 1 n 1 log q e  log K F  log C n Determine the constants from a plot of plot of Log qe versus Log Ce. .

72 0.6 -0.1.8 log Ce 0.19 -1.30 -1.0 -1.4 -0.2 -0.31 1.6207x .52 log qe -1.70 y = 0.6 -1.2 -1.96 -0.0 -0.5 Log Ce 1.10 1.6381 R² = 1 0.4 -1.82 -0.5 .0.90 1.8 Log qe -1.0 1.08 -0.0 0.54 0.

log 0.61 Intercept = Log KF = -1.064 .618 n log 12.64 KF = 0.log 5.023 q e  K FCe 1 n .11   0.5 .Calculate slope = 1 log 0.20 1 n Slope = 0.62 = n = 1.

Ce TOC in solution.3 0.8 4. Determine the best values of the constants for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms.9 20.029 7.011 0. mg/L qe TOC on Carbon.4 11.062 0.2 0.7 15. mg/mg C 1.097 .046 0. The equilibrium data in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) are given below.085 0.Example 3 Effluent water from a biological process is contacted with activated carbon and allowed to come to equilibrium.

0.10 0.00 qe 0 5 10 Ce 15 20 25 .04 0.08 0.06 0.02 0.12 0.

Ce o Ce Ce 1 = + o o q e b.Solution Langmuir Isotherm Q .b.Q Q Determine the constants from a plot of plot of Ce/qe versus Ce. .Ce qe = 1+b.

68x + 147.66 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 Ce .08 R² = 0.200 150 Ce/qe 100 y = 2.

Ce o .018 L / mg TOC Q .Slope = Intercept = mg TOC / mg C b = 0.Ce qe = 1+b.b.

.Solution Freundlich Isotherm q e  K FCe 1 n 1 log q e  log K F  log C n Determine the constants from a plot of plot of Log qe versus Log Ce.

00 1.0 -2.0 Log qe -1.00 0.9141x .2.9891 -1.0 -0.1568 R² = 0.0.50 1.5 y = 0.5 0.50 Log Ce .5 -2.

91 = 1/n n = 1.1 Intercept = Log KF = -2.16 KF = 6.Slope = 0.92 x 10-3 q e  K FCe 1 n .

055 0.088 0.3 0. mg P / L 0. A municipality is considering the use of these materials for the removal of P from the town’s wastewater prior to discharge into a lake.182 0.Example 4 Iron – coated clays (“red clays”) can adsorb phosphorus.50 2.0 1.5 1. qe P adsorbed. mg P / g clay Ce Equilibrium P in solution.2 0.7 0.78 . The following adsorption data are obtained in the laboratory using the clay and secondary effluent from the town’s treatment facility.

b) The P concentration in the secondary effluent is 8 mg P/L and the flow is 3 MGD. State any simplifying assumptions that you make.Example 4 cont’d a) Determine the maximum P adsorption capacity of this clay (mg P / g clay). (MGD : million galloon/day) . Make a preliminary estimate of the clay required (tons/month) to remove 99% of P in a batch reactor.

8 1.6 0.5 Ce 2 2.4 0.8 0.0 0 0.5 1 1.5 3 .2 0.4 1.1.0 qe 0.2 1.6 1.

4 -0.50 1.2 0.50 -1.2 -0.00 -0.0595 R² = 0.6 -0.50 0.00 Log Ce 0.9597 Log qe -0.546x + 0.0 y = 0.8 -1.0.00 .4 0.

8 0.4 1.364 Ce/qe 1.0 0 0.4 0.5 Ce 2 2.6 0.9997 1.5 1.Ce/qe 0.2 0.0 0.6 y = 0.293 0.635 0.2557 R² = 0.275 0.5 3 .5 1 1.2 1.4963x + 0.8 1.

496 Q Qo  2.906 o 3.94 L / mg P 2.256 Intercept of (Ce/qe) versus Ce curve = o b.Q =3.02 mg P / g clay 1 =0.906 b= =1.Q b.Solution a) 1 Slope of (Ce/qe) versus Ce curve = o  0.02 .

Ce qe = 1+b.94  Ce qe = 1+1. What is Ce to be used in the above equation? .02  1.Langmuir Isotherm Q .b.Ce 0 2.94  Ce b) Clay required (tons/month) to remove 99% of P in a batch reactor.

78x106 L =89.08mg/L  x3MGDx 1MG Total P removed in 1 month = 89.08  0.69x109 mg / month Total clay required (tons/month) = 2.02  x 1. Therefore.94  x  0.314  qe = = = 0.69x109 mg P/month 1 ton x 6 =9900 tons/month 0.272 1+ 1.8x106 mg/d 8mg/L-0.155 Total P removed in 1 day = mg P / mg clay 3.08  1.94  x  0.08 mg/L 2.b) 99% P removal is req’d.8x106 mg/d  30d= 2. Ce=0.272mg P/gclay 10 g .

We also assumed that temperature and pH are the same in the real system as they are in the laboratory study. . and all adsorption sites are equally probable. in the real system there are going to be several different kinds of pollutants in the wastewater that will compete for adsorption site.Assumptions made : We assumed that this is a monolayer coverage equilibrium model. However.