Abstract: In this experiment the following details are to be determined using three specimens given which are aluminium

rod, steel rod and copper rod. To determine the relationship between torque, T and angle of twist, θ the following formula is used: θ=TL/GJ θG/L = T/J = /r Where, L = length of rod G = modulus of rigidity of material J = polar inertia of mass r = radius of rod = shear stress T = torque applied θ = angle of twist Since different materials have their own different modulus of rigidity and through this experiment we can easily obtain the respective information in the formula above and finally get the modulus of rigidity of the materials. The whole experiment is set up as seen in Figure 1. Before starting the experiment the diameter and length of each rod must be measured. Thereafter, we can obtain the angle of twist and the force by using the apparatus given like torsional machine with scale of the angle twist on its board and spring balance.

Figure 1

the wire has then undergone plastic deformation--its elastic limit was exceeded). c. After every force increment. carried out the experiment to obtain the data required for analysis.If the applied torque T is plotted against the twist per unit length of the bar. 2. 6. This being the case on might question the value of torsion testing as against tension on compression testing. In this experiment. Torque versus angle of twist curves of the materials given. and measure their critical dimensions such as the diameter of the rods by using the given vernier caliper. As the torque is increased beyond this stage some of the material in plastic and some elastic and thus interpretation of the torque versus twist per unit length graph in terms of material properties would be complex. Description of each material torsional behavior. 5. Smallest increment of force can avoid the applied force exceeding the modulus of rigidity of each specimen. then the Modulus of rigidity can be derived from the gradient of the graph. This experiment mainly is to test the deformation of different kind of materials when they are exerted a twisting force which is within the elastic limit of the materials. we were supposed to complete the following deliverables on the three specimens given: a. remove the dynamometer to relieve the disc and check if the angle returns to its at rest position. if present in the experiment. and explanation of your observation. . 4. METHODOLOGY: 1. in which all the material within the gauge length may be assumed to be subjected to uniform stress and strain. Once we were familiar with the operation of the pull tester and the specimen. 3. It was supposed to give us readings on the angle of twist and the force applied during the torsion test. Intact the only easily derived property is a relative indication of ductility of materials by the deformation which they can sustain before fracture. it may be assumed that the shear stress at the outer radius of the bar is just causing plastic deformation at the outer surface.Objective: To investigate the deformation of wire subjected to static torsion Introduction: Torsion is known as the stress or deformation caused when one end of an object is twisted and the other end is fixed or twisted in the opposite direction. Use of the thus permits an estimate of the shear yield stress of the material. b. along with identifications of the critical regions on the plots. When this graph starts to depart from a straight line. Understood how the torsion tester operates. d. Took a close look at the specimens. (If the disc does not return to its at rest position after force removal. The recorded force can be used to compute the torque applied on the specimens by using formula – T = Fr. Quantification of torsional stiffness and deduction of Modulus of Rigidity. Description of plasticity. Identify what materials they are made of.

2 0.1150 m Force ( N ) 0. Results: Brass Rod Length = 0.0575 0. Ensure that the collected data was as accurate as provided by the tester.1396 Torque ( N.0698 0.6 ( degrees ) 7 8 ( radians ) 0.0345 0.4 0.m ) 0.0460 0.0690 Torque ( Nm ) vs Angle of twist ( Rad) Graph of Brass Rod .1222 0.3 0.4750 m Diameter = 0.7.0032 m Radius of pulley = 0. Tolerances and accuracy of the data must be noted down also to help in doing the analysis.0230 0.5 0.0873 0.1047 0.

1222 Torque ( N.1725 0.Aluminium Rod Length = 0.2 1.m ) 0.0524 0.4750 m Diameter = 0.0873 0.1150 m Force ( N ) 0.1380 0.8 2.1035 0.2070 0.1 ( degrees ) 3 4 5 6 7 ( radians ) 0.9 1.0698 0.2415 Torque ( Nm ) vs Angle of twist ( Rad) Graph of Aluminiun Rod .1047 0.0045 m Radius of pulley = 0.5 1.

0575 0.0873 Torque ( N.0175 0.0698 0.1150 0.5 2.0 2.5 ( degrees ) 1 2 3 4 5 ( radians ) 0.1150 m Force ( N ) 0.2875 Torque ( Nm ) vs Angle of twist ( Rad) Graph of Steel Rod .5 1.0 1.0349 0.0524 0.0040 m Radius of pulley = 0.2300 0.1725 0.4750 m Diameter = 0.m ) 0.Steel Rod Length = 0.

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. a problem that could possibly occur was parallax error.A not fully tightened drill chuck may interrupt the sensitivity and inaccuracy of our readings. 4. Hence it is just assumed to be straight. Secondly.Analysis: From the formula: G = Modulus of Rigidity of material . we had a difficulty in setting the scale angle of pulley with the initial of 3.4960 23. Materials Experimental Modulus of Rigidity ( GPa ) 30. = length of rod . Τ = torque . 2. c (gradient of the graph) .Futhermore.The straightness of the rod could not be determined accurately at the start of the experiment as viewing of only with naked eye.8500 20.3846 Problems Encountered during the experiment: 1.0989 Brass Aluminium Steel Theoretical Modulus of Rigidity ( GPa ) 45 27 78 Error (%) 32.2608 62.2311 13. We may have probably made mistakes while reading the scales since this type of human-error will be encountered in every experiment. 𝜋𝑟 4 2 𝑇 𝜙 .

Conclusion: Analysing this experiment gives a clear picture that each material used displays different torsional behavior and plastic deformation referring to modulus of rigidity. This is because aluminum is softest and steel is the hardest among the materials. the aluminum has the smallest value of G and steel has the largest. However it is confirm that a material with greater torsional stiffness has a greater resistance to plastic deformation under torsional conditions .Discussion: The Modulus of rigidity can be well calculated by using formula. From the result obtained. the torque must applied perpendicularly to the disc to get more accurate results. We must slowly apply the force on those specimens as we can obtain a considerably accurate result which is because an over-limit force may easily lead to the breaking of the materials or exceeding the elastic limit of those respective materials. Moreover.