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Assignment For 2nd year MBA Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards

of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012


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Assignment On FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT 1 Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Elaborate the New Product Development? Ans: Meaning: Product means any marketable things which is produce by labour or any through any access. Development is the art of making and achieving continuous progress. Product development is a specialized activity. It is done by group of p eople to improve the existing product or to introduce a new product in the market. It is also done to improve the default in the product. It is the overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product This particular development: diagram can give the real picture of product

Product development takes place, works or functions as under: 1. Creation of an entirely new product. 2. Innovation of a new or an existing product to deliver better and enhanced services to end-users. 3. Continuous improvement of a new product or enhancing an existing product by giving preference to satisfy the demand of end-users. 4. Enhancing the utility of a new product or upgrading features of an existing product.

Merits of Product development: A good product development helps to: Create new business opportunities and bring growth. Boost productivity and profitability of the entrepreneurs. Enhance the satisfaction levels of the consumers. Demerits: It involve greater risk One default in product can cause greater loss Its long process Steps in product Development: There are 8 steps in Product Development they are:











Step 1: Generating It all about generating the new idea for developing new product. Analyzing the SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats), product capacity and finance of the company. Step 2: Screening the Idea: Screening the idea, means analyzing of all aspects like competitors, market, demand & supply, consumers favorable.

Step 3: Testing the Concept Aside from patent research, design due diligence, and other legalities involved with new product development; knowing where the marketing messages will work best is often the biggest part of testing the concept. Does the consumer understand, need, or want the product or service? Step 4: Business Analytics During this stage the New Product Development process, build a system of metrics to monitor progress. Include input metrics, such as average time in each stage, as well as output metrics that measure the value of launched products. Step 5: Beta / Marketability Tests This stage form the test panels after the product or products have been tested and provide with valuable information allowing last minute improvements and tweaks. WordPress is becoming synonymous with beta testing, and its effective; Thousands of programmers contribute code, millions test it, and finally even more download the completed end-product. Step 6: Technicalities + Product Development Provided the technical aspects can be perfected without alterations to post-beta products. Different techniques are used at this stage to produce the product. The production department will make plans to produce the product.

Step7: Commercialize At this stage, the new product developments have gone mainstream, consumers are purchasing the good or service, and technical support is consistently monitoring progress. Keep distribution pipelines with products as an integral part of the process. As one prefers not to give physical (or perpetual) shelf space to competition.

Step 8: Post Launch Review and Perfect Pricing Review the NPD process efficiency and look for continues improvements. Most new products are introduced with introductory pricing, in which final prices are nailed down after consumers have gotten in. In this final stage, the overall value relevant to COGS (cost of goods sold), making sure internal costs arent overshadowing new product profits are measured.


s (Indian Railway Catering) Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation have launched e-wallet, a userfriendly scheme aimed at making purchase of e-tickets easier. The e-wallet is a rolling deposit scheme wherein the customers will have an account with the IRCTC and deposit money to be used in future for booking e-tickets from its website, said a senior IRCTC official involved with the project.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that product development is a continuous process which plays a very crucial role in any organizational development and profit ratio. A single default can effect the whole product cycle.

Q) Discuss the performance appraisal of employees in an organization which you are familiar with? Ans: Meaning: A performance appraisal is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual employees job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre established criteria and organizational objectives. Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up individuals job. Performance appraisal are conducted mostly annually but in some organization its carried out quarterly, halfyearly. PA helps the subordinate answer two key questions; first, "What are your expectations of me?" second, "How am I doing to meet your expectations?"

Features of Performance appraisal Appraisal is a systematic process involving 3 steps: 1. Stetting work standard 2. Assessing actual performance 3. Offering feedback to the employees,.

The 360 degree appraisal is used in every organization it judge the employees from whole aspects.

Like their skills, relationship with top management, peers, subordinate, self assessment, and also through customer satisfaction point of view.

The employees performance appraisal in an organization depends on different parameters and it varies from organization to organization they are: It can be in the term of Compensation Performance improvement Promotions Termination Test validation Communication Goal setting

I would like to discuss the employees PA of Zodiac Hr Consultant. Zodiac Hr consultant is a private limited company its in market from last 7 years and very well going in market. This company basically deals into recruitment and selection process into diversified sector. Performance Appraisal of the employees in this company is trace on quarterly basis on terms of:

Target Achievement: Employees are given quarter target Communication: They are judge on communication Client Co ordination: How effectively they co ordinate the client. Referencing: candidates Convincing: How effectively they convince. Sourcing of candidate: requirement. Punctuality: Time management, discipline, holidays Client & customer relation Sourcing of candidate from portal as per client How many candidate they place from referencing from

All these parameter is been trace on daily basis by Management & team leader. In a month they have 2 casual meeting where management & staff come together and share their view points. Every quarter of PA employees are individual called by management where they discuss about performance level which they both personally discuss through system i.e. CBIZ Software. This software show what employees target achievement, referencing, CV sourcing, quick closing etc. PA is appraised through: Incentives Rewards

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that Performance Appraisal plays a very important role in organizational development. It helps the individual to analysis their performance, skills, and achieves a reward not only individual but it helps to increase the productivity of organization.

Assignment on FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT 2 Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree of Master Of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Explain the profitability ratios with suitable illustration? Ans: Definition A profitability ratio is a measure of profitability, which is a way to measure a company's performance. Profitability is simply the capacity to make a profit, and a profit is what is left over from income earned after you have deducted all costs and expenses related to earning the income. Types Of Profitability Ratios Common profitability ratios used in analyzing a company's performance they are: 1. Gross Margin Gross margin tells us about the profitability of goods and services. It tells how much it costs to produce the product. It is calculated by dividing the gross profit (GP) by net sales (NS) and multiplying the quotient by 100: Gross Margin = Gross Profit/Net Sales x 100 or GM = GP/NS x 100 Example: Imagine that you run a company that sold 50,000,000 in running shoes last year and had a gross profit of 7,000,000. What was your company's gross margin for the year? GM = GP/NS x 100 GM = 7,000,000/50,000,000 x 100 GM = .14 x 100 GM = 14% For every investment in shoe sales, you earned 14 cents in profit, but spent 86 cents to make it.

2. Operating Margin Operating margin takes into account the costs of producing the product or services that are unrelated to the direct production of the product or services, such as overhead and administrative expenses. It is calculated by dividing operating profit (OP) by net sales (NS) and multiplying the quotient by 100: Operating Margin = Operating Profit/Net Sales x 100 or OM = OP/NS x 100

Example: Let's say you make and sell computers. Last year you generated net sales of 12,000,000 and your operating income was 100,000,000. What was your operating margin? OM = OI/NS x 100 OM = 12,000,000/100,000,000 x100 OM = 0.12 x 100 OM = 12%

3. Return on Assets This measures how effectively the company produces income from its assets. It is calculate by dividing net income (NI) for the current year by the value of all the company's assets (A) and multiplying the quotient by 100: Return on Assets = Net Income/Assets x 100 or ROA = NI/A x 100 Example: Imagine that you are the president of a large company that manufactures steel. Last year you company had net income of 25,000,000, and the total value of its assets such as plant, equipment, and machinery totaled 135,000,000. What was your return on assets last year? ROA = 25,000,000/135,000,000 x 100 ROA = 0.185 x 100 ROA = 18.5% This means that you generate 18.5 cents of income for every investment your company holds in assets.

4. Return on Equity Return on equity measures how much a company makes for each dollar that investors put into it. It is calculated by taking the net income earned (NI) by the amount of money invested by shareholders (SI) and multiplying the quotient by 100: Return on Equity = Net Income/Shareholder Investment x 100 or ROE = NI/SI x 100 Example: Imagine that your social media company just went public last year resulting in a total investment of 100,000,000. Your company's net income for the year the year was 10,000,000. What is the return on equity?

ROE = NI/SI x100 ROE = 10,000,000/100,000,000 x 100 ROE = 0.10 x 100 ROE = 10% Your company is generating a dime in profit for every invested.

5. Return on Sales This ratio tells the percentage of income generated from sales is available to retain as earnings for future investment or for dividends to be distributed to your shareholder. Calculated by dividing the net income (NI) by sales (S) and multiplying the quotient by 100: Return on Sales = Net Income/Sales x 100 or ROS = NI/S x 100 Example: You run a publicly traded retail chain store. Last year, total sales equaled 250,000,000 and your net income was 20,000,000. Let's calculate the return on sales. ROS = NI/S x 100 ROS = 20,000,000/250,000,000 x 100 ROS = 0.08 x 100 ROS = 8% Out of every investment in sales you generate, you have 8 cents to either retain in the company or distribute to your shareholders as dividends.

6. Return on Investment This is a metric that is important to stock investors as it measures the earnings produced by the company for each money invested in the company. The return on investment by diving the net profit (NP) generated for the fiscal year by the total amount invested (TI) in the company during the same time period and multiplying the quotient by 100: Return on Investment = Net Profit/Total Investment x 100 or ROI = NP/TI x 100 Example: Last year your investors contributed 10,000,000 to your company and you generated 875,000 in profits for the year. What is the return on investment?

ROI = NP/TI x 100 ROI = 875,000/10,000,000 x 100 ROI = 0.875 x 100 ROI = 8.75 Your investors earned 8.75 cents for each money they invested in your company last year.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that Profitability ratios are powerful analytical tools that can use to determine how well a business is performing. Business management, owners, and investors also utilize profitability ratios to analysis a business' performance.

Q) Explain the factors affecting the selection of plant location for Spinning Mills? Ans: Units concerning both manufacturing as well as the assembling of the products are on a very large scale affected by the decisions involving the location of the plant. Location of the plant itself becomes a very important factor concerning service facilities, as the plant location decisions are strategic and long-term in nature.

Plant location need detail analysis because: 1. Wrong plant location generally affects cost parameters i.e. poor location can act as continuous stimulus of higher cost. Marketing, transportation, quality, customer satisfaction are some of the other factors which are greatly influenced by the plant location decisions hence these decisions require in-depth analysis. 2. Once a plant is set up at a location which is not much suitable, it is a very disturbing as well as very expensive process to shift works of a company to some other place and effect productivity of company.

3. The investments involved in the setting up of the plant premises buying of the land etc are very large and especially in the case of big multinational companies, the investments can go into millions of rupees, so economic factors of the location should be very minutely and carefully checked and discussed in order to achieve good returns on the money which has been invested.


Customer base Construction cost Land cost Site size Transportation Utilities Land use Traffic Safety/securities Competition Area climate Income level

Factors affecting the plant location of spinning mils they are: The factor affecting Spinning mills are as follows:

1. Nature of the product: The nature of the product to be manufactured will significantly affect the layout of the plant. Stationary layout will be most suitable for heavy products while line layout will be best for the manufacture for the light products because small and light products can be moved from one machine to another very easily and, therefore, more attention can be paid to machine locations can be paid to machine locations and handling of materials. 2. Volume of production: Volume of production and the standardization of the product also affect the type of layout. If standardized commodities are to be manufactured on large scale, line type of layout may be adopted. 3. Basic managerial policies and decisions: The type of layout depends very much on the decisions and policies of the management to be followed in producing the commodity with regard to the size of plant, kind and quality of the product, scope for expansion to be provided for, the extent to which the plant is to be integrated, amount of stocks to be carried at anytime, the kind of employee facilities to be provided etc. 4. Nature of plant location: The size shape and topography of the site at which the plant is located will naturally affect the type of layout to be followed in view of the maximum utilization of the space available .For e.g., if a site is near the railway line the arrangement of general layout for receiving and shipping and for the best flow of production in and out the plant may be made by the side of the railway lines .If space is narrow and the production process is lengthy, the layout of plant may be arranged on the land surface in the following manner: 5. Type of industry process: This is one of the most important factors influencing the choice of type of plant layout. Generally the types of layout particularly the arrangement of machines and work centers and the location of workmen vary according to the nature of the industry to which the plant belongs.

6. Types of methods of production: Layout plans may be different according to the method of production proposed to be adopted. Any of the following three methods may be adopted for production- (1) Job order production, (2) batch

production, and (3) mass production. Under job production goods are produced according to the orders of the customers and therefore, specification vary from customer to customer and the production cannot be standardized. The machines and equipment can be arranged in a manner to suit the need of all types of customers. Batch production carries the production of goods in batches or group at intervals. In this type of manufacturing the product is standardized and production is made generally in anticipation of sales. In such cases functional or process layout may be adopted. In case of mass production of standardized goods, line layout is most suitable form of plant layout. 7. Nature of machines: Nature of machines and equipment also affects the layout of plants. If machines are heavy in weight or create noisy atmosphere, stationery layout may reasonably be adopted. Heavy machines are generally fixed on the ground floor. Ample space should be provided for complicated machines to avoid accidents. 8. Climate: Sometimes, temperature, illumination and air are the deciding factors in the location of machines and their establishments. For example, in lantern manufacturing industry, the spray-painting room is built along the factory wall to ensure the required temperature control and air expulsion and the process of spray painting may be undertaken. 9.Nature of material: Design and specification of materials, quantity and quality of materials and combination of materials are probably the most important factors to be considered in planning a layout. So, materials storage, space, volume and weight of raw materials, floor load capacity, ceiling height, method of storing etc. should be given special consideration. This will affect the space and the efficiency of the production process in the plant. It will facilitate economic production of goods and prompt materials flow and soundly conceived materials handling system. 10. Type of machine: Machines and equipment may be either general purpose or special purpose. In addition certain tools are used. The requirements of each machine and equipment are quite different in terms of their space; speed and material handling process and these factors should be given proper consideration while choosing out a particular type of layout. This should also be considered that each machine and equipment is used to its fullest capacity because machines involve a huge investment. For instance, under product layout, certain machines

may not be used to their full capacity so care should be taken to make full use of the capacity of the machines and equipment.

Example: Most of the textile mills are found in or near Mumbai and Ahmedabad because of the humidity conditions that prevail there. Steel plants are generally located near the Jharkhand, Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Orissa regions. This choice of site is mainly because of more economical transport of the finished goods as compared to basic raw materials. Similar case is observed in the plants which manufacture cement; such plants are located near the lime and the coal deposits. Naptha / oil based fertilizer plants at Mangalore, Madras, Cochin have been located near ports, which act as a great source for the import of the raw materials. Information Technology/BPO/Software Industries depend largely on availability of skilled personnel, infrastructure etc Because of these reasons most of such organizations operate in urban areas such as Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pune etc.

Assignment On STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Establish in details the uses of SWOT in the analysis of Internal Strategic Assessment? Ans: SWOT analysis plays a very important role in the internal and external assessment of organization. It basically occurs at individual and organizational level. SWOT analysis is a classic strategic planning tool. It is the continuous strategy which analysis the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats of individual at personal level as well as organizational level.





Strength & weakness are the internal aspects and Opportunity & threats are the external

Strengths: Strength basically indicates the positive points of individual and organization in terms of their of good skills, talent, effective production, good management, credit in the market, profit margin Weaknesses: It basically indicates the negative response and aspects. Opportunities: As indicated is an external aspect. Means what opportunity we get from external like job, opportunity cost ect. Threats: It is also the external. It can occur in terms of competitors, politics, government rules & regulation, climate, natural occurrence.

Internal Assessment of SWOT: An assessment internal of SWOT helps to analysis the internal employees strength and where the project is, b existing resources that can be used immediately and current problems that wont go away. It can help identify where new resources, skills or allies will be needed. It helps to build up the internal strategy of the organization which leads to the growth and increase credibility of organization. Uses of SWOT in internal strategy: SWOT can be use in the assessment of Internal Strategy in following ways: Strength: It helps to analysis the positive skills of employees and management It helps to know the project strength of the organization. Strength can be in term of their good environment, employees bondiness, high productivity level. Good market reputation Assets Effective working capital Weaknesses: It helps to analysis the: Employees weakness and which can be improved Reason of less productivity

Opportunities: In terms of good contract Projects Expansion

Threats: Natural Calamities Competitors Politics Government rules & regulation.

Example: Example of SWOT analysis for small NGO

Strengths: We are able to follow-up on this research as the current small amount of work means we have plenty of time; Our lead researcher has strong reputation within the policy community; Our organizations director has good links to the Ministry.

Weaknesses: Our organization has little reputation in other parts of government; We have a small staff with a shallow skills base in many areas; We are vulnerable to vital staff being sick, leaving, etc.

Opportunities: We are working on a topical issue, The government claims to want to listen to the voice of local NGOs, Other NGOs from our region will support us.

Threats: Will the report be too politically sensitive and threaten funding from sponsors?

There is a pool of counter-evidence that could be used to discredit our research and therefore our organization. The NGO might therefore decide, amongst other things, to target the report to specific patrons in one ministry, use their lead researcher to bring credibility to the findings and work on building up a regional coalition on the issue.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that SWOT analysis its continuous process and helps an individual and organization to analysis their all positive and negative aspects. IT plays very vital roles in increasing the credibility of organization.

Q) Explain with the help of examples, the forms of diversification? Ans: Meaning: Diversification is a strategic approach adopting different forms. Depending on the applied criteria, there are different classifications. Diversification is a strategy that takes a company into new markets with new products or services. Companies may choose a diversification strategy for different reasons. Firstly, companies might wish to create and exploit economies of scope, in which the company tries to utilize its exciting resources and capabilities in other markets. Secondly, managerial skills found within the company may be successfully used in other markets, where the dominant logic and managerial procedures of management can be successfully transferred to other markets. Thirdly, companies pursuing a diversification strategy may be able to cross-subsidize one product with the surplus of another. Fourthly, companies may also want to use a diversification strategy to spread financial risk over different markets and products, so that the entire success of the company is not reliant on one market or product only. The diversification strategy can be split into two different types: 1. Related diversification 2. Unrelated diversification

Related diversification: Related diversification includes the factor which is related to same process in which the organization already exists. It moves and brings changes in the same line of production. For example: Shirt making company now diversified into making of nylon thread use as raw material in shirt making. Unrelated diversification is totally different field from existing one. For example: Shirt manufacturing firm get diversified into jeans making.

Forms of Diversification: The following are the forms of diversification: 1. Horizontal Diversification These forms involve in acquiring or developing new products or offering new services that could appeal to the companys current customer groups. In this case the company relies on sales and technological relations to the existing product lines. For example a dairy, producing cheese adds a new type of cheese to its products.

2. Vertical Diversification It occurs when the company goes back to previous stages of its production cycle or moves forward to subsequent stages of the same cycle - production of raw materials or distribution of the final product. For example, if you have a company that does reconstruction of houses and offices and you start selling paints and other construction materials for use in this business. This kind of diversification may also guarantee a regular supply of materials with better quality and lower prices.

3. Concentric Diversification Enlarging the production portfolio by adding new products with the aim of fully utilizing the potential of the existing technologies and marketing system. The concentric diversification can be a lot more financially efficient as a strategy, since the business may benefit from some synergies in this diversification model. It may enforce some investments related to modernizing or upgrading the existing processes or systems. This type of diversification is often used by small producers of consumer goods. Example A bakery starts producing pastries or dough products.

4. Heterogeneous (conglomerate) diversification Moving to new products or services that have no technological or commercial relation with current products, equipment, distribution channels, but which may appeal to new groups of customers. The major motive behind this kind of diversification is the high return on investments in the new industry. Furthermore, the decision to go for this kind of diversification can lead to

additional opportunities indirectly related to further developing the main company business - access to new technologies, opportunities for strategic partnerships, etc.

5. Corporate Diversification It involves production of unrelated but definitely profitable goods. It is often tied to large investments where there may also be high returns.


I would like to conclude by stating that diversification is a strategy which helps the organization to move into new market with new strategy and ne approach.

Assignment On MANAGEMENT TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) The dynamics of Indian environment have made the roles & responsibility of training manager challenging? Ans: Training: Training is a short term process involves to train, & develops certain skills in person. It can be simple learning training, field training. Managers are a person who gets work done by others in right time, at right place. He is who comes out with different ideas and think for profitability growth of organization. Training Managers: Training managers work to ensure employees are equipped with the requisite knowledge and skills to complete their tasks successfully. They devise strategies and methods to train staff members or provide programs on job functions, the working environment, or coping skills. Training managers sometimes delegate the handling of instruction to training officers and review the quality and efficiency of their work. These instructors may use various equipment or technologies to get the information out to employees. With the developments in todays businesses, employees are not able to access training from their desks using learning management systems. Training managers work to update and implement courses. Some managers use face-to-face tactics to train staff members, such as audiovisual aids or simple chalk and talk methods. Training managers: Develop and implement training programs Produce training materials, manuals or documentation Use audiovisual aids, computers, and teaching applications Manage a training budget Organize fiscal reports and analysis Prepare feedback or reports on training groups, targets and accomplishments Coordinate with departmental managers Customize department training strategies or modules

Skills of Trainer: Being an excellent trainer and leader Being able to inspire and motivate Have good planning, presentation, time and project management skills Being professional, ethical and persuasive Being strategic, analytical, critical and creative Knowledge and expertise in training and instructional methods Being able to utilize presentation, computer and software applications or equipment Being innovative and a visionary Being able to develop training curriculum, documentation or manuals Being resourceful

Challenges for Training Managers:

The training managers face the following challenges they are:


Training attrition

Training yield

Actual performance

Training cost

1. Training Attrition Attrition is often seen as a health check for any business. If a high number of people are leaving then something is wrong. The major challenge for training manager is to find the reason of attrition. The unpredictable and uncontrollable, but normal, reduction of work force due to resignations, retirement, sickness, or death are the cause of attrition. The training major has to analysis the skills and behavior of various peoples their wants etc. Accordingly plan the training schedule to trainee the people.

Following ways can minimize the % of Attrition they are: 1. Skills Development 2. Communication 3. Promotion/Progress 4. Management Style 5. Work-Life Balance

2. Training yield: The training manager has to analysis the yield percentage of trainee. The challenges here are they have to attract the all trainee interest in the training program. Has to make sure at the end of the training program trainee has gain something. They have design their plan by keeping the crowd in mind, as crowd is of different people, different thought, learning skills etc

3. Production: They have to face the challenges of productivity they need to check why the employees production capacity is low. What is the for their low performance. Where they are lacking behind.

To short out such challenges.

They need to plan certain training process which will help the employees To develop skills to increase the productivity. Give them the training to develop certain skills. Keep check on their capacity on daily basis.

4. Training cost: Cost also is the major challenge for trainer. They have kept cost cutting in the mind. They need to plan the good training programme in the low cost.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that training managers face the major challenges. They have significant role in the organization to contribute the growth productivity and organization profitability.

Q) Critically evaluate any four training method & techniques? Ans: TRAINING: Training is viewed as short term learning process by which employees acquire the technical knowledge and skills necessary to perform their tasks and responsibility. Training consists of planned programs undertaken to improve employees knowledge, skills, attitudes & social behavior so that performance of the organization improve considerably.

Training method: Training Method


Job Instruction Training Playing Training by Supervisor method Stimulation Conference Counseling Program Instruction



The training method is divided into two major groups i.e. 1) On the job & 2) Off the job training and this 2 method is further classified into following techniques:

1. On the job Method: Employees are coached and instructed by skilled co workers by supervisors, by the special training instructors, they learn the job by observation and practice as well as occasionally handing it. It is learning by doing and it is most useful for jobs that are either difficult to stimulator can be learned quickly by watching and doing. There are variety of OJT methods, Such as coaching or under study job rotation and special assignments. Under coaching or under study method as Internship and apprenticeship method) the Employee is trained on the job by his immediate superior.

a) Job Instruction Training (JIT): This method is also known as Training through step-by-step learning. It involves listing all necessary steps in the jobs, each in proper sequence. These shows that is to be done. The actual Training follows a four-step .process beginning with Preparation of the instructions giving essential information in a clear manner. Having the trainee try out jobs to show that he has understood the instructions, if there are any errors they are cored and encouraging questions and allowing the trainee to work along and the trainer follows up regularly.

b) Training by supervisors: The workers immediate supervisors impart such Training it provides to trainees too have an opportunity to judge the abilities and possibilities of trainees from the point of their job performance.

C) Simulation: Simulation is a technique, which duplicates, as merely as possible the actual conditions encountered on a job. The Vestibule training methods is examples of business simulations. Simulation techniques have been most widely used in the aeronautical industry. d) Counseling: In this case the supervisor plays a passive role in training the subordinate. The superior may assign challenging task to the subordinate for the purpose of training. The superior may provide advice to the subordinate in completion of task.

2) Off-the-Job-Methods Under this method of Training, trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration learning by job rather than spending his time in performing it. Off the job training methods are as follows

a) Role-playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situation. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents maintenance engineers, quality control inspections, foreman, and workers and like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal and relations.

b) Lecture Methods: The lecture is traditional direct method of instruction. The instructor. Organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for large group of the major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer training effectively.

c) Conference or Discussions: It is a method in training the clerical professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions, and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. Discussions have the distinct advantage over the lecture method in that the discussion involves-two-way communication and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small group; the success of this method depends on the leadership of the person who leads the group.

d) Programmed instruction: In recent years this method has become popular. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged

from simple to more complex planned levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that training is a short-term process and helps to develop various interpersonal skills in the employees.

Assignment On ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPEMNT Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Government sector should focus on OD motives rather than private sector to have a competitive future- Discuss the statement?

Ans: Organizational Development: OD means Organizational development it is the continuous process where group of people comes together for one motives. It is the place where group of people discuss, share ideas, develop skills, and enhance productivity for one purpose i.e profit of organization. There is no single definition of "Organizational Development." If we were to break it into its parts we can discover one meaning: "Organization" has come to mean the coming together of people and resources to form a unit. "Development" in its simplest form suggests change and growth. So OD could be defined as the practice of changing people and organizations for positive growth." Organizational Development can take on many forms, and typical OD activities can include some of the following:

Team building Organizational assessment Career development Training Innovation Coaching Leadership development Talent Management Change management

Government should focus on Organizational development rather than private sector because,

Organizational development is the place where the group of people comes together for one purpose, Private sector only brings people but their only purpose is to make them work. Organizational development has come up with the following techniques which helps the employees not only in their work but also helps to increase the skills and talent of the employees. OD helps the employees to identify their goals of the life. And also helps them to achieve the desire target and trace their performance level. OD has come with the techniques of training and development, where the employees are give training to enhance their skills, knowledge, attitude, and how to increase their performance level. OD helps to identify and build up leadership quality in the person. OD has made the group of people to come together, work with each other, have discussion, share the ideas, and understand the interpersonal behavior of each other made them to work as a family. OD concept is more of invention & innovation. OD has come up with the concept o coaching where people are given class on behavior development. They arrange counseling for managers programme, where managers as well as common people are counsel about their requirement.

In private sector this all things are not taken into consideration, here employees are not training. No extra curricular activity is taken into consideration to increase the skills & talent.

Therefore, Government should focus on OD concept rather than private sector, because OD not only create the company but also enhance the people skills, talent ect which ultimately increase the productivity and profitability of the organization.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that organization development has became a important concept in any company development and employees.

Q) What are the issues that arise in OD consultant- Client relation & how to prevent or resolve the same? Ans: Organization is the place where group of people come together to work together. Organizational development is the continuous process for the enhancement of development of skills, talent, and knowledge in the employees. Issues in OD Consultant:

In OD the following issues arises 1. Leadership is inept in that key people are not serving as avatars of the behavior they are seeking in others. 2. Team building is sought when, in actuality, the organization has committees and needs committees, not teams. 3. There are silos headed by powerful people defending turf. 4. Problem solving is prized over innovation and black belt nine delta nonsense takes over peoples minds like a bad science fiction movie from the 50s. 5. There is excessive staff interference instead of support, typically from HR, finance, IT, and/or legal. 6. There are too many meetings that take too long and are overwhelmingly focused on sharing information, the worst possible reason to have a meeting. The organizations talent and energy are squandered internally instead of applied externally. 7. The customers perceptions of the organizations products, services, and relationships are different from the organizations perception.

8. The reward and feedback systems are not aligned with strategy and are not encouraging and discouraging the appropriate behaviors. 9. Strategy and planning are mistaken for each other. 10. Career development and succession planning are not wedded. 11. The organization is bureaucratic, in that is focuses on means and not ends. 12. Client improper co ordination. 13. Environment issue. 14. Issues of behavioral and interpersonal aspects. 15. Autocratic environment.

Prevention: The OD issues can be solving in following ways: 1) Proper training to be provided in aspects of client coordination. 2) The environment should be of more democratic. 3) Planning and strategy should be done in systematic ways. 4) Leadership quality should be developing in the employees. 5) The goals and assignment should be clear for the employees. 6) The Appraisal also plays a very vital role in solving any OD issue. 7) Systematic reward and incentives should be allocated. 8) Various counseling and coaching progarmme should be taken into consideration. 9) Employees should be made to share there points and difficulties. 10) Different employment benefits scheme should be taken into consideration. 11) A moral support should be given to employees. 12) Customer perception and needs to be analysis before any production.

13) Customer orientation training should be given.

Conclusion: Organization issues are the major draw backs for any organization productivity capacity, but various OD techniques can help to enhance these issues.

Assignment On INDUSTRIAL RELATION LABOUR Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No.C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Explain the Industrial relation problems in the public sector company? Ans: Public Sector Company: Public Sector Company consists of minimum 7 people maximum unlimited. Like, government banks,

Objectives of Public Sector: To accelerate industrial growth & economy. To build up a strong infrastructure for supporting economic growth. To provide competition to private sector for welfare of state. To generate employment. To make investment in order to fill gab between saving and investment. To promote development of small industries. To focus on increasing exports of the country for earning foreign exchange. To eliminate monopolies & prevent monopolistic practices.

Importance of Public Sector: Employment generation Capital formation Share in GDP Export promotion Raising resources Social welfare

Problems in Public Sector:

Social welfare is given more focus rather than profit maximization. Lack of good management Lack of autonomy to make decision. Over staffing & inefficiency of employees.

Under utilization of production capacity. Industrial disputes Wrong pricing policies Political interference &corruption Over capitalization Obsolete Technology

Prevention of public sector problems:

The problems of Public Sector will prevent in following ways: Suitable reforms in board of directors. Control over political interference. Granting autonomy. Appoint & select efficient employees. Regular inspection & auditing Reforms in labour policy Voluntary retirement scheme


I would like to conclude by stating that the outcome of privatization so far as been pathetic. The stress should be more on work rather than reducing ownership.

Q) Write in detail the various welfare measures provided statutorily to labourers in India? Ans: Statutory is defined as something fixed, authorized, or established by statute, therefore the benefit packages that Canadian employers offer, are designed to enhance the well-being of their employee base, and will contain both statutory and discretionary benefits. Statutory benefits are some of the benefits also referred to as employer paid benefits. Statutory welfare measures are: Employment insurance Pension Plan Statutory obligations Employment Insurance

Employment Insurance provides temporary financial assistance for unemployed Canadians while they look for work or upgrade their skills. People who are sick, pregnant or caring for a newborn or adopted child, as well as those who must care for a family member who is seriously ill with a significant risk of death, may also be assisted by Employment Insurance. Employment Insurance (EI) premiums are calculated on, and deducted from, an employee's maximum insurable earnings (MIE), which are insurable salary, wages, cash allowances and other remuneration, paid to an employee. The Canada Revenue Agency is responsible for determining what is considered insurable employment and which earnings are insurable. Most employees in Canada are considered to be in insurable employment and covered by EI. As of January 1, 1997, every hour of work is insurable up to a yearly maximum earnings limit, replacing the previously required weekly minimum earnings or hours worked. All employees in insurable employment must have EI premiums deducted from their earnings. Premiums are set annually as a rate per $100 of Insurable Earnings up to the level of Maximum Insurable Earnings. Their employers are also required to make payments at 1.4 times the employee rate, unless Human Resources and Skills Development Canada has granted the employer a reduced rate.

Procedures for premium deductions and remittances are outlined in Canada Revenue Agency Instructions to Employers

Types of Employment Insurance benefits: There are several types of benefits available to Canadians, depending on their situation. Regular Benefits

These benefits are available to individuals who lose their jobs through no fault of their own (for example, due to shortage of work, seasonal layoffs, or mass layoffs) and who are available for and able to work, but cant find a job. Maternity and Parental Benefit:

These benefits provide support to individuals who are pregnant, have recently given birth, are adopting a child, or are caring for a newborn. Sickness Benefits:

These benefits are for individuals who are unable to work because of sickness, injury, or quarantine. Compassionate Care Benefits

These benefits are available to people who have to be away from work temporarily to provide care or support to a family member who is gravely ill with a significant risk of death. Pension Plans

Organizations are required to submit CPP/QPP payments to the government for all eligible employees on their maximum insurable earnings, based on a rate table revised annually. A percentage is deducted from the employees pay and a portion is remitted by the employer. Statutory Obligations

A statutory obligation is a requirement that employers are required to provide their employees as determined by the law of the province or territory where the employer operates.

Employment Standards Legislation sets out the minimum terms and conditions of employment for those who operate federally and for each province or territory. Both employers and employees must follow these minimum obligations unless they offer terms or conditions more generous that the ones mandated by legislation. Therefore, employment standards legislation sets out minimum standards relating to employment terms and conditions. The legislation also includes exceptions for certain types of employees, such as managers and professionals. Some key areas covered by legislation are:

Minimum Wage Hours of Work Vacations and Holiday Leave Maternity and Paternity Leaves Adoption and Parental Leaves Emergency/Sick Leave/Compassionate Leave Bereavement Leave Leave entitlement Grievance procedures Termination of employment Employee Benefits Employee benefits are optional, non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. These types of benefits may include group insurance (health, dental, vision, life etc.), disability income protection, retirement benefits, daycare, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, vacation (paid and non-paid), funding of education, as well as flexible and alternative work arrangements.

The benefits of benefits plans Although expensive, there are many intrinsic benefits to providing your employees with a comprehensive benefit plan. For most, it is the ability to find and keep highly qualified staff that is the key driver. With the sector being highly competitive and the number of new employees entering the workforce dwindling, employers are challenged to become even more creative and responsive in the design, timing and generosity of their benefit plans. The more progressive the organization, the more flexible the structure is in response to todays challenges: i.e. like having four different generations of employees working side by side. Employers who continue to provide the more traditional and limited program, may find it more difficult to find and keep different types of employees. Here are just a few of the advantages of offering benefits to your employees:

For employers:

By providing increased access and flexibility in employee benefits, employers can not only recruit but retain qualified employees Providing benefits to employees is seen as managing high-risk coverage at low costs and easing the company's financial burden Employee benefits have been proven to improve productivity because employees are more effective with they are assured of security for themselves and their families Premiums are tax deductible as corporation expense, which means savings for the organization

For employees:

Employees can experience a peace of mind which leads to increased productivity and satisfaction by being assured that they are their families are protected in any mishap Employees with personal life and disability insurance can enjoy additional protection including income replacement in the event of serious illness or disability Employees can feel a sense of pride in their employer if they are satisfied with the coverage they receive


I would like to conclude by stating that the welfare measures provided to the employees plays a very vital role in smooth functioning of organization, because today apart from salary employees also demand for welfare scheme.

Assignment On COUNSELING FOR MANAGERS Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Explain the process of counseling in detail? Ans: Meaning: Counseling is a learning-oriented process, which occurs usually in an interactive relationship, with the aim of helping a person learn more about the self, and to use such understanding to enable the person to become an effective member of society. Because of this it can also be said that counseling is a process by means of which the helper expresses care and concern towards the person with a problem, and facilitates that person's personal growth and brings about change through selfknowledge. It can also be regarded as a relationship between a concerned person and a person with a need. This relationship is usually person-to-person, although sometimes it may involve more than two people. It is designed to help people to understand and clarify their views, and learn how to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices, and through the resolution of emotional or interpersonal problems. It can be seen from these definitions that counseling can have different meanings. Effective counseling should benefit clients and patients if assisted by a nurse/midwife who has the skills of counseling. Counseling therefore in this context can be defined as the professional advice and guidance given to a person by a trained person (usually counselor), in order to assist the client to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more positively, satisfactorily and resourcefully in society.

Aims of Counseling: The aims of counseling are broad. They may depend on the situation and the environment, and on training. The basic aims of counseling include the following: 1. To help clients and patients gain an insight into the origins and development of emotional difficulties, leading to an increased capacity to take rational control over feelings and actions. 2. To alter maladjusted behavior. 3. To assist clients and patients to move in the direction of fulfilling their potential, or achieve an integration of conflicting elements within themselves. 4. To provide clients and patients with the skills, awareness and knowledge, which will enable them to confront social inadequacy.

Process of Counseling: It consists of four stages:

Identify the need for counseling. Prepare for counseling. Conduct counseling. Follow up.

Identify the need of counseling Quite often organizational policies, such as counseling associated with an evaluation or counseling required by the command, focus a counseling session. However, it may be conducted whenever the need arises, two-way communication aimed at subordinate development. Developing subordinates consists of observing the subordinate's performance, comparing it to the standard, and then providing feedback to the subordinate in the form of counseling. Prepare for counseling: Successful counseling requires preparation. To prepare for counseling, do the following:

Select a suitable place. Schedule the time. Notify the subordinate well in advance. Organize information. Outline the counseling session components. Plan your counseling strategy. Establish the right atmosphere.

Select a Suitable Place: Schedule counseling in an environment that minimizes interruptions and is free from distracting sights and sounds. Schedule the Time: When possible, counsel a subordinate during the duty day. Counseling after duty hours may be rushed or perceived as unfavorable. The length of time required for counseling depends on the complexity of the issue. Generally a counseling session should last less than an hour. Notify the Subordinate Well in Advance: The subordinate should know why, where, and when the counseling will take place. Counseling following a specific event should happen as close to the event as possible. Organize Information: Solid preparation is essential to effective counseling. Review all pertinent information. This includes the purpose of the counseling, facts and observations about the subordinate, identification of possible problems, main points of discussion, and the development of a plan of action.

Outline the Components of the Counseling Session: Using the information obtained, determine what to discuss during the counseling session. Note what prompted the counseling, what you aim to achieve, and what your role as a counselor is. Plan Counseling Strategy: As many approaches to counseling exist as there are leaders. The directive, nondirective, and combined approaches to counseling were addressed earlier. Use a strategy that suits your subordinates and the situation. Establish the Right Atmosphere: The right atmosphere promotes two-way communication between a leader and subordinate. To establish a relaxed atmosphere. Conduct the counseling session: Often counseling for a specific incident occurs spontaneously as leaders encounter subordinates in their daily activities. Such counseling can occur in the field, motor pool, barracks-wherever subordinates perform their duties. Good leaders take advantage of naturally occurring events to provide subordinates with feedback. Counseling sessions consist of:

Opening the session. Discussing the issues. Developing the plan of action. Recording and closing the session.

Open the Session: "The purpose of this counseling is to discuss your duty performance over the past month and to create a plan to enhance performance and attain performance goals." If applicable, start the counseling session by reviewing the status of the previous plan of action. You and the subordinate should attempt to develop a mutual understanding of the issues. You can best develop this by letting the subordinate do most of the talking. Use active listening; respond, and question without dominating the conversation. Develop a Plan of Action: A plan of action identifies a method for achieving a desired result. It specifies what the subordinate must do to reach the goals set during the counseling session. The plan of action must be specific: it should show the subordinate how to modify or maintain his behavior. It should avoid vague intentions such as "Next month I want you to improve your land navigation skills." Record and Close the Session: Although requirements to record counseling sessions vary, a leader always benefits by documenting the main points of a counseling session. Documentation serves as a reference to the agreed upon plan of action and the subordinate's accomplishments, improvements, personal preferences, or problems. A complete record of counseling aids in making recommendations for professional development, schools, promotions, and evaluation reports.

Follow up Leader's Responsibilities: The counseling process doesn't end with the counseling session. It continues through implementation of the plan of action and evaluation of results. After counseling, you must support subordinates as they implement their plans of action. Support may include teaching, coaching, or providing time and resources. Assess the Plan of Action: The purpose of counseling is to develop subordinates who are better able to achieve personal, professional, and organizational goals. During the assessment, review the plan of action with the subordinate to determine if the desired results were achieved.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that counseling is a concept existed for long time globally and in communities. Here people can help others with their problems or help others find ways of dealing with, solving, or transcending problems.

Q) Explain the Application of Counseling to OD in detail? Ans

explore difficulties which may include the stressful or emotional feelings of the client. view-point. This can enable the client to focus on feelings, experiences or behaviour, with a goal to facilitating positive change. relationship of trust. Confidentiality is paramount to successful counselling. Professional counsellors will usually explain their policy on confidentiality, they may, however, be required by law to disclose information if they believe that there is a risk to life. Counselling is a helping approach that highlights the emotional and intellectual experience of a client, how a client is feeling and what they think about the problem they have sought help for. Psychotherapy, however, is based in the psychodynamic approach to counselling - it encourages the client to go back to their earlier experiences and explore how these experiences effect their current problem. A psychotherapist, therefore, helps the client to become conscious of experiences which they were previously unaware of. Counsellors, however, are less likely to be concerned with the past experiences of the client and are generally trained in a humanistic approach, using techniques from client-centred therapy.

Application of counselling: Counselling is use in various filed it can be for humanistic, at work place, at home, for child, etc. Counselling is to be plan before putting in real world.

1. Change Management: To create & maintain changing environment. Employees require counselling in order to accept the changing environment. 2. Downsizing: When there is large number of employees counselling is require to keep the previous employees motivated, to make them moral will retain long term profit.

3. Managing Diversity: Counselling here is need in order to handle the large number of people. Has different organization has large number of people different in their language, age, sex, religion. To understand each people counselling is needed. 4. Monitoring: Counselling here monitor the performance of individual in accordance to that make the plan of counselling. 5. Entrepreneurship & Interpersonal: Counselling is uses to build up a entrepreneurship & interpersonal skills of person. 6. Consulting: In many field counselling are needed to work with client & subordinate. 7. Organizational improvement: It is use to improve the working style of organization and increase their productivity. 8. Older age: After the retirement the counselling is use how to handle the remaining life. 9. Team Management: It is used to make the people to work in team. 10. Feedback: It is a feedback approach from subordinate regarding management.

Consultation: Application of counselling is use in different way and in turn to increase the mortality and work environment of organization.

Assignment On ENTREPRENEURSHIP & MANAGEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No.CI2U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Critically examine the uses of Entrepreneurship development programs in India? Ans: Meaning Entrepreneurial Development Programs means a program conducted to help a person in strengthening his entrepreneurial motive and in acquiring skill and capabilities required for promoting and running an enterprise efficiently. A program which is conducted with a motive to promote potential entrepreneurs, understanding of motives, motivational pattern, their impact on behavior and entrepreneurial value is termed as entrepreneurial development programme. There are a number of programmes which give information to the prospective entrepreneurs regarding new business idea, how to set up a new venture, how to prepare a project report, sources of finance etc. These programmes should not be confused with EDP; these are all a part of EDP. EDP is primarily concerned with developing, motivating entrepreneurial talent and understanding the impact of motivation on behaviour. EDP envisages three tiered approach: 1. Developing achievement motivation and sharpening entrepreneurial traits and behavior. 2. Guidance on industrial opportunities, incentives, facilities and rules and regulations. 3. Developing managerial and operational capabilities.

Importance of EDP: Are follows EDP is a tool of industrialization and path to economic growth through entrepreneurship EDP helps in dispersal of economic activities in different regions by providing training and other support to local people. EDPs provide opportunities for self-employment and entrepreneurial careers. The optimum use of natural, financial and human resources can be made in a country by training and educating the entrepreneurs.

EDP develops motivation, competence and skills necessary for successful launching, management and growth of the enterprise EDP, by inculcating entrepreneurial capabilities and skill in the trainees, create new generation entrepreneur who hitherto was not an entrepreneur

Uses of EDP in INDIA: Entrepreneurship is an emerging, active and multidisciplinary research specialization. EDI fosters entrepreneurship research by bringing people, ideas and resources together to explore the entrepreneurial processes and performance in regional, international, sectoral, organizational, family firm and social enterprise contexts. EDP uses in India started with Search of CREED:

Centre for Research in Entrepreneurship Education and Development (CREED) The ongoing transformations in the national and international economy have an impact on various aspects of Entrepreneurship and in order to gain an insight into the possibilities and implications of these developments, research has been accepted as the most powerful tool. Reaffirming that the findings of research advocate a positive approach to work methodology and place the ultimate goal within reach, the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India set up a Research Centre at the institute, in the year 1997. It was conceded that this Research Centre would lead to the expansion of boundaries of knowledge and give an identifiable thrust to the Entrepreneurship Development Movement. CREED was, therefore, set up to act as a crucial link between theory and practice in the field of entrepreneurship with special focus on applied research backed by sound theoretical underpinnings. The Mission Creed aims at serving as a bridge between theory and practice in the field of Entrepreneurship. The Centre catalyses networking of researchers and institutions by encouraging enquiries into the emergence and growth of entrepreneurship as a discipline.

The Centre

Supports in-house research in entrepreneurship Catalyses the process of networking researchers and institutions in the sphere of entrepreneurship Encourages young researchers to make use of intellectual and other resources at the Centre so as to make valuable contribution to the knowledge on entrepreneurship. Promotes collaborative research endeavours with institutions and individuals outside the Centre Disseminates and shares various research findings among planners, policymakers and academicians and Organizes seminars, workshops and colloquies.

The Focus Areas of CREED CREED focuses enquiries into:

Entrepreneurship in Education Innovation in Training Technology Voluntary Sector: Issues and Interventions Gender and Enterprise Development Micro Finance and Micro Enterprise Development Emerging Profile of Entrepreneurship in the 21st Century

Activities of the Centre The major activities under CREED are:

In-house Research Projects: In its pursuit to extend the frontiers of knowledge on entrepreneurship, CREED encourages and undertakes inhouse research activities by making use of intellectual and other resources of the Centre.

Fellowships: Through these short-term research fellowship programmes, the Centre envisages to promote collaborative research endeavours with institutions and individuals outside the Centre. It encourages young researchers to contribute to the field of entrepreneurship. Need based funding and academic assistance is also provided to the researchers. The Centre takes care of local hospitality of researchers. Visiting Fellowships: These fellowships are for senior researchers whom the Centre invites to write papers or conduct research in the area of entrepreneurship and delve into a range of issues surrounding small and medium enterprise sector. Besides access to the institutes modern library and up-to-date computer centre, the researchers are provided facilities of interaction with well-known experts in Entrepreneurship. Biennial Conferences: These conferences are organized to provide a platform to researchers, academicians, planners and policy-makers to come together to share their research findings and experiences that are of contemporary relevance and interest. Annual Lecture Series: Eminent entrepreneurship theorists and practitioners are invited to deliver lectures on specific themes. Journal of Entrepreneurship: The Journal of Entrepreneurship is a reputed academic publication of the Centre and has established its credibility among scholars in India and abroad as a unique forum to disseminate their research findings, both theoretical and empirical.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that EDP (CREED) is doing well in developing entrepreneurs in India. Increasing there skills, knowledge ect.

Q) Can you agree that entrepreneurs are born not made? Discuss with example? Ans: Meaning: An entrepreneur is one who has a habit to go against the conventional business, put his reputation and money on line and be dedicated to a cause. In most of the cases, people who ordinarily do not conform to societal rules and hierarchies and ready to take risk are the ones who will become entrepreneurs But many times, changes in circumstances can lead to entrepreneurship. For e.g. a person who is in financial problem would like to augment his income by starting a side business. Or a person who just lost his job and does not want to go back to corporate world will look to start a venture of his own. Entrepreneurship is the purposely activity of an individual or a group of associated individuals, undertaken to initiate, maintain or aggrandize profit by production or distribution of economic goods & service. Born not Made: Entrepreneurs are actually born. People are born with many inherent qualities, if they concentrate on that qualities then only that particular qualities would sharpen. Some qualities we would get from education & experience. Even if we concentrate on those particular qualities we would grow some level, but surely not grow to the entrepreneurship level. They are born by nature to take risk. They hold strong opinions on something and are generally the ones who stick to their thinking. Entrepreneurs are one who innovate some things different and new. The entrepreneurs are constantly on the look out to do something different and unique to meet the hanging requirements of the customer. He is the visualizer visualize the clear picture where he want see himself after certain period of time. He is the one who as leadership quality. He is the one who create job. Entrepreneurs play a critical role in restricting and transformation of economy. He is one who makes market more competitive & expansion international market.

He improves the social welfare of the country. He find the resources for expansion of business and market situation

Characteristics of Entrepreneur: Hard work: he is the one who work hard to become successful and fulfill the requirement of their customer. Desire for high achievement: He as a strong desire to achieve goals in business Highly optimistic: They are highly positive and not get disturb by present situation. Independence: It is one of the common characteristics in entrepreneur. Foresight: They are the good visualize who can see the futures scenario of the business. Good organizer: He is one who brings all the resources together require for operating business. Innovative: He innovates different ideas and production as per the changing taste and preference of customer.

By seeing all this points it can be easily said that entrepreneurs are born by nature. As entrepreneurs involve risk which is not possible for common person its basically an interpersonal skills which person have from as they are born. They are born as visualizer to see themselves on top. They come up with different innovative ideas, plan, skills. They are by nature customer oriented and have strong decision to fulfillment their requirement. They are born to rule on others not ruled by anyone. They are born with highly positive nature anything goes wrong they are not demotivated like other person. He is born to make profit.

No doubt, today various EDP programme are run to develop entrepreneurs skills in the person. Many people learn and develop skills of entrepreneurs. But the person who has born capabilities of entrepreneurs only succeeds in the market.

The major difference is of risk bearing which can be internal skills. And also the optimistic nature. The major example of entrepreneur is Dirubhai Ambani a group of reliance industries. A man who is less qualified but has strong born skills to start a enterprise and become a leading entrepreneur in the world. Today reliance leads the world, through various innovative ideas, skills, good production they are in the mind of customer.

Conclusion: I would like to conclude by stating that entrepreneurs are born by nature, the nature of taking risks, starting enterprises, making profit, customer oriented.

Assignment On HUMAN RESOURCE Assignment report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the awards of the degree Of Master of Business Administration Of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University By POONAM UPADHYAY Registration No. C12U26166006 Under the guidance of Mr. DILPI PAL Nath College of Managemnet 399/10/12, Jaishri Society, Dattkripa Chs. Ltd, Near Pal School, Hanuman Nagar, Akruli Road, Kandivali (East), Mumbai- 400101

2013 Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli 627012

Q) Explain the selection process in real world? Ans: Selection is defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. The difference between recruitment and selection: Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job and Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants.

The selection process in real world: Initial screening of interviews:

Initial Screening is done on the basis of applicants and applications. A preliminary interview is conducted so as to select the suitable candidate who can go through further stages of interviews. Normally for the posts of engineers degree cutoff is decided like say 60% on an average. If the candidates do not meet the requirement they are rejected. And for higher posts applications and applicants both play a major role in the screening process.

Completion of application forms:

Application form establishes the candidates general details like name, address, telephone number, education, job- related training, work-experience with dates, company names, and job details, professional or industrial involvement, hobbies and recreational pursuits.

The company establishes as many hypotheses about the candidate from the details provided in the application form. It then decides what areas of information it needs to explore or investigate more specifically during the interview. Company sees to it that no judgment is passed about the candidate based only at this level. What drawn here is hypotheses and not conclusions. Application forms are such framed that, they provide the necessary details to the organization without affecting the sentiments and feelings of the candidate. Employment tests:

o logical test o English test o Vocabulary o Reasoning o Essay writing VARIOUS TESTS: Mental or intelligence tests:

They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems. Intelligence test:

This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. Mental ability, presence of mind (alertness), numerical ability, memory and such other aspects can be measured. It is taken to judge numerical, skills, reasoning, memory and such other abilities. Personality Test:

It is conducted to judge maturity, social or interpersonal skills, behavior under stress and strain, etc. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force, public relation staff, etc. where personality plays an important role.

Medical Test:

It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidates physical resilience upon exposure business hazards.

Interview: Formal Interview: Interviews are held in the employment office in a more formal atmosphere, with the help of well structured questions. Patterned Interview: A patterned interview is also a planned interview, but it is more carefully pre-planned to a high degree of accuracy, precision and exactitude. With the help of job and man specifications, a list of questions and areas are carefully prepared which will act as the interviewers guide. Non-directive Interview: Here the interviewee is allowed to speak his mind freely. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e.g. Mr. Ray, please tell us about yourself after youre graduated from high school. Depth Interview: It is designed to intensely examine the candidate s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis, a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. Stress Interview: It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start with Mr. Joseph, we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position, and watch the reaction of the candidates. A good candidates will not yield, on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job. .Panel Interview: A panel or interviewing board or selection committee interviews the candidate, usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. Mixed Interview: In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. This approach is called the Mixed interview. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants.

Second Interviews: Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview, together or separately. More in-depth questions are asked to the candidate and the employer expects a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates.

Background Information: Requests names, addresses, and telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps, gaining additional background information on an applicant. Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicants performance. It normally seeks letters of reference or telephone references. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost. Physical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is, often, depends upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. Final Employment decision: It is a final step. In this step company makes a very important decision. After all these processes follow up is done i.e., the selected person is induced and placed at the right job. Conclusion: The selection process in the real world is must challenging what exactly we learn and it varies from organization to organization.

Q) Discuss the statutory & non statutory benefits provided in the organization to the employees? Ans: The Factories Act, Mine Act, Plantations Labour Act or (State) Shops and Commercial Establishments Act have provisions relating to so many welfare measures to be implemented in the establishments like, setting up of clean rest rooms, crches, canteens, wash rooms, ambulance rooms etc subject to some conditions regarding the number of employees employed and the nature of work performed. Statutory benefits are internal facilitie to the enmployees in the organization,, whereas non statutory are external benefits: The various statutory benefits are:

Drinking Water: At all the working places safe hygienic drinking water should be provided. Facilities for sitting: In every organization, especially factories, suitable seating arrangements are to be provided. First aid appliances: First aid appliances are to be provided and should be readily assessable so that in case of any minor accident initial medication can be provided to the needed employee. Latrines and Urinals: A sufficient number of latrines and urinals are to be provided in the office and factory premises and are also to be maintained in a neat and clean condition. Canteen facilities: Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employer so as to provide hygienic and nutritious food to the employees. Spittoons: In every work place, such as ware houses, store places, in the dock area and office premises spittoons are to be provided in convenient places and same are to be maintained in a hygienic condition. Lighting: Proper and sufficient lights are to be provided for employees so that they can work safely during the night shifts. Washing places: Adequate washing places such as bathrooms, wash basins with tap and tap on the stand pipe are provided in the port area in the vicinity of the work places. Changing rooms: Adequate changing rooms are to be provided for workers to change their cloth in the factory area and office premises. Adequate lockers are

also provided to the workers to keep their clothes and belongings.

Rest rooms: Adequate numbers of restrooms are provided to the workers with provisions of water supply, wash basins, toilets, bathrooms, etc Employment Insurance: Employment Insurance provides temporary financial assistance for unemployed Canadians while they look for work or upgrade their skills. People who are sick, pregnant or caring for a newborn or adopted child, as well as those who must care for a family member who is seriously ill with a significant risk of death, may also be assisted by Employment Insurance. Pension Plans: Organizations are required to submit CPP/QPP payments to the government for all eligible employees on their maximum insurable earnings, based on a rate table revised annually. A percentage is deducted from the employees pay and a portion is remitted by the employer. Statutory Obligations Minimum Wage Hours of Work Vacations and Holiday Leave Maternity and Paternity Leaves Adoption and Parental Leaves Emergency/Sick Leave/Compassionate Leave Bereavement Leave Leave entitlement Grievance procedures Termination of employment

Retirement benefits: A retirement plan or a pension is an arrangement by an employer to provide their employees with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from working. Retirement plans may be set up by in a variety of ways but typically will have a form of a guaranteed payment. Often retirement plans require both the employer and employee to contribute money into a fund while employed so that they will receive benefits upon retirement. Pension plans are considered a form of delayed income.

Non Statutory Schemes Many non statutory welfare schemes may include the following schemes:

Personal Health Care (Regular medical check-ups): Some of the companies provide the facility for extensive health check-up Flexi-time: The main objective of the flextime policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work with flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by management to meet business commitments while supporting employee personal life needs. Employee Assistance Programs: Various assistant programs are arranged like external counseling service so that employees or members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters. Harassment Policy: To protect an employee from harassments of any kind, guidelines are provided for proper action and also for protecting the aggrieved employee. Maternity & Adoption Leave: Employees can avail maternity or adoption leaves. Paternity leave policies have also been introduced by various companies. Medi-claim Insurance Scheme: This insurance scheme provides adequate insurance coverage of employees for expenses related to hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy.

Conclusion: The statutory and non statutory benefit provided to the employees in the organization is very important. Toady employees not only need better job but their expectation related to these benefits is much higher.