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Leiacomatenoas sinstrues saseguir: ao desta prova de 04 (quat tro) horas, exceto par ra os candiidatos port tadores de 1. A dura necess sidades esp peciais cuja durao d da prova 05 (cinco) horas (Avis so Circular do MEC 277/96 6ePortaria a1679/99). 2. NO E ESCREVA O SEU NOME E NO BOLET TIM DE QUESTES. Ele e dever se er identificado apenas nafolhaderosto ocomseunmerodein nscrioeCPF. C 3.OBole etimdeQue estes,dest tinadopro ovaescrita edeprofici incia,con nstitudode e: fo olhasdestina adassque estesrelat ivasprova aescrita; fo olhasdestina adassque estesrelat ivasprova adeprofici ncia; du uas folhas (frente ( e verso) v desti nadas ao rascunho r da prova es crita (useas a se voc as ssimodesej jar),noseroforneci dasfolhasadicionais; a as sfolhasderascunho r n odevero serretirada asdoBoletimdeQuest tes. 4. Verifique se o Boletim B de Questes, destinado prova es scrita e de proficincia, contm algumdefeito.Em mcasoposit tivo,solicite eaoaplicad dorparatro ocloporo utro. 5. As res spostas das s questes devero se r feitas na mesma folha, logo ab baixo do co omando da quest oenoespaodelimitado. 6.Parare esponderas squestes,useapenas scanetaesferogrficade d tintaazu uloupreta. 7.Aoconcluiraprov va,entregue eoBoletim deQueste esaoaplicador. e a lista de presena prova esc crita e de proficincia na linha co orresponden nte ao seu 8. Assine nome, ,domesmo omodocom mofoiassina adonoseudocumento odeidentid dade. 9.Ocand didatosereliminadocasosuapr rova: se ejaredigidanalinhacontrriaaes scolhidanoatodesuainscrio; se ejaescritaalpisoude eformailegvel; co ontenhanom meoumarc caqueaide entifique; co ontenhaqua alquertipodeofensaa aosmembro osdabanca aexaminado oraeaoutr ros. 10.ter rminanteme enteproibid danestapro ova: ac comunica oentreoscandidatos s; a consulta a qualquer tipo de mat terial difere ente do esta abelecido n no Edital do o Processo Se eletivo; a utilizao de d qualquer r aparelho eletrnico, inclusive telefones ce elulares, qu ue devero se erdesligado osduranteoperodode erealizao odaprova.

Linhade d Pesquisa2: EstudosdeEcossistemasAmaznicos A

1.(2pt.)C Considerandootripdesustentabilid dade(social,econmicoeambiental ). nea2Leida aTermodinmicacomum msistemade eproduona n Amaznia . (a)Relacion ocdefineum msistemade eproduoq queobedece eospressupo ostosdasust tentabilidade? (b)Comovo

Linhade d Pesquisa2: EstudosdeEcossistemasAmaznicos A

2. (2 pt.) Conside erada rea estratgica por abrigar inmeras riquezas, a Amaznia integra os s compon nentes biticos e abit ticos para compor o maior cenrio o de biodiversidade do o planeta.Aesseresp peito: (a) descrev va 4 (quatro o) tipos de ecossistema s do Bioma a Amaznia, destacando o caracterst ticas que os s diferenc ciam. (b) qual a importncia da biodiv versidade a maznica no contexto econmico,, social e cultural c das s popula estradicio onais?
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3. (2 pt.) As telecon nexes na atmosfera a p promovem diversos d efeitos no regiime trmico o hdrico na a Amaznia. . nmeno El Nino N e La Niina influenciam a oferta pluvial com m reflexos na agricultura, , (a) Voc acha que o fen hentesesec casdorioAm mazonas,aflu uenteseoutr ros?Justifiqu ue. nasench rtes redue es no volum me de gua, trazendo s srias conse equncias s s (b) A seca de 2005 provocou for popula es e ao ambiente. a Co omente essa a problemt tica na regi o, citando pelo menos s 4 (quatro) ) danos.
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4. (2 pt.) Estudos apo ontam que oestado do P Par consid derado o maior produtor r de fruto de e palmito no o mercado int terno e externo por conc centrar emseu s territrio o as maiores s populaes s naturais do o aaizeiro.Ta al fatopermite aaoco ontnuadaprtica doext trativismo,r responsvelpor p cerca de e 90%detoda aaproduo o.Comrela odiversid dadebiolgic caamaznica a,responda: ese/ouae esquepromo ovemperdas snabiodiver rsidade? (a)cite4(quatro)fatore mportnciado d manejoda adiversidade ebiolgicaamaznica? a (b)qualaim
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5. (2 pt.) A modelagem ecolgicainiciouse n a dcada de e 1920, masfoi f somente na dcadade d 1970 que e estesmodeloscomeara amaserem pregadosno ogerenciame entodoseco ossistemas. (a)Aquese edeveestefa ato? dois)problem masenfrentadospelamo odelagemeco olgica. (b)Cite2(d principaispro ocessosquedificultama anlisequan ntitativadosecossistema asaquticos. (c)Citeosp
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Switchto t CornPro motesAma azonDefore estation


WILLIAMF. LAURANCE
SmithsonianTropical T Resear rchInstitute,Ap partado084303092, 0 Balboa,Ancn,Panama a.Email:laurancew@si.edu.

e United Stat tes is the wo orlds leading g producer of o soy. Howe ever, many U U.S. farmersare shifting The from soy to o corn (maize) in order r to qualify for generou us governme ent subsidies s intended to t promote biofuelprod duction;sinc ce2006,U.S. .cornproduc ctionhasrisen19%whilesoyproduc ctionhasfallenby15%. This in turn is helping to o drive a ma ajor increase in global soy prices, which have nea arly doubled in the past 14months. The e rising pric ce for soy has import tant consequences for Amazonian forests an nd savanna woodlands. . In Brazil, the worlds second s leadiing soy prod ducer, defor restation rat tes and esp pecially fire incidence have increase ed sharply in recent mon nths in themain m soy and beef produc cing states in n Amazonia (andnotinstateswithlittle l soypro oduction).Alt thoughdryweather w isacontributing gfactor,thes seincreases attributed to o rising soy and a beef priices, and stu udies suggest t a strong lin nk between Amazonian are widely a deforestatio onandsoydemand. d Som me Amazonia an forests ar re directly cl eared for so oy farms. Far rmers also p urchase larg ge expanses of cattle pa asture for soy production n, effectively y pushing the ranchersfarther f into t the Amazonian frontier or onto lands unsuitabl le for soy pr roduction. In n addition, higher soy co osts tend to raise global beef prices oybased live estock feeds s become m more expensive, creatin ng an indire ect incentive e for forest because so conversion to pasture. Finally, the powerful Bra azilian soy lo obby is a key y driving for rce behind in nitiatives to hways and transportatio on networks in order to transport so oybeans to market, m and expand Amazonian high thisisgreat tlyincreasing gaccesstofo orestsforran nchers,logge ers,andland dspeculators s. In a globalized world, the im mpacts of lo ocal decisions about crop p preference es can have farreaching an deforest implications s. As illustrated by an a apparent t corn connection to t Amazonia tation, the environmen ntal benefits s of cornbased biofuel might be co onsiderably reduced wh hen its full and a indirect costsareco onsidered.
www.scien ncemag.org,Sci ience,V.318,14dedezembro ode2007.(Com madaptaes).

Combasen notextoacim ma,responda aaspergunta asaseguir,em e Portugus. 1. (2 pt.) Como a produo p de e biocombu stvel nos Estados E Unid dos impacta a no desmatamento da a Amaznia?

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2. (1 pt.) A presso dos d sojeiros s brasileiros s tem contri ibudo para a expanso de rodovias s e redes de e transportenaAmaznia a.Qualacon nsequnciadesse d fato? esmatamento o e a incidn ncia de queim madas aume entaram bast tante em alg guns estados s 3. (1 pt.) A taxa de de d daAmaznia a.Almdote emposeco,q quaisoutrosfatorescont triburampar raestasituao?
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H Hypotheses toexplain theoriginof o speciesin nAmazonia a


J rgenHaffer r The emainhypot thesespropo osedtoexpla ainbarrierfo ormationsep paratingpop ulationsand dcausingthe e differentiationofspecie esinAmazon niaduringth hecourseofgeological g hi istoryareba asedondifferentfactors, , asfollow:(1 1) Changesinthedistributionofland dandseaor rin thelands scape dueto o tectonic mo ovements or r sea level f fuctuations (Paleogeography hypot hesis), (2) the t barrier effect of A Amazonian rivers r (River r hypothesis) ), (3) a comb bination of the t barrier e effect of bro oad rivers an nd vegetation nal changes in northern n andsouthernAmazonia a(Riverrefug gehypothes sis),(4)theis solationofhumidrainfor restblocksnear n areasof f surface relief in the pe eriphery of Amazonia se eparated by y dry forests s, savannas and other intermediate e vegetation types durin ng dry clima atic periods of the Tert tiary and Quaternary Q ( Refuge hypo othesis), (5) ) changes in canopyden nsity due to o climatic re eversals (Can nopydensity y hypothesis s) (6) the is solation and d speciation of animal populations p in small mo ontane habitat pockets around Am mazonia due to climatic c fuctuations without ma ajor vegetatio onal changes s (Museumhypothesis), h (7) competi tive speciesinteractions s and local sp pecies isolations in perip pheral region ns of Amazo onia due to invasion and d counterinva asion during g cold/warm periods of the Pleistoc cene (Disturb bancevicariance hypoth hesis) and (8 8) parapatric speciation n across stee ep environm mental grad dients witho out separation of the respective populations (Gradient t hypothesis) ). Several of f these hypo otheses prob bably are relevant to a different de egree for the speciation n processesin ndifferentfa aunalgroups sorduringd ifferentgeol logicalperiods.Thebasic cpaleogeogr raphymodel l refers main nly to faunal differentiati ion during th he Tertiary and a in combination with h the Refuge hypothesis. . Milankovitc ch cycles lea ading to glob bal main hyp potheses pro oposed to explain e barrie er formation n separating g populations s and causing the differe entiation of species in Amazonia dur ring the cou rse of geolo ogical history y arebasedo on differentfactors, f asfo ollow:(1)Ch anges inthe edistribution nofland and dseaorin th helandscape e due to tectonic movem ments or sea level fuctua ations (Paleo ogeography hypothesis), h (2) the barr rier effect of f Amazonianrivers(River rhypothesis) ),(3)acomb binationofth hebarriereff fectofbroad driversandvegetational v l changesin northernand dsouthernAmazonia A (R iverrefugehypothesis), h (4)theisola ationofhumidrainforest t blocks near r areas of su urface relief in the perip phery of Am mazonia sepa arated by dr ry forests, sa avannas and d other interm mediate veg getation type es during dr ry climatic periods p of th he Tertiary a and Quatern nary (Refuge e hypothesis) ), (5) change es in canopy ydensity due e to climatic c reversals (Canopy ( den nsity hypothesis) (6) the e isolation an nd speciation n of animal populations p in small montane habita at pockets a around Amaz zonia due to o climatic fuc ctuations without major r vegetation nal changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competi itive species s interactions s and local l species is solations in peripheral regions of f Amazonia due to in nvasion and d counterinva asion during cold/warm periods of t the Pleistoce ene (Disturbancevicaria ance hypothe esis) and (8) ) parapatric speciation across stee ep environm mental grad dients witho out separat tion of the e respective e populations s (Gradient hypothesis). h Several of th hese hypotheses probably are releva ant to a diffe erent degree e for the spe eciation proc cesses in dif fferent fauna al groups or r during diff ferent geolo ogical periods. The basic c paleogeogra aphy model refers mainly to faunal differentiati ion during th he Tertiary a and in combination with h the Refuge hypothesis. . Milankovitch cycles le ading to glo obal climatic cvegetationa al changes affected a the e biomes of t the world not only duri ing the Pleis stocene but also during g the Tertiar ry and earlie er geological l periods. Ne ew geoscien ntifc evidenc ce for the effect of dr ry climatic periods in A Amazonia supports the e predictions of the Refug ge hypothes sis. The distu urbancevicariance hypot thesis refers s to the presumed effect t of cold/war rm climatic phases of th he Pleistoce ene only and d is of limite ed general r relevance be ecause most t extant spec cies originat ted earlier and a probably y through paleogeograp p phic changes s and the formation of f ecologicalrefugesdurin ngtheTertiary.
(Vieira,I.C.G,...[e etal.].Diversidad debiolgicaecultural c daAma aznia.MuseuP ParaenseEmlio oGoeldi,2009) )


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4.(2pt.)Q Qualatemt ticaprincipalapresentad danotextoacima?Expliq que. o Hipte ese Distrbi o Vicariante e, o que est ta teoria inf fere e como o o autor a 5. (2 pt.) Com rela interpreta a? tamasnovas sevidncias geocientfica as? 6.(2pt.)Oquesuport

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