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B.E. DEGREE EXAMINATION.

Fourth Semester

Instrumentation Engineering

IT 238 — ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS

**Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks
**

Answer ALL questions.

PART A — (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1.What is the purpose of controlling torque in indicating instruments?

( )

2.The inductance of moving Iron instrument is given by L = 10 + 5Q − Q 2 µH ,

where Q is the deflection in radians from zero position. The spring constant is

12 × 10–6 N–m/radian. Estimate the deflection for a current of 5A.

3.What are the likely errors in an Energy meter?

**4.What is the special feature of wattmeter that is suitable for low power
**

factor circuits?

5.How potentiometers are standardised?

**6.Define the following terms related to Instrument transformers (a) Nominal
**

ratio (b) Turns ratio.

7.When is contact and head resistances are important?

**8.Why the voltmeter–Ammeter method is unsuitable for the measurement of
**

low–resistance?

9.What type of Bridge is used for the measurement of frequency?

**10.What are the different sources of errors in a.c. measurements?
**

PART B — (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

**11.(i) Derive an expression of torque equation for a moving Iron
**

Instrument and comment on the nature of the scale. (10)

**(ii) Meter A has a range of (0–10V) and a multiplier
**

resistance of 18 kΩ. Meter B has a range of (0–300V) and a multiplier

resistance of 298 kΩ. Both meter movements have a resistance of 2 kΩ.

Which meter has a better accuracy? Why? (6)

**12.(a) (i) Explain the errors encountered in electrodynamometer type
**

instruments. (8)

**(ii) A meter having a full scale deflection of 1
**

mA and Rm of 300 Ω is to be used to measure sinusoidal ac voltage of

0–10V range. Compute the multiplier resistance that is required. Assume the

diode has a forward resistance of 0 Ω and a reverse resistance of infinite

ohms. (8)

Or

**(b) (i) Explain the construction and working
**

principle of an Energy meter for ac circuits. (8)

**(ii) An energy meter records one unit for
**

every 660 revolutions of the disc. A load of 1000 watt hour is measured

using this meter for 12 hours. The disc was found rotating at 10.2

revolutions per minute. Calculate the error involved in terms of units of

energy. (8)

**13.(a) (i) Describe Gall potentiometer with a neat diagram and bring
**

out its salient features. (8)

**(ii) Explain how to calibrate wattmeters using
**

potentiometers. (8)

Or

(b) (i) How do current transformers differ from

potential transformers. (4)

**(ii) A current transformer with a bar primary
**

has 300 turns in its secondary winding. The resistance and reactance of the

secondary circuit are 1.5 Ω and 1.0 Ω respectively. With 5 A flowing in the

secondary winding, the magnetising mmf is 100 amperes and Iron loss is 1.2

Watts. Determine the ratio and phase angle error. (12)

**14.(a) (i) Which bridge is used for measuring low resistances?
**

Derive an expression for finding out the unknown low resistance under

balanced condition. (8)

2 M 008

(ii) With neat sketch, explain the operation of

a megger. (8)

Or

**(b) (i) Explain the principle of loss of charge
**

method for measurement of high resistance and derive an expression to find

out the unknown resistance using this method. (8)

(ii) A 2.5 µF capacitor is charged to a

potential of 450 volts. The capacitor is disconnected from the supply and the

potential across the capacitor is observed using an electrostatic voltmeter.

After 15.2 minutes the voltage has fallen to 280 V. This test is repeated using

a resistance ‘R’ in parallel with the capacitor. But now it took 10.8 minutes

for the potential to fall from 450 V to 280 V. Determine the value of ‘R’.

(8)

**15.(a) (i) Explain with circuit diagram the bridge circuit that can be
**

used to measure high voltages. (8)

**(ii) Derive the equation of balance of a
**

schering bridge. Draw the phasor diagram under null condition and explain

how loss angle of capacitor can be calculated. (8)

Or

(b) In an ac bridge the arrangement is as follows :

**AB is an inductive coil of Inductance ‘L’ and effective
**

resistance ‘R’. BC is a non–reactive resistor of 100 Ω CD and DA are non–

reactive resistors of 200 Ω each. CE is a loss–free capacitor 1 µF . DE is a

non-reactive resistance of 500 Ω.

**Under balance condition, a supply of 10 V at 50 Hz
**

conneced across AC and a vibration galvanometer between B and E.

Calculate the value of ‘R’ and ‘L’.

**Draw the phasor diagram for the balanced bridge.
**

(16)

———————

3 M 008

MODEL QUESTION PAPER

B.E. Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

Fifth Semester

EI333 – Electronic Instrumentation

**Time : 3 Hours Max Marks :
**

100

PART – A

Answer All Question (10 x 2 = 20 marks)

**1. Give any four parameters of Operational amplifiers with their ideal values.
**

2. What are the applications of Operational amplifiers?

3. What is voltage reference? Why is it needed?

4. Show the representation of IC voltage regulator.

5. What are the major components of CRT?

6. How can a Q-meter be used for measurement of stray capacitance?

7. What are the basic components of digital systems?

8. Why are the ranges in digital instruments overlapped?

9. Explain the advantages of digital indicating instruments.

10. A 3½ digit voltmeter is used for measuring voltage. Find the resolution of the

instrument.

PART – B (5 x 16 = 80 Marks)

11. Draw and explain the functional diagram of a 555 timer IC. (Compulsory)

12.a) What is the principle of working of Switch Mode Power Supply? Discuss its

advantages and disadvantages.

OR

**12.b) Explain briefly positive fixed voltage regulator. What voltage options are
**

available in 78xx and 79xx voltage regulators?

13.a) Draw the block diagram of CRO and explain the purpose of each blocks.

OR

**13.b) Why signal conditioning in necessary in an instrumentation systems?
**

Describe in detail the instrumentation amplifier.

**14.a) Explain with the help of a neat block diagram the working principle of digital
**

multimeter.

OR

4 M 008

14.b) Discuss the successive approximation A/D converter and list out the merits of the

same.

**15.a) What is X-Y recorder? How do you distinguish it from X-t (or) Y-t recorder?
**

Explain with a suitable circuit diagram the working of a X-Y recorder. Describe

its applications.

OR

**15.b) Describe the basic components of a magnetic tape recorder for instrumentation
**

applications using direct recording technique. Describe its advantages and

disadvantages.

-----

5 M 008

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