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List of proven conspiracies

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This is a list OR INDEX of conspiracies considered proven to have existed
or officially covered-up (and or later discovered) with or without newer
evidence.

Included are events described by different meanings of the word conspiracy: an
agreement between two or more natural persons to break the law (or have the law
unconstitually changed) at some time in the future (civil conspiracy and criminal
conspiracy); conspiracy in the sense of conspiracy theory; or actions undertaken in
secret (and outside public legislative processes) to obtain some goal, usually
understood with negative connotations.

1st century BC

63 BC The second Catiline conspiracy
Failed assassination of Cicero on the morning of November 7 and plans to take
control of the government through arson and slaughter of the senators.
44 BC Caesar assassination plot
On March 15, 44 BC, Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy that included
his friend Brutus.

1600s
1605 The Gunpowder Plot
An attempt by a group of provincial English Catholic extremists to kill King James I of
England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one attack by blowing
up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening. Guy Fawkes Day is named
after one of the (lesser) conspirators and is celebrated with fireworks. Some modern
historians believe the plot may have been either orchestrated or allowed to run its
course by the Protestant elite for propaganda value. See also: Popish Plot.

1700's
1763 Small pox infected blankets given to Native Americans
In response to the 1763 uprising known as Pontiac's Rebellion, Jeffrey Amherst, 1st
Baron Amherst suggested using smallpox as a weapon for ending the rebellion. In a
series of letters to his subordinate Colonel Henry Bouquet, the two men discussed
the possibility of infecting the attacking Indians with smallpox through gifts of
blankets that had been exposed to the disease. Apparently unbeknownst to both
Amherst and Bouquet, the commander at Fort Pitt had already attempted this very
tactic. Although Amherst's name is usually connected with this germ warfare
because he was the overall commander and because of his correspondence with
Bouquet, evidence appears to indicate that the attempt was made without
Amherst's prior knowledge. See Pontiac's Rebellion for references and details.

1800's
1810 to 1850 the Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was a network of clandestine routes by which African
slaves in the United States escaped to freedom, with the aid of abolitionists. It
consisted of clandestine routes, transportation, meeting points, and safe houses
maintained by sympathizers. These individuals were organized into small groups
who, for the purpose of maintaining secrecy, knew only of connecting "stations"
along the route.
1865 The Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln
President Lincoln was murdered by John Wilkes Booth but Booth was involved in a
larger conspiracy to kill Lincoln and several members of his cabinet.
1894 The Dreyfus affair
In 1894 Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, was convicted of
treason. Dreyfus was innocent; the conviction rested on false documents, and when
officials realised this they attempted a cover up. The writer Émile Zola exposed the
affair.
1894 Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Queen Lili'uokalani was selected as the successor to King Kalākaua by Kalākaua
upon his election in 1874. During her brother's reign the monarchy was left
impotent by the Bayonet Constitution of 1887. In 1893, American businessmen
organized in response to an attempt by Lili'uokalani to subvert the 1887
constitution, and took over the government of the Kingdom of Hawai'i. American
troops aboard the USS Boston landed in Honolulu to protect American lives and
property, while Sanford B. Dole and Lorrin A. Thurston's Committee of Safety, a 13
member council of businessmen, organized the Honolulu Rifles to depose Queen
Lili'uokalani. The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai'i and the subsequent
annexation of Hawai'i are sometimes cited as examples of American imperialism.
1898-1913 Western Water Rights: Los Angeles vs. Owens Valley
The agent of the Bureau was a close friend of Eaton, so Eaton had access to inside
information about water rights. Eaton bought land as a private citizen, hoping to sell
it back to Los Angeles at a vast profit. Eaton lobbied Theodore Roosevelt and got the
local irrigation system cancelled. Mulholland misled residents of the Owens Valley,
by claiming that Los Angeles would take water only for domestic purposes, not for
irrigation. By 1905, through purchases and bribery, Los Angeles purchased enough
water rights to enable the aqueduct. The aqueduct was sold to the citizens of Los
Angeles as vital to the growth of the city. However, unknown to the public, the initial
water would be used to irrigate the San Fernando Valley, north of the city. A
syndicate of investors (again, close friends of Eaton, including Harrison Gray Otis)
bought up large tracts of land in the San Fernando Valley with this inside
information. This syndicate made substantial efforts to the passage of the bond
issue that funded the aqueduct including creating a false drought (by manipulating
rainfall totals) and publishing scare articles in the Los Angeles Times. See California
Water Wars.

1900's
1913 Federal Reserve Act
Claimed to have been written by Paul Warburg. Passed by quorum remaining as
many left for Christmas break. Planned in secret on Jekyll Island some 3 years
earlier1910. See among other sources "The Creature from Jekyll Island" by G.
Edward Griffin; Secrets of the Federal Reserve by Eustace Mullins
1919 Black Sox Scandal
During the 1919 World Series, Eight members of the Chicago franchise conspired
with gamblers to intentionally lose games.
1930's National Crime Syndicate
1932 General Motors streetcar conspiracy
Before WWII, Los Angeles had the largest electric trolley system in the world. It is
generally believed that General Motors, Firestone Tire and Rubber, Standard Oil, and
National City Lines conspired to eliminate it. A federal court decided that the
companies had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act and each was "fined" the paltry
sum of $5,000. Company officials were also found guilty and fined one dollar each.
1932 to 1972 Tuskegee Syphilis Study
U.S. Public Health Service monitors 399 poor blacks with syphilis and withholds their
diagnosis from them. Partners and children (congenially) are subsequently infected.
1945 Nazi gold
The whereabouts of the Nazi regime's gold deposits are still unknown. See also PBS
Frontline: Nazi Gold
1950 Project MKULTRA
Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind-
control research program lasting from the 1950s through the late 1960s. It was first
brought to wide public attention by the U.S. Congress (in the form of the Church
Committee) and a presidential commission (known as the Rockefeller Commission)
(see Revelation below) and also to the U.S. Senate. Also mentioned in the
Rockefeller Commission report are other operations where informed consent was
waived or unethically ignored for other operations like Operation Whitecoat.
1953 Operation Midnight Climax
Operation Midnight Climax was an operation initially established by Dr. George
Hunter White under the alias of Morgan Hall for the CIA. The project consisted of a
web of CIA run brothels in San Francisco and New York. It was established in order to
study the effects of LSD on unconsenting individuals after the supply of consenting
patients ran out.
1953 Operation Ajax
Operation Ajax (officially TP-AJAX) was an Anglo-American covert operation to
overthrow the democratically elected government of Iran and Prime Minister
Mohammed Mossadegh and restore the exiled Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to the
throne as a dictator.
1954 Operation PBSUCCESS
Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the
democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954.
1956 COINTELPRO
An FBI program originally begun to "increase factionalism, cause disruption and win
defections" inside the Communist Party U.S.A., the program was soon enlarged to
include the Socialist Workers Party, it quickly expanded to cover Black Liberation
groups, Puerto Rican independence groups, the American Indian Movement, the
Students for a Democratic Society & Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee,
antiwar, community, and religious groups. Its most infamous act was the
assassination, carried out by the Chicago Police Department, of Black Panther Fred
Hampton. The program was secret until 1971, when an FBI field office was
burglarized by a group of left-wing radicals calling themselves the Citizens'
Commission to Investigate the FBI.
1961 Bay of Pigs invasion
Cuban expatriates backed by the U.S. government attempted to invade Cuba at
Cuba's Bay of Pigs in the Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961. The expected urban
revolt failed to materialise due to popular support for Castro. The Soviet Union had
also warned Castro, who ordered executions and preemptive mass arrests of those
thought likely to support a counter-revolution.
1961 The Cuban Project
The Cuban Project, also known as "Operation Mongoose" is the general name for CIA
covert operations and plans initiated by President John F. Kennedy on November 30,
1961 which authorized aggressive covert terrorist operations against Communism in
the Cuban Republic, including several assassination attempts against the Cuban
head of state, Fidel Castro. The operation was led by Air Force General Edward
Lansdale and came into being after the failed Bay of Pigs invasion.
The goal of The Cuban Project was to "help Cuba overthrow the Communist regime",
overthrow its leader Fidel Castro, and aim "for a revolt which can take place in Cuba
by October 1962". See also, "Operation Northwoods", proposed by the Joint Chiefs
of Staff, which included terrorist actions against targets in the U.S. that were to be
blamed on Cuba ("false flag" operations), which was never carried out.
1962 Operation Northwoods
Operation Northwoods or Northwoods was the code name for various proposals for
false flag actions, including domestic terror attacks on U.S. soil, proposed in 1962 by
senior U.S. Department of Defense leaders to generate U.S. public support for
military action against Cuba. The proposal was presented in a document entitled
"Justification for US Military Intervention in Cuba," a draft memorandum pdf) written
by the Department of Defense (DoD) and Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) representative to
the Caribbean Survey Group. The draft memo was presented by the JCS to Secretary
of Defense Robert McNamara on March 13 with one paragraph approved, as a
preliminary submission for planning purposes. However, McNamara rejected the
proposal. The draft memorandum was declassified in recent years through a
Freedom of Information Act request by the National Security Archive.
1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident
On August 4, 1964, North Vietnamese ships had allegedly attacked US destroyers, in
what has come to be known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident which led to Lyndon B.
Johnson to drastically increase troop levels in Vietnam. On November 30, 2005, the
National Security Archive released hundreds of pages of documents revealing that
President Johnson was shown only selective intelligence and that the August 4th
attack in all likelihood never occurred.
1965 Suppressing Sarkhan
The followup book to The Ugly American by William Lederer and Eugene Burdick
disappears from bookstores. Lederer claims the CIA did it because it revealed too
much about then current operations in Thailand. It was finally released in 1977
under the title 'The Deceptive American'.
1967 to ? USS LIBERTY
Attack on USS Liberty (AGTR-5) LBJ called back rescue planes TWICE after Radio
operator found a workaround jamming and called to carrier group for mayday. Israel
used unmarked planes and boats to twice attack U.S.Navy listening post ship;
jamming American radio channels as a "no flag"/false flag operation. Ruled officially
a accident but some largely symbolic reparations were paid. Official coverup
continues. The purpose was allegedly to suggest an attack on US by Egypt, in an
attempt to get USA involved in the war, fighting on the Israeli side.
1969 Secret Bombing of Cambodia
Operation Menu was the codename for secret US bombing of alleged North
Vietnamese strongholds and supply lines in Cambodia during the Vietnam War in
1969. The bombing, of a nation the US was not at war with, began with Operation
Breakfast on March 17, 1969 and was conducted in secret until the New York Times
broke the story on May 8, 1969.
1969 to 1982 Italian Strategy of tension
Conspiracy involving NATO and the Italian masonic lodge Propaganda Due
1970 to ? Air America & Operation Scatback
(linked to Mena Arkansas) Book By Terry Reed Contra/CIA contractor flight
instructor:
Compromised: Clinton, Bush and the CIA* (How
the Presidency was co-opted by the Central Intelligence Agency) *
1972 to 1974 Watergate scandal
Grand conspiracy involving the President of the United States.
1975-1999 Indonesian occupation of East Timor
U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had met President
Suharto of Indonesia in Jakarta where Ford made it clear that "we will not press you
on the issue" of the invasion and occupation of East Timor. Several U.S.
administrations up to and including that of Bill Clinton did not ban arms sales to the
Indonesian government, though the latter did eventually end U.S. support of
Suharto's regime. The territory was declared the 27th province of Indonesia in July
1976 as Timor Timur. However, internationally its legal status was that of a "non-
self-governing territory under Portuguese administration." See also Manufacturing
Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media: A centerpiece of the film is a long
examination into the history of The New York Times's coverage of Indonesia's
invasion and occupation of East Timor, which Chomsky claims exemplifies the
media's unwillingness to criticize an ally and uses as an example of self-censorship
in western media.
1981 to 1986 Iran-Contra
The Iran-Contra Affair (also known as "Irangate") was a mid-1980s political scandal
in the United States. President Ronald Reagan's administration sold arms to Iran, an
avowed enemy. At the time, Americans were being held hostage in Lebanon by
Hezbollah, a militant Shi'a organization loyal to Ayatollah Khomeini, and it was
hoped that Iran would influence them to release the hostages; at the same time,
Iran, which was in the midst of the Iran-Iraq War, could find few nations willing to
supply it with weapons. The U.S. diverted proceeds from the sale to the Contras,
anti-Communist guerrillas engaged in an insurgency against the left wing Sandinista
government of Nicaragua. Both the sale of weapons and the funding of the Contras
violated stated administration policy as well as legislation passed by the
Democratic-controlled Congress, which had blocked further Contra funding. *
Incomplete without mentioning Mena Arkansas as a base of operations and the
drugs for arms bartering * with among other connections, to The Bluegrass
Conspiracy a book by Sally Denton detailing drugs and corrupton involving the
commissioner of Kentucky State Police, (who resigned) officers and other officials as
reported in newspapers.
1988 Nelson Bunker Hunt and Silver Thursday
Nelson Bunker Hunt declared bankruptcy and was convicted in August 1988 of
conspiring to manipulate the market.
1990 Las Vegas American Coin Fixed Video Poker Conspiracy
Las Vegas Sun: November 06, 1997 Arrest made in '90 murder; warrant issued for
second man "American Coin, at the time, was the state's fourth largest slot route
operator, with more than 1,000 machines in various Las Vegas locations. The
company was charged with altering 300 machines." "After Volk told authorities of
the computer chip scam at American Coin, the company was closed and the gaming
licenses of the owners -- Rudolph and Rudy M. LaVecchia and Frank Romano -- were
surrendered in a deal that required them to pay a $1 million fine to the state in the
February 1990 deal." Larry Volk, the programmer of the fixed computer chip (ROM),
was found shot dead, execution style, after agreeing to testify in the case. See also
Comdex '99: The mysterious death of Larry Volk, Las Vegas Review Journal: Harris
case nothing compared to the big one that went away
1993 Assassination plot against President George H.W. Bush
On April 13, 1993, several Iraqi nationals were arrested in Kuwait and charged with
plotting to assassinate former President Bush via car bomb during a visit to Kuwait.
Later, a court in Kuwait convicted all but one of the defendants. On 26 June, 1993,
President Clinton launched a missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence
headquarters in retaliation for the attempted attack against Bush.
1993 WTC terrorist attack
In the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, a truck filled with explosives was planted
by terrorists and detonated in the underground garage of the north tower, opening
a 30m hole through 4 sublevels of concrete. Six people were killed and over a
thousand injured.
According to a presiding judge, the conspirators' chief aim at the time of the attack
was to de-stabilize the north tower and send it crashing into the south tower,
toppling both landmarks.
1994 Diamonds are forever?
In 1994 De Beers was charged by the United States Justice Department with
Sherman Antitrust Act violations for conspiring to fix prices for industrial diamonds.
On 14 July 2004 De Beers pleaded guilty to the charges and paid a $10 million fine.
According to PBS: Frontline: The Diamond Empire: "EDWARD EPSTEIN, Author, "The
Rise and Fall of Diamonds": Well, what I learned was that the diamond business
wasn't a business of extracting, as I originally expected, something of enormous
value and then simply seeing how much of this object you could get out of the
ground and selling it. That was what the business appeared to be when I started my
venture. But their real business was restricting what came out of the ground,
restricting what was discovered, restricting what got cut, restricting what actually
found its way into the retail market and, at the same time, through movies, through
advertising, through Hollywood, through the manipulation of perceptions, creating
the idea that there was this enormous demand for these shiny little objects that
they seemed to have in abundant supply. So I wound up on this voyage of discovery
starting off with the idea that there was this object of great value, and it was just a
question of how many could you get out, and I wound up discovering it was just the
opposite." See also Crater of Diamonds.
1995 The Bojinka Plot
The Bojinka plot refers to a three-part conspiracy: the plot to destroy 11 airliners on
January 21 and 22, 1995; the plan to kill Pope John Paul II on January 15, 1995
during a papal visit to the Philippines; and the third part of this conspiracy was a
plan to crash a plane into the CIA headquarters in Fairfax County, Virginia and other
buildings. The Bojinka plot was prevented on January 6 and 7, 1995.
1995 Oklahoma City bombing
The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist attack on April 19, 1995, in which the
Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was destroyed, killing 168 people. The (Oklahoma)
McCurtain Daily Gazette has reported that at least one member of the secret
services and an informant for the BATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms)
had prior knowledge that the attack was about to take place, a charge which the FBI
deny. The newspaper also alleges that the FBI and the Southern Poverty Law
Section, as part of a top-secret undercover operation, may have indeed assisted the
bombers in their plans as part of a failed sting operation, citing evidence given in a
court case by a BATF informant and data published under the Freedom of
Information Act as 'proof'.
Other reports point variously to the quick response of agents dressed in full 'mop-
gear' clothing, as if pre-prepared for an explosion; the fact that the BATF offices (in
the bombed building) were empty at the time of the explosion; FBI reluctance to
release sensitive documentation relating to the case, and rumours of an SMS
warning sent out to BATF staff as further 'evidence' of a major conspiracy. These
reports are largely based on empirical evidence and circumstantial information, and
remain unproven.
1995 to 2004 Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal
The Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal is a United States political scandal
relating to the work performed by political lobbyists Jack Abramoff, Ralph E. Reed,
Jr., Grover Norquist and Michael Scanlon on behalf of Indian casino gambling
interests for an estimated $85 million in fees. Abramoff and Scanlon grossly
overbilled their clients, secretly splitting the multimillion-dollar profits. In one case,
they secretly orchestrated lobbying against their own clients in order to force them
to pay for lobbying services.

2000's
2001 Enron and Arthur Andersen
The company and its Big Five accounting firm conspired to commit accounting
fraud. Fortune named Enron "America's Most Innovative Company" for six
consecutive years.
2002 Las Vegas Venetian Rigged Drawing
The Venetian casino employees conspired to rig drawings. According to the Las
Vegas Sun: July 15, 2004 Venetian contest rigger lectured by regulators: "Mok said
he rigged the drawing because a high-roller he was hosting lost $5 million gambling
and the employee "didn't want to see him go home empty-handed."" The Venetian
agreed to pay a $1 million fine to settle a 12 count complaint. "Board member
Bobby Siller ... compared the additional damage inflicted by attempting to cover up
the scheme with the trouble former President Richard Nixon brought upon himself
during the Watergate burglary investigation." Four Venetian employees lost their
licenses to work in the Nevada gaming industry but were quickly hired by casinos in
other states. According to the Las Vegas Sun: "Michael French, the former senior
vice president of operations, became the chief operating officer for the Inn of the
Mountain Gods casino in Mescalero, N.M. Brian Parrish, formerly the vice president
of marketing, became the marketing director for the same New Mexico tribal casino.
The Mescalero Apache Tribe said they believed the involvement by French and
Parrish in the scheme was more than offset by their wide-ranging experience. Don
Richardson, another Venetian executive involved in the incident, surfaced as the
director of operations at the Wildfire, a small casino owned by Station Casinos Inc.
Station officials said the company's regulatory compliance department investigated
the matter and determined that Richardson was suitable for the position."
2004 Secret CIA Prisons
A story by reporter Dana Priest published in The Washington Post of November 2,
2005, reported that "The CIA has been hiding and interrogating some of its most
important al Qaeda captives at a Soviet-era compound in Eastern Europe, according
to U.S. and foreign officials familiar with the arrangement."[4]
The report contends that the CIA has a worldwide covert prison system with
facilities in Asia, Eastern Europe, and in Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. The system is
central to the agency's anti-terror role, and according to the report has been kept
secret from government officials (including Congressional committees that oversee
the CIA) through the agency's own efforts as well as cooperation with foreign
intelligence services.
This conspiracy was proven in 2006 when President Bush admitted that indeed
there are secret CIA prisons in Europe and elsewhere.
2005 Ahmed Omar Abu Ali
On November 23 a federal jury convicted Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, a citizen of the
United States, on nine counts, including conspiracy to assassinate the president,
and conspiracy to commit aircraft piracy.
2005 DRAM price fixing
In October Samsung pled guilty to conspiring with other companies, including
Infineon and Hynix Semiconductor, to fix the price of DRAM. Samsung was the third
company to be charged in connection with the international cartel and was fined
$300M. In October 2004 four executives from Infineon were sentenced to 4 to 6
months in prison and $250,000 in fines after agreeing to aid the U.S. Department of
Justice with their investigation of the conspiracy.
2005 Bernard Ebbers
He was convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the largest (to date) accounting
scandal in U.S. history, as a result of WorldCom's false financial reporting, and
subsequent 180 billion dollar loss to investors.