ESP 1 notes

Engineering design creates an efficient and improved outcome Affordance - a usage suggested by the characteristics of the design Concept of Operation (ConOps) - requirements and the proposed solution from the user’s perspective Consulting Companies - they take on a bunch of projects for many clients Due diligence - none of us are perfect, and therefore need to check our work - work with your field of expertise Engineering Notebook - documents everything that is related to the project Ergonomic Data - graphs the physical attributes of humans - have to decide if the outliers will be included in the design RFP (Request for Proposal) - everyone can propose a design - the one that gets chosen are the ones that get paid - found from websites, government, business development/networking Universal Design - designing for users with as broad a range of characteristics as possible Steps 1- Design brief (client statement) - there are errors and assumptions - implied solutions 2- Problem statement and requirements - restatement of the design in terms of the need; describes the hole in the world - solution independent statement, which includes the essential parts of the design problem - requirements that the design should meet 3- Generate alternative - wide range of solutions 4- Evaluate alternatives

Functions (should do) o Functional Basis – defines the function in terms of mass. energy and/or info o leaves open the widest possible solutions o ex. whether they are tests or standards  environmentally friendly does not count. environmental.make it Types of Problems  open o many solutions  closed o one right answer    determinate o one unique solution indeterminate o not enough independent info.Implementation . simulations. financial.improve it (iterate) 6.modeling. The door should lock (primary). design is to perform o Secondary functions. social and performance objectives o there should be goals for these objectives (in metrics) 3. many solutions over determinate o too much info. that enable or result from the primary o Unintended functions 2. find a way to measure this (standards or testing) 1.evaluate the solutions against the requirements 5.Detailed final design . the door should unlock (secondary) o Primary functions. Constraints (shall/must be) . no possible solution - DESIGN PROCESS Requirements  all requirements should be in metrics (that are measurable). prototype testing . Objectives (should be) o separates the good and bad solutions o physical.

o Ex. Service Environment o Physical o Living Things o Virtual Stakeholders They are not  Client  Users  You They are  Government o Guidelines o Testing/inspection o On-going monitoring  NGOs  Public o Individuals o Community groups o Businesses o Common reactions – NIMBY (not in my backyard) Social Impacts  Live  Work  Play  Relate to one another  Organize to meet their needs  Generally cope as members of society Considerations  Gender issues  Vulnerable peoples  Individuals with disabilities  Language issues  Different cultures . government o Primary o Secondary 5. social and performance. safety requirements (government imposed constraint) o physical. but it may be indirect o Economic. Stakeholders o They have an interest in the design process. environmental. financial. which are strict requirements for the design 4. physical or psychological concern o Key stakeholder. price (client imposed constraint) o Ex.

but they tend to be better .not allowed to contact the client Conceptual Design .least commitment to a particular solution .balanced by the need of determinacy Idea Generation (divergent thinking) o include all ideas even if they violate constraints o should create 50+ ideas  Structured brainstorming o Write ideas individually o Share ideas in a complied list o Repeat o Fewer ideas.Methods  Black Box Method (functions) o Input on the left o Black box in the middle o Output on the right  Function Means Tree (secondary functions) o Select a primary function o Create a tree of ideas that resolve this function o Under each idea. indicate the what it needs to work o Look for commonalities to uncover secondary functions  How-why tree (measurable objectives) o Select an objective o List all metrics that make up this objective  Pair-wise comparison (organize objectives) Reliable Inexpensive Environmentally Score low impact Reliable 1 1 2 Inexpensive 0 1 1 Environmentally 0 0 0 low impact SOLUTION DOMAIN “Black out” period .generating potential solutions or alternative solutions Strategy of Least Commitment .

5x0.35 0. symbolism SCAMPER o Substitute o Combine o Adapt o Modify/ Maximize/ Minimize o Put to another use o Eliminate o Reverse/ Reuse Functional Decomposition o Create solutions for each of the functions (primary &secondary) o Put all the solutions together Choosing a Design (convergent thinking)  Multi-Voting o Give each person 7-10 votes o Must vote for different ideas o Leave objectives infront of you o List reduced to 10-20 ideas o Many companies go to prototyping now  Graphical Decision Matrix o Use team discussion to plot ideas o Have the top two objectives on the axis o Should have 4-5 ideas in there  Weighted Decision Matrix Weight (determined through discussion) O1 40% 02 35% O3 20% O4 5% Total 100% o how well the design meets the objective X how much the objective is worth Objective Design 1 Design 2 O1 0.25x0. inspires out-of-the-box ideas Analogy brainstorming o Biological o Fantasy o Synectics.35 Objective # Rank (pairwise comparison) 1 2 3 4 .8x0.    o Everyone contributes and reduces hitchhiking Free brainstorming o Call out ideas o Standing up or in weird positions.1x0.4 O2 0.4 0.

based on an experience.47 0. ex. you make your decisions on that  Purpose. objectives and constraints o Limited  Research o Literature & internet o Look for standards o Professional sources for info  Benchmarking o Looking for related technologies Sources  Different sources (triangulates)  Find counter-examples  Avoids fallacious thinking (false arguments.05 0. documented properly  Plagiarism o Don’t copy word from word. developed by you or found through research o Scientific principle o Research.O3 O4 Total OTHER 0.what you get Communication  Language o Lists and tables.set of values that create your image of the world  Bias. especially without quotations o Use the IEEE format for references Teamwork  Levels o Forming o Storming o Norming .2 0x0. Bill does not have good ideas)  Frame of reference.365 Gathering Info  Ask the Client o Specify the functions. paragraphs are not considered better than lists o Never use figurative language o Direct quotes are rarely used  3 kinds of evidence o Data.2 1x0.2x0.05 0.75x0.

Assignments) Reactions to rule breaking o  Smoothing.     Getting along o Performing o Adjourning Watch out for these types of people o Hitchhiker  Along for the ride o Hijacking  High need to control  Address the problem o Isolationist  Don’t want to be there  Just want the deadline o Enablers  May look like hijackers  Tries to keep everyone happy  Volunteer to death Decisions o Voting  Fast  Cuts short important discussion o Expert decides  One person with lots of experience o Team leader decides  In industry this is the project manager o Consensus  Slow. never fully into one solution . you will get half and half. never confront the problem o +/. saying it will be better next time o  Avoidance.Compromise. set a strategy to move on if consensus is not reached  Everyone gets a say Team practices o Agenda  List of things to accomplish at a meeting  Don’t have too many items o Chair  Makes sure everyone is staying on track o Meeting minutes  Assign one person as a note-taker  Record decisions made and action items for the next meeting o Schedule  Due dates (milestones)  Deliverable (ex.

have everything done and then review) o Break up the task Response to poor quality of work o Time blocking o Out-loud editing Feasibility Study  Technical – can the design solve the problem  Economic – are the costs reasonable. constructive solution (life gives you lemons make lemonade) Responses to late delivery of work o Move deadlines closer o Set intermediate deadlines (couple days before.  o Constructive Engagement. do the benefits outweigh the costs?  Operational – how well will the design solve the problem?  Legal – will the design comply with applicable laws?  Scheduling – is the timetable for the design reasonable Types of project requests  Internal projects o Business case  Fact based proposal to support a course of action  Accurate and concise presentation of facts and expected outcomes  External projects o RFP  Qualifications  Approach  Timetable  Cost Project Management Tools  Gantt Chart o The dots are for the milestones o The shading represent the time spent on the task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3  Task 1 Task 2  Task 3 Task 4 Task 5  Critical Path Method Week 4  . affordable.

weight. material  Psychological o Accommodate intuitive expectations o How information is presented o Cause and effect relationships SEVERAL ASPECTS TO CONSIDER Laws    o Safe Equality Implement social policies Federal  National defense  Immigration  Foreign trade o Provincial  Education . size. colour.o Determines a logical sequence o Leads from the start and finish with arrows o Critical path is the path that is the longest from the start to finish Steps for Project Risk Management  Analysis o Identify all possible undesirable outcomes/hazards o Estimate the probability of occurrence  Evaluation o Estimate the severity of the impact of the risk  Identify strategies to avoid/reduce the risk (mitigation) Human Factors  Physical o Shape.

 Health care  Natural resources o Municipal  Public housing  Snow removal  Water supply What to Legislate  Precautionary principle (before) o Threat of serious environmental harm o Scientific uncertainty about the effect  Response to crisis or tragedy (after) o Future prevention  “Bright” idea o Reasonable and prudent approach Legislation – what Regulation – how Policy – nice to have but $$$ Guideline – instruction manual Standards Setting Organizations  Develop performance expectations  “Third party” certification  Quality assurance o International Organization for Standardization (ISO) o Canadian Standards Association (CSA) o Underwriters Laboratory (UL) Canada Professional and Technical Organizations o Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO) o AWWA/ ASHRAE/ IEEE Demand-side Legislation  Requires certification or action by an engineer  To protect public safety  Statutory duty to protect the public welfare (PEO) Economics Macro (whole country) Micro (companies)  Influenced by macroeconomics (supply and demand. raw materials/labour/energy) .

cash flows are discounted over time. maximize benefits  Others o Workers – maximize benefits o Local residents – maximize benefits. avoid costs Types of Costs  Internal o Labour o Facilities o Regulatory compliance and auditing o Marketing and merchandising  External o Noise pollution o Air pollution o Could be a benefit to a third party  Capital (just one time costs) o Initial costs o Disposal costs o Lump sum payment  Operating o Ongoing/ recurring .demand supply  Shortcoming.Supply and Demand Curve  The supply curve increases as the demand decreases  Equilibrium occurs when they meet  Surplus. based on an interest rate Costs  labour  materials  net losses Benefits  revenue  savings  expenditure avoidance Perspectives  Clients o Private sector – Maximize profit o Public sector – Cost savings. avoidance o Not for profit sector – A little of both  Users o Purchasers – minimize costs.demand supply Time Value of Money .

overhead Fixed o Is constant Variable o Changes depending on anything Revenue o profit + costs o price x quantity Break Even o revenue = costs Payback period o time required to recover investment o the shorter the better Interest  P = present value ($)  F = future value ($)  N = number of interest periods  i = interest rate (%) Simple Interest F(N) = P(1 + Ni) Compound Interest F(N) = P(1+i)N Discounting P(N) = F(1+i)-N Estimate Costs  Estimate quantities / types  Suppliers  Pervious costs for similar stuff  Analogies  Studies  “Rules of thumb”  Bottom up o add up time for all the tasks  Top down o “blue sky” based on schedule or value of expected result/outcome  Comparative  Triangulation is always a good idea Risks  Inflation o Changes in prices of goods and services in an economy over time .  o Maintenance o Taxes.

materials.  Regional Variations o Regulations o Inflation o Tax levels o Labour. supplies and prices Project Risks o Chief design engineer leaves o Hurricane destroys everything o Supplier declares bankruptcy Environment Work with the environment Bioaccumulation o built up in fatty tissues of animals Biomagnification o entered the food chain Non-biodegradable o remains in the environment even after dilution with water Direct Impacts  Air pollution  Water pollution  Land degradation  Climate change  Loss of biodiversity / ecosystem imbalance  Resource depletion Supplementary Impacts  Overconsumption o Consumer packaging  Un-wise use (waste) of resources o Drinking water Approaches  Meet environmental codes and standards  Benchmarking to best practices  Environmental assessment (EA)  “End of Pipe” o apply technologies after all processes have taken place  Upstream / In-stream o Sometimes called source control Codes and Best Practices . energy.

use more than once o recycle. energy)  Steps 1.Improvement analysis Sustainability . garbage incineration) o Renewable  May apply to energy (ex. geothermal) Life Cycle Assessment  Assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product.   Regulatory (must do) Non-regulatory (should do) o LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) o Rating systems Innovative (could do) o Carbon trading o Water quality trading Environmental Assessment  Legislated requirement  Alternative methods  Alternative designs  “Environment” o service o economic o social Design for the Environment  use 3Rs o reduce.Impact analysis  Ecological & human health impacts  How can impacts be determined?  How can impacts be compared? 4. waste. service or system  Begins from raw materials to the grave  Inputs (raw materials)  processes  outputs (pollution.Inventory analysis 3.Identify scope and life cycle 2. make something out of the old  other Rs o Recover  May apply to energy (ex. use less and avoid generating waste o reuse. solar.

food web) Shift from linear to cyclical systems o closed system Sustainability Intersection  Social & Economic & Environmental o Sustainable  Social & Economic o Equitable o Fair labour practices o Give back to the community  Economic & Environmental o Viable o Wise use of resources o Energy efficiency o Reduced emissions o Health.g. business. environment & society Wise use of resources/ works with nature Take future into account Design for “cradle to cradle” (Industrial Ecology) o Outputs from one process become inputs to another Triple Bottom Line o Intersection of maximizing social.     Balance economy. safety compliance  Environmental & Social o Beneficial o Products that enhance people’s lives o Access to services and infrastructure Ethics Professional Engineering in Canada  Self regulated  Professional Engineers Act and Regulation . public health) Analogies to natural system o a high degree of interconnectedness (e. economic and environmental impacts Systems Analysis o recognition of the relationship between industrial and natural systems Material and energy flows and transformations o reduce overall environmental burden of an industrial system Multi-disciplinary approach o full span of variety of fields (law.

Pass the Professional Practice Exam (ethics and law) 4.4 years of engineering experience 3.Undergraduate degree 2. no matter the personal consequences  Ability to assess these issues in the best interests of the public as a whole 5.Good character  Ability to tell what’s right and wrong  Courage to do what’s right.Communication skills (English or French) .Become a Professional Engineer (for students there is a PEO Student Membership Program) 1.