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ESP 1 notes

Engineering design creates an efficient and improved outcome Affordance - a usage suggested by the characteristics of the design Concept of Operation (ConOps) - requirements and the proposed solution from the users perspective Consulting Companies - they take on a bunch of projects for many clients Due diligence - none of us are perfect, and therefore need to check our work - work with your field of expertise Engineering Notebook - documents everything that is related to the project Ergonomic Data - graphs the physical attributes of humans - have to decide if the outliers will be included in the design RFP (Request for Proposal) - everyone can propose a design - the one that gets chosen are the ones that get paid - found from websites, government, business development/networking Universal Design - designing for users with as broad a range of characteristics as possible Steps 1- Design brief (client statement) - there are errors and assumptions - implied solutions 2- Problem statement and requirements - restatement of the design in terms of the need; describes the hole in the world - solution independent statement, which includes the essential parts of the design problem - requirements that the design should meet 3- Generate alternative - wide range of solutions 4- Evaluate alternatives

evaluate the solutions against the requirements 5- Detailed final design - modeling, simulations, prototype testing - improve it (iterate) 6- Implementation - make it Types of Problems open o many solutions closed o one right answer determinate o one unique solution indeterminate o not enough independent info; many solutions over determinate o too much info; no possible solution

DESIGN PROCESS Requirements all requirements should be in metrics (that are measurable), whether they are tests or standards environmentally friendly does not count, find a way to measure this (standards or testing) 1. Functions (should do) o Functional Basis defines the function in terms of mass, energy and/or info o leaves open the widest possible solutions o ex. The door should lock (primary); the door should unlock (secondary) o Primary functions; design is to perform o Secondary functions; that enable or result from the primary o Unintended functions 2. Objectives (should be) o separates the good and bad solutions o physical, financial, environmental, social and performance objectives o there should be goals for these objectives (in metrics) 3. Constraints (shall/must be)

o Ex. price (client imposed constraint) o Ex. safety requirements (government imposed constraint) o physical, financial, environmental, social and performance, which are strict requirements for the design 4. Stakeholders o They have an interest in the design process; but it may be indirect o Economic, physical or psychological concern o Key stakeholder; government o Primary o Secondary 5. Service Environment o Physical o Living Things o Virtual Stakeholders They are not Client Users You They are Government o Guidelines o Testing/inspection o On-going monitoring NGOs Public o Individuals o Community groups o Businesses o Common reactions NIMBY (not in my backyard) Social Impacts Live Work Play Relate to one another Organize to meet their needs Generally cope as members of society Considerations Gender issues Vulnerable peoples Individuals with disabilities Language issues Different cultures

Methods Black Box Method (functions) o Input on the left o Black box in the middle o Output on the right Function Means Tree (secondary functions) o Select a primary function o Create a tree of ideas that resolve this function o Under each idea, indicate the what it needs to work o Look for commonalities to uncover secondary functions How-why tree (measurable objectives) o Select an objective o List all metrics that make up this objective Pair-wise comparison (organize objectives) Reliable Inexpensive Environmentally Score low impact Reliable 1 1 2 Inexpensive 0 1 1 Environmentally 0 0 0 low impact

SOLUTION DOMAIN Black out period - not allowed to contact the client Conceptual Design - generating potential solutions or alternative solutions Strategy of Least Commitment - least commitment to a particular solution - balanced by the need of determinacy Idea Generation (divergent thinking) o include all ideas even if they violate constraints o should create 50+ ideas Structured brainstorming o Write ideas individually o Share ideas in a complied list o Repeat o Fewer ideas, but they tend to be better

o Everyone contributes and reduces hitchhiking Free brainstorming o Call out ideas o Standing up or in weird positions; inspires out-of-the-box ideas Analogy brainstorming o Biological o Fantasy o Synectics; symbolism SCAMPER o Substitute o Combine o Adapt o Modify/ Maximize/ Minimize o Put to another use o Eliminate o Reverse/ Reuse Functional Decomposition o Create solutions for each of the functions (primary &secondary) o Put all the solutions together

Choosing a Design (convergent thinking) Multi-Voting o Give each person 7-10 votes o Must vote for different ideas o Leave objectives infront of you o List reduced to 10-20 ideas o Many companies go to prototyping now Graphical Decision Matrix o Use team discussion to plot ideas o Have the top two objectives on the axis o Should have 4-5 ideas in there Weighted Decision Matrix Weight (determined through discussion) O1 40% 02 35% O3 20% O4 5% Total 100% o how well the design meets the objective X how much the objective is worth Objective Design 1 Design 2 O1 0.25x0.4 0.1x0.4 O2 0.8x0.35 0.5x0.35 Objective # Rank (pairwise comparison) 1 2 3 4

O3 O4 Total OTHER

0.2x0.2 1x0.05 0.47

0.75x0.2 0x0.05 0.365

Gathering Info Ask the Client o Specify the functions, objectives and constraints o Limited Research o Literature & internet o Look for standards o Professional sources for info Benchmarking o Looking for related technologies Sources Different sources (triangulates) Find counter-examples Avoids fallacious thinking (false arguments; ex. Bill does not have good ideas) Frame of reference- set of values that create your image of the world Bias- based on an experience, you make your decisions on that Purpose- what you get Communication Language o Lists and tables; paragraphs are not considered better than lists o Never use figurative language o Direct quotes are rarely used 3 kinds of evidence o Data; developed by you or found through research o Scientific principle o Research; documented properly Plagiarism o Dont copy word from word; especially without quotations o Use the IEEE format for references Teamwork Levels o Forming o Storming o Norming

Getting along o Performing o Adjourning Watch out for these types of people o Hitchhiker Along for the ride o Hijacking High need to control Address the problem o Isolationist Dont want to be there Just want the deadline o Enablers May look like hijackers Tries to keep everyone happy Volunteer to death Decisions o Voting Fast Cuts short important discussion o Expert decides One person with lots of experience o Team leader decides In industry this is the project manager o Consensus Slow; set a strategy to move on if consensus is not reached Everyone gets a say Team practices o Agenda List of things to accomplish at a meeting Dont have too many items o Chair Makes sure everyone is staying on track o Meeting minutes Assign one person as a note-taker Record decisions made and action items for the next meeting o Schedule Due dates (milestones) Deliverable (ex. Assignments) Reactions to rule breaking o Smoothing; saying it will be better next time o Avoidance; never confront the problem o +/- Compromise; you will get half and half, never fully into one solution

o Constructive Engagement; constructive solution (life gives you lemons make lemonade) Responses to late delivery of work o Move deadlines closer o Set intermediate deadlines (couple days before, have everything done and then review) o Break up the task Response to poor quality of work o Time blocking o Out-loud editing

Feasibility Study Technical can the design solve the problem Economic are the costs reasonable, affordable; do the benefits outweigh the costs? Operational how well will the design solve the problem? Legal will the design comply with applicable laws? Scheduling is the timetable for the design reasonable Types of project requests Internal projects o Business case Fact based proposal to support a course of action Accurate and concise presentation of facts and expected outcomes External projects o RFP Qualifications Approach Timetable Cost Project Management Tools Gantt Chart o The dots are for the milestones o The shading represent the time spent on the task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Critical Path Method

Week 4

o Determines a logical sequence o Leads from the start and finish with arrows o Critical path is the path that is the longest from the start to finish

Steps for Project Risk Management Analysis o Identify all possible undesirable outcomes/hazards o Estimate the probability of occurrence Evaluation o Estimate the severity of the impact of the risk Identify strategies to avoid/reduce the risk (mitigation) Human Factors Physical o Shape, size, weight, colour, material Psychological o Accommodate intuitive expectations o How information is presented o Cause and effect relationships

SEVERAL ASPECTS TO CONSIDER Laws o Safe Equality Implement social policies Federal National defense Immigration Foreign trade o Provincial Education

Health care Natural resources o Municipal Public housing Snow removal Water supply What to Legislate Precautionary principle (before) o Threat of serious environmental harm o Scientific uncertainty about the effect Response to crisis or tragedy (after) o Future prevention Bright idea o Reasonable and prudent approach Legislation what Regulation how Policy nice to have but $$$ Guideline instruction manual Standards Setting Organizations Develop performance expectations Third party certification Quality assurance o International Organization for Standardization (ISO) o Canadian Standards Association (CSA) o Underwriters Laboratory (UL) Canada Professional and Technical Organizations o Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO) o AWWA/ ASHRAE/ IEEE Demand-side Legislation Requires certification or action by an engineer To protect public safety Statutory duty to protect the public welfare (PEO) Economics Macro (whole country) Micro (companies) Influenced by macroeconomics (supply and demand, raw materials/labour/energy)

Supply and Demand Curve The supply curve increases as the demand decreases Equilibrium occurs when they meet Surplus- demand supply Shortcoming- demand supply Time Value of Money - cash flows are discounted over time, based on an interest rate Costs labour materials net losses Benefits revenue savings expenditure avoidance Perspectives Clients o Private sector Maximize profit o Public sector Cost savings, avoidance o Not for profit sector A little of both Users o Purchasers minimize costs, maximize benefits Others o Workers maximize benefits o Local residents maximize benefits, avoid costs Types of Costs Internal o Labour o Facilities o Regulatory compliance and auditing o Marketing and merchandising External o Noise pollution o Air pollution o Could be a benefit to a third party Capital (just one time costs) o Initial costs o Disposal costs o Lump sum payment Operating o Ongoing/ recurring

o Maintenance o Taxes, overhead Fixed o Is constant Variable o Changes depending on anything


o profit + costs o price x quantity Break Even o revenue = costs Payback period o time required to recover investment o the shorter the better Interest P = present value ($) F = future value ($) N = number of interest periods i = interest rate (%) Simple Interest F(N) = P(1 + Ni) Compound Interest F(N) = P(1+i)N Discounting P(N) = F(1+i)-N Estimate Costs Estimate quantities / types Suppliers Pervious costs for similar stuff Analogies Studies Rules of thumb Bottom up o add up time for all the tasks Top down o blue sky based on schedule or value of expected result/outcome Comparative Triangulation is always a good idea Risks Inflation o Changes in prices of goods and services in an economy over time

Regional Variations o Regulations o Inflation o Tax levels o Labour, materials, energy, supplies and prices Project Risks o Chief design engineer leaves o Hurricane destroys everything o Supplier declares bankruptcy

Environment Work with the environment Bioaccumulation o built up in fatty tissues of animals Biomagnification o entered the food chain Non-biodegradable o remains in the environment even after dilution with water Direct Impacts Air pollution Water pollution Land degradation Climate change Loss of biodiversity / ecosystem imbalance Resource depletion Supplementary Impacts Overconsumption o Consumer packaging Un-wise use (waste) of resources o Drinking water Approaches Meet environmental codes and standards Benchmarking to best practices Environmental assessment (EA) End of Pipe o apply technologies after all processes have taken place Upstream / In-stream o Sometimes called source control Codes and Best Practices

Regulatory (must do) Non-regulatory (should do) o LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) o Rating systems Innovative (could do) o Carbon trading o Water quality trading

Environmental Assessment Legislated requirement Alternative methods Alternative designs Environment o service o economic o social Design for the Environment use 3Rs o reduce; use less and avoid generating waste o reuse; use more than once o recycle; make something out of the old other Rs o Recover May apply to energy (ex. garbage incineration) o Renewable May apply to energy (ex. solar, geothermal) Life Cycle Assessment Assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product, service or system Begins from raw materials to the grave Inputs (raw materials) processes outputs (pollution, waste, energy) Steps 1- Identify scope and life cycle 2- Inventory analysis 3- Impact analysis Ecological & human health impacts How can impacts be determined? How can impacts be compared? 4- Improvement analysis Sustainability

Balance economy, environment & society Wise use of resources/ works with nature Take future into account Design for cradle to cradle (Industrial Ecology) o Outputs from one process become inputs to another Triple Bottom Line o Intersection of maximizing social, economic and environmental impacts

Systems Analysis o recognition of the relationship between industrial and natural systems Material and energy flows and transformations o reduce overall environmental burden of an industrial system Multi-disciplinary approach o full span of variety of fields (law, business, public health) Analogies to natural system o a high degree of interconnectedness (e.g. food web) Shift from linear to cyclical systems o closed system Sustainability Intersection Social & Economic & Environmental o Sustainable Social & Economic o Equitable o Fair labour practices o Give back to the community Economic & Environmental o Viable o Wise use of resources o Energy efficiency o Reduced emissions o Health, safety compliance Environmental & Social o Beneficial o Products that enhance peoples lives o Access to services and infrastructure Ethics Professional Engineering in Canada Self regulated Professional Engineers Act and Regulation

Become a Professional Engineer (for students there is a PEO Student Membership Program) 1- Undergraduate degree 2- 4 years of engineering experience 3- Pass the Professional Practice Exam (ethics and law) 4- Good character Ability to tell whats right and wrong Courage to do whats right, no matter the personal consequences Ability to assess these issues in the best interests of the public as a whole 5- Communication skills (English or French)