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Mini Project Report submitted on partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
award of the degree of









( Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University)



This is to certify that the mini project entitled Study of Steam
Turbines is a bonafide one being carried out at BHARAT HEAVY
ELECTRICALS LIMITED,Ramachandrapuram,Hyderabad-502032
10611A0359,A.Israel olivero 10R21A0301,A.Sai Teja 10R21A0307 of
B. Tech III Year II semester as a partial fulfilment of acedamic
requirement for the award of B.Tech degree in Mechanical Engineering.

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

(Head of Mechanical Engineering)


Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) Heavy power Equipment plant

(HPEP) unit, Ramachandrapuram, Hyderabad, is the project work center.
BHEL is a heavy engineering industry which was started in 1960s by the
government of India as a public sector company with the collaboration of SKODA
of Czechoslovakia, to manufacture power generating equipments such as Steam
turbines, Alternators, Exciters, Condensers etc. In 1970s the company undertook
the collaboration with Nuovo pigaone of Italy to manufacture Centrifugal
Compressors, for industrial uses. In 1976 BHEL entered into collaboration with
SIEMENS of West Germany and since then is manufacturing precise steam
turbines of Siemens model for use in power generation and compressors drives. In
1980s the company collaborated with General Electric (G.E) USA to manufacture
Gas Turbines (G.T).
Now BHEL (Hyderabad) unit is a leading Heavy Engineering Industry,
certified by B.V.Q.I for ISO 9001 quality systems. With the collaboration from
various industrial corporations it is manufacturing various types of Steam
turbines, Alternators, Exciters, Centrifugal Compressors, Gas turbines, Heavy
Duty Boiler Feed Pumps, Bowl Mills, Oil Rigs, Switch Gear equipment of
minimum Oil Circuit Breakers etc. and is supplying to the country and abroad
with an annual turnover of about Rs 1500crores.


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INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------ 01- 09



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A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from
pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. It has an emergency stop valve
(ESV),control valve(CV), and high & low pressure turbines.
Steam turbines has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston
steam engine because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio.
Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to
drive an electrical generator about 80% of all electricity generation in the world
is by use of steam turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives
much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through these of multiple
stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal
reversible process.
Many industrial plants like sugar, pulp, paper, chemicals, fertilizers,
steel and petroleum refineries require steam at low and medium pressures for process



for driving


machines, like turbo generators,

compressors, pumps etc ., incorporated in the plant. Normally steam is generated

either in separate boilers that utilize the heat provided by exothermic reactions of
the chemical process, depending on the nature of the industry. Steam is generated at
pressures and temperatures higher than that needed for the process, in order to keep
the size of boilers and steam carrying piping small and also to realize a reasonably
good efficiency during steam generation. This high pressure steam is expanded in
steam turbine upto the pressure levels required for process. The power developed by
the steam turbine is utilized for driving either compressors, pumps, blowers etc ., or
turbo generators for generating electric power. Most of the driven machines are run at
comparatively high speeds except pumps, blowers and turbo generators . Especially

centrifugal compressors used in chemical, fertilizer, petro-chemical and other plants run
at very high speeds so as to achieve maximum efficiency.
When these turbines are used to drive generators and other low speed
machines, such as reciprocating compressors and cooling water pumps, a gear box must
be incorporated in order to reduce the speed.

To fit into varying operational requirements of energy balance, a wide range of

steam turbines are required. Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging
from small

1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps,

compressors and other shaft driven equipment, to 2,000,000 hp (1,500,000 kW) turbines
used to generate electricity.

Steam turbines works on the principle of rankine cycle.

The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into
work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the
working fluid. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the
world, including virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. It is
named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath.

There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, each changing the state of
the working fluid. These states are identified by number in the diagram to the right.

Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid
is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.

Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant
pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor.

Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power.
This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation
may occur.

Process 4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a
constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. The pressure and
temperature of the condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling coils as
the fluid is undergoing a phase-change.
In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e.,

the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work
output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the Ts diagram
and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The Rankine cycle shown here
prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine ,
which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.


Steam turbine power plants are based on the Rankine cycle investigated by a
Scotch Engineer and Scientist William Rankine (1820 -1872). Rankine cycle for Steam
turbine power plant with ideal turbines and pumps and superheated and saturated steam as
a working fluid respectively as shown below. A conventional power plant steam for such a
consideration is also shown:

Fig.1.1 Ideal Rankine cycle for superheated steam on T-S axes.

Fig.1.2 Ideal Rankine cycle for saturated steam on T-S axes

The steam turbine is fed with steam under temperature t1, pressure p1, and enthalpy h1.
Expanding within the turbine, steam produces work Wt and goes into the condenser under
conditions p2 and h2. Hence its rejects heat Qr to cooling water and the resulted
condensate with enthalpy h3<<h2, but with the same t3=t2 and pressure p3=p2 comes to
the pump. At the expense of the pump work W p, the feed water pressure and enthalpy rise
to values p4 and h4 with which feed water enters the steam generators where it is heated
and evaporated due to the heat added Qa.
For saturated steam cycle the steam expansion process in the turbine begins from C, and
with complete condensation in 3 with subsequent compression by the pump.
Thermal efficiency of ideal Rankine cycle for superheated steam turbine power
plant can be defined as:


{(h1-h2) / (h1-h4)}
nth x

{1 (h4-h3)/ (h1-h2)}


Here nth is the gross thermal efficiency that is without regard to the expense of
energy within the cycle.
If pump working is neglected, then the efficiency, nth = (h1-h2) / (h1-h4)

In the cycle with steam reheat instead of through adiabatic steam expansion from
initial steam pressure p1 to end pressure p2, steam expands within the HP turbine part to
the intermediate pressure (point5) and then is heated isothermally to steam reheat
temperature (point 6) and then expands within IP-LP part to same end pressure p2 as
shown below. In this case, for ideal cycle the thermal efficiency is approximately given

(h1- h5)+ (h6 - h2)

(h1 - h4)+ (h6 - h5)

Conventional power plant scheme:

Fig.1.3 Ideal Rankine cycle for steam reheat


Combined cycle (CC) power plant generate electricity by both gas and steam turbines
within the joint unit and use the waste heat of gas turbine exhaust gas in the steam turbine
cycle. Combined cycle allows attaining quite high values of thermal efficiency due to the
high level of the upper cycle temperature (inlet gas turbine temperature) and the low level
of the bottom cycle temperature (temperature at the steam turbine exhaust) CC units have
lesser capital cost and require less time periods for launching than conventional steam
turbine one.
The CC unit thermal efficiency is calculated as:
nc = Ncc / Qt = ( Nqt + Nst ) / Qt
= (Qqt.nqt +Qst.nst ) / Qt
Where Qt is the total heat amount in the unit.

Classification of Steam Turbines


Based on Blading Design :


Impulse turbine


Reaction turbine


Combination of Impulse & Reaction turbine

Based on Application :

Utility turbines


Industrial turbines


Nuclear turbines


Marine turbines


Utility Turbines :
- Regenerative feed heating
- Regenerative feed heating with Reheat
- Combined cycle plants


Industrial Turbines :
Captive Power plant
- Straight Condensing
- Straight Condensing with Injection
Co-generation Power Plant (Power + Steam to process)
- Straight Back Pressure
- Extraction Condensing
- Extraction Back Pressure
- Double Extraction Back Pressure/ Condensing
- Extraction / Injection
Drive Turbines
- Compressor drive
- Blowers drive

- Boiler feed pump drive, etc.

-2 Series Turbines

-3 Series Turbines

-4 Series Turbines

HMN Series Turbines

KN Series Turbines

Low Cost Turbines

The necessity to keep down the production costs lead to standardization of the
types of steam turbines, such as back pressure, condensing, extraction back pressure and
extraction condensing, injection condensing.

Condensing turbines

Back pressure turbines

Multiple extraction turbines

Injection condensing turbines for combined cycle plant

Reheat condensing turbines for utility type.

Most of the industrial steam turbines are high speed turbines for the power output range of
1-30MW with speed reduction by turbo gears which in turn means smaller sizes and
higher efficiency for the turbine for the output of 30MW and above the turbine speed is
The main features of industrial steam turbines are:

The turbine is fixed at the rear end and expands towards the front side of the
turbine. The rotor is fixed at the thrust bearing which is housed in the front bearing
pedestal and expands towards the rear bearing. The casing which gets expanded in
turn pushes the front bearing pedestal by the same amount.

This sliding of front bearing pedestal results in moment of thrust bearing in the
rotor of the same amount and hence the expansion of the outer casing is nullified.

Customizing of steam turbines modules to meet the customers needs based on

building block system in a particular series of turbines optimum flow path
designed can be done depending upon case to case.

Type of governing system is nozzle governing type that has very good part load


Back pressure steam turbines are normally employed where the process steam is
required at one single pressure extraction. Back pressure sets are used where process steam
is required at two different pressure levels. In both the cases power generation is only a
byproduct. These turbines are extensively used in sugar plants and small paper plants
where clients desire more power from these turbines, the requirement can be met by
designing the turbine to pass more steam. Excess steam after meeting the process steam
requirements can be dumped in dump condenser.
Back pressure turbines are also employed as topping turbines .i.e. the exhaust
steam from back pressure turbines are fed to another steam turbine called bottom in
turbine .this arrangement has been adopted in some old power houses, which were
operating on low pressure cycles and where only boilers were replaced, but steam turbines
residual life is considerable .low pressure boilers were replaced with high pressure boilers.
Back pressure topping turbine was employed, to reduce the steam pressure to the levels at
which the old steam turbines in the power can accept. This arrangement has improved the
operating economics of the old power houses.
To meet the specific requirements of a leading chemical plant in India, BHEL
designed a back pressure turbines with Siemens assistance, to operate with high inlet
steam temperature of 565 deg c .this set is already manufactured at Hyderabad works and
Condensing turbines are primarily employed for power generation. These turbines
can be provided with uncontrolled extraction where clients require steam in small
quantities. Uncontrolled extraction avoids extraction controlled valves and therefore
throttling losses are reduced even while providing small quantitys of process steam.
Another application of uncontrolled extraction is wander controlled system. In
wander control system two bleeds are provided. One bleed is at high pressure and another
at low pressure. In part load operations HP bleed meets the process steam requirement. At
full load operations, the LP bleed will meet the steam requirement. This arrangement
reduces energy losses due to throttling, considerably. Condensing turbines are employed
mostly in industries like cement where process steam requirement is not required.

Where customer gives equal importance for meeting the process steam and power
needs, extraction condensing sets become ideal choice. The benefit is, power generation
can be maintained at the required levels even when process steam needs to fluctuate. In
paper and pulp industries, process steam requirement of digesters fluctuate, while power
requirement of the paper plant remains almost constant. Hence in all medium and large
paper plants, extraction condensing sets are employed.


Extraction turbines are not restricted only to the provision of extracting steam, but
may also be employed as induction turbines, i.e. excess steam in LP bus line can be used
economically for power generation in such turbine without difficulty as in case of
extraction turbines, the turbines governing system for maintain constant pressure.
In the line can also be used for these injection turbines. Injection condensing
turbines are employed in combined cycle plants and in fertilizers industries.

The steam turbines are utilized in several industries viz.. Paper, fertilizers,
chemical petro chemicals, sugars, refinery, metallurgical etc foe power generation and
mechanical drives already described. The following illustration explains the selection application criteria of industrial turbines.


Industrial steam turbine are categorized into different series like
-2 series
-3 series
-4 series

These series of turbines are of standard type and have been designed for the best
efficiency for range parameters. Based upon the inlet conditions like pressure temperature,
material selection is varied. Designs being the standard further based on then steam flow
quantities size of the turbine is selected .in these series of turbines the fixed blade grooves
are machined directly in the outer casing and guide blades are inserted.

Different sizes of -2 types of turbines are:


EK/K 600-2
EK/K 800-2
EK/K 1000-2


EK/K 1100-2


EK/K 1400-2
EK/K 1800-2

G stands for back pressure turbine

K stands for condensing turbines
E stands for controlled extraction
The number besides the letter indicates the area of the exhaust of the turbines.

Based on customers requirements and steps involved in design, the turbine is
divided into different sections: inlet section, transition, exhaust or condensing section
.these sections can be combined with each other. The figure shows the various sections of
these series and possible combinations of withy one size of admission section. the
admission sections are supplied in two versions, one from normal initial steam conditions
up to 100 bar / 510 deg C and for high steam initial steam conditions up to 140 bar /
540deg C .the size of the section is geometrically graded in the ratio to 1.25 to form
different sizes of section .The parts associated with front section as front bearing pedestal,
control valves, safety devices like emergency stop valves are fixed for a particular size.
Also the same is done for the exhaust sections. With this arrangement for a particular front
and rear section selected the connecting parts to the sections are common from case to
case. now the length of the middle are transition section can varied based upon the number
of blade stages required and the number of extractions required . with this concepts,
besides optimizing the flow path, the use of standard and proven components like casings ,
guide blade carriers , bearing pedestals, nozzles, servo- motors, stop and governing valves
from a particular model are ensured .unlike the -2 series the blade grooves in these
turbines are made in the guide blade carriers which is supported in outer casing .
Robust drum type rotors with integral shrouds, labyrinth glands for sealing of rotor
ends and inter stage blading, ensure greater reliability and efficiency. These turbines
usually employ a gear box between turbine and generator to achieve optimum efficiencies.
These types of series are called as centre admission steam turbines with counter
flow for the mid range of power, between 30MW to 150 MW. Using these concepts
results in the compact single casing solution in many cases up to 100 MW. The flow path
is initially towards the front and in inner casing after being admitted in the centre.
The steam reverses the direction on the reaching the end of inner casing to flow
around inner casing and expands towards the rear end of the turbine. This process of
reverse flow of steam helps in control the axial thrust to a large extent. The rear portion of
the turbine is constructed based upon the building block principle as explained in -3 series,
front being a standard from particular range of inlet parameters. These turbines are directly
coupled to the generator. The valve blocks in these turbines are separate and hence faster
startups of the turbine .these turbines are best suited for combined cycle plant application.


These types of turbines have been developed by BHEL in the range of 15 to 20
MW to cater the special requirements of industries like sugar and cement w.r.t low inlet
parameters and high extraction requirements for operation during season and power
generation during off season periods. In view of the above certain cost saving features has
been incorporated. the outer casing casting have been simplified by separating the valve
chest the valve chest is cast separately and bolted to the outer casing there by limiting the
importance of selection of material to valve chest . The middle section and the rear section
of the turbine are based on the building block concept as that of -3 turbines.
These turbines operate in the speed range of 6000 to 8000rpm. The flow path design of the
above turbines confirms to the SIEMENS design practices. provision has been given for
an extraction, which is useful for the process of NOX control CCP applications .the
detailed design analysis is done with flow path design , mechanical design which includes
rotor dynamics , design analysis by finite element methods and computational fluid
dynamics for flow analysis


2.1.1 NOZZLE: The nozzle expands steam of comparatively low velocity and high static
pressure within considerable increase in velocity. The nozzle is so positioned as to direct
the flow of steam into the rotor passage.
2.1.2 DIFFUSER: It is a mechanical device that is designed to control the characteristics
of steam at the entrance to a thermodynamic open system. Diffusers are used to slow the
steam's velocity and to enhance its mixing into the surrounding steam. In contrast, a
nozzle is often intended to increase the discharge velocity and to direct the flow in one
particular direction.
Flow through nozzles and diffusers may or may not be assumed to be adiabatic.
Frictional effects may sometimes be important, but usually they are neglected. However,
the external work transfer is always assumed to be zero. It is also assumed that changes in
thermal energy are significantly greater than changes in potential energy and therefore the
latter can usually be neglected for the purpose of analysis.
2.1.3 BLADES OR BUCKETS: The blades or buckets form the rotor flow passage and
serves to change the direction and hence the momentum of the steam received in the
stationary nozzles.
2.1.4 GUIDE OR GUIDEBLADES: Often a turbine is arranged with a series of rotor
flow passages. Intervening between the blades comprising the rotor passages are rows of
stationary guide blades. The purpose of this guide is to reverse the direction of steam
leaving the preceding moving blade row so that general direction of steam leaving the
preceding moving blade rows is similar. If guide blades were not provided, opposing force
would be exerted on the rotor which would largely negate each other.
2.1.5 CASING SHELL OR CYLINDER: The turbine enclosure is generally called the
casing although the other two names are in common use. The nozzle and guide are fixed
on casing, which in addition to confining the steam serves as support for the bearings.

Sometimes the word cylinder is restricted as a cylindrical form attached to inside of the
casing to which the guides are fixed.
2.1.6 SHAFT, ROTOR and SPINDLE: These terms are applied to the rotating assembly
which carries the blades.
2.1.7 DISC OR WHEEL: The moving blades are attached to the disc which in turn is
keyed to the shaft.
2.1.8 DIAPHRAGM: The diaphragm which is fixed to the cylinder or casing contains the
nozzle and serves to confine the steam flow to nozzle passage.
2.1.9 PACKING: Packing in the form of carbon rings minimizes the leaking in the
annular space between the diaphragm and shaft.
2.1.10 THRUST BEARINGS: Usually a combination of Kingsbury and collar types
absorbs the axial forces.
2.1.11 EXHAUST HOOD: The exhaust hood is the portion of the casing which collects
and delivers the exhaust steam to exhaust pipe or condenser.
STEAM CHEST: The steam chest is the supply chamber from which steam is admitted to
the nozzles.
GOVERNOR: The governing system may be designated to control steam flow so as to
maintain constant speed with load fluctuations to maintain constant pressure with variation
of demand for processed steam or both.
THROTTLES OR STOP VALVES: The throttle and stop valves are located in the
steam supply line to the turbine. The stop valve is hydraulically operated quick opening
and shutting valves designed to be either fully opened or shut. On small turbines the stop
valves may be manually operated but in any case is intended for emergency use or when
fully shut down. The throttle valve is used in smaller turbines in addition to stop valve as a
means of regulating steam flow during the starting or stopping the operation.

The casing is out of cast steel and is split horizontally, the joint being level
with the rotor axis. The casing of back pressure turbines is supported, on separate
bearing pedestals with the support surface level with the rotor axis. This ensures that
the position of the casing relative to the rotor remains always constant at all operating
temperatures, the radial blade clearance thus remaining unchanged. In order to permit
unrestricted horizontal expansion of the casing, without moving it out of centre, the
casing of the back pressure turbines is located at both ends by two strong guide keys
arranged in the vertical centre plane at the bearing pedestals.
For condensing turbines, the casing supports and guide keys are provided
only at the front end bearing pedestals. The rear end bearing pedestal is cast integral
with the exhaust branch, the supporting surface being level with the rotor axis.
Thermal expansion of casings causes the front end bearing pedestal to
move axially for all types of turbines. The fixed point of the casing relative to bed
plate and the foundation for back pressure turbines is the rear end pedestal, which is
bolted down and located by dowel pins. The fixed point of the condensing turbines
is the exhaust branch.
The construction of casings for extraction type machines in both
condensing and back pressure models is the same as described above, except that
a branch is provide for extracting steam.

3.2 Turbine Rotor

The rotors for all types, complete with shaft ends and impulse wheels
serving as governing stage, consist of single forging. All rotors of standard turbines
are designed for sub-critical operation i.e., as rigid rotors in the case of -2 type and
as flexible rotors in the case of -3 type.
The rotors are made of forgings of alloy steel material. when integrally
machined A-wheel blades are to be used. Rotors are made of 22 cr MOV 12.1
During rotation of the shaft, the connection to the bearing pedestal is
provide by the lubrication film. This film has spring and damping characteristics
which can under certain conditions reach high values. Computer

programs are

used for calculating the spring and damping coefficients of journal bearings for
any given form of bearings.
Most of the rotors used for turbo generator sets are of rigid type
whereas those used for compressor drive are of flexible type. After completion of
machining and blading , the rotors are balanced in accordance with API 612. The rotor of
high speed turbines for compressor drives are centrifuged at 25%



maximum continuous speed and those for generator drives are centrifuged at 20%
above their operating speed. The centrifuging test is done to check the stability of
rotor and soundness of blades assembly.

Figure shows the basic version of the turbine rotor. The number of
blade rows shown many differ from the actual model.
The rotor is a single forging together with the thrust bearing collar (3).
In front of the thrust bearing collar is the over speed trip (1) and shaft end with the
coupling hub for the front power take-off.
After the front journal bearing come the sealing strips for the outer
gland bush (5) and the inner bush (6).
In the figure it is possible to see after the drum blading (7) and
the subsequent LP blading of expansion space II (ES II) a part of the rear outer gland
bush (10), which is followed by the rear journal bearing (11).

FIG 1.2 Turbine Rotor

The rotor ends in a tapered hub (14) suitable for fitting one half of a coupling which
compensates for any axial or radial displacement.
The primary balancing planes (17) are located in front of the inner gland bush,
after the final row of moving blades and between the two expansion spaces. In addition,
there are secondary balancing planes (15 & 17) in front of the outer gland bush and in
front of the coupling hub.

The blading converts the thermal energy of the steam into mechanical
energy. The efficiency and reliability of the machine are therefore very dependent on
the blading. Consequently , exceptionally high standards must be set in the design and
manufacture of the blades.
To maximize turbine efficiency, the steam is expanded, generating work,
in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from
them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Most modern steam turbines are a
combination of the reaction and impulse design. Typically, higher pressure sections are
impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type.

An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high
speed jets. These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped
like buckets, convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure
drop occurs across only the stationary blades, with a net increase in steam velocity across
the stage.
As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from steam chest
pressure to condenser pressure (or atmosphere pressure). Due to this relatively higher
ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high
velocity. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the maximum velocity
of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of energy due to this higher exit velocity
is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving loss".

FIG 2.1 Impulse & Reaction Stages

In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form
convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the
steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the
rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire

circumference of the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed
relative to the speed of the blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and
the rotor, with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor,
with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure
and temperature, reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor.

Main Features Of The Reaction Blading :

Standard turbines operate on 50% reaction principle and are, therefore,
fitted with reaction blading, preceded by a single row impulse wheel as governing stage.
The blades are milled from bar stock. The guide blades are made from drawn profiles.
The last stage blades are of special design.
The reaction blades have rounded inlet edges, which are less affected by
changes in the direction of entry than thin profiles, thus giving high efficiencies even at
part load. The material used, the method of production and the profile adopted for the
blades assure a considerable degree of protection against crack formation and fracture
due to vibration.
Each blade is machines from the solid and has an integral shrouding at its
tip. When the blades are fitted in the rotor, the roots form a continuous ring of shrouding.
This helps to eliminate the danger from resonance, which is particularly liable to occur in
compressor drives. The maximum allowable stresses due to static and dynamic forces are
precisely calculated for the various steam zones. According to these limits the most
suitable blade profiles will be selected.
The reaction blading permits larger axial clearances than impulse type
blading without reduction of efficiency. The gap between the blade shrouding


the casing is sealed by sealing strips caulked into the casing.

The A-wheel blades are of impulse type and in certain cases where the
blade stresses are very high the A-wheel blades are machined integral with the rotor by
electrochemical machining. The A-wheel blades are always of forked root construction
withstand the high concentration of stresses developed.

Moving Blades
There are two different types of moving blades:

Fig 2.2 Drum Blading

Fig 2.3 Tapered and Twisted blades

(a). The reaction blade for the drum blading and,

(b). The tapered and twisted blade for the low pressure stages of condensing turbines.

Fig 2.4 Moving Blade with inverted T & Tree root with integral shroud
The moving blades have their root, web and shrouding milled from the
same solid forging. Exception to this rule are twisted blades of LP rows where it is not
possible to design them integral due to their wide spacing and, for damping blade
vibration in this section they provided with damping wires of steel or titanium. Normally,
only the roots of the control stages are forked. Sometimes, depending on the centrifugal
stresses, the last rows of low pressure blades also maybe designed with fork roots. The
running blades in the drum stages have roots of the inverted T-type. The guide blades are
manufactured from drawn bar material and pronged roots. Spacers are provide between

the guide blades and the group of blades are together held by a shroud which is riveted
into them.

Low Pressure Stages

The last three stages of the turbine form a standard stage group. The
substantial difference between the circumferential velocity at the hub and at the blade tip
is allowed for by using a suitable profile and stagger angle. This geves the low pressure
blades about their twisted form. The thickness of the blade also decreases from the hub to
the tip because of the high centrifugal force.

Fig 2.5 LP stage with T & fork root blades

Fig 2.6 Blade root with multiple fork

Again the moving blades have inverted T roots which means that the
method of fixing is no different from the remainder of the drum blading. The final row
blade are with curved for tree roots. They are inserted into axial grooves in the rotor and
secured with caulking pieces.
The moving blades are fitted with loose damping pins. The final row
blades have integrally forged thickness around the hole for the damping pin so that the
remainder of the blade cross section is not over stressed.
The fixed blades of the LP stage groups have thin trailing edges in order to prevent the
formation of water droplets. The axial distance before the final row of moving
blades is made large in order to facilitate the acceleration and atomization of any water
droplets which detach from the trailing edges of the Ked blades.

This reduces the force with which the droplets Impinge on the leading
edges of the blades. The leading edges of the blades are hardened if circumferential is
high. The LP guide blades of the last two stages are of hollow type and manufactured
from alloy steel plates which have high erosion resistance.
Losses in Turbine
External Losses

ESV & strainer losses

Governing losses (throttling losses)

Leaving Energy Losses (Latent heat of exhaust steam in condenser)

Radiation Loss to the surroundings

Internal Losses

Blade losses
i) Primary Losses:
a) Shape loss due to mechanical strength
b) Friction loss due to profile surface finish
ii) Secondary Losses:
a) Incidence loss (Blade twist is required to minimize this loss)
b) Impingement loss
c) Boundary Layer loss ( between profiles and end walls)
d) Trailing edge loss


Disc Friction Losses:

Moving disc surface exerts a drag as steam which sets it in motion
and produces a definite circulation.


Partial Admission Losses:

a) Flow will be disturbed in partial filled blades.
b) Eddies will be produced in inactive blades
c) Energy is required to flush the steam in inactive blades when
they come to active.

Inter stage Tip Leakages:

Steam throttles in the inter stage seals without doing work


Residual velocity Losses:


energy of the leaving steam of one stage will be carried over to the next
stage. As the axial clearances increase between the stages (or stage
groups) part of the kinetic energy will be lost.

Wetness Loss

Blade Tip Sealing

There is a radial clearance of several millimeters at the tip of all fixed and
moving blades fitted with shrouding. This eliminates any possibility of contact between
the stationary and moving parts of the machine due to distortion of the rotor or casing.
This relatively large radial cleaeance is sealed with sealing strips in order to restrict the
loss in power due to the tip loss to an absolute minimum. The sealing strips for fixed
blades are caulked into the rotor and those for the moving blades into the guide blade
carrier. The sealing strips are very thin and leave only a few tenths of a millimeter
between the shrouding and the rotor or guide blade carrier.
The sealing strips are also made of rust resistant steel. They are
sufficiently strong to withstand the maximum pressure differences which can occur. Due
to rubbing, the amount of heat generated is insufficient to cause any dangerous distortion
of the rotor or guide blade carrier.
The sealing strips are easy to replace. Therefore, it is a simple matter to remove
any damaged strips and fit new ones to give the proper clearance during overhaul at site.

4.1 Front Supporting System
4.1.1 Purpose
The supporting system on the front side of the turbine (casing support,
shaft bearing housing, supporting brackets of outer turbine casing) supports the turbine
casing and rotor and serves to align these parts with respect to each other. At the same
time, the correct position of the turbine with regard to the casing support is ensured by
the center guide and screw bolts.
4.1.2 Design
A principal part of the supporting system is the casing support (3) which is
firmly anchored in the turbine foundation. The casing support carries screwed-in
adjusting elements (9) upon which the supporting brackets (2) of the turbine casing rest
and to which it is vertically aligned. The turbine is prevented from lifting off by screw
balls (4). As the temperature of the turbine casing increases the casing is free to expand in
the horizontal direction. To provide an additional safe guard against lifting off, the casing
brackets can be loaded by cup springs (10).
In addition to the turbine casing, the front shaft bearing housing (5) is
supported on the casing support. It rests freely on adjusting elements (6) and is prevented
from lifting off by screw bolts (8). These screw bolts allow a few hundredths of a
millimeter free play between the shaft bearing housing and the casing support so that the
shaft bearing housing can glide freely.
The bearing housing is rigidly connected to the lower section of the
turbine casing by two bolts (7) arranged parallel to the turbine axis and is therefore
constrained to follow any forward movement of the expanding turbine casing.
The bearing housing is axially split. It accommodates the thrust bearing
and the front journal bearing which carries the weight of the rotor. The inner space of the
bearing housing is sealed by a bearing seal ring at the point where the rotor extends into
the turbine casing.

A center rail (11) serves to guide the bearing housing. It also acts as a
guide for the outer casing so that the two can move in the axial direction. Lateral
alignment is carried out by means of adjusting elements (12).

4.2 Rear Supporting System

4.2.1 Function
The rear support elements bearing housing, support brackets of the
exhaust part and the aligning elements serve to support the turbine casing and the turbine
rotor and for their alignment relative to each other.


Unlike the front support, the exhaust part (1) with its support brackets (8)

is directly connected to the turbine foundations, whereby the two support brackets each
rest on a base plate (7). The base plates are rigidly anchored to the turbine foundations.
The support brackets and base plates are connected by bolts. However, the bolts are
designed such that in case of thermal expansion the support bracket can expand laterally.
Freedom of movement can be checked by spacers which must always be easily movable.

The rear fixed point of the turbine casing, relative to which the turbine
expands towards the front end, is formed by one bolt (6) per supporting bracket, inserted
transverse to the turbine axis. A forked prong (3) is bolted on beneath the bearing housing

as a centre guide. With the aid of the mating part fixed to the foundations, lateral
movements of the turbine casing are thus prevented, while thermal movement in the
horizontal and axial directions is possible. Like the front bearing housing, the rear
bearing housing (2) rests on adjusting elements, but, in contrast, is connected with the
exhaust part by balls and is aligned axially and fixed by means of eccentric balls. The
bearing housing is aligned transversely by means of the centre guide filled beneath the
lower part of the bearing housing.The bearing housing is split axially and is designed to
accommodate a manual or hydraulic shaft turning gear.

4.3 Thrust Bearing


The thrust bearing takes up the residual axial thrust forces of the turbine

that have not been compensated by the labyrinth sealed balancing piston and also any
thrust forces possibly transferred through the gear tooth coupling and transmits these
forces to the front bearing housing. The magnitude of the axial forces thus exerted on the
thrust bearing is determined chiefly by the turbine load. In addition, the thrust bearing
serves the purpose of fixing the rotor in its axial position with respect to the turbine

Design and Mode of operation

Normally, the thrust bearing will be accommodated in the front bearing

housing (1). Its principal parts are :

(a) An axially split casing ( 3 & 9),
(b) The two segment rings (6 & 3).
Several pivoted segments are assembled to form a segment ring. The
pivoted segments will transmit the axial thrust of the turbine rotor via the thrust bearing
housing. That side of the pivoted segments, which is in contact with the collar (7) on the
rotor shaft, is babbit-lined. On its rear side and perpendicular to the direction of the shaft
rotation, each side pivoted segment carries a pivoting edge around which it is able to tilt.
The relative motion between the collar and the babbited faces of the segments induces the
formation of a hydrodynamic oil film between collar and segments. The pivoted
segments are retained by radially located cylindrical pins (5) and are thus secured against
displacement in the direction of rotation.

The thrust bearing comprises two rings of pivoted segments. The two rings are
identical, but are situated on opposite sides of the collar in a reflected mirror
arrangement. This makes the thrust bearing equally well suited for taking up thrust from
either of the two axial directions. The precise axial positioning of the thrust bearing with
respect to the bearing housing is obtained by two liner rings.
4.3.3 Lubrication
The thrust bearing will be supplied with pressure oil from the general
lubricating oil system of the turbine. The lubrication oil entering the lower half of the
bearing housing flows into a circular outer oil channel (14) around the periphery of the
thrust bearing casing. From there it flows (1) through drilled radial holes (4), which start
from the outer oil channel, towards the turbine rotor where centrifugal forces are pressing
it again in outward direction through the oil film between rotor collar and pivoted
segments into the inner oil channel (8). Several axially directed oil drain passages (11)
are provided on both sides of the thrust bearing casing top half (3). As it has to be
ensured that oil pressure in the thrust bearing casing will be positive under all conditions,
the total flow section of the oil requirement which is a function of rotor speed and bearing
size. According to the circumstances prevailing in a particular installation, it may thus
become necessary to plug one or several drain passages by screw plugs.

Monitoring of oil temperatures is normally carried out by means of either a steam type or
a contact making thermometer (12). The temperature inside the babbit-lining of the
tilting segments can be measured with the help of thermo-couples. Sealing strips (10)
caulked circumferentially into the bore of the thrust bearing housing at the two points
where the rotor shaft penetrates the housing will, together with the over pressure
reigning inside the thrust bearing housing prevent aspiration of air along the shaft.


Journal Bearing ( Tilting pad bearing )


Journal bearing in the front and rear bearings housing support the turbine

rotor in a central position in relation to the fixed guide blade carrier in the outer casing.
The journal bearings are of the tilting pad type due to the required stability characteristics
and the loading of the turbine rotor.

A journal bearing consists of an axially split shell, the two halves of which

are bolted and pinned. A location pin prevents any movement of the bearing shell in the
The five bearings pads are supported in the shell on the soleplates (shoes)
which are spherical on one side. The pads are fixed in their axial positions on both sides
by a locating ring and dowel pins. The running surfaces of the pads are of white metal.


The bearings are force lubricated with oil. The oil is supplied to the

bearing journal through an annular groove and radial inlet passage between the bearing
pads. The rotation of the shaft drags the oil into the wedge shaped gaps so that as the
speed rises a hydrodynamic lubricating film is built up. Through friction


compression, this


phenomenon produces lubricant

pressures, which, when

relationship between wedge gap shape, oil viscosity and circumferential velocity is
correct, are sufficient to raise from the bearing shell, even under heavy load, and thus
support the shaft on a film of lubricant without any metal to metal contact.


Temperature monitoring
In order to ensure safe operation of the turbine the bearings are equipped

with temperature measuring devices. The measured temperatures can also be used for
annunciation, alarm or turbine tripping. The bearing metal temperature is measured in the
region of the narrowest gap. The bearing shell temperature depends on the oil inlet
temperature, the speed and also the magnitude and direction of the load on the bearing
exerted by the turbine rotor. The measurement is rapid in response and immediately
follows all changes in conditions. Holes are provided in the bearing shell into which the
temperature sensors of thermocouples can be inserted directly under the white metal
running surface.


Seal Ring Front ( with sealing gas connection )


The seal ring seals the bearing housing from the turbine casing where the

turbine rotor penetrates the casting.


The bearing seal ring is split axially. It is inserted in a groove in the

bearing housing (1) and is thus fixed in its axial position. Sealing strips (3) are caulked
into the seal ring at the point where the rotor passes through the turbine casing. Together
with the turbine rotor sealing lip (7), which is matched to the seal ring, the sealing strips
prevent any oil seeping out. In the bottom half of the seal ring there are also oil drainage
holes between the sealing strips which enable any oil that accumulates to flow to the
bearing housing. A thermal protection shield (2) is fitted on the seal ring to protect the
bearing housing from excessive heat.

Sealing gas
The oil system must be protected against any aggressive atmosphere.

Since the atmosphere via the oil frain lines of the bearing housing can affect the oil
system particularly, a sealing gas ( air or nitrogen ) is fed to the dealing strips


approximately 1 bar via the connection (L). this pressure is sufficient to seal the bearing
effectively housing, and thus the oil system, against the atmosphere.


Seal Ring Rear It is similar in construction as that of front seal ring ,

except that the sealing gas connection is not existing.


Emergency Stop Valve

The emergency stop valve is provided at the steam inlet to the turbine. It is

directly mounted on the casing with a view to reduce the quantity of steam entrapped
between the stop valve and control valves. In the event of sudden load throw off, if this
entrapped steam is sufficient in quantity, it may tend to over speed the turbine.

Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show the emergency stop valves used in -2 & -3 type
of turbines. In -3 type of turbines the valve cone sits on a diffuser to prevent turbulence in
the steam chamber. To withstand the high pressure of steam generally used in H type of
turbines, an L-ring is used for sealing the high pressure steam and the taper block
is designed to transmit the steam force onto the housing thus avoiding the force on the
connecting flange. The hydraulic actuator design for both types of valves remains
basically the same.
The ESV is provided with a testing device to check the proper functioning
of the valve even during regular operation. This ensures that the spindle does not get
sticky due to continued operation in one position.
Live steam is admitted to the valve chest through the emergency stop
valve. In normal operation, this valve is held open against the spring load by oil pressure.
In the event of a trip condition, the trip oil circuit is drained and the spring closes the
valve very quickly.
A steam strainer is fitted in the emergency stop valve body. It consists of a
corrugated steel strip wound spirally on the edge of a former and is stronger than
conventional strainers made out of perforated sheet. The free cross section is larger

although the mesh opening is smaller. Any water droplets entrained by the steam are
evaporated upon impact on the strainer sides due to the large heat storage capacity of the
strainer, blade erosion is thereby avoided. The small mesh opening also provides
effective protection against the passage of even small solid particles.


steam strainers


Steam strainers are initiated in the main steam lines and in the hot reheat

lines from the boiler. They protect the admission elements of the HP & IP turbines from
foreign objects which could be picked up in the boiler or associated piping.


The strainer screen (~) is made of corrugated strip wound on e<1 on a

frame. This design offers a high degree of resistance even to particles impinging at high
velocity. The frame consists of two ring (1 & 6) and a number of rods (5) welded
between the rings. The rods are additionally braced by reinforcing rings (4) welded inside
them. The strainer is designed for a single direction of flow from the outside inwards. For
longer strainers, the screen is made up of several parts. The end turns of the corrugated
strip are then tacked to the T- section intermediate rings(3). The maximum mesh size of
the strainer, which is determined by the height of that corrugations, is 1.6mm . The
effective area is made at least three times the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The
strainer may be used for both initial commissioning of the turbine and for regular

Chapter- 6


Control Valves
The control valves regulate the amount of steam flowing to the turbine

according to the load. The cones of control valves are suspended from a beam ( fig 5.1).
The beam is supported by two spindles which are raised and lowered through a system of
levers by a servomotor arranged adjacent to the valves. Each control valve is adjusted to
give a different distance between the bottom of the backing nut and its seating on the top
of the beam, so that, when the beam is lifted, the valves open in a sequence and the
steam is admitted progressively to the various nozzle groups.
The advantages of independent mounting of control valves are:

Independent adjustment of the valves to the valve seats.

Spindle breakages due to vibration are avoided.

Only two spindle glands through the admission chest are necessary for a maximum
number of five control valves.


The control valves are opened and closed in order to adjust the throughput

off steam to give the required power output from the turbine. Depending on the power
required, therefore, the control valves are opened or closed in a specific sequence. The
valve seats are in the form of diffusers in order to keep flow losses to a minimum.

The steam chest (4) contains valve crossbar (5) in which the actual control

valves (9) are suspended loosely. The crossbar is connected to the arm (1) through two
stems (9) and the pivoted links (2). The arm is operated by the actuator (15) which is
flexibly mounted on a bracket (11) attached to the stem chest.
The steam chest has two bonnets (3) in which the valve stems are guided
by two rings (10 & 12). The rings also form the top and bottom stem glands.
Each stem head (13) is loaded by a compression spring (14) so that the
control valves are held closed when the turbine is stationary.


Mode Of Operation
When the turbine is at rest the springs keep the crossbar in its lowest

position and the cones of the control valves are forced on to their seats (8) by the pressure
of steam. A control pulse from the governor causes the actuator to pull the arm
downwards, thus raising the stems and lifting the crossbar. The valves then lift in a
sequence determined by the different lengths of the spacer bushes (7) in the crossbar.

When the steam is allowed to expand through a narrow orifice, it
assumes kinetic energy at the expense of enthalpy (heat energy).this kinetic energy of
steam is charged to mechanical (rotational) energy through the impact (impulse) a reaction
of steam against the blades. It should be realized that the blade of the turbine obtains no
moving force from the static pressure of the steam or from any impact of the steam jet.
The blades are designed in such a way, that the steam will guide on and off the blade
without and tendency to strike it.
As the steam moves over the blade, its direction is continuously changing
and centrifugal pressure exerted as the result is normal to the blade surface at all points.
The total motives force acting on the blades is thus the resultant of all the centrifugal
forces plus change of momentum. This causes the rotational motion of blades.

The constructional details of the turbine include the High Pressure (HP), Intermediate
Pressure (IP) and Low Pressure (LP) turbines.

The outer casing of the HP turbine is of barrel type. This avoids mass
accumulation due to absence of flanges. It consists of following:

H.P outer casing

H.P inner casing

H.P rotor

The inner casing carries guide blades and is kinematically supported. The
spaces between inner and outer casings are filled by sealing rings. The inner casing is
fixed in the horizontal and vertical planes in the outer casings so that it can freely expand
radial in all directions and axially from a fixed point. The barrel construction permits rapid
starts-ups and higher rates of load changes due to absence of high thermal stress .Barrel
type casings are also easy to cast which means the casings can be exceptionally good
quality .The connection with the piping is made through breach nuts. This arrangement
provides ease of opening the joint during maintenance.

The IP casing is split horizontally and is of double shell and double flow
construction, with the inner casing carrying the guide and kinematically supported within
the outer casing. The construction provides flexibility for choosing the location of bleed
steam point to suit the best thermal efficiency. The reheated steam enters the inner casing
through top and bottom. IP Turbine consists of the following regions.
IP outer casing
IP Inner casing
IP rotor.

The arrangement confines the high steam temperature to the admission branch
of the casing while the joint of the outer casing is only subjected to lower pressure and
temperature at the exhaust of the inner casing. The hydraulic turning gear blades are
located on the coupling of the IP Rotor.
The LP turbine is of triple shell fabricated construction .The outer casing
consists of the front and rear end walls; two side members called longitudinal grinders and
top cover. The twin Shell inner casing is supported kinematically at each end by two
support arms resting on the side members of the outer casting.
The inner shell of the inner casting carries the guide blade carrier of the
first stage of the turbine. Rings of guide carries, which constitutes the guide blade carries,
which constitutes the remaining stages of turbine, are bolted to the middle inner outer
casing. LP Turbine consists of the following regions.

LP outer casing
LP Inner-outer casing
LP Inner-Inner casing