ABSTRACT: A dialogue concerning M. Muslim’s and Nadeem Haque’s Transfocation Model of Consciousness (TMC) and critique by Dr. Ram Vimal a strong !ro!onent o" Dual As!ect Monism (DAM is !resented. (See: “Problems of Interactive Substance Dualism and Reli ions: Resolved b! Dual"As#ect $onism%& R'L'P' (imal)' INTRODUCTION In *adeem +a,ue-s and $' $uslim-s boo. #rom Microbits to $%eryt&ing' (ni%erse o" t&e )maginator' T&e *&iloso!&ical )m!lications Volume + & t/e! boldl! claim to /ave advanced a solution to t/e $ind"0od! #roblem' P' (imal /ad a livel! and in"de#t/ email discussion 1it/ *adeem 1/ere *adeem e2#lains t/e #rimar! conce#ts' 3/e discussion 1as in a series of emails 1it/ #ro#onents of various vie1s on consciousness 1it/ res#ect to (imal-s model' A boo. com#risin a discussion of various t/in.ers on t/is sub4ect 1it/ (imal 1ill be #ublis/ed soon' +ere 1e rela! t/e discussion onl! bet1een *adeem +a,ue and (imal' One of t/e .e! features of t/is debate is +a,ue-s em#/asis on 1/at 1e normall! term matter& ener ! and mind 1/ic/ 1as tac.led in #art t/rou / t/eir model of #/!sics and 51/ere all su##osed 5matter- and 5ener !is derived from microbits (t/e unit #article out of 1/ic/ ever!t/in in t/e universe is made) & t/ereb! renderin t/eir model not sub4ect to dualism' 3/at-s because *adeem6$uslim /ave a vie1 interrelatin mind& matter ener ! and s!ace t/at is uni,ue and ma! /old t/e ans1er resolvin consciousness' In an! event& t/eir model is uni,ue and un,categori-able as it is not based on materialism and idealism& #ant/eism& #ans/!cism& etc' Uni,ueness itself& /o1ever& ma! not necessaril! be t/e trut/& but t/e e2#lanator! #o1er of a model6conce#t is 1/at needs to be criticall! e2amined' (imal in t/e discussion alludes to t/eir model still bein under dualistic influences and #roblems7 *adeem attem#ts to cate oricall! s/o1 1/! it is not b! focusin on some .e! conce#ts' In addition& corres#ondence 1it/ +a,ue and $uslim-s I+R collea ue& 8es/an S/a/ba9& is also #rovided in an ad4unct debate 1it/ (imal in clarif!in t/e 3$:' VIMAL

If reli ions- built"in interactive substance dualism is re#laced b! t/e dual" as#ect monism& t/en t/e criticism of t/e related seven #roblems is addressed' Do !ou a ree 1it/ t/is /!#ot/esis;

HAQUE I t/in. t/e mind"bod! #roblem is solved only in t/e follo1in manner: <' God and ob4ectless s#ace are s!non!mous " so God is #ure consciousness and is not made of #articles' =' $uslim and I s/o1ed /o1 all #articles are derived of one t!#e of #article (1e call it t/e microbit) " all contact is made at t/at level " all ot/er #articles are a rou#in of t/at #article (1e /ave not reac/ed t/is #/ase in #/!sics " 1e>re too bac.1ard e2#erimentall! to s/o1 it em#iricall! at t/is #oint7 /ence t/ere>s silence about t/e solution $uslim and I /ave for unification)' Ener ! is not/in but t/e effort re,uired (measured) to move t/ese #articles and t/e! are all conserved because t/e! do not disa##ear' ?' 3/ese #articles are not/in but t/ou /t structures 1it/ rules and t/e! interact to ive us so called matter and ener !' One of t/ese com#le2 con lomerations of #articles is t/e brain' @' 3/e mind is 4ust a fractionali9ation from t/e consciousness of God " it>s not made of an! #articles and suc/ it is a 1ill of t/e Ailler (God)' It uses t/e biolo ical bod! li.e a #ortal' B' 0ecause t/e biolo ical bod!& sustained b! t/e t/ou /t of God and made of an immense rou#in of microbits (u# to t/e level of molecules etc') is structured in a #articular 1a! (1e et into t/is in our boo.)& t/e fractionali9ation is able to read t/e >ima es> #roduced b! t/e brain (i'e' ultimatel! t/e sustained microbits t/at ma.e u# t/e brain in terms of neurons)'So t/e material of >mind> and >bod!> is basicall! of t/e same stuff' It>s li.e a laser readin a D(D " t/e result is an ima e' In t/e case of t/e fractionali9ation6transfocation of God>s consciousness& it reads t/e meta#/oricall! s#ea.in t/e > rooves> in t/e brain& li.e t/e needle reads t/e rooves of a record' 3/e result is various senses and sensations' 3/e brain is onl! a s1itc/ ear7 it does not enerate consciousness but consciousness >reads> t/e brain and 1ills neurons to move etc' 3/e reason 1/! unification /as not been ac/ieved in t/e Aest aside from 1/at I am tal.in about is because t/e! 1ere tr!in to unite t/e forces& not reali9in t/at it is not a matter of unitin t/e forces " 1/en !ou /ave one #article " all #/!sics and biolo ! become united' Secondl!& when there ! "n#$ %"& 'n& h ! (') n't "n* the etern'# 'n& (') n't "n* there+! n" ,r"-#e( w th ./'# ' "r the nter'0t "n -etween ( n& 'n& ('tter* -e0'/!e -"th 're ( n& ,r"&/0t! 'n& ( n& ,r"&/0t! 0'n nter'0t1 3/e! are mind #roducts of God' One #roduct (t/e fractionali9ation) is t/e user& t/e ot/er (t/e bod!6brain) is t/e used' 3/e materialists are tr!in to

fuse user and used and t/at>s 1/! t/e! cannot solve t/e >/ard #roblem> of consciousness' 3/e dualists are se#aratin user and used and t/e! cannot brid e t/e a#' 3/e #ant/eists /ave a #roblem because t/e! are de#ersonali9in a #ersonal entit! albeit formless entit! 1e call God' If God 1as not a #erson none of us 1ould /ave individualities and #ersonalities' I don>t .no1 1/at to formall! call t/e s!stem $uslim and I /ave s#o.en about " it a##ears close to dual as#ect monism' 3/e difference bein t/at 1e are 4ust t/ou /ts of God' Our t/ou /ts are 1it/in t/e t/ou /ts of God' God is Al"+a,, " t/e absolute and 1e are not absolute7 but are t/ou /t #roducts of t/e absolute and /ence +is creation' 3/is is 1/! our vie1 is different from #ant/eism and monism' Ae are not #art of God& but #art of +is t/ou /ts' If +e sto##ed t/in.in of us no1 1e>d vanis/ " t/is is 1/! God is called al"Rabb in t/e Curan 1/ic/ means t/e Sustainer& amon ot/er t/in s' I /ave not been in touc/ 1it/ $o/ammed $uslim for man! mont/s7 1e also need /is in#ut' $uslim and I are es#ousin t/ere>s onl! one absolute realit! t/at>s not made of #articles etc' " God' All matter and ener ! is 4ust sustained t/ou /t #roducts of t/at absolute consciousness 1e call God 1/o is Person and not some amor#/ous not/in ness' In tr!in to determine 1/at /a##ens after deat/ $uslim and I ruled out a co"e2istin astral t!#e bod! associated 1it/ our biolo ical bod! from lo ical considerations (see :/a#ter D of (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG))' +o1ever 1e did find evidence in t/e Curan and 1/ic/ did fit in #erfectl! 1it/ lo ical considerations of a subtle bod! after deat/ li.e a ve/icle in 1/ic/ 1e continue to e2ist' Hrom t/e #oint of vie1 of t/ose 1/o /ave never read t/e Curan& or do not .no1 about t/e Curan& our belief 1ill seem li.e a /!#ot/esis but to $uslim and I& 1e /ave a different e#istemolo ical frame1or. and to us it is a fact' 3/e reason is because 1e>ve confirmed t/at t/e Curan is a revelation from t/e :reator& 4ust li.e some of t/e ot/er #revious scri#tures& t/ou / t/e ot/ers are older and 1ere .e#t in oral tradition and /ave suffered from inaccuracies cree#in in over t/e a es and distortin as#ects of t/e #ure messa e of t/e unicit! of God' 3/eir messa e is one and t/e same as t/at of t/e Curan in its core' +ere I am includin t/e +indu #ro#/ets or t/ose considered sa es& 0udd/a etc' 3/is is 1/! I /ave a 1/ole c/a#ter about t/is in m! boo.' Part of t/e muc/ needed unification of man.ind " t/at !ou alluded to " and #eace 1ill /ave to be based on t/is reali9ation' It>s 4ust t/at t/e Curan is t/e final revelation& t/at>s all' As suc/ it must #ossess t/e unadulterated trut/ for all times' (Please see t/e article: IHla1less 0rid e 0et1een Science and Reli ionI: /tt#:66o#ta on'#a e'tl6Hla1less"0rid ebet1een"Science"and"Reli ion'/tm)' $an! #eo#le do not 1ant to /ear about t/is' +ere I am not tal.in about Islam as es#oused b! t/e 3aliban& Iran or an! ot/er suc/ .ind of deviant ideas t/at o a ainst t/e Curan& but mas,uerade as bein Islamic' I>m tal.in about universal /i /er #rinci#les t/at 1e>re all su##osed to follo1 to brin muc/ need #eace to /umans& animals and t/e environment based on rationalit! and t/e evidence' A/! 1e consider t/e conclusion about t/e ne1l! formed subtle bod! is because t/at>s in t/e Curan " 1/ic/ is from t/e :reator " and +e surel! .no1s +is o1n creation' If !ou read IHla1less 0rid e 0et1een Science and Reli ionI

!ou>ll see 1/at I am referrin to' I>m also tr!in to avoid t/e mista.e of t/e #revious Islamic t/in.ers6sc/olars' Hor e2am#le& in <J=B& Ed1in +ubble discovered red s/ift and scientists be an to reali9e t/at t/e universe 1as e2#andin ' +o1ever& in t/e Curan it mentions t/at <@ centuries a o' So if some astute Islamic t/in.er 1ould /ave /i /li /ted t/at before its discover! it 1ould /ave /ad more of an im#act' Actuall!& it could /ave been used to #robe nature #rior to <J=B' 3/at>s onl! one e2am#le7 but I can #oint to /undreds literall!' 3/e fact is t/at t/e Curan #re"em#ts scientific discoveries& time and time a ain& 1it/ <FFK success rate so far7 once could #er/a#s be a flu.e but not /undreds or t/ousands of timesL 3/at>s 1/! I am ta.in it seriousl! 1/en t/e Curan sa!s t/at t/ere is a ne1 creation after !our deat/ in 1/ic/ !ou 1ill find !ourself in' Must as #eo#le use a telesco#e to #robe nature& t/e Curan is a lin uistic telesco#e to #robe nature and I>m tr!in to ma.e full use of t/at' 0ut before t/at one /as to verif! t/e Curan 1/ic/ itself c/allen es us 1/en it states: IIf t/is boo. 1ere from ot/er t/an God& t/en surel! !ou 1ould find in it& man! inconsistenciesI' I am in total a reement 1it/ t/e Personal God as#ect as o##osed to #ant/eism' +o1ever& $uslim and I /ave decided to ain a dee#er understandin of God& as I believe Peter NOo/utP /imself is doin & t/ou / comin from a different bac. round' I /ave not read Peter>s 1or.s in de#t/ 1/ic/ I intend to& and t/ere ma! be a difference bet1een /im and m!self6$uslim on t/e e2act nature of Mesus " I of course am in a reement 1it/ t/e Curan and ta.e Mesus to be a /i /l! elevated soul " of t/e foremost " as t/e Curan describes suc/ #eo#le 1/o lead and uide us to God& based on reason& evidence and com#assion7 and $uslims are not su##osed to ma.e an! distinctions bet1een t/e Pro#/ets (t/at>s in t/e Curan too)' 3/is is 1/! I cannot attac/ t/e 1ord monistic to m! model6#ro#osed solution to t/e mind bod! #roblem in $icrobits (olume =' *eit/er can I a##l! t/e 1ord dualistic' 3/is is because $uslim and I& and also 8es/an are s/o1in somet/in 1/ic/ /as been dormant in t/e Curan but 1as unreali9ed until 1e #ointed it out& and t/at is t/at t/e IHace of GodI mentioned in t/e Curan refers to us bein inside God& as t/ere is no outside lo icall! s#ea.in (I o t/rou / t/e #roof for t/is in reat detail in (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG))' +o1ever& bein inside God does not mean 1e are #art of God>s essence& rat/er ever!t/in is t/e command of God& 1/ere as in t/e 0ible& in t/e Curan too it is stated t/at God sa!s I0e and it isI 1/ic/ can /a##en t/rou / #rocesses includin evolution' *eit/er are 1e sa!in 1/at t/e Sufis are sa!in because t/e! tend to1ards #ant/eism and anti"rationalit!& 1/ereas 1e o in t/e o##osite direction' 3/is command is t/at 1/ic/ ives rise to consciousness " so t/at is 1/at t/e Curanic verse is tal.in about 1/en it states: I3/e! as. !ou about t/e Ru/ (common translation >s#irit>): sa! it is a command from !our Sustainer7 in order to .no1 1/at it is !ou need a vast bod! of .no1led e& but of t/at .no1led e !ou /ave been iven little'I So 1e reali9ed t/at actuall! consciousness is a #ro#ert! of s#ace and 1e are sustained t/erein b! God>s t/ou /ts7 t/at>s one reason 1/! t/e 1ord Sustainer is used in t/e Curan' It is t/at fractionali9ation t/at activates t/e bod!& 1e identif! 1it/ it& develo# memories etc' and once 1e die our self

continues in anot/er bod! b! transference' In order to .no1 1/et/er t/is ne1 bod! is inside us or arises after deat/ 1e 1ere ta.en to conclude t/rou / various means (as discussed in :/a#ter D (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG)) and t/e Curan of a ne1 creation outside t/e dead bod! after deat/' +o1ever& t/is is a matter of detail and not crucial for moral and et/ical #ur#oses' 3/e ot/er as#ect of our 1or. t/at connects 1it/ all t/is /as to do 1it/ reali9in t/at t/ere>s onl! one t!#e of #article out of 1/ic/ ever!t/in is made in absolute s#ace " 1e termed t/at t/e microbit' It forms all ,uar.s& luons etc' A/at I mean is t/at all #articles are rou#in s of microbits' So God creates t/e most com#le2 from t/e sim#lest7 t/ere cannot be an!t/in sim#ler for creation t/an absolute s#ace and onl! one t!#e of #article and God t/erefore s/o1s ma2imal diversit! from t/e minimum& and t/erefore reall! /o1 reat and lorious +e trul! is as a Personal 0ein 1/o is not li.e an!t/in t/at 1e .no1 of' :urrentl! t/e 1/ole of #/!sics is su##ortin itself on false #remises and is sim#l! bein #ro##ed u# artificiall! " it is bound to and 1ill colla#se& and es#eciall!& /ell 1ill brea. loose as t/e! sa! 1/en it is reali9ed t/at all t/ese so called fundamental #articles are not fundamental after all' 3/e true nature of s#ace and #articles 1ill t/en be reali9ed and t/is is bound to ma.e it easier to understand 1/at ma! be seen as abstract or 1it/out Iem#irical evidenceI ri /t no1 t/ou / it is #erfectl! lo ical' 0ot/ #articles (matter and ener !) and consciousness 1ill t/en be seen as interactin commands issuin from God or t/e mind of God' +ere& neit/er t/e 1ord dualit!& nor monism can be a##lied& because neit/er one of t/em ca#tures t/e d!namics of 1/at I am tal.in about' 3/e trut/ of t/e matter is be!ond bot/ monism and dualism' 3/e interaction of commands issuin as 1ills of God eliminates all t/e seven #roblems cited b! (imal' VIMAL 0! !our term 5consciousness-& I assume !ou mean sub4ective e2#eriences (SEs)& suc/ SE of sub4ect (self) and SE of ob4ect' :onsider redness of ri#e tomato7 t/e redness is su#er#osed in t/e mental as#ect of tomato and also t/at of t/e related color neural"net1or.' A/en t/e! matc/& t/e SE redness is selected and 1e (i'e'& t/e color neural"net1or. t/at includes self"related cortical midline structures) e2#erience redness' $atc/in can be classical and6or ,uantum7 in ,uantum matc/ t/ere is ob4ective reduction (Penrose and +ameroff-s OR"Orc/: (+ameroff E Penrose& <JJQ7 +ameroff E Po1ell& =FFJ)) and result is selection of redness out of man! color SEs embedded in related neural"net1or.' Details are iven in ((imal& =F<Fc)' 3/e ori in of SEs are discussed in Section D'=& 1/ere it is #ostulated t/e SEs eit/er actuall! #re" e2ist or !otentially #re"e2ist and later a s#ecific SE is actuali-ed durin matc/in and selection #rocess as detailed in ((imal& =F<Fc)' 3/us& t/ere is no circularit! #roblem in t/e dual"as#ect monism7 rat/er it is #recise and ri orous'

In !our frame1or.& consciousness (SEs) is a mental substance distinct from t/e material substance neural"net1or. because t/e consciousness is borro1ed from God via fractionali9ation #rocess& 1/ic/ is t/en embodied in neural"net1or. some&o. (#er/a#s some t!#e of interaction #rocess& 1e do not #recisel! .no1 /o1& furt/er researc/ is needed)7 t/is is t/e interactive substance dualism& 1/ic/ /as G #roblems' 3o sum u#& unless God is a fundamental dual"as#ect entit! (suc/ as /ra&man)& 1e 1ill al1a!s some #roblems no matter 1/at 1e do' It seems t/at !ou /ave not full! understood t/e dual"as#ect monism7 #lease read ((imal& =F<Fc) t/orou /l!7 #lease feel free to as. ,uestions' Once !ou understand& it is an ele ant frame1or.7 it /as a lon /istor!' Ot/er frame1or.s /ave #roblems' As #er (S/erloc.& =FFJ)& “0udd/ism maintains t/at t/ere is no self in an!one or an!t/in ' 3/e conce#t of self& 5I-& soul& or e o is illusor!' 3/e 0udd/a made an analo ! for t/is: a c/ariot is a com#osite of t1o 1/eels& an a2le& and a #latform& and as suc/ is called a c/ariot' 3/ere is not/in a#art from a #articular arran ement of t/ese #arts t/at could be called a c/ariot' It /as no self and 1/en its #arts are disassembled not/in remains t/at is a c/ariot' Aords li.e c/ariot are onl! convenient 1a!s of indicatin suc/ assembla es' So too 1it/ us /uman bein s: t/ere is no self& 5I-& 5me-& or 5soul- and 1/en t/e causal conditions t/at ive rise to us cease to e2ist& 1e cease to e2ist' *ot/in remains& not/in continues' 3/ere is not/in t/at could reincarnate' Ever!one and ever!t/in is im#ermanent and in a state of flu2: comin to be and ceasin to be' 3/e universe is as it is because of its in/erent nature 1it/out be innin and 1it/out end' Ener ! and matter are in ever"c/an in interde#endent c!cles of comin to be and ceasin to be'% S/erloc.& :' (=FFJ)' On 8en 0udd/ism' In G' Derfer E 8' Aan E $' Aeber (Eds')& T&e Roar o" A.a0ening. A 1&ite&eadian Dialogue /et.een 1estern *syc&ot&era!ies and $astern 1orld%ie.s ((ol' ? of A/ite/ead Ps!c/olo ! *e2us Studies& ##' =??"=@@)' Hran.furt 6 Lancaster: Ontos (erla ' 2ESHAN $! name is 8es/an S/a/ba9& I am *adeem-s collea ue form O#ta on (/tt#:66o#ta on'#a e'tl6)'I 1ould li.e to 1ei / in on t/is discussion' Hirstl!& t/e conce#t of 5our consciousness- follo1s from sound lo ical ar uments for t/e #rime mover (i'e' God) and 1/at it is (1/ic/ is t/e (er! Ob4ect"less #lane of e2istence) R refer to m! s!stematic demonstration of t/is in m! video: T&e )ntelligence is Rationally Concei%able /tt#:66111'!outube'com61atc/; vSTr:IS.f20H +ere is a summation of t/e ar uments (for Prime $over E t/at t/e Prime $over is t/e ver! ob4ectless #lane of e2istence) "" as !ou .no1& if t/e ar uments are lo icall! sound t/en t/e! are true' <st Part:

Somet/in moves t/e movin t/in ' 3/e universe is movin ' 3/erefore& somet/in is movin t/e universe' =nd Part: 3/e mover #recedes t/e movin t/in ' 3/e ob4ectless #lane #recedes t/e movin t/in (i'e' universe)' 3/erefore& t/e ob4ectless #lane is movin t/e movin t/in (i'e' universe)' And note& lo icall!& >t/e ob4ectless s#ace6#lane6realm> is indivisible (i'e' One)& limitless (no matter /o1 man! t/in s e2ist on t/is realm it doesn>t subtract6ta.e an!t/in a1a! from it)& eternal (i'e' timeless& t/e ob4ectless realm /as no be innin #oint or end #oint)& etc' And t/us& I o on to lo icall! conclude: Hor an! t/in to >be> (effect) is #receded b! its cause (la1 of case and effect)' And 1e .no1 t/at t/e ob4ectless #lane& lo icall!& #recedes ever! sin le t/in (matter& ener !& etc')' And if t/e ob4ectless #lane (1/ic/ is itself& lo icall!& limitless& immovable& eternal& indivisible& incom#arable& etc') #recedes e2istence of all t/in s and an! t/in & t/en it follo1s t/at it is t/e first cause of all t/in s& and if it is t/e first cause of all t/in s t/en it infers it is a /i /l! intelli ent and conscious causal a ent as it /as caused intelli ible& creative and conscious t/in s6bein s to >be>' Re ardin >our consciousness>: +o1 are certain material bodies conscious; Ans1er: Refer to m! attac/ed dia ram t/at illustrates t/is' 3/e Eternal :onsciousness 51ills- certainl! created6desi ned bodies to access t/is 5made accessible consciousness- R t/e 5accessed- consiousness b! t/e individual bodies translates into t/e Self' A ain& refer to m! dia ram 1/ic/ s/ould /el# ma.e t/is clear' 3/is entire lo ical s!stem demonstrates t/at t/ere is a la1 o#eratin t/at onl! certainl! fas/ioned bodies or bodies in a certain state are able to becomes receivers of t/e 5accessible consiousness- R 5accessible consciousness- bein t/e result of t/e Eternal-s 6 Primer $over-s 1ill (t/us ma.in our consciousness contin ent on time Nbecause accessible consciousness 1as 1illed at a #oint in timeP) and to et/er are contin ent on t/e Eternal' A dead bod! is one t/at no lon er /as t/e abilit! (i'e' failure of vital or an N/eart& brain& etcP) to receive or access t/e 5accessible consciousness'-

VIMAL 3/an.s' It is ver! nice #resentation' Ae need to .ee# on researc/in and ma.in our efforts until 1e ac/ieve #eace on eart/' Our oals are t/e same' I /o#e t/at !ou a ree 1it/ t/e dual"as#ect monism' :omments on m! manucri#t are most 1elcome from ever!bod!' U#dated version is located at /tt#:66sites' oo le'com6site6rl#vimal6+ome6=F<<"(imal"Problems"Dualism" Reli ions"DA$"@"Q'#df

HAQUE I t/in. 1e are in a reement in man! as#ects' 3/is God is conscious and as t/e Curan states& t/ere is not/in com#arable to >+im> or >It>' 3/ese ot/er scri#tures are sa!in t/e same t/in (includin t/e essence of t/e Geeta& es#eciall! 1/ere it is stated t/at one must not 1ors/i# ot/er ods)' +o1ever& 1e are not #art of t/e :reator' Ae are not #art of +is essence7 rat/er& 1e are #art of +is sustained creative t/ou /t " +is ima ination' 0elo1& in !our email& 0udd/a 1as e2#lainin onl! one /alf of t/e coin& 1/ic/ is accurate to a #oint onl!7 t/e ot/er /alf& t/e converse of it& is t/at our life continues else1/ere (t/is is in t/e D/amma#ada itself& for e2am#le)' 0ut t/is life is in anot/er li /ter bod!& created after deat/& accordin to t/e Curan' Access to consciousness can be understood b! t/is analo !: 3/e 1a! consciousness arises is t/at if !ou 1ant to listen to :0: radio& for e2am#le in :anada& !ou /ave to tune in to t/at fre,uenc! of station 1/ic/ is H$ JJ'<' Similarl! after deat/ !our Inumber> as it 1ere is retained and !our ne1 (ra#idl! evolved bod! " 1/ic/ ro1s from outside to inside " t/e reverse of t/e embr!olo ical #rocess) accesses t/at number and t/ere is a continuit! of life' In t/e Curan it states t/at God /as numbered ever!t/in ' Ae use numbers for trac.in & .no1in t/e amount and matc/in ' 3/ere>s interaction bet1een t/e #articles (i'e' t/e brain) and t/e >soul> because t/e! are essentiall! t/ou /t constructs of God7 matter and ener ! are made of #articles 1/ic/ are sustained and arran ed b! God>s t/ou /ts alone and our individualit! fractionali9es from t/e :reator and >attac/es> to t/e #articular bod! is a #ure limited t/ou /t from t/e infinite mind and s#ace of God' So 1e /ave t/ou /t (t/e fractionali9ation and transfocation of t/ou /t from God) on one level interactin 1it/ a t/ou /t structure on anot/er (i'e' t/e brain)'0ot/ are commands to I0eI' (I 1ould not use #/!sics> vacuum as an e2am#le as t/is contains #articles)' At t/e base of it 1e are not #art of God as t/e #ant/eists 1ould sa!' 3/is is 1/ere a mista.e is bein made b! man!' Ae are sim#l! commands of God in t/at sense and t/is is 1/at all t/e Pro#/ets of God& from Adam to 0udd/a to $u/ammad came to reveal and t/is is 1/! 1e are all brot/ers and one famil!& and our current

divisions are due to reed& #o1er& env!& 4ealous!& #re4udice " an immature outloo. on an immature #lanet' +o#efull!& 1e can assist to s/o1 t/e ri /t 1a! to all /uman.ind to brin it to true maturit!' 3/is is t/e /i /est oal' And for t/is Ae must see. t/e /el# and uidance from God& because +e is not not/in & but no t/in '

VIMAL In !our frame1or.& if soul (ru/& t/e mental entit!) se#arates from t/e dead bod! (t/e #/!sical entit!) after deat/& but interacts 1/en 1e are alive& t/en t/ere is t/e built"in interactive substance dualism& 1/ic/ /as seven #roblems and #ervades in all t/eist reli ions' 3/e t/eist version of t/e dual as#ect monism resolves t/em as discussed in Section @' Do !ou a ree; HAQUE :onsciousness is t/e #ro#ert! of ob4ectless s#ace (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG)' 3/e bod! is accessed b! t/e >#ortion> of ob4ectless s#ace 1/en it (t/e bod!) reac/es a critical t/res/old in its structure (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG)' 3/ere is no se#aration at deat/ of t/e soul because t/e soul is not a #/antasm co" e2istin 1it/ t/e bod! R it-s t/e #ro#ert! of s#ace itself7 t/e bod! continuousl! accesses it because t/at consciousness is all #ervasive' Accordin to t/e Curan a ne1 bod! is created in a ra#id manner outside t/e dead bod! and t/e identit! is t/en associated 1it/ t/e ne1 bod! " /ence t/ere>s continuit!' A/! I>m ta.in t/e Curan seriousl! on t/is is not because I am $uslim and am biased& but because t/e Curan /as been <FFK accurate so far about man! t/in s 1/ic/ 1ere not .no1n until t/e =Ft/ centur!7 e' ' embr!olo ! (I 1as one of t/e ones 1/o or ani9ed t/e Oeit/ $oore& Persaud (1/o 1as of a +indu bac. round but acce#ted t/e Curan as God>s accurate scri#ture after /e found t/is information in itL) lectures at U of 3 bac. in t/e <JQFs7 t/e e2#andin universe& t/e 0i 0an verse etc' So I decided to seriousl! stud! t/e Curan to also discover 1/at /a##ens after deat/7 if it is so accurate about embr!olo ! <&@FF !ears a o 1/en t/ere 1ere no microsco#es t/en I 1ondered 1/et/er it 1ould /ave somet/in to sa! about life after deat/& and it does' 3/is is also discussed in de#t/ in (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG)' It>s a vast to#ic 1/ic/ too. $o/ammed $uslim and m!self G !ears to 1rite and cannot be e2#lained in an email ade,uatel!' I /o#e !ou 1ill et some time to loo. into it' Uou 1ill t/en be able to 4ud e 1/et/er m! vie1 ans1ers t/e G ,uestions or not and 1/et/er it is t/e t/eist version of dual"as#ect monism' I 1ould be interested in !our feedbac. " but ta.e !our time' VIMAL Ae all .no1 t/at after deat/ t/e brain"bod! is reall! dead' A/et/er t/ere is ru/6atman6soul leaves from bod! is sim#l! our assum#tion' 0ut& let us su##ose& it is true& t/en it is cr!stal clear t/at ru/ se#arates from its old bod!' It does not matter 1/et/er ru/ occu#ies ne1 bod! or not' I t/in. t/at

ever!bod! 1ill a ree t/at ru/ se#arates from t/e old dead bod!' 3/at is m! #oint t/at t/e interactive substance dualism is built"in in all re ions7 if 1e modif! our frame1or. a little bit to re#lace it 1it/ dual"as#ect monism& t/en 1e are #roblem free& and t/is 1ill ma.e our t/eist frame1or.s better t/an materialistic science' Science is also acce#tin dual"as#ect monism t/ese da!s (see ((imal& =FFQb& =F<Fc) and references t/erein) ' $! ,uestion is: do !ou a ree 1it/ t/is sim#le #atc/ or not; After deat/& 1e do not see 5ne1 bod!-& so it is 4ust a /!#ot/esis6assum#tion' If t/e subtle matter nur6manas6et/ereal"astral cannot be detected& t/en it is also onl! a /!#ot/esis& in analo ! to >strin > is a /!#ot/esis in strin t/eor!' Since !ou /ave substance dualism built"in& t/en dual"as#ect monism 1ill be /el#ful in addressin t/e #roblems' 3/is is necessar! to /ave ma4or im#act' Per/a#s& $uslim>s vie1 mi /t be combination of man! vie1s& 1/ic/ seems to be true for ot/er vie1s suc/ as Advaita6(is/is/tadvaita& bible& and ot/er t/eist reli ions' +o1ever& m! observation of t/e se#aration of ru/6atman6soul from t/e related dead"bod! is correct because it is ever!bod!-s em#irical observation' Do !ou a ree; Hut/ermore& #a es ==B"=?D of (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG) im#l! t/at after deat/ t/e mental entities suc/ as ru/ (soul) and nafs (consciousness and /uman #ersonalit!) are se#arated from t/e #/!sical entities suc/ as ross dead bod! and subtler bod! nur' 3/e subtle matter nur (#er/a#s e,uivalent to subtle matter manas of Pra.riti in Sam./!a #/iloso#/!& 1/ic/ is seems to t/e liaison bet1een Purus/a and Pra.riti) mi /t be related to ,uantum et/ereal (ve etative) and astral (sensitive) levels of (Oo/ut& =F<<a& =F<<b& =F<<c& =F<<d)' It mi /t be interestin if !ou com#are nur 1it/ ,uantum entit! in (Sta##& =FFJa& =FFJb) and (+ameroff E Penrose& <JJQ7 +ameroff E Po1ell& =FFJ)-s ,uantum frame1or.s' Dual"as#ect monism also su ests t/at cr!onics is a ood idea because t/e e2istence of ru/6atman6soul is debatable' Hurt/ermore& t/eist6at/eist #/enomenon is sub4ect s#ecific because of enetic dis#osition and6or ac,uired traits as discussed in ((imal& =F<<d)' 3/e t/eist6at/eist #/enomenon mi /t mislead us in searc/ of t/e fundamental 3RU3+' HAQUE It a##ears t/at t/e differences bet1een 1/at $uslim and I /ave discovered from t/e Curan and ot/er vie1s after our intensive researc/ and t/ou /t on t/e sub4ect over t/e !ears (as JJ'JJK of t/e $uslims don>t .no1 t/is) is: <' 3/ere>s no astral bod! associated 1it/ t/e rosser bod! and embedded 1it/in it 1/ile t/e #erson is alive' On t/e contrar!& a ne1 bod! is actuall! created t/at t/en becomes t/e transfocation of ones t/ou /t 1/ic/ >1ent bac.> into t/e consciousness of God (actuall! it is al1a!s t/ere once +e (God) 1illed its e2istence but it is 4ust focused on #articular bodies t/at +e 1ills " t/at>s 1/! 1e call it transfocation or fractionali9ation of consciousness)' So our vie1 overcomes dualism'

=' At t/e same time t/ere is life after deat/ and our vie1 s/ares 1it/ t/e vie1 t/at t/ere>s a subtler bod! (as !ou also believe)7 it is not e2actl! li.e ours in terms of visa e but similar and of course it>s made of li /ter #articles " smaller t/an ,uar.s (i'e' it>s 4ust a different rou#in of microbits accordin to our #/!sics model " see at scribd " (ol' < of $icrobits) " t/at>s 1/! it>s not detectableL ?' God is se#arate from creation but at t/e same time all creation is 1it/in God7 t/at>s because it is a t/ou /t of God and not t/e essence of God& so it is not e2actl! monistic eit/er' Hor t/ese t/ree reasons t/e outloo. 1e are describin is uni,ue but 1e can see traces of it in all ma4or scri#tures' 0ecause of t/e t/ree reasons above& it s/ares somet/in from monism& dualism& and scientific6at/eism but it is none of t/ese' I t/in. investi ators 1ill soon find concrete evidence of *DE (more ri orous e2#eriments are no1 under 1a!) " t/is 1ill render t/e field 1ide o#en and I t/in. 1e /ave t/e ca#acit! to e2#lain it'

VIMAL One /as to be ver! careful in searc/ of sub4ect6mind inde#endent 3rut/' 3o encom#ass bot/ t/eists and at/eists6scientists& t/e dual"as#ect monism /as t1o versions: (A) t/e t/eist version is called modified"(is/is/tadvaita (t/e dual"as#ect 0ra/man is God) and (0) t/e at/eist version is sim#l! dual"as#ect monism (t/e dual"as#ect 0ra/man is a fundamental dual as#ect entit! suc/ #/!sics- vacuum& 0o/m-s Im#licate Order& and so on from 1/ic/ all universes includin arise)' 3/ese versions are necessar! at #resent time for maintainin #eace7 as scientific researc/es #ro ress to e2#lain miracles& s#iritual& m!stical& reli ious& and #ara#s!c/olo ical data& #er/a#s& (A) and (0) 1ill mer e' 0! !our term 5consciousness-& I assume !ou mean sub4ective e2#eriences (SEs)& suc/ SE of sub4ect (self) and SE of ob4ect' :onsider redness of ri#e tomato7 t/e redness is su#er#osed in t/e mental as#ect of tomato and also t/at of t/e related color neural"net1or.' A/en t/e! matc/& t/e SE redness is selected and 1e (i'e'& t/e color neural"net1or. t/at includes self"related cortical midline structures) e2#erience redness' $atc/in can be classical and6or ,uantum7 in ,uantum matc/ t/ere is ob4ective reduction (Penrose and +ameroff-s OR"Orc/: (+ameroff E Penrose& <JJQ7 +ameroff E Po1ell& =FFJ)) and result is selection of redness out of man! color SEs embedded in related neural"net1or.' Details are iven in ((imal& =F<Fc)' 3/e ori in of SEs are discussed in Section D'=& 1/ere it is #ostulated t/e SEs eit/er actuall! #re" e2ist or #otentiall! #re"e2ist and later a s#ecific SE is actuali9ed durin matc/in and selection #rocess as detailed in ((imal& =F<Fc)' 3/us& t/ere is no

circularit! #roblem in t/e dual"as#ect monism7 rat/er it is #recise and ri orous' In !our frame1or.& consciousness (SEs) is a mental substance distinct from t/e material substance neural"net1or. because t/e consciousness is borro1ed from God via fractionali9ation #rocess& 1/ic/ is t/en embodied in neural net1or. some/o1 (#er/a#s some t!#e of interaction #rocess& 1e do not #recisel! .no1 /o1& furt/er researc/ is needed)7 t/is is t/e interactive substance dualism& 1/ic/ /as G #roblems' Our reli ions are too old (see timeline in Section <) and /ad 1onderful life7 a lots of researc/es /ave been done since t/en and it is time to u#date our reli ions' I t/in.& if 1e im#lement dual"as#ect monism& t/e! 1ill /ave less number of #roblems' Puttin #atc/es and6or re"inter#retin in different 1a!s 1ill not do t/e 4ob' 3o sum u#& unless God is a fundamental dual"as#ect entit! (suc/ as 0ra/man)& 1e 1ill al1a!s some #roblems no matter 1/at 1e do' Please note t/at t/ere are at least t/ree .inds of monism: (i) mentalistic idealism (matter from mind)& (ii) materialism (mind from matter)& and (iii) dual"as#ect monism (mental and #/!sical as t1o inse#arable as#ects of t/e same entit!)' 3/erefore& 1e need to s#ecif! 1/ic/ one to avoid confusion' 3/ere are over @F different (some overla##in ) meanin s attributed to t/e term 5consciousness- t/at are cate ori9ed in to functions and e2#eriences ((imal& =FFJf& =F<Fd)' 3/erefore& 1e need to define t/e terms before usin t/em to minimi9e confusion' I uess& !ou mean consciousness"as"suc/ as e2#erienced in Samad/i state' $icrobit #er/a#s is a strin of strin t/eor!' It seems t/at t/e God !ou are describin comes under mentalistic idealism meta#/!sical frame1or.7 if t/is is correct t/en !ou /ave an e2#lanator! a# #roblem: /o1 can matter be created from mind; If !ou sa! t/at it is all God-s command and +is 1ill and +e .no1s /o1 ever!t/in /a##ens& t/en !ou need to e2#lain #recisel! /o1' Hor e2am#le& /o1 can !ou create redness"related (@6(Q6(O neural" net1or. from e2#erience redness; Assumin redness is embedded in God' Must sa!in it is all b! +is command 1ill not satisf! man! researc/ers' Uou need to s/o1 us #recisel! and ri orousl!' If t/e God is consistent 1it/ dual"as#ect monism (I believe t/is ma! be t/e correct assum#tion as in for 0ra/man)& t/en t/ere is no suc/ #roblem' Dual"as#ect monism s/o1s us /o1 a s#ecific sub4ective e2#erience (suc/ as redness) is selected via matc/in #rocess in a neural net1or. (suc/ as redness"related (@6(Q6(O"neural net1or.) #recisel! and ri orousl!7 details are iven in ((imal& =F<Fc)' If none of form1or.s a##lies t/en !ou need to investi ate a ne1 frame1or. t/at does not /ave #roblems because meta#/!sics is t/e ROO3 of ever!t/in 1e build' Please remember t/at it is t/e /uman mind t/at created God' If 1e do *O3 e2ist t/en /o1 do !ou .no1 God e2ists because mind"inde#endent realit! is un.no1n or #artl! .no1n onl! t/rou / /uman mind' In addition& if t/e t/eist"at/eist #/enomenon is correct t/en God is for t/eists onl! and certainl! not for at/eists because t/is #/enomenon is sub4ect s#ecific'


:ertainl! m!6$uslim>s vie1 is not dualistic in t/e usual sense7 neit/er is it monistic " it>s somet/in totall! different and #robabl! unclassified as of !et' I t/in. t/at accordin to m! vie1 of t/e solution to t/e #roblem of consciousness& 1e are first of all conscious because our consciousness ! -"rr"we& 3r"( %"& wh" ! the n3 n te !,'0e "3 0"n!0 "/!ne!!1 Th't+! where 0"n!0 "/!ne!! 0"(e! 3r"( 'n& t ! ' 0"n!e./en0e "3 the ,r""3 "3 %"& '! M/!# ( 'n& I h'4e ,re!ente&* 0"n0ern n) %"& 'n& !,'0e1 Remember t/at& consciousness /as similar #roblems as t/ose faced b! t/e #ro#ert! of intelli ence and desi n and #ur#ose en rained in t/e structures and #rocesses of t/e universe& 1/ic/ t/e at/eists den!& even t/ou / t/e! cannot esca#e it in terms of t/e use of lan ua e (#lease see SGM (Scientific God Mournal)& m! e2tract from one of m! boo.s& #resented as Part ? of #roof for God)' A/at I mean is t/at teleolo ! #ervades in t/e lan ua e itself: for e2am#le& I /ave a boo. t/at is a #urel! tec/nical one (3/e $ec/anical Desi n of Or anisms)& in 1/ic/ t/e aut/ors a#olo eticall! state in t/eir introduction t/at t/e biolo ical or anisms t/e! are investi atin are >desi ned> " t/e! .no1 t/is im#lies teleolo !& but state t/at t/e! cannot esca#e suc/ a descri#tion because of t/e #recise nature of t/e structure of t/e or anisms to fulfill t/eir oals (and of course a desi n im#lies a desi ner)' Uou see& if !ou /ave a car#et 1/ic/ is of t/e 1ron si9e& t/ere 1ill al1a!s be a bum# in it' *o matter /o1 muc/ !ou tr! to s,uas/ t/e bum# to flatten t/e car#et& t/e bum# 1ill inevitabl! s/o1 u# else1/ere' Same 1it/ t/e #roblem of intelli ence and /ence consciousness in t/e universe7 t/e #roblem .ee#s ettin s/ifted' 3/erefore& if 1e tr! to e2#lain /uman consciousness 1e are enterin t/e same #roblem' If one sa!s t/at #articles #ossess bot/ consciousness (a mental as#ect) and materialit!& one assumes consciousness to #rove consciousness7 it>s a circular #roblem' Hurt/ermore& t/e aforementioned statement is an assertion and not a #roof' Also 1ords suc/ as >selection> im#l! a selector and /ence consciousness' If t/ere>s a material mec/anism for selection& t/at leads to or causes t/e selection& t/en one /as not #roved consciousness' On t/e ot/er /and& if t/ere>s a conscious selector it be s t/e ,uestion as it /o1 consciousness ot t/ere in t/e first #lace and becomes an assum#tion t/at one is tr!in to #rove7 /ence circularit!' Dar1inism is facin severe #roblems in its o1n field (in m! vie1 fatal #roblems) see (IA/at Dar1in Got Aron I b! Hodor and /is collea ue) let alone tr!in to a##l! it in t/e area of consciousness' Strin t/eor! is so farfetc/ed and /as assumed so man! dimensions and different dimensions de#endin on t/e version " " dimensions for 1/ic/ t/ere is no #roof& t/at it cannot even be a##lied to consciousness studies 1it/ an! solid footin 1/atsoever' Strin t/eor! 1as concocted for e2am#le to et rid of t/e infinit! #roblems (I discuss t/is reat de#t/ in $icrobits (olume <)' *ature does not /ave suc/ #roblems " onl! /umans& 1/o concoct inconsistent and incom#lete t/eories' (See: Problems of Interactive Substance Dualism and Reli ions: Resolved b! Dual" As#ect $onism RLP (imal)' Uou are correct in statin t/at consciousness and matter must /ave t/e same t!#e of #ro#erties' $! vie1 does /ave t/at feature " but I 1on>t call it monism because t/at tends to detract from a #ersonal God and conve!s a 1ron

conce#t in m! vie1' In m! dia ram 1/en I state t/at IR translates into ,ualia C via rules (a ain a command) TI& t/e rule is sim#l! t/e nature of t/e fractionali9ation7 1/en it interacts 1it/ microbits (#articles) and it reads colours based on t/e structure and functions !ou are tal.in about R e2actl! 1/at t/e structure and function is 1ill be determined b! more investi ations into t/e brain' Different structures 1ill #roduce different colour e2#eriences because t/at is t/e 1a! t/e fractionali9ation (our consciousness) is& as e2tracted from God& b! God>s 1ill itself' I 1ill dra1 an analo !: If !ou /ad a s/eet of #a#er& t/at #a#er 1ould /ave a #articular ,ualit!7 so it 1ould react in a s#ecific 1a! to #astel colourin & 1ater colourin & or blots of in. t/ro1n on it& in terms of t/e diffusion of t/e #aint etc' It is a material t/at reacts in a #articular 1a! to ot/er materials bein cast u#on it' Li.e1ise& t/is fractionali9ation 1/ic/ is our individual consciousness& in ever! creature 1it/ nervous s!stems& 1ill react to s#ecific neural structures in a s#ecific 1a!' So a command to see redness& blueness does not /ave to be iven eac/ time' A translation does not /ave to be done eac/ time& 4ust as for a #iece of #a#er 1e do not /ave to intervene to et various t!#es of #atterns on it& in terms of /o1 t/e #a#er >acce#ts> t/e material bein t/ro1n u#on it' It>s reall! a lobal command t/at t/e fractionali9ation 1ill react in fi2ed 1a!s to an indefinite number (from our #ers#ective) neural motions' So& !ou can see t/at from a sim#le 1orm to man& 1e are all united in a common t/read of t/is fractionali9ation& im#in in on eac/ t!#e of biolo ical entit!' 3/e more t/e so#/isticated arran ement of microbits (or subatomic #articles& after a #articular #attern of #lacement) t/e more our functions available and /ence .no1led e obtainable etc' and t/e build"u# of our self etc' +avin said t/at& I believe t/at !our anal!sis in terms of structure6function is absolutel! correct and t/e notion t/at dualism must not be t/e correct solution' A/at I am sa!in is t/at :onsciousness is a certaint! and is a #ersonal consciousness t/at creates structures (neurons and t/e com#licated #rocesses and ot/ers 1/ic/ 1e are fat/omin ) " -/t -e n) 3r"( the ( n& "3 %"& the$ 're 5'##6 +(ent'#+ 0"n!tr/0t! 5"3 %"&* "3 & 33erent t$,e! wh"!e nter'0t'- # t$ ! '!!/re& -$ the w ## "3 %"&6' N3/erefore& 1e do not /ave an! dualit! #roblem /ereP'3/e individual consciousness is an active mental state t/at interacts 1it/ t/e structures and /ence 1e /ave conscious e2#erience of colours& smells& #ain& #leasure etc' 3/e mec/anism for e2#eriencin redness is detailed in Hi ' <' 3/e e2ternal environment E ma#s into neurons R' H& fractionali9es from G& b! 1ill of G' H reads R' R translates into ,ualia C via rules (a ain a command) T' 3/ere is an interaction of t1o t!#es of command for conscious e2#erience of ,ualia' God e2ists and does so as G because of #roofs: see t/e sesamatic ar ument in (+a,ue E $uslim& =F<<7 $uslim& =F<<) and t/e teleo enic ar ument in (+a,ue E 0anaei& =F<<)' Idealism is debun.ed R see :/a#ter = (+a,ue E $uslim& =FFG)'






GOD ETIS3S A*D DOES SO AS % 0E:AUSE OH PROOHS: SEE 3+E SESA$A3I: ARGU$E*3 A*D 3+E 3ELEOGE*I: ARGU$E*3 I* S%7' IDEALIS$ IS DE0U*OED R SEE :+AP3ER = OH FROM MICROBITS TO EVERYTHING: VOL ME !. VIMAL 3/e definitions of ,ualia and sub4ective e2#erience (SE) are iven in ((imal& =F<Fb)' +ere& t/ese terms are used interc/an eabl!' I 1ill use SE' Uou /ave debun.ed Idealism and $aterialism' Ae need to ma.e sure t/at t/ere is no cate or! mista.e (Hei l& <JDG)' If terms s!mboli9ed b! E& R& H& G are dual" as#ect entities t/en t/ere are less #roblem7 I assume t/at !ou a ree 1it/ dual"as#ect monism: is t/is correct; If not& t/en #lease s#ecif! !our meta#/!sical vie1' Ot/er1ise& t/ere 1ill be cate or! mista.e' In ot/er 1ords& interactions mental"mental and #/!sical"#/!sical are allo1ed& but cross" interaction mental"#/!sical is not allo1ed' Please see m! discussion 1it/ Sta## in ((imal& =FFJ)' 3/e #/rases 5Aill of G- (is Aill totall! free& deterministic& or variable; : see ((imal& =F<Fc))& 5H reads R- (/o1;)& 5R translates into ,ualia C via rules (a ain a command) T- (1/at are t/e rules and command and /o1 is t/e translation done;) are unclear7 t/ese need furt/er elaboration' Uou need to be #recise and ri orous as in ((imal& =F<Fa)' In !our frame1or.& consciousness (SEs) is a mental substance distinct from t/e material substance neural"net1or. because t/e consciousness is borro1ed from God via fractionali9ation #rocess& 1/ic/ is t/en embodied in neural"net1or. some&o. (#er/a#s some t!#e of interaction #rocess& 1e do not #recisel! .no1 /o1& furt/er researc/ is needed)7 t/is is t/e interactive

substance dualism& 1/ic/ /as G #roblems' 3o sum u#& unless God is a fundamental dual"as#ect entit! (suc/ as /ra&man)& 1e 1ill al1a!s some #roblems no matter 1/at 1e do'


A Publication of I+R (Institute of +i /er Reasonin ) Publis/ed b! O#ta on Publications Limited: /tt#:66o#ta on'#a e'tl6 :o#!ri /t V=F<? b! *adeem +a,ue& 8es/an S/a/ba9 and Ram (imal