Application Notes for MiCOM P12x High Impedance Protection

April 2004

P12x/EN AP/A00

HANDLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
A person’s normal movements can easily generate electrostatic potentials of several thousand volts. Discharge of these voltages into semiconductor devices when handling circuits can cause serious damage, which often may not be immediately apparent but the reliability of the circuit will have been reduced. The electronic circuits of AREVA T&D UK Ltd - Energy Automation & Information products are immune to the relevant levels of electrostatic discharge when housed in their cases. Do not expose them to the risk of damage by withdrawing modules unnecessarily. Each module incorporates the highest practicable protection for its semiconductor devices. However, if it becomes necessary to withdraw a module, the following precautions should be taken to preserve the high reliability and long life for which the equipment has been designed and manufactured. 1. 2. Before removing a module, ensure that you are a same electrostatic potential as the equipment by touching the case. Handle the module by its front-plate, frame, or edges of the printed circuit board. Avoid touching the electronic components, printed circuit track or connectors. Do not pass the module to any person without first ensuring that you are both at the same electrostatic potential. Shaking hands achieves equipotential. Place the module on an antistatic surface, or on a conducting surface which is at the same potential as yourself. Store or transport the module in a conductive bag.

3. 4. 5.

More information on safe working procedures for all electronic equipment can be found in BS5783 and IEC 60147-0F. If you are making measurements on the internal electronic circuitry of an equipment in service, it is preferable that you are earthed to the case with a conductive wrist strap. Wrist straps should have a resistance to ground between 500k – 10M ohms. If a wrist strap is not available you should maintain regular contact with the case to prevent the build up of static. Instrumentation which may be used for making measurements should be earthed to the case whenever possible. AREVA T&D UK Ltd - Energy Automation & Information strongly recommends that detailed investigations on the electronic circuitry, or modification work, should be carried out in a Special Handling Area such as described in BS5783 or IEC 60147-0F.

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Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 1/20

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3.
3.1 3.2

INTRODUCTION USE OF METROSIL NON-LINEAR RESISTORS MiCOM P12x RANGE
P12x Application Considerations Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Applications

3 5 7
8 8

4.
4.1 4.2 4.3

APPLYING THE P12x
Advanced application requirements for through fault stability Transient stability limit Steady state stability limit

9
9 9 10

5.
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

TYPICAL SETTING EXAMPLES
Restricted earth fault protection Stability voltage Stabilising resistor Current transformer requirements Metrosil non-linear resistor requirements

10
10 10 10 10 11

6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10

BUSBAR PROTECTION
Stability voltage Current setting Discriminating zone Check zone Stabilising resistor Current transformer requirements Metrosil non-linear resistor requirements Busbar supervision Advanced application requirements for through fault stability Transient stability limit

12
12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14

Figure 1: Principle of high impedance protection Figure 2: Double busbar generating station Figure 3: Phase and earth fault differential protection for generators, motors or reactors

3 15 15

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 2/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

Figure 4: Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 3 wire system-applicable to star connected generators or power transformer windings Figure 5: Balanced or restricted earth fault protection for delta winding of a power transformer with supply system earthed Figure 6: Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to star connected generators or power transformer windings with neutral earthed at switchgear Figure 7: Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to star connected generators or power transformer windings earthed directly at the star point Figure 8: Phase and earth fault differential protection for an auto-transformer with CT’s at the neutral star point Figure 9: Busbar protection – simple single zone phase and earth fault scheme Figure 10: Restricted earth fault protection on a power transformer LV winding

16 16 17 17 18 18 19

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 3/20

1.

INTRODUCTION
The application of the P12x numerical overcurrent relays as differential protection for machines, power transformers and busbar installations is based on the high impedance differential principle, offering stability for any type of fault occurring outside the protected zone and satisfactory operation for faults within the zone. A high impedance relay is defined as a relay or relay circuit whose voltage setting is not less than the calculated maximum voltage which can appear across its terminals under the assigned maximum through fault current condition. It can be seen from Figure 1 that during an external fault the through fault current should circulate between the current transformer secondaries. The only current that can flow through the relay circuit is that due to any difference in the current transformer outputs for the same primary current. Magnetic saturation will reduce the output of a current transformer and the most extreme case for stability will be if one current transformer is completely saturated and the other unaffected.
CTA CTB

Protected unit

Z MA R CTA R CTB

Z MB

RL

RL R RELAY CIRCUIT

RL

RL

Figure 1:

Principle of high impedance protection

Calculations based on the above extreme case for stability have become accepted in lieu of conjunctive scheme testing as being a satisfactory basis for application. At one end the current transformer can be considered fully saturated, with its magnetising impedance ZMB short circuited while the current transformer at the other end, being unaffected, delivers its full current output. This current will then divide between the relay and the saturated current transformer. This division will be in the inverse ratio of RRELAY CIRCUIT to (RCTB + 2RL) and, if RRELAY CIRCUIT is high compared with RCTB + 2RL, the relay will be prevented from undesirable operation, as most of the current will pass through the saturated current transformer. To achieve stability for external faults, the stability voltage for the protection (Vs) must be determined in accordance with formula 1. The setting will be dependent upon the maximum current transformer secondary current for an external fault (If) and also on the highest loop resistance value from the relaying point (RCT + 2RL). The stability of the scheme is also affected by the characteristics of the differential relay and the application (e.g. restricted earth fault, busbar etc). The value of K in the expression takes account of both of these considerations. One particular characteristic that affects the stability of the scheme is the operating time of the differential relay. The slower the relay operates the longer the spill current can exceed its setting before operation occurs and the higher the spill current that can be tolerated.

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 4/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

Vs > KIf (RCT + 2RL) Where: RCT = current transformer secondary winding resistance

(1)

RL = maximum lead resistance from the current transformer to the relaying point

If
K

= maximum secondary external fault current = a constant affected by the dynamic response of the relay and the application Note: When high impedance differential protection is applied to motors or shunt reactors, there is no external fault current. Therefore, the locked rotor current or starting current of the motor, or reactor inrush current, should be used in place of the external fault current.

To obtain high speed operation for internal faults, the knee point voltage, VK, of the CTs must be significantly higher than the stability voltage, Vs. This is essential so that the operating current through the relay is a sufficient multiple of the applied current setting. Ideally a ratio of VK 4Vs would be appropriate for most P12x high impedance applications, but where this is not possible refer to the Advanced Application Requirements for Through Fault Stability. This describes an alternative method whereby lower values of Vs may be obtained. Typical operating times for different VK/Vs ratios are shown in the following tables:
VK/Vs Typical operating time (ms) 2 48 4 37 8 33 16 18

Table 1:
VK/Vs

P122/P123 I>>> element
2 49 4 38 8 34 16 32

Typical operating time (ms)

Table 2:

P120/P121 I>, I>>, I>>> & P122/P123 I>, I>> elements

These times are representative of system X/R ratios up to 120 and a fault level of 5Is or greater. This is with the exception of the P120 and P121 elements where the operating time shown are representative of a X/R ratio up to 40. For X/R ratios greater than 40 it is strongly recommended that the P122/P123 I>>> element is used. The kneepoint voltage of a current transformer marks the upper limit of the roughly linear portion of the secondary winding excitation characteristic. This is defined exactly in the IEC standards as that point on the excitation curve where a 10% increase in exciting voltage produces a 50% increase in exciting current. The current transformers should be of equal ratio, of similar magnetising characteristics and of low reactance construction. In cases where low reactance current transformers are not available and high reactance ones must be used, it is essential to use the reactance of the current transformer in the calculations for the voltage setting. Thus, the current transformer impedance is expressed as a complex number in the form RCT + jXCT. It is also necessary to ensure that the exciting impedance of the current transformer is large in comparison with its secondary ohmic impedance at the relay setting voltage. In the case of the high impedance relay, the operating current is adjustable in discrete steps. The primary operating current (Iop) will be a function of the current transformer ratio, the relay operating current (Ir), the number of current transformers in parallel with a relay element (n) and the magnetising current of each current transformer (Ie) at the stability voltage (Vs). This relationship can be expressed as follows:

Iop = (CT ratio) x (Ir + n Ie)

(2)

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 5/20

In order to achieve the required primary operating current with the current transformers that are used, a current setting (Ir) must be selected for the high impedance relay, as detailed above. The setting of the stabilising resistor (RST) must be calculated in the following manner, where the setting is a function of the relay ohmic impedance at setting (Rr), the required stability voltage setting (Vs) and the relay current setting (Ir). RST = Vs - Rr Ir (3) The ohmic impedance of auxiliary powered P12x relays is extremely small and so can be ignored. Therefore: (4)

Note: Vs RST = I r

2.

USE OF METROSIL NON-LINEAR RESISTORS
When the maximum through fault current is limited by the protected circuit impedance, such as in the case of generator differential and power transformer restricted earth fault protection, it is generally found unnecessary to use non-linear voltage limiting resistors (Metrosils). However, when the maximum through fault current is high, such as in busbar protection, it is more common to use a non-linear resistor (Metrosil) across the relay circuit (relay and stabilising resistor). Metrosils are used to limit the peak voltage developed by the current transformers, under internal fault conditions, to a value below the insulation level of the current transformers, relay and interconnecting leads, which are able to withstand 3000V peak. The following formulae should be used to estimate the peak transient voltage that could be produced for an internal fault. This voltage is a function of the current transformer kneepoint voltage and the prospective voltage that would be produced for an internal fault if current transformer saturation did not occur. Note, the internal fault level, I’f , can be significantly higher than the external fault level, If , on generators where current can be fed from the supply system and the generator. Vp = 2 2 VK (Vf - VK) (5) (6)

Vf = I’f (RCT + 2RL + RST + Rr) Where: Vp VK Vf I’f = = = = peak voltage developed by the CT under internal fault conditions. current transformer knee-point voltage. maximum voltage that would be produced if CT saturation did not occur. maximum internal secondary fault current. current transformer secondary winding resistance. maximum lead burden from current transformer to relay. relay stabilising resistor. Relay ohmic impedance at setting.

RCT = RL =

RST = Rr =

When the value of Vp is greater than 3000V peak, non-linear resistors (Metrosils) should be applied. These Metrosils are effectively connected across the relay circuit, or phase to neutral of the ac buswires, and serve the purpose of shunting the secondary current output of the current transformer from the relay circuit in order to prevent very high secondary voltages. These Metrosils are externally mounted and take the form of annular discs, of 152mm diameter and approximately 10mm thickness. Their operating characteristics follow the expression: V = CI0.25 (7)

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 6/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

Where: V C = = = Instantaneous voltage applied to the non-linear resistor (Metrosil) constant of the non-linear resistor (Metrosil) instantaneous current through the non-linear resistor (Metrosil)

I

With a sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil, the RMS current would be approximately 0.52x the peak current. This current value can be calculated as follows: VS (rms) x 2  4 I(rms) = 0.52  C   Where: Vs(rms) = rms value of the sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil. This is due to the fact that the current waveform through the Metrosil is not sinusoidal but appreciably distorted. For satisfactory application of a non-linear resistor (Metrosil), it’s characteristic should be such that it complies with the following requirements: At the relay voltage setting, the non-linear resistor (Metrosil) current should be as low as possible, but no greater than approximately 30mA rms for 1A current transformers and approximately 100mA rms for 5A current transformers. The Metrosil units normally recommended for use with 1A CTs are as follows:
Stability voltage Vs (V) rms Up to 125V Single pole 600A/S1/S256 C = 450 125-300V 600A/S1/S1088 C = 900 Recommended Metrosil type Triple pole 600A/S3/I/S802 C = 450 600A/S3/I/S1195 C = 900

(8)

The Metrosil units normally recommended for use with 5A CTs and single pole relays are as follows:
Secondary internal fault Current (A) rms 50A Up to 200V 600A/S1/S1213 C = 540/640 100A 600A/S2/P/S1217 C = 470/540 150A 600A/S3/P/S1219 C = 430/500 Recommended Metrosil type Relay stability voltage, Vs (V) rms 250V 600A/S1/S1214 C = 670/800 600A/S2/P/S1215 C = 570/670 600A/S3/P/S1220 C = 520/620 275V 600A/S1/S1214 C = 670/800 600A/S2/P/S1215 C = 570/670 600A/S3/P/S1221 C = 570/670 300V 600A/S1/S1223 C = 740/870 600A/S2/P/S1196 C = 620/740 600A/S3/P/S1222 C = 620/740

The single pole Metrosil units recommended for use with 5A CTs can also be used with triple pole relays and consist of three single pole units mounted on the same central stud but electrically insulated from each other. A ‘triple pole’ Metrosil type and the reference should be specified when ordering. Metrosil units for higher stability voltage settings and fault currents can be supplied if required.

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 7/20

3.

MiCOM P12x RANGE
The P12x range are a numerical phase overcurrent and earth fault relays with 3 stages of phase and/or earth fault protection, I>/ Ie>, I>>/ Ie>> and I>>>/ Ie>>> which can be used for 3 phase differential protection or restricted earth fault (REF) protection. The P120 is a numerical single phase overcurrent and earth fault relay with the same 3 stages of phase and earth fault protection, which can be used for REF protection only. The protection element used for a specific application depends upon the type of P12x relay chosen. In the case f the P120 and P121 relays the choice of element is irrelevant as the fourier algorithm they employ is identical. This is not the case with the P122 and P123 which have an I>>> element that is peak measuring. The peak measuring algorithm gives a significant improvement in operating time over the fourier algorithm employed by the other protection elements. In all cases the time delay characteristic should be and with a setting of zero seconds. The “Trip Commands” menu (AUTMAT.CTRL) should be used to allocate the chosen protection elements (e.g. tI>>> etc) to the trip relay RL1. Any elements allocated in the trip commands menu will cause RL1 to pulse for 100ms. For applications where a 100ms pulse is insufficient, the pulse time can be extended up to 5 seconds in the “tOpen pulse” cell (AUTOMAT.CTRL/CB Supervision). This feature is not available in the P120 and P121 models. An alternative approach, which can be achieved in all P12x relays, is to latch the trip output following a relay operation. This can be done by selecting the appropriate protection element (e.g. tI> etc) in the “Latch Functions” menu (AUTOMAT.CTRL). Any elements not being used should be disabled by selecting “No” in the appropriate location. Setting ranges of P12x elements are: Phase overcurrent

I> I>> I>>>
Earth Fault

0.1 – 25In 0.5 – 40In 0.5 – 40In

Range: 0.002 – 1Ien

Ie> Ie>>

0.002 – 1Ien 0.002 - 1Ien

Ie>>> 0.002 - 1Ien
Range: 0.01 - 8Ien

Ie> Ie>>

0.01 - 8Ien 0.01 - 8Ien

Ie>>> 0.01 - 8Ien
Range: 0.1 - 40 Ien

Ie> Ie>>

0.01 - 25Ien 0.01 - 40Ien

Ie>>> 0.05 - 40Ien
The ohmic impedance (Rr) of the auxiliary powered KCGG over the whole setting range is 0.08Ω for 1A inputs and 0.008Ω for 5A relays i.e. independent of current. To comply with the

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 8/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

definition for a high impedance relay, it is necessary, in most applications, to utilise an externally mounted stabilising resistor in series with the relay. The standard values of the stabilising resistors normally supplied with the relay, on request, are 220Ω and 47Ω for 1A and 5A relay ratings respectively. In applications such as busbar protection, where higher values of stabilising resistor are often required to obtain the desired relay voltage setting, non-standard resistor values can be supplied. The standard resistors are wire wound, continuously adjustable and have a continuous rating of 145W. 3.1 P12x Application Considerations Since the performance of the P12x relay varies depending upon application, consideration must be given to which relay and protection element to use. The following data should be used as a guide in order to obtain the best performance from the relay. 3 phase applications (e.g. Busbars, Generators, Motors etc.)
Relay Type P120* P121* P122 P123 Recommended o/c element Any Any

I>>> I>>>

*

suitable for applications where the system X/R ratio does not exceed 40. Higher X/R ratios will have a detrimental effect on relay operating time.

Constants for 3 phase applications: 3.2 K-factor = 1.4 VK/VS ratio = 4

Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Applications
Relay Type P120 P121 P122 P123 Recommended o/c element Any Any

Ie>>> Ie>>>

It is strongly recommended that the 0.01 to 8Ien earth fault board be used for REF applications. For advice on applying the other earth fault boards (0.002 to 1Ien and 0.1 to 40Ien) contact AREVA T&D UK Ltd – Automation and Information. Constants for REF applications: K-factor = 1 VK/VS ratio = 4

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 9/20

4.

APPLYING THE P12x
The recommended relay current setting for restricted earth fault protection is usually determined by the minimum fault current available for operation of the relay and whenever possible it should not be greater than 30% of the minimum fault level. For busbar protection, it is considered good practice by some utilities to set the minimum primary operating current in excess of the rated load. Thus, if one of the current transformers becomes open circuit the high impedance relay does not maloperate. The Ie> earth fault element with its low current settings can be used for busbar supervision. When a CT or the buswires become open circuited the 3 phase currents will become unbalanced and residual current will flow. Hence, the Ie> earth fault element should give an alarm for open circuit conditions but will not stop a maloperation of the differential element if the relay is set below rated load. Whenever possible the supervision primary operating current should not be more than 25 amps or 10% of the smallest circuit rating, whichever is the greater. The earth fault element (Ie>) should be connected at the star point of the stabilising resistors, as shown in Figure 9. The time delay setting for the supervision elements (tIe>) should be at least 3 seconds to ensure that spurious operation does not occur during any through fault. This earth fault element will operate for an open circuit CT on any one phase, or two phases, but not necessarily for a fault on all three when the currents may summate to zero. The supervision may be supplemented with a spare phase protection stage (Ie>) set to the same setting as the Io> element or its lowest setting, 0.1In, if the Ie> supervision setting is less than 0.1In. Note that the IN current should be checked when the busbar is under load. This can be viewed in the Measurements menu in the relay. It is important that the IN> threshold is set above any standing Ie unbalance current. The supervision element should be used to energise an auxiliary relay with hand reset contacts connected to short circuit the buswires. This renders the busbar zone protection inoperative and prevents thermal damage to the Metrosil. Contacts may also be required for busbar supervision alarm purposes. It is recommended that the dual powered MiCOM P124 relay is not used for differential protection because of the start-up time delay when powered from the CTs alone. Also, the minimum setting of the phase overcurrent elements, 0.2In, would limit its application for differential protection. Figures 3 to 9 show how high impedance relays can be applied in a number of different situations.

4.1

Advanced application requirements for through fault stability When Vs from formula 2 becomes too restrictive for the application, the following notes should be considered. The information is based on the transient and steady state stability limits derived from conjunctive testing of the relay. Using this information will allow a lower stability voltage to be applied to the relay, but the calculations become a little more involved. There are two factors to be considered that affect the stability of the scheme. The first is saturation of the current transformers caused by the dc transient component of the fault current and the second is steady state saturation caused by the symmetrical ac component of fault current only.

4.2

Transient stability limit To ensure through fault stability with a transient offset in the fault current the required voltage setting is given by: Vs = 40 + 0.05RST + 0.04If (RCT + 2RL) (9)

If this value is lower than that given by formula 2 then it should be used instead. Vs and RST are unknowns in equation (10). However, for a relay current setting Ir, the value of RST can be calculated by substituting for Vs using equation (5), Vs = Ir RST.

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 10/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

RST Ir =

40 + 0.05RST + 0.04If (RCT+ 2RL)

(10)

4.3

Steady state stability limit To ensure through fault stability with non offset currents: (RCT+ 2RL) must not exceed (VK + Vs)/If. (11)

5.
5.1

TYPICAL SETTING EXAMPLES
Restricted earth fault protection The correct application of the P12x as a high impedance relay can best be illustrated by taking the case of the 11000/415V, 1000kVA, X = 5%, power transformer shown in Figure 10, for which restricted earth fault protection is required on the LV winding. CT ratio is 1500/5A.

5.2

Stability voltage The power transformer full load current = = 1000 x 10 3 x 415 1391A
3

Maximum through fault level (ignoring source impedance) = = 100 5 x 1391 27820A

Required relay stability voltage (assuming one CT saturated) = = KIf (RCT + 2RL) 1.0 x 27820 5 x 1500 (0.3 + 0.08) 35.2Ω

= 5.3

Stabilising resistor Assuming that the relay effective setting for a solidly earthed power transformer is approximately 30% of full load current, we can choose a relay current setting, IN> = 20% of 5A i.e. 1A. On this basis the required value of stabilising resistor is: For application where the 5A inputs are used, such as this, a 47Ω resistor can be supplied on request. The resistor is continuously adjustable between 0 and 47Ω. Thus a value of 35.2Ω can be set.

5.4

Current transformer requirements To ensure that internal faults are cleared in the shortest possible time the knee point voltage of the current transformers should be at least 5 times the stability voltage, Vs. VK = 4Vs = 4 x 35.2V = 141V

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 11/20

The exciting current to be drawn by the current transformers at the relay stability voltage, Vs, will be:

I -I Ie < s n r
Where:

Is

= relay effective setting 30 5 = 100 x 1391 x 1500 = 1.4A

Ir (Io>)

= relay setting = 1A n = number of current transformers in parallel with the relay = 4

∴ Ie @ 35.2V <

1.4 - 1 4

< 0.1A The time delay setting of the tIe > element should be set to 0s. The elements not used should be disabled. Note, the phase overcurrent elements not used for restricted earth fault protection could be used to provide normal overcurrent protection. 5.5 Metrosil non-linear resistor requirements If the peak voltage appearing across the relay circuit under maximum internal fault conditions exceeds 3000V peak then a suitable non-linear resistor (Metrosil), externally mounted, should be connected across the relay and stabilising resistor, in order to protect the insulation of the current transformers, relay and interconnecting leads. In the present case the peak voltage can be estimated by the formula: Vp = Where: VK = 141V (In practice this should be the actual current transformer kneepoint voltage, obtained from the current transformer magnetisation curve). Vf = If (RCT + 2RL RST + Rr) 5 = 27820 x 1500 x (0.3 + 0.08 + 35.2) = 92.73 x 35.58 = 3299V Therefore substituting these values for VK and Vf into the main formula, it can be seen that the peak voltage developed by the current transformer is: Vp = 2 2VK (Vf - VK) 2 2 VK (Vf - VK)

= 2 2 x 141 x 3299 - 141

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 12/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

= 3158V This value is above the maximum of 3000V peaks and therefore a non-linear resistor (Metrosil) would have to be connected across the relay and the stabilising resistor. The recommended non-linear resistor type would have to be chosen in accordance with the internal fault current and the voltage setting.

6.

BUSBAR PROTECTION
A typical 132kV double bus generating station is made up of two 100MVA generators and associated step-up transformers, providing power to the high voltage system, by means of four overhead transmission lines, shown in Figure 2. The main and reserve busbars are sectionalised with bus section circuit breakers. The application for a high impedance circulating current scheme having 4 zones and an overall check feature, is as follows: The switchgear rating is 3500MVA, the system voltage is 132kV solidly earthed and the maximum loop lead resistance is 2 ohms. The current transformers are of ratio 500/1 amp and have a secondary resistance of 0.7 ohms. The system has an X/R ratio of 20.

6.1

Stability voltage The stability level of the busbar protection is governed by the maximum through fault level which is assumed to be the switchgear rating. Using the switchgear rating allows for any future system expansion. = 3500 x 10 3 3 x 132 x 10
6

Required relay stability voltage (assuming one CT is saturated) = K If (RCT + 2RL) = 1.4 x 15300 (0.7 + 2) 500

= 116V 6.2 Current setting The primary operating current of busbar protection is normally set to less than 30% of the minimum fault level. It is also considered good practice by some utilities to set the minimum primary operating current in excess of the rated load. Thus, if one of the CTs becomes open circuit the high impedance relay does not maloperate. The primary operating current should be made less than 30% of the minimum fault current and more than the full load current of one of the incomers. Thus, if one of the incomer CTs becomes open circuit the differential protection will not maloperate. It is assumed that 30% of the minimum fault current is more than the full load current of the largest circuit. Full load current = 6.3 100 x 10 = 438A 3 x 132
3

Discriminating zone Magnetising current taken by each CT at 116V = 0.072A Maximum number of CTs per zone = 5 Relay current setting, Ir(I>) = 400A = 0.8In

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 13/20

Relay primary operating current,

Iop = CT ratio x (Ir + n Ie)
= 500 x (0.8 + (5 x 0.072)) = 500 x 1.16 = 580A (132% full load current) 6.4 Check zone Magnetising current taken by each CT at 116V = 0.072A Maximum number of circuits = 6 Relay current setting, Ir (I>) = 0.8A Relay primary operating current,

Iop = 500 x (0.8 + (6 x 0.072))
= 500 x 1.232 = 616A (141%- full load current) Therefore, by setting Ir (I>) = 0.8A, the primary operating current of the busbar protection meets the requirements stated earlier. 6.5 Stabilising resistor The required value of the stabilising resistor is: RST = VS

Ir

116 = 0.8 = 145Ω Therefore the standard 220Ω variable resistor can be used. 6.6 Current transformer requirements To ensure that internal faults are cleared in the shortest possible time the knee point voltage of the current transformers should be at least 4 times the stability voltage, Vs. Vk/Vs Vk 6.7 =4 = 464V

Metrosil non-linear resistor requirements If the peak voltage appearing across the relay circuit under maximum internal fault conditions exceeds 3000V peak then a suitable non-linear resistor (Metrosil), externally mounted, should be connected across the relay and stabilising resistor, in order to protect the insulation of the current transformers, relay and interconnecting leads. In the present case the peak voltage can be estimated by the formula: VP = 2 2VK (Vf - VK) where VK = 464V (In practice this should be the actual current transformer kneepoint voltage, obtained from the current transformer magnetisation curve).

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 14/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

Vr

= I’f (RCT + 2RL + RST + Rr) 1 = 15300 x 500 x (0.7 + 2 + 145) = 30.6 x 147.7 = 4520V

Therefore substituting these values for VK and Vf into the main formula, it can be seen that the peak voltage developed by the current transformer is: Vp = 2 2VK (Vf - VK) = 2 2 x 464 x (4520 - 464)

= 3880V This value is above the maximum of 3000V peak and therefore a non-linear resistor (Metrosil) would have to be connected across the relay and the stabilising resistor. The recommended non-linear resistor type would have to be chosen in accordance with the maximum secondary internal fault current and voltage setting. 6.8 Busbar supervision Whenever possible the supervision primary operating current should not be more than 25 amps or 10% of the smallest circuit, whichever is the greater. The Ie> earth fault element in the P12x range with its low current settings can be used for busbar supervision. Assuming that 25A is greater than 10% of the smallest circuit current.

Ie> = 25/500 = 0.05In
The time delay setting of the t

Ie> element, used for busbar supervision, is 3s.

Any elements not used should be disabled. 6.9 Advanced application requirements for through fault stability The previous busbar protection example is used here to demonstrate the use of the advanced application requirements for through stability. To ensure through fault stability with a transient offset in the fault current the required voltage setting is given by: Vs = (0.007 X/R + 1.05) x If (2RL + RCT)

To be used when X/R is less or equal to 40. The standard equation should be used for X/R ratios greater than 40. If the calculated value is lower than that given by equation 1 (with K=1.4) then it should be used instead. 6.10 Transient stability limit Vs Vs Vs = 0.007 X/R + 1.05) x = 1.19 x 30.6 x 2.7 = 98V 15300 500 x (0.7 + 2)

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 15/20

The relay current setting, Ir = 0.8In RST = Vs

Ir

98 RST = 0.8 = 123Ω Assuming VK = 4Vs VK = 4Vs = 392V Using the advanced application method the knee point voltage requirement has been reduced to 392V compared to the conventional method where the knee point voltage was calculated to be 464V.
100MVA 15kV

100MVA 132/15kV

132kV Main reserve

Figure 2:

Double busbar generating station
P1 S1 P2 S2 Protected plant P1 S1 P2 S2

A B C

A B C

21 R A Protective relays 22 v R ST

23 R B 24 v R ST

25 R C 26 v R ST

Figure 3:

Phase and earth fault differential protection for generators, motors or reactors

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 16/20
P1 S1 P2 S2

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123
A B C

27 P2 S2 R v P1 S1

28 R ST

Figure 4:

Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 3 wire system-applicable to star connected generators or power transformer windings
P1 S1 P2 S2

A B C

27

28 R R ST

v

Figure 5:

Balanced or restricted earth fault protection for delta winding of a power transformer with supply system earthed

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123
P2 S2 P1 S1

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 17/20
A B C

P2 S2 27 28

P1 S1

N

R R ST v

Figure 6:

Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to star connected generators or power transformer windings with neutral earthed at switchgear
P2 S2 P1 S1

A B C

P2 S2 27 P2 S2 v 28

P1 S1 R R ST

N

P1

S1

Figure 7:

Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to star connected generators or power transformer windings earthed directly at the star point

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 18/20
A B C P1 S1 P2 S2 P2 S2 P1 S1 P2 S2

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

P1 S1

A B C

21 R A Protective relays 22 v R ST

23 R B 24 v R ST

25 R C 26 R ST v

Figure 8:

Phase and earth fault differential protection for an auto-transformer with CT’s at the neutral star point

P1 P2 A B C P2 P1 A B C Contacts from buswire supervision auxiliary relay S2 S1

S1 S2

P2 P1

S2 S1

Protective relays 22

21 R A v R ST

23 24 27 RN 28

RB v R ST

25 R C 26 v R ST

Buswire supervision

Figure 9:

Busbar protection – simple single zone phase and earth fault scheme

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123
11kV 1500/5A

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 19/20

415V R CT

A B C RL RL

RL Data Protection: R L = 0.04ý R LC = 0.3ý = 5% RL R CT

Restricted earth fault protection

Transformer: X

Figure 10: Restricted earth fault protection on a power transformer LV winding

P12x/EN AP/A00 Page 20/20

Application Notes MiCOM P120, P121, P122, P123

AREVA T&D UK Ltd - Automation & Information St Leonards Works, Stafford, ST17 4LX England Tel: 44 (0) 1785 223251 Fax: 44 (0) 1785 212232 Internet: www.areva-td.com
©2004 AREVA T&D UK Ltd - Automation & Information Our policy is one of continuous product development and the right is reserved to supply equipment which may vary slightly from that described. Publication P12x/EN AP/A00