Computer applications in management

Kolhan University or Ranchi University
Semiester – 1

- Sandeep Ghatuary

Computer applications in management COMPUTER

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A computer system consists of mainly four basic units; namely input unit, storage unit, central processing unit and output unit. Central Processing unit further includes Arithmetic logic unit and control unit. A computer performs five major operations or functions irrespective of its size and make. These are 1. It accepts data or instructions as input, 2. It stores data and instruction 3. It processes data as per the instructions, 4. It controls all operations inside a computer, and 5. It gives results in the form of output.

What is a Computer?
A computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: it responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner and it can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).

Modern Computers Defined - Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires,
transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: 1. Memory: enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. 2. Mass storage device: allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. 3. Input device: usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. 4. Output device: a display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. 5. Central processing unit (CPU): the heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions. In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.

Computer Classification, By Size and Power - Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows,
though there is considerable overlap: 1. Personal computer: a small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data. 2. Workstation: a powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. 3. Minicomputer: a multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. 4. Mainframe: a powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. 5. Supercomputer: an extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

Computer applications in management
TYPES OF COMPUTERS

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Computers can be classified based on their principles of operation or on their configuration. By configuration, we mean the size, speed of doing computation and storage capacity of a computer. Types of Computers based on Principles of Operation

1. Analog Computers - Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values. The results given by the analog computers will only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary continuously. It generally deals with physical variables such as voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc. 2. Digital Computers - On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers. It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. Each one is called a bit. The digital computer is designed using digital circuits in which there are two levels for an input or output signal. These two levels are known as logic 0 and logic 1. Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster results. Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in engineering and technology. Hence digital computers have an increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing. Based on the purpose, Digital computers can be further classified as, General Purpose Computers Special Purpose Computers Special purpose computer is one that is built for a specific application. General purpose computers are used for any type of applications. They can store different programs and do the jobs as per the instructions specified on those programs. Most of the computers that we see today are general purpose computers. 3. Hybrid Computers - A hybrid computer combines the desirable features of analog and digital computers. It is mostly used for automatic operations of complicated physical processes and machines. Now-a-days analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are used for transforming the data into suitable form for either type of computation. For example, in hospital’s ICU, analog devices might measure the patients’ temperature, blood pressure and other vital signs. These measurements which are in analog might then be converted into numbers and supplied to digital components in the system. These components are used to monitor the patient’s vital sign and send signals if any abnormal readings are detected. Hybrid computers are mainly used for specialized tasks.

Functional Units of computer:
1. Input Unit: This unit is used for entering data and programs into the computer system by the user for processing. This is supposed to be a flash animation. You'll need the flash plug-in and a browser that supports it to view it. 2. Storage Unit: The storage unit is used for storing data and instructions before and after processing. 3. Output Unit: The output unit is used for storing the result as output produced by the computer after processing. 4. Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit. CPU includes Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and control unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit: All calculations and comparisons, based on the instructions provided, are carried out within the ALU. It performs arithmetic functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and also logical operations like greater than, less than and equal to etc. Control Unit: Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations inside the computer.

Computer applications in management
Uses of Computer

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1. Education: Getting the right kind of information is a major challenge as is getting information to make sense. College students spend an average of 5-6 hours a week on the internet. Research shows that computers can significantly enhance performance in learning. Students exposed to the internet say they think the web has helped them improve the quality of their academic research and of their written work. One revolution in education is the advent of distance learning. This offers a variety of internet and video-based online courses. 2. Health and Medicine: Computer technology is radically changing the tools of medicine. All medical information can now be digitized. Software is now able to computer the risk of a disease. Mental health researchers are using computers to screen troubled teenagers in need of psychotherapy. A patient paralyzed by a stroke has received an implant that allows communication between his brain and a computer; as a result, he can move a cursor across a screen by brainpower and convey simple messages. 3. Science: Scientists have long been users of it. A new adventure among scientists is the idea of a “collaboratory”, an internet based collaborative laboratory, in which researchers all over the world can work easily together even at a distance. An example is space physics where space physicists are allowed to band together to measure the earth’s ionosphere from instruments on four parts of the world. 4. Business: Business clearly sees the interest as a way to enhance productivity and competitiveness. Some areas of business that are undergoing rapid changes are sales and marketing, retailing, banking, stock trading, etc. Sales representatives not only need to be better educated and more knowledgeable about their customer’s businesses, but also must be comfortable with computer technology. The internet has become a popular marketing tool. The world of cyber cash has come to banking – not only smart cards but internet banking, electronic deposit, bill paying, online stock and bond trading, etc. 5. Recreation and Entertainment: Our entertainment and pleasure-time have also been affected by computerization. For example: In movies, computer generated graphics give freedom to designers so that special effects and even imaginary characters can play a part in making movies, videos, and commercials. In sports, computers compile statistics, sell tickets, create training programs and diets for athletes, and suggest game plan strategies based on the competitor’s past performance. In restaurants, almost everyone has eaten food where the clerk enters an order by indicating choices on a rather unusual looking cash register; the device directly enters the actual data into a computer, and calculates the cost and then prints a receipt. 6. Government: Various departments of the Government use computer for their planning, control and law enforcement activities. To name a few – Traffic, Tourism, Information & Broadcasting, Education, Aviation and many others. 7. Defense: There are many uses computers in Defense such as: Controlling UAV or unmanned air-crafts an example is Predator. If you have cable I would recommend watching the shows “Future Weapons" and “Modern Marvels". The show future weapon gives an entire hour to the predator. They are also used on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) that uses GPS and Computers to help the missile get to the target. Computers are used to track incoming missiles and help slew weapons systems onto the incoming target to destroy them. Computers are used in helping the military find out where all their assets are (Situational Awareness) and in Communications/Battle Management Systems. Computers are used in the logistic and ordering functions of getting equipments to and around the battlefield. Computers are used in tanks and planes and ships to target enemy forces, help run the platform and more recently to help diagnose any problems with the platforms. Computers help design and test new systems. 8. Sports: In today's technologically growing society, computers are being used in nearly every activity. Recording Information - Official statistics keepers and some scouts use computers to record statistics, take notes and chat online while attending and working at a sports event.

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Analyzing Movements - The best athletes pay close attention to detail. Computers can slow recorded video and allow people to study their specific movements to try to improve their tendencies and repair poor habits. Writers - Many sportswriters attend several sporting events a week, and they take their computers with them to write during the game or shortly after while their thoughts are fresh in their mind. Scoreboard - While some scoreboards are manually updated, most professional sports venues have very modern scoreboards that are programmed to update statistics and information immediately after the information is entered into the computer. Safety - Computers have aided in the design of safety equipment in sports such as football helmets to shoes to mouth guards

What Are the Advantages of Computers in Business?
Computers have tremendously improved the way businesses operate in their respective industries. Technology has advanced so remarkably that those who are not using computers in their business are at a major disadvantage against their competitors. In particular, there are several important advantages that computers can provide to small businesses. 1. Organization - Computers allow the application of different types of software that can help businesses keep track of their files, documents, schedules and deadlines. Computers also allow businesses to organize all of their information in a very accessible manner. The ability to store large amounts of data on a computer is convenient and inexpensive, and saves space. A computer's ability to allow a company to organize its files efficiently leads to better time management and productivity. 2. Self-Sufficiency - Computers have made staff and companies more self-sufficient by allowing them to do tasks that previously had to be outsourced. For example, a company can now use office software to create their own training material. Desktop publishing software can be used to create marketing materials. Online tax and accounting programs allow companies to prepare their own taxes. This allows the dominant operations of a company to remain in-house and empowers the company to become more independent and less susceptible to errors committed by outside parties. 3. Cost-Effective - Emerging technology makes new tools and services more affordable and allows companies to save on their staff payroll and office equipment. Because computers allow work to be done faster and more efficiently, it is possible for a company to hire fewer staff. In addition, with networked and relatively inexpensive computers, companies can store data more easily, saving on the cost of outside file storage, and can avoid having to purchase as many copiers, fax machines, typewriters, and other such items that were used before computers became popular. Correspondingly, potentially profitable businesses can be started with a smaller overhead cost. Email capabilities decrease postage costs; software applications reduce the need for large accounting departments, while videoconferencing reduces the need for travel. All resources saved will trickle down to the consumers, who are then provided with much more affordable products and service. 4. Speed - Computers help speed up other business operations. The collecting of consumer feedback, ordering of raw materials, and inspection of products is made quicker through the use of computers, allowing companies to operate much faster and to produce better quality results. 5. Cheaper Research and Development - R&D, or research and development, costs will also decrease with the help of computers. Scientific research can now be done using the Internet and computer software applications designed to develop and produce new products and services. For example, instead of a company having to do in-person focus groups on a potential new product or to determine their target market, the company can conduct a widespread online survey for a far lower cost. In addition, new models of a product can be created online using virtual pictures and drawings instead of having to be hand-drawn. These interactive models created using software programs can help bring the product and its features to life for a far lower cost than creating an actual physical model of the given product. 6. Sales - Computers can help generate higher sales and profits for businesses via a company website. Many businesses now operate online and around the clock to allow customers from around the world to shop for their products and services.

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Types of Computers based on Configuration - There are four different types of computers when we classify them based on their performance and capacity. The four types are
1. Super Computers - When we talk about types of computers, the first type that comes to our mind would be Super computers. They are the best in terms of processing capacity and also the most expensive ones. These computers can process billions of instructions per second. Normally, they will be used for applications which require intensive numerical computations such as stock analysis, weather forecasting etc. Other uses of supercomputers are scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known super computer manufacturer is Cray Research. Some of the "traditional" companies which produce super computers are Cray, IBM and Hewlett-Packard. 2. Mainframe Computers - Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds vie. Hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive. Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc for their applications. 3. Mini Computers - Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers. Hence, their performance also will be less than that of mainframes. 4. Micro Computers - The invention of microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the much cheaper micro computers. They are further classified into Desktop Computers - Today the Desktop computers are the most popular computer systems. These desktop computers are also known as personal computers or simply PCs. They are usually easier to use and more affordable. They are normally intended for individual users for their word processing and other small application requirements. Laptop Computers - Laptop computers are portable computers. They are lightweight computers with a thin screen. They are also called as notebook computers because of their small size. They can operate on batteries and hence are very popular with travelers. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use. Handheld Computers (PDAs) - Handheld computers or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are pen-based and also battery-powered. They are small and can be carried anywhere. They use a pen like stylus and accept handwritten input directly on the screen. They are not as powerful as desktops or laptops but they are used for scheduling appointments, storing addresses and playing games. They have touch screens which we use with a finger or a stylus.

Computer applications in management Computer Generations

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Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. But nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. There are totally five computer generations known till date. Each generation has been discussed in detail along with their time period, characteristics. We've used approximate dates against each generation which are normally accepted. Following are the main five generations of computers: S.N. Generation & Description 1 First Generation The period of first generation: 1946-1959. Vacuum tube based. 2 Second Generation The period of second generation: 1959-1965. Transistor based. 3 Third Generation The period of third generation: 1965-1971. Integrated Circuit based. 4 Fourth Generation The period of fourth generation: 1971-1980. VLSI microprocessor based. 5 Fifth Generation The period of fifth generation: 1980-onwards. ULSI microprocessor based First Generation (The period of first generation was 1946-1959) - First generation of computers started with using vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for CPU (Central Processing Unit). These tubes like electric bulbs produced a lot of heat and were prone to frequent fusing of the installations, therefore, were very expensive and could be afforded only by very large organisations. In this generation, mainly batch processing operating systems were used. In this generation, Punched cards, Paper tape, Magnetic tape Input & Output device were used. There were machine codes and electric wired board languages used. The main features of First Generation are: Vacuum tube technology Unreliable Supported Machine language only Very costly Generate lot of heat Slow Input / Output device Huge size Need of A.C. Non-portable Consumed lot of electricity Some computers of this generation were: ENIAC; EDVAC; UNIVAC; IBM-701 and IBM-650

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Second Generation (The period of second generation was 1959-1965) - This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. In this generation, assembly language and high-level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL was used. There was Batch processing and Multiprogramming Operating system used. The main features of Second Generation are: Use of transistors Reliable as compared to First generation computers Smaller size as compared to First generation computers Generate less heat as compared to First generation computers Consumed less electricity as compared to First generation computers Faster than first generation computers Still very costly A.C. needed Support machine and assembly languages Some computers of this generation were: IBM 1620; IBM 7094; CDC 1604; CDC 3600 and UNIVAC 1108.

Third Generation (The period of third generation was 1965-1971) - The third generation of computer is marked by the use of Integrated Circuits (IC's) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient. In this generation, Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming Operating System were used. High-level language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, etc.) were used during this generation. The main features of Third Generation are: IC used More reliable Smaller size Generate less heat Faster Lesser maintenance Still costly A.C. needed Consumed lesser electricity Support high-level language

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Some computers of this generation were: IBM-360 series; Honeywell-6000 series; PDP(Personal Data Processor); IBM370/168 and TDC-316

Fourth Generation (The period of Fourth Generation was 1971-1980) - The fourth generation of computers is marked by the use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth Generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution. In this generation, Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System were used. All the higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE, etc., were used in this generation. The main features of Fourth Generation are: VLSI technology used Very cheap Portable and reliable Use of PC's Very small size Pipeline processing No A.C. needed Concept of internet was introduced Great developments in the fields of networks Computers became easily available Some computers of this generation were: DEC 10; STAR 1000; PDP 11; CRAY-1 (Super Computer); CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer);

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Fifth Generation (The period of Fifth Generation is 1980-till date) - In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology
became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components. This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science which interprets means and methods of making computers think like human beings. All the higher level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net, etc., are used in this generation. Al includes: Robotics Neural networks Game Playing Development of expert systems to make decisions in real life situations. Natural language understanding and generation. The main features of Fifth Generation are: ULSI technology Development of true artificial intelligence Development of Natural language processing Advancement in Parallel Processing Advancement in Superconductor technology More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates Some computers types of this generation are: Desktop; Laptop; Notebooks; Ultra Book and Chrome Book

Computer applications in management COMPUTER LANGUAGES

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COMPUTER LANGUAGES - In all over the world, language is the source of communication among human beings. Different countries/regions have different languages. Similarly, in order to communicate with the computer user also needs to have a language that should be understood by the computer. For this purpose, different languages are developed for performing different types of work on the computer. Basically, languages are divided into two categories according to their interpretation. 1. Low Level Languages. 2. High Level Languages.

What is computer language?
The term computer language includes a wide variety of languages used to communicate with computers. It is broader than the more commonly-used term programming language. Programming languages are a subset of computer languages. For example, HTML is a markup language and a computer language, but it is not traditionally considered a programming language. Machine code is a computer language. It can technically be used for programming, and has been (e.g. the original bootstrapper for Altair BASIC), though most would not consider it a programming language. Computer languages can be divided into two groups: high-level languages and low-level languages. High-level languages are designed to be easier to use, more abstract, and more portable than low-level languages. Syntactically correct programs in some languages are then compiled to low-level language and executed by the computer. Most modern software is written in a high-level language, compiled into object code, and then translated into machine instructions. Computer languages could also be grouped based on other criteria. Another distinction could be made between humanreadable and non-human-readable languages. Human-readable languages are designed to be used directly by humans to communicate with the computer. Non-human-readable languages, though they can often be partially understandable, are designed to be more compact and easily processed, sacrificing readability to meet these ends.

What are the Different Types of Computer Languages?
The different types of computer languages can be broadly classified into two types; assembly level language and high level language. While some people may contradict this and say that there is one more type of programming language, the coarse level programming language. But the uncouth level programming language can more precisely be defined as the machine level language and designing a program using it will definitely become a boring task. You cannot name any variable and you have to catch out the machine code, for each and every instruction that you write and utilize. Besides, when you perceive abet at the code, you will not be in a situation to get out which instruction is performing which operation. 1. Machine Level Language - Computer works in bits and bytes. It understands the language of the binary digits, 0 and 1. You may write a program in whichever language you want, but it is finally converted into the language of 0s and 1s before it gets executed. Writing a program in machine language is definitely very difficult. It is not possible to memorize a long string of 0s and 1s for every instruction that you want to derive executed. It is proper that before the higher levels of programming languages were designed, machine languages were oldfashioned for writing programming codes, but they are no longer traditional for designing computer programs. 2. Assembly Level Language - An assembly level language is unprejudiced one level above the shameful level machine languages. No doubt, designing a program in assembly language is also not a very simple task, but smooth the programming code is quite understandable. A person with a apt hand in assembly level language can very easily understand the statements. Till date, many of the programs for embedded technology are designed in assembly language. A computer program like the assembler is broken-down for converting the assembly level programs into their corresponding machine level programs. 3. High Level Language - High level languages are far simpler to understand for the humans, than the assembly level language or machine level language. There are determined statements for writing, each and every instruction. However, whatever language you learn, you need to have a fine conception of the basics of that computer language. Without luminous the basics of a particular language, you cannot write a program in that language. The languages in these categories have different purposes. Some are meant for web programming, some are meant to produce simple desktop applications, while some can do both. But, one thing that you need

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to understand is that, high level language is not at all understandable for the computer. For the purpose of notion a computer program written in a high level language, it uses a compiler or interpreter to convert the programming code into its equivalent machine language build. The high level languages can also be broadly classified into two types; intention oriented languages and object oriented languages. Let me try to elaborate to you, these two types of programming languages in brief. In the contrivance oriented languages, the instructions are executed one by one and the process is given more importance. There is one main function or process that includes all the other functions. Every time a current location of data is created, the functions need to be redesigned. The BASIC programming language and C language are the two most popular examples of high level language. In the object oriented programming language, the main emphasis is given to the data. The process of programming becomes simpler as the code remains re-usable, under all cases. Even if the data changes, there is no impact on the remaining code. Java and C++ are the most commonly worn object oriented programming languages. Besides, these three basic types of languages, there is a next generation of programming language being developed, which is referred to as the fourth generation language. Fourth generation language are being designed with the perspective, that a person with limited or no programming experience can also exercise these languages to prepare his maintain code. No doubt, even the high level languages like Java; have incorporated such systems, so that the person writing the programming code does not have to memorize each and every function.

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Disk operating system What is an Operating System?
An Operating System is a set of programs that controls and coordinates the use of computer hardware among various application programs. It provides an environment within which user can execute programs. A computer can be divided into four components: The hardware, The operating system, The applications programs, The users. It is the operating system that manages all the above components. The various functions of the operating system are: Controlling Input / Output devices (Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer, Plotter etc...) Memory and File storage management CPU Scheduling and controlling processes Loading, initiating, executing and supervising user applications programs Handling errors and restarting Providing command interface between user and computer system Examples of Operating system are: UNIX (Solaris, IRIX, HP Unix, Linux, DEC Unix) Microsoft Disk Operating System (MSDOS), WIN95/98, WIN NT, OS/2 etc.

Disk operating system
Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically), most often reveal themselves in abbreviated as DOS, refer to an operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e.g., file systems for organizing files of all sorts). Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters, such as floppy disks or hard disks. In the early days of microcomputers, computer memory space was often limited, so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. This component was only loaded if needed. Otherwise, disk access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sector-level. In some cases, the disk operating system component (or even the operating system) was known as DOS. Sometimes, a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. Examples include DOS/360 and Free DOS. On the PC compatible platform, an entire family of operating systems was called DOS.

Features of MS – DOS – MS DOS is Microsoft Disk Operating System and is a precursor to Windows. The MS DOS features were slow and klunky by today's models. The system couldn't multi-task so only one program could use memory until it either finished or was stopped manually. Some features that we still see on Windows are the use of file names and lettering of the drives, to differentiate between hard drives and floppy drives for example. Components of MS-DOS - MS-DOS consists of four essentials programs and a set of additional utilities. Four main programs are Boot Record IO.SYS MSDOS.SYST COMMAND.COM

Computer applications in management INTERNAL COMMAND

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- There are also called memory-resident commands. These commands are automatically loaded into the computer’s memory during the booting process. They actually included in the Command.com file. So these commands are executable immediately after getting the dos prompt. A few internal commands are VER; VOL; DATE; TIME; CLS; DIR; MD; CD; PATH; RD; COPY CON; TYPE; COPY; DEL; REN and PROMT. A command can be given in Capitals or Small letters also. The internal commands can execute immediately but External Commands require special files for their execution without which it is not possible to execute them. 1. VER: - All O/S has its own edition number or release or version number. The version number indicates which edition of O/S you are working on. Syntax: VER <Enter> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; Ver <Enter> Result will be: - Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600] 2. VOL: - It is used to display volume label and serial number of the current drive Syntax: Vol [drive:] Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; VOL 3. DATE: - Used to display the current system date and prompt for entering new date. Syntax: Date <Enter> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; date <Enter> 4. TIME: - Displays the current system Time and prompt for entering new time. Syntax: Time <Enter> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; Time <Enter> 5. CLS: - Clears the cluster screen. Syntax: CLS <Enter> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; CLS <Enter> 6. DIR: - This command displays the list of directories and files with details like date of creation whether it is directory or file etc. Syntax: DIR <Enter> Switches: /p: To view one screen of files at a time. /w: Displays only five column of filenames and directories. /b: Display only file and directory. /l : Display all the information in lower case letters. /a : stands for attributes that are given below. /-h - Hidden (or not hidden) files s/-s - System ( or not systems) files d/-d - Directory ( or not Directory) names r/-r - Read only( or not read only) files Example: DIR *.txt: Display all the files with extension .txt DIR D???.* : Display all the files starting with D and having less than or equal to Four characters in the file name and any extension Here “?” And “*” are called “wild card character”. “*” Stand for any number of the character “?” Stands for nay one character. 7. MD OR MKDIR: -Used to create a new Directory or nested Directories. Syntax: MKDIR OR MD [DRIVE:] PATH DIRECTORY NAME Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; MD SAMS <Enter> 8. CD OR CHDIR: - This command allows you to change present directory to another directory. Syntax: CD [DRIVE:] PATH Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; CD SAMS and press <Enter> 9. PATH: - This command defines a list of directories DOS Searches for external commands. Syntax: PATH (Display the current Search Path)

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PATH; : - ( Clear the search path so DOS will search for external commands only in the current directory) 10. RD: - To delete the empty directory. Syntax: RD [DRIVE:] PATH NOTE: -The directory must be empty when we use RD. Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; RD SAMS and press <Enter> Switches: - 1. /s – Remove with subdirectories and files. 2. /q – Don’t ask to confirm. 11. COPY CON: -We use this command to create a new file. Syntax: COPY CON <FILENAME> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; Copy Con sams.txt <Enter> Note: - Typing here and when you are done, press Ctr+Z or F6 key followed by Enter to save the current document. 12. TYPE: - This command allows you to see the contents of an existing file on the screen. SYNTAX: TYPE <file name> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; TYPE SAMS 13. COPY: - Using this command you can make duplicate files of an exiting file from one location to another or one directory to another with different name or exiting name. SYNTAX: COPY < SOURCE FILE NAME> <TARGET FILENAME> Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY SAMS.TXT A:\TAJ Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY*.TXT +*.BAK TARGET FILENAME And Then Press Enter Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY SAMS.TXT C:\SAMS_1\FO\RECEPTION And Then Press Enter You can also have the option to change the name of files as you copy it. Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPYold.TXT C:\dos\new.txt And Then Press Enter 14. DEL/ERASE: This command removes one or more files from the disk or current working directories. SYNTAX: DEL filespec [/p] or ERASE filespec [/p] Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DEL C:*.BAK /P And Then Press Enter Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DEL abc And Then Press Enter Example: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DEL ????.COM And Then Press Enter Switches: - 1. /p –confirmation 2. /q – In quit mode 15. REN: Used to change the name of the file or directory. SYNTAX: REN <file name> Example: REN sams sams1 <Enter> Example: REN *.dat *.mst And Then Press Enter 16. PROMPT: This command allows you to customize the dos prompt. SYNTAX: 1. PROMPT Most people like to set their prompt to $p$g which display the current directory followed by > sign. Example: PROMPT $P$G <Enter> 17. TREE: - It is used to display directory structure of a specified directory graphically. Syntax: TREE [drive:] [path] [/f] [/F] : displays the names of the files in each directory.

EXTERNAL COMMAND: These are also called Disk-Resident Commands. These commands are meant for special purpose. These are found in separate files on Hard Disk or Floppy Disk, So that they don’t typically consume valuable memory space. They are loaded into memory only when called. Some External Command is: Xcopy; Move; FC; Doskey; Mem; Attrib; Deltree; Edit and Tree 1. XCOPY: This command is faster than Copy Command and allows you to copy entire directories/disk including all the sub directories and files to destination. Syntax: XCOPY Source [Target][/Y][-Y] [/P][/E] SWITCHES: /-Y : Prompts before copying over existing files. /y : Overwrites existing files without prompting.

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2.

3.

4.

5.

/p : Ask before copying each file. /e : Copying empty directory also. /s : Copying subfolders. EXAMPLE: XCOPY C:\SAMS D:\SAMS /S/E MOVE : This command moves a file or group of files from one directory to another and also one disk to another disk. It can also be used to rename directories. SYNTAX: Move [Path File Name] [Destination file name path] SWICHES: /-Y : Prompt before it overwrites while it copies file that already exists. /Y : Overwrites existing files without prompting. EXAMPLE: move c:\sams\fo.txt to d: EXAMPLE: move c:\sams\fo.txt to d:\ new_sams FC: Stands for File Compare. If you wish to compare two files or two sets of files then you may use this command. This command has the capability to differentiate between the files and display the difference SYNTAX: FC <files spec 1> <files spec2> [/a][/b][/c][l][/n] Switches /a : This switch displays only the first and last line of each group. /b : Compare the files in library mode ( byte-by-byte) /c : Ignore the case of letters. /l : Compare the files in text mode. /n : Displays the line number for lines that are different. EXAMPLE: FC first.txt second.txt\n and then Press <enter> DOSKEY: Dos can remember only the last command you had entered. But in order to make DOS remember all the commands you enter you will have to load a DOSKEY utility. Also Used To Create Macros Syntax: DOSKEY and Press <Enter> Display message on the screen. DOSKEY Installed. NOTE: - To display all commands from the history list one the screen. Example: DOSKEY / History or /h < Enter>. Now when DOSKEY is in memory, it can help store all the commands which you enter so that any of those commands need not be typed again to be executed. And this all are called HISTORY LIST. Now when you want the same command to be done you can use right arrow key or ‘F1’ or ‘F3’ Issuing following command. Second feature of DOSKEY is Doskey Macro. Using this macro you can create own command and latter you can run it on the system prompt. For example EXAMPLE: - DOSKEY C= CLS Now if you type at the system prompt only C and press enter it will clear the screen. Recalling Commands: Some key is provided to recall recent commands you have run since installing DOSKEY Key Strok Effect Up Arrow Display the Preceding Command and further list. Down Arrow Show the next command you executed after the one that’s being displayed. Page Up Display the oldest command that is still in Doskey. Page Down Show the most recent command that you executed F7 Display the entire list of command that you executedd. F9 Selects a commands Alt+F7 Erase the command history list. Alt+F10 Erase all macros in memory Esc Clear the command line. Ctrl-T Command separator MEM: This command displays amount of total available memory ( low, Expanded and Extended) and all currently programs. Syntax: MEM [/f][/p][/m]

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Switches: /f : Using this switch MEM display all the areas of memory that are fee. /p : Use this option to display the information one screen at a time. /m : Display information about how a specified program is using memory. Example: MEM/p and then press <Enter> 6. FILTER: A Powerful feature of DOS is its use of filters to process data directly. A DOS FILTER can process in unique way any data that passes through it and can change what we see on the screen. There are three FILTERS include in DOS. MORE: More command used to pause vertical Scrolling on the display screen, after each screenful, The display pauses and the message - - More - - appears. Pressing any key display the next screen. EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; MORE < TYPE FILE.TXT and then press <Enter> EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DIR /MORE and then press <Enter> SORT: Reads, Sorts in Order and sends the data to the screen, file or to another device. Sort to arrange data in an order. SYNTAX: SORT [drive:][Path][filename][/r][+n] Switches: [drive:][Path][filename] : Specifies the name and location of the file to be searches. It must be preceded by the redirection character (<). [/r] : Sort lines in reverse ASCII Order ( Z-A) [+n] : Sorts line starting with the contents in column n. The default is 1. EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; SORT < NAME .TXT and then press <Enter> EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; SORT /+20 < PHONE .TXT and then press <Enter> EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DIR / SORT > PHONE .TXT and then press <Enter> Note: Sort command doesn’t distinguish between upper and lower case. It can sort file of maximum 63 k size. Combining Input & Output redirection : EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; SORT < NAME .DAT > SORTNAME.DAT and then press <Enter> Here the sort command is being directed to take its input from <name.dat and after sorting, send its output to the > sortname.dat file. FIND: The find Filter is used to search a file one or more designated character (called a text string) Depending upon the form of the FIND Command. Each line having (or not having) the text string is sent to an output devices. Such as the Screen, a file or the printer. The text string is always typed within quotes ( “Text Sring”). SYNTAX: FIND [/v][/c][/n] “String “ [d:] [path][filename] Switches: [/v] : Displays all the lines that do not contain string. [/c] : Display the total number of lines found to contain the string. [/n] : Display the line number as well as the line that contains the string. [/i] : Ignores uppercase or lowercase during the search. Where: “String” : Specifies one or more alphabet or numeric character whose maximum length should not be more than 250 characters and must be enclosed in double quotes. [d:] [path][filename] : Specifies the name and location of the file to be searches . EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; FIND “Rajni” my.txt per.txt and then press <Enter> EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DIR/ FIND “TXT” and then press <Enter> 7. ATTRIB: Every File on the Disk has its own description like size, space occupied, the type, the date it was created, etc. Likewise, every file has few attributes. The attributes of a file indicates whether it is a i) Read-Only File: r ii) Archive File a iii) Hidden File: h iv) System File s With the ATTRIB command you can check the attributes of a file. SYNTAX: ATTRIB [+r][+a][+h][/+s] [filename] Switches:

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+r, -r : +r Read-Only attribute or, -r turn of Read-Only attribute +a,-a : +a archive attribute, or -a turn of archive attribute +h,-h : +h hidden attribute, or –h turn of hidden attribute +s, -s : +s system attribute and it should not be used generally. Note: While creating a new file every file gets read only attribute and archive attribute by default. EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; ATTRIB my.txt +R and then press <Enter> EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; ATTRIB my.txt +H and then press <Enter> 8. DELTREE: This command used for deleting an entire directory whether in that directory contains files or subdirectories and also it will delete hidden files. Syntax: DELTREE [drive:][path] directories [/y] EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DELTREE my.txt and then press <Enter> 9. EDIT: This is the DOS Editor, which you can use to edit the text file and also creating new file. Syntax: Edit [drive:][path][filename] EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; EDIT c:\sams\FO.TXT and then press <Enter> EXAMPLE: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; Edit NEW FILE and then press <Enter> 10. BATCH FILES - It is a collection of DOS commands to perform a certain task. or A batch file is nothing but sequence of commands to perform sequence of operations step by step. Look at the following commands you give step by step to perform an operation. Suppose your job is First - Check the directory Second - Copy a file called ABC.txt to another disk Third - Delete ABC.TXT from the present disk Fourth - Clear the screen If you do all this steps daily after your hour, then the commands you give would be: i) C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DIR <Enter> ii) C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY C:ABC.TXT D: <Enter> iii) C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DEL ABC.TXT <Enter> iv) C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; CLS <Enter> Instead of heating yup your head daily giving the same set of commands you can do it in a much simpler manner. All you do is put all the commands in a batch file. How to create a batch file: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY CON A.bat <Enter> Note: Here Con means Console that is Keyboard, A the file name and .bat is extension. It is compulsory that a batch file must have extension .BAT. You will find the cursor below ‘A’ now type C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DIR <Enter> C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY A.TXT D : <Enter> C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; DEL A.TXT <Enter> C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; CLS <Enter> Now Press the F6 or Ctrl+Z key combination. You shall find ^Z symbol below CLS, Now Press Enter. You will receive the following message 1files Copied. And you are returned to the prompt C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; Now to execute the Batch File simply type the name of the file. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; A <Enter> You will see all the commands in the A. Bat come right into action. So instead of typing all those command one after another performed the same job by just typing the file name.

Computer applications in management Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows

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is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUI). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. As of October 2013, the most recent versions of Windows for personal computers, mobile devices, server computers and embedded devices are respectively Windows 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Embedded 8.

The Features of a Microsoft Windows Operating System - Microsoft's line of Windows operating systems is the
most used in the world. The original Windows operating system dates back to 1981. Subsequent versions have included Windows 2.0, Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista. The most recent, most advanced, and most feature-rich version of the operating system is Windows 7. 1. Historical Features - MS-DOS was the earliest consumer operating system that gained Microsoft worldwide attention. In the beginning, Windows was regarded primarily as a graphical user interface (GUI) that did little more than provide an easier and more visually pleasing way to use MS-DOS. What eventually made Windows a standout operating system was its ability to do what its name implies--allow a computer user to have more than one program or process operating simultaneously in various "windows" on the computer screen. 2. Advancements - As Windows matured, Microsoft added advances to make the user experience more enjoyable and the development of software for the operating system easier. Windows 2.0 was the first to feature Control Panel, a tool that allowed the user to navigate a graphical interface to adjust settings on the computer. Subsequent advancements included peer-to-peer networking support, Internet support and dial-up networking capabilities. Software became "plug and play," which allowed users to insert diskettes (and eventually CD-ROM discs) into their computer and install software more easily, something that was still at the time difficult on other operating systems. 3. Surface Features - Windows 7, released in 2009, is Microsoft's most recent iteration of the Windows operating systems. On the surface, it features full 64-bit support, remote media streaming, and touch screen functionality (when paired with a touch screen monitor). It also features a new tool call Jump Lists, which makes accessing your most used media and programs easier. The desktop features Snap, a new way to organize, order and size the windows on your desktop so that they are easier to read and compare. 4. Advanced Features - Taking a cue from Apple's OS X operating system, Windows 7 features "Sleep" and "Resume" functionality The search system has been made quicker and easier to navigate. Memory usage has also been optimized to ensure faster and more reliable performance. Windows 7 has also been redesigned for better power management through the reduction of background activities, less power-hungry media drives, automatic screen dimming and the intelligent and automated removal of power to unnecessary accessory ports.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Windows operating systems, OS X operating systems, Linux?
• Windows: consumer-oriented. Tightly integrated. Disadvantages: vulnerable to viruses. Tightly integrated. Slows down after running 24 hours. Very little actual control over your files (they get written all over the disk haphazardly and the file systems you see even in MS-DOS have little to do with reality necessitating frequent defragmentation). Pricey for what you are getting. Mac OS X: tightly integrated hardware and software. Optimized for presentation graphics. Modular operating system (Unix) allowing for greater control of who or what writes to system files (safer). Gives you more control over your files and when your computer accesses the internet. Disadvantages? Pricey by andy standards: often a value but never a bargain. Linux: Advantages? Modular Operating system (Unix). You can have a truly free, nonproprietary OS in it but Microsoft has been using its political clout to make it more and more difficult. Inherits a tight security system from Unix, and selinux form the NSA has made it more secure. Total control over files and internet access. Disadvantages? Shows its technical origins and derivation from Unix in things like tar (short for Tape ARchive) cp (copy without the vowels) and other command line tools which are often used as back-ends for GUI programs.

Computer applications in management Program development life cycle (PDLC)

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When programmers build software applications, they just do not sit down and start writing code. Instead, they follow an organized plan, or methodology, that breaks the process into a series of tasks. There are many application development methodologies just as there are many programming languages. There different methodologies, however, tend to be variations of what is called the program development life cycle (PDLC). The program development life cycle (PDLC) is an outline of each of the steps used to build software applications. Similarly to the way the system development life cycle (SDLC) guides the systems analyst through development of an information system, the program development life cycle is a tool used to guide computer programmers through the development of an application. The program development lifecycle consists of six steps.

Six Steps of program development life cycle (PDLC)
STEP 1 2 PROCEDURE Analyze the problem Design the program DESCRIPTION Precisely define the problem to be solved, and write program specifications – descriptions of the program’s inputs, processing, outputs, and user interface. Develop a detailed logic plan using a tool such as pseudo code, flowcharts, object structure diagrams, or event diagrams to group the program’s activities into modules; devise a method of solution or algorithm for each module; and test the solution algorithms. Translate the design into an application using a programming language or application development tool by creating the user interface and writing code; include internal documentation – comments and remarks within the code that explain the purpose of code statements. Test the program, finding and correcting errors (debugging) until it is error free and contains enough safeguards to ensure the desired results. Review and, if necessary, revise internal documentation; formalize and complete enduser (external) documentation Provide education and support to end users; correct any unanticipated errors that emerge and identify user-requested modifications (enhancements). Once errors or enhancements are identified, the program development life cycle begins again at Step 1.

3

Code the program

4

5 6

Test and debug the program Formalize the solution Maintain the program

Computer applications in management
What initiates the program development life cycle (PDLC).

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As discussed in the systems analysis section the System Development Lifecycle consists of five phases: planning; analysis; design; implementation; and operation. During the analysis phase, the development team recommends how to handle software needs. Choices include purchasing packaged software, building custom software in-house, or outsourcing some or all the IT activities. If the company opts for in-house development, the design and implementation phases of the system development cycle become quite extensive. In the design phase, the systems analyst creates a detailed set of requirements for the programmers. Once the programmers receive the requirements, the implementation phase begins. At this time, the programmer analyses the requirements of the problem to be solved. The program development cycle thus begins at the start of the implementation phase in the system development cycle. The scope requirements largely determine how many programmers work on the program development. If the scope is large, a programming team that consists of a group of programmers may develop the programs. If the specifications are simple, a single programmer might complete all the development tasks. Whether a single programmer or a programming team, all the programmers involved must interact with users and members of the development team throughout the program development cycle By following the steps in the program development cycle, programmers create programs that are correct (produce accurate information) and maintainable (easy to modify). The following sections address each of the steps in the program development cycle. • Step 1 Analyze the problem = to decide what real word problem is to be solved and how a program can do this. The decisions of what the program should do. Looking at the flow of the data, the form of the input and output, the process needed and the user interaction. A defining diagram helps the programmer to see the components. If I were asked to write a program which would computer the cost per square meter of living space for a house, given the dimensions of the house, the number of stories, the size of the non-living space, and the total cost o the land, I would know that any noun or adjective is input or output and any verb is process. Design Diagram Input Processing Output Width of the Calculate cost per Gross footage house meter Length of the Calculate living area house Number of Calculate gross stories footage Size of nonliving space Selling price, less land • Step 2 Design the program - Breaking a large problem up into smaller ones. Deciding what the steps of the program are. A tool that is available to help the programmer during this step is a Flowchart, which is visual diagram of the flow of the program. Develop the algorithm An algorithm is the step that a programmer will write that will become a program. It is written in a form of structured language called Pseudocode. Pseudocode is language nonspecific; it could be used by any programmer to help him or her write the actual program using any programming language. Each step of your algorithm will be directly translated into a line of code when it is time to write the program using the program language. One line of the algorithm is equal to one line of code. Algorithms are written in sequential order of action and are language on-specific. If an algorithm is written correctly, any programmer using any programming language could directly translate each line of the algorithm into a line of code. If the algorithm is correctly written, the programmer knows that the program will work. It is possible to desk check the algorithm; it saves a programmer a log of time to use any algorithm and trace it to make sure that the program will be correct rather than just sitting down at the computer and writing out the program using the program language. To help write the algorithm, many programmers use other tools first. One tool is a flowchart. This is a pictorial image of the steps of a program. The majority of programmers use both – the flowchart first and then the algorithm. Although flowcharting is not a requirement to creating an algorithm, it is a very helpful tool and I highly

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recommend its use. There are a number of flowcharting programs available which makes it quite easy to draw a flowchart. Two that you can download from the Internet for free, are Smart Draw and RFFlow. You can also use the drawing features in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. After creating the flowchart, you will write the algorithm using pseudo code. Pseudocode should not use any reserve word. A reserve word, also known as a keyword, is a word that is reserved or used by any specific programming language to accomplish something. For example in C++, to show something on the computer screen, you would use the reserve word count. To do the same action using Pascal, you would use the reserve word function ‘written’ and using Java; you would use the word ‘pintln’. We try to use normal, everyday words when writing the algorithm. An algorithm must be: Be lucid, precise, and unambiguous; Give the correct solution in all cases and Eventually end (be complete) Step 3 Code the program – Actually using a specific programming language to write lines of program. These lines of code are also called the listing, and are also known as the source code. The program that you run is called the object code. When you use Word, you are using the object code. The actual lines of instruction, written by the programmer, that make Word run are the source code. Some programs execute the lines of code one by one; these types of programming languages are known as interpreters. The advantage of an interpreter is that, for a programming student, they are much easier to learn, as you are able to write one line of code and immediately test it to make sure works. The disadvantage is that these programs run slower. Basic and HTML are interpreters. Other programming languages are compilers; they execute the entire program at one time. These programs execute much faster, but require a programmer to write an entire program to test a section. C++ is a complier. Step 4 Test and debug the program - To make sure that the algorithm of your program does what it should. An error in a program is known as a bug and the process of finding bugs is known as debugging Desk checking is looking at lines of code one by one to see if they have been written correctly and the logic is correct. Desk checking is also called tracing. The walkthrough is just when a group of people do a desk check. Step 5 Formalize the solution - To run the program on a computer. When you run a C++ program, first the program will compile the program. This translates the human code into binary language. When you run the program, you will do further testing. There are two main types of errors, syntax and logic errors. Syntax errors are problems with grammar, spelling, or punctuation. If you have left of a semi colon or added one where you shouldn’t have or misspelled a reserve word, these are all syntax errors. These are the easiest one to find because the program itself helps you to find them. After the program’s translator runs, the linker runs. The linker portion of the software connects your program with lines of code that are pre-written. Larger numbers of files of this code are available in libraries. Libraries that can be linked to your code take a lot of work away from you as a programmer. Logic errors are errors that make a program’s results incorrect. These are much more difficult to find. No compiler will stop and tell you that you have a logic error. To the computer, which is a stupid thing that only follows orders, there is nothing incorrect about a logic error. You, the programmer, need to find the logic errors by yourself. An example would be meaning to add two numbers together and to then multiply the results, but writing the formula without the required parentheses. (2+3) * 5 = 25, but 2 + 3 * 5 = 17 … a very different result. Another type of error which is common in C++ is run time error. One type of run time error is called linking error. If, in your computer program, you referred to wanting to use some code in a library and that library was not on your computer for some reason, you would get a run time message stating that the program could not run. Another type of run time error would be a program that tires to divide some number by zero. Dividing by zero is an illegal operation. Step 6 Maintain the program – To Document is to put together all of the materials that have been generated throughout the PDLC process. All of the flowcharts, messages, algorithms, lines of code, and the user manuals are part of this documentation. Internal documentation is used by other programmers to help them know why you did something a certain way or tell them how you wrote a program. Since many programmers work on teams, it is very important to have good internal documentation so that each programmer on the team can understand each other’s work. It is also a fact that a programmer might start working on a program and then leave the company for whatever reason (or be placed onto another more urgent project). The person who takes over that job needs to see the internal documentation so that she can pick up where the leaving programmer left off. if you are a programmer who needs to update a program or correct a program you’ll not be very happy if the program is not documented. If you are in doubt, it is always better to have too much internal documentation than too little. External documentation includes user manuals and anything that is not the actual code or is part of the listing. This should also include

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materials that are placed on a website such as FAQs (frequently asked questions) and help areas. To maintain is to make sure that the program keeps running as it should and to do any needed updating or fixing. Maintenance is the longest phase of the PFLC. As users use the program, they will notice things that need to be fixed or updated. No matter how many times you test a program to make sure that it will work as expected, it is only when it actually gets into the hands of the actual end user that some of these errors show up. You will continue to fix and update the program until it reaches a point where the program has become redundant or too old. At that time, maintenance stops and the PDLC is started all over again.

Data Files
In this section we are going to discuss what a flat file looks like. Later sections will show specific program functions that will let you open and close flat data files and write data to the files you create. First we will examine how files are built up. Then we will look at details of creating files and writing data to files in some popular programs. In order to manipulate data as described earlier you will need to understand some basic facts about how files can be constructed. In particular, you'll need to know the following. Data files stored as text files (a txt extension in DOS/Windows systems) are stored as a sequence of characters. Every character is stored as a single byte of data. You know that a byte can store a number from 0 to 255. Every character on the keyboard has a numerical representation. There is a standard code for character representations. That code is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, that is ASCII, and that is pronounced "Ask-ee". When you strike a key on the keyboard, the ASCII code for that key is what is transmitted to your computer. Maybe the most important item on the list above is that every character is stored in a byte in a file. If you have that concept, then you can compute how much information can be stored on a disk. • Let's just take a single megabyte (1MB). That's one million (1,000,000) bytes. • Disks can store more than that. Floppies can store 1.44 MB and hard drives can store many gigabytes (A gigabyte is one billion bytes.) • If we can figure out how much you can get in a megabyte you can figure out how much you can get on a floppy or a hard disk. As this is written, I'm reading a book. • By my count it had about 2500 characters on a random page I picked. • That means it would take 2500 bytes to store the text on a single page. • By that count, one megabyte could store 400 pages (2500 bytes/page x 400 pages = 1,000,000 bytes) • The particular book I was reading has only 267 pages, so the entire book could fit on a single floppy disk. You can store a large amount of data even on a single floppy disk. Now, there are higher density disks that hold 100 megabytes or 250 megabytes, so consider these problems. EXAMPLE - How many 267 page books will fit on a 100 megabyte disk? • Assume 2500 characters per page, or 2500 bytes per page. • 2500 x 267 = 667,500 bytes/book 0r .6675 megabytes/book • Therefore, the number of books is 100/.6675 = 149.8. Let's call it 149 books, or even 150. • That's a lot easier than carrying the hard copy version in a backpack.

Data Type and Organization
1. Identify different data types: logical / Boolean alphanumeric / text numeric (real and integer) date 2. Select appropriate data types for a given set of data: logical/Boolean, alphanumeric/text, numeric and date; 3. Describe what is meant by the terms file record field

Computer applications in management
key field 4. Describe different database structures such as flat files relational tables relationships primary keys foreign keys; 5. State the difference between analogue data and digital data; 6. Explain the need for conversion between analogue and digital data.

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Define Master and Transaction file Master File - A master file is a file used as a reference for a particular computer application. It may be updated when
necessary. E.g. a file holds details of the goods stored by a chain of food shops. Each record consists of product code, name of goods, price minimum number to be held in stock. This file is the master file. Master file holds descriptive data; the actual data that is supposed to be processed and holds the resultant data after the process is completed (ex. names, addresses, sales, etc.). The data can be organized using keys. Permanent collection of data against which transactions are usually processed. Will contain REFERENCE and DYNAMIC data. Reference data tends to be relatively permanent (occasional or infrequent changes are made: insertion of new records, deletions or alterations) and is processed by AMENDING. Dynamic data is data which changes frequently and is processed by UPDATING. Usually have some order to the way records are stored: use the RECORD KEY. For example a HOTEL FILE will contain both reference and dynamic data: 1. REFERENCE DATA - Items of data describing the rooms: type, size, number of beds, sea view…, which will rarely change. 2. DYNAMIC DATA - Items of data describing the guest: name, length of stay, special requirements…. Which will change frequently, perhaps every day?

Transaction File - A transaction file is a file of temporary data, which has been prepared in order to carry out a
processing operation with the data on a master file. Usually the transaction file is being used to update the master file e.g. the file is prepared containing product code and new price for some of the goods on the master file. This is the transaction file and it is used to update the prices on the master file. Transaction file Contains the transactions; changes that are supposed to be made to the data in the master file. In batch processing all transactions are collected in the transaction file and the changes are applied to the master file sequentially in a single pass. For this to be possible, both the master and transaction file have to be sorted first. In an online system the changes are applied to the master file the moment the transactions occur or are recorded. Key - Unique identifier for a record. Temporary collection of data used to change information on a master file. Contains only that information which is needed to identify a record in the master file and make the necessary changes. The records may not be in any order at all: either SERIAL or SEQUENTIAL ordering is normal. Once used the transaction file may be deleted. For example A company will hold a PAYROLL file. Each week information about employees will need to be processed. What data would the transaction file contain? Employee number (to identify the employee’s record in the master file), weekly pay, days off sick, new employee, employee left the company….. Algorithm to update the Master file 1. Order transaction file by key. 2. Create new master file.

Computer applications in management
3. Compare first keys in master file to first key in transaction file. 4. Continue this until end of both master and transaction file. Apply any changes defined by the transaction file to the record. Write the record with the lowest key to the new master file. Go to the next record in the original master file and the transaction file. Compare keys as in step 3. 5. Close all files.

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Computer applications in management File Organizations

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A file is a collection of data, usually stored on disk. As a logical entity, a file enables you to divide your data into meaningful groups, for example, you can use one file to hold all of a company's product information and another to hold all of its personnel information. As a physical entity, a file should be considered in terms of its organization. 1. File Organizations - The term "file organization" refers to the way in which data is stored in a file and, consequently, the method(s) by which it can be accessed. This COBOL system supports three file organizations: sequential, relative and indexed. Sequential Files - A sequential file is one in which the individual records can only be accessed sequentially, that is, in the same order as they were originally written to the file. New records are always added to the end of the file. Three types of sequential file are supported by this COBOL system: Record sequential ; Line sequential and Printer sequential Record Sequential Files - Record sequential files are nearly always referred to simply as sequential files because when you create a file and specify the organization as sequential, a record sequential file is created by default. To define a file as record sequential, specify ORGANIZATION IS RECORD SEQUENTIAL in the SELECT statement for the file in your COBOL program, for example: select recseq assign to "recseq.dat" and organization is record sequential. Because record sequential is the default for sequential files, you don't actually need to specify ORGANIZATION IS RECORD SEQUENTIAL, you could simply use ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL (as long as the Compiler directive, SEQUENTIAL, has not been set). Line Sequential Files - The primary use of line sequential files (which are also known as "text files" or "ASCII files") is for display-only data. Most PC editors, for example Notepad, produce line sequential files. In a line sequential file, each record in the file is separated from the next by a record delimiter. The record delimiter, which comprises the carriage return (x"0D") and the line feed (x"0A") characters, is inserted after the last non-space character in each record. A WRITE statement removes trailing spaces from the data record and appends the record delimiter. A READ statement removes the record delimiter and, if necessary, pads the data record (with trailing spaces) to the record size defined by the program reading the data. To define a file as line sequential, specify ORGANIZATION IS LINE SEQUENTIAL in the SELECT statement for the file in your COBOL program, for example: select lineseq assign to "lineseq.dat" and organization is line sequential. Printer Sequential Files - Printer sequential files are files which are destined for a printer, either directly, or by spooling to a disk file. They consist of a sequence of print records with zero or more vertical positioning characters (such as line-feed) between records. A print record consists of zero or more printable characters and is terminated by a carriage return (x"0D"). With a printer sequential file, the OPEN statement causes a x"0D" to be written to the file to ensure that the printer is located at the first character position before printing the first print record. The WRITE statement causes trailing spaces to be removed from the print record before it is written to the printer with a terminating carriage return (x"0D") The BEFORE or AFTER clause can be specified in the WRITE statement to cause one or more line-feed characters (x"0A"), a formfeed character (x"0C"), or a vertical tab character (x"0B") to be sent to the printer before or after writing the print record. Printer sequential files should not be opened for INPUT or I/O. You can define a file as printer sequential by specifying ASSIGN TO LINE ADVANCING FILE or ASSIGN TO PRINTER in the SELECT statement, for example: select printseq assign to line advancing file "printseq.dat". Relative Files - A relative file is a file in which each record is identified by its ordinal position within the file (record 1, record 2 and so on). This means that records can be accessed randomly as well as sequentially. For sequential access, you simply execute a READ or WRITE statement to access the next record in the file. For random access, you must define a data-item as the relative key and then specify, in the data-item, the ordinal number of the record that you want to READ or WRITE. Because records can be accessed randomly, access to relative files is fast, but if you need to save disk space, you should avoid them because, although you can declare variable length records for a relative file, the system assumes the maximum record length for all WRITE statements to the file, and pads the unused character positions. This is done so that the COBOL file handling routines can quickly calculate the physical location of any record given its record number within the file. As relative files always contain fixed length records, no space is saved by specifying data compression. In fact, if data compression is specified for a relative file, it is ignored by the Micro Focus File Handler. Each record in a

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relative file is followed by a two-byte record marker which indicates the current status of the record. The status of a record can be: x"0D0A" - record present and x"0D00" - record deleted or never written When you delete a record from a relative file, the record's record marker is updated to show that it has been deleted but the contents of a deleted record physically remain in the file until a new record is written. If, for security reasons, you want to ensure that the actual data does not exist in the file, you must overwrite the record (for example with space characters) using REWRITE before you delete it. To define a relative file, specify ORGANIZATION IS RELATIVE in the SELECT statement for the file in your COBOL program. If you want to be able to access records randomly, you must also: Specify ACCESS MODE IS RANDOM or ACCESS MODE IS DYNAMIC in the SELECT statement for the file. Define a relative key in the working-storage section of your program. For example: select relfil assign to "relfil.dat" organization is relative access mode is random relative key is relfil-key. working-storage section. 01 relfil-key pic 9(8) comp-x. The example code above defines a relative file. The access mode is random and so a relative key is defined, relfil-key. For random access, you must always supply a record number in the relative key, before attempting to read a record from the file. If you specify ACCESS MODE IS DYNAMIC, you can access the file both sequentially and randomly. Indexed Files - An indexed file is a file in which each record includes a primary key. To distinguish one record from another, the value of the primary key must be unique for each record. Records can then be accessed randomly by specifying the value of the record's primary key. Indexed file records can also be accessed sequentially. As well as a primary key, indexed files can contain one or more additional keys known as alternate keys. The value of a record's alternate key(s) does not have to be unique. To define a file as indexed, specify ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED in the SELECT statement for the file in your COBOL program. You must also specify a primary key using the RECORD KEY clause: • select idxfile assign to "idx.dat" • organization is indexed • record key is idxfile-record-key. Most types of indexed file actually comprise two separate files: the data file (containing the record data) and the index file (containing the index structure). Where this is the case, the name that you specify in your COBOL program is given to the data file and the name of the associated index file is produced by adding an .idx extension to the data file name. You should avoid using the .idx extension in other contexts. The index is built up as an inverted tree structure that grows as records are added. With indexed files, the number of disk accesses required to locate a randomly selected record depends primarily on the number of records in the file and the length of the record key. File I/O is faster when reading the file sequentially. We strongly recommend that you take regular backups of all file types but there are situations with indexed files (for example, media corruption) that can lead to only one of the two files becoming unusable. If the index file is lost in this way it is possible, using the Rebuild utility, to recover the index from the data file and so reduce the time lost due to a failure. Primary Keys - The primary key of an indexed file is defined using the RECORD KEY IS clause in the SELECT statement: • select idxfile assign to "idx.dat" • organization is indexed • record key is idxfile-record-key. Alternate Keys - As well as the primary key, each record can have any number of additional keys, known as alternate keys. Alternate keys are defined using the ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS clause in the SELECT statement: • select idxfile assign to "idx.dat" • organization is indexed • record key is idxfile-record-key

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• alternate record key is idxfile-alt-key. Duplicate Keys - You can define keys which allow duplicate values. However, you should not allow duplicates on primary keys as the value of a record's primary key must be unique. When you use duplicate keys you should be aware that there is a limit on the number of times the same value can be specified for an individual key. Each time you specify the same value for a duplicate key, an increment of one is added to the key's occurrence number. The maximum number of duplicate values permitted for an individual key varies according to the type of indexed file (look up Indexed file, Types in the online help index for a full list of indexed file types and their characteristics). The occurrence number is used to ensure that duplicate key records are read in the order in which they were created, so any occurrence number whose record you have deleted cannot be reused. This means that it is possible to reach the maximum number of duplicate values, even if some of those keys have already been deleted. Some types of indexed file contain a duplicate occurrence record in the data file (look up Indexed file, Types in the online help file for a full list of indexed file types and their characteristics). In these files, each record in the data file is followed by a system record holding, for each duplicate key in that record, the occurrence number of the key. This number is just a counter of the number of times that key value has been used during the history of the file. The prescience of the duplicate occurrence record makes REWRITE and DELETES operations on a record with many duplicates much faster but causes the data records of such files to be larger than those of a standard file. To enable duplicate values to be specified for alternate keys, use WITH DUPLICATES in the ALTERNATE RECORD KEY clause in the SELECT statement: • file-control. • select idxfile assign to "idx.dat" • organization is indexed • record key is idxfile-record-key • alternate record key is idxfile-alt-key with duplicates. Sparse Keys - A sparse key is a key for which no index entry is stored for a given value of that key. For example, if a key is defined as sparse when it contains all spaces, index entries for the key are not included when the part of the record it occupies contains only space characters. Only alternate keys can be sparse. Using this feature results in smaller index files. The larger your key(s) and the more records you have for which the alternate key has the given value, the larger your saving of disk space. To enable sparse keys, use SUPPRESS WHEN ALL in the ALTERNATE RECORD KEY clause in the SELECT statement: • file-control. • select idxfile assign to "idx.dat" • organization is indexed • record key is idxfile-record-key • alternate record key is idxfile-alt-key with duplicates suppress when all "A". In this example, if a record is written for which the value of the alternate key is all A's, the actual key value is not stored in the index file. Indexed File Access - Both the primary and alternate keys can be used to read records from an indexed file, either directly (random access) or in key sequence (sequential access). The access mode can be: • SEQUENTIAL - This is the default, records are accessed in order of ascending (or descending) record key value. • RANDOM - The value of the record key indicates the record to be accessed. • DYNAMIC - Your program can switch between sequential and random access, by using the appropriate forms of I/O statement. The method of accessing an indexed file is defined using the ACCESS MODE IS clause in the SELECT statement, for example: file-control. select idxfile assign to "idx.dat" organization is indexed access mode is dynamic record key is idxfile-record-key alternate record key is idxfile-alt-key.

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2. Fixed and Variable Length Records - A file can contain fixed length records (all the records are exactly the same length) or variable length records (the length of each record varies). Using variable length records may enable you to save disk space. For example, if your application generates many short records with occasional long ones and you use fixed length records, you need to make the fixed record length equal to the length of the longest record. This wastes a lot of disk space, so using variable length records would be a great advantage. The type of record is determined as follows: If the RECORDING MODE IS V clause is specified, the file will contain variable length records. If the RECORDING MODE IS F clause is specified, the file will contain fixed length records. If neither of the above is true: If the RECORD IS VARYING clause is specified, the file will contain variable length records. If the RECORD CONTAINS n CHARACTERS clause is specified, the file will contain fixed length records. If none of the above are true: If the RECMODE"V" Compiler directive is specified, the file will contain variable length records. If the RECMODE"F" is specified, the file will contain fixed length records. If none of the above are true: If the RECMODE"OSVS" Compiler directive is specified, the file will contain variable length records if either: RECORD CONTAINS n TO m CHARACTERS is specified More than one record area is specified, and they have different lengths 3. File Headers - A file header is a block of 128 bytes at the start of the file. Indexed files, record sequential files with variable length records and relative files with variable length records all contain file headers. In addition, each record in these files is preceded by a 2 or 4 byte record header. Further detail on file and record headers and the structure of files with headers is available in the online help file. Look under Structure, files with headers in the help file index.

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Data Communication Data communication refers to the exchange of data between a source and a receiver. Data communication is said
to be local if communicating devices are in the same building or a similarly restricted geographical area. The meanings of source and d receiver are very simple. The device that transmits the data is known as source and the device that receives the transmitted data is known as receiver. Data communication aims at the transfer of data and maintenance of the data during the process but not the actual generation of the information at the source and receiver. Datum mean the facts information statistics or the like derived by calculation or experimentation. The facts and information so gathered are processed in accordance with defined systems of procedure. Data can exist in a variety of forms such as numbers, text, bits its and bytes. The Figure is an is an illustration of a simple data communication system. system

. A data communication system may collect data from remote locations through data transmission circuits, and then outputs processed results to remote locations. Figure provides a broader view of data communication networks. The different data communication techniques which are presently in widespread use evolved gradually either to improve the data communication techniques already existing or to replace the same w with ith better options and features. Then, there are data communication jargons to contend with such as baud rate, modems, routers, LAN, WAN, TCP/IP, ISDN, during the selection of communication systems. Hence, it becomes necessary to review and understand these thes terms and gradual development of data communication methods. Necessary to review and understand these terms and gradual development of data communication methods

Components of data communication system - A Communication system has following components:
1. Message - The message is the information or data that is to be communicated. It may consist of text, numbers, pictures, sounds, videos s or any combination of these. 2. Sender - A device that is used for sending messages (or data) is called sender. It is also called transmitter or source. The sender can be a computer, telephone, or a video camera etc. Usually, a computer is used as sender in data communication system. 3. Receiver - A device that is used for receiving messages is called receiver. It is also known as sink. The receiver can be a computer, telephone set, printer, or a fax machine etc. Usually, a computer is also used as receiver in data communication system. loca to another is called 4. Medium - The path through which data is transmitted (or sent) from one location transmission medium. It is also called communication channel. It may be a wire, or fiber optic cable, or telephone line etc. If the sender and receiver are within a building, a wire is used as the medium. If they are located at different fferent locations, the medium may be telephone line, fiber optics, and microwave or satellite satellit system.

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5. Encoder and Decoder - In communication systems, computers are used for senders and receivers. A computer works with digital signals. The communication channels usually use analog signals. The encoder and decoder are used in communication systems to convert signals from one from to another. • Encoder: The encoder is an electronic device. It receives data from sender in the form of digital signals. It converts digital signals into a form that can be transmitted through transmission medium. • Decoder: The decoder is an electronic device. It receives data from transmission medium. It converts encoded signals (i.e. analog signals) into digital form.

Data Transmission
Data may be transfer from one device to another by means of some communication media. The electromagnetic or light waves that transfer data from one device to another device in encoded form are called signals. Data transmissions across the network can occur in two forms i.e.: Analog signal and Digital signal. 1. Analog Signal. The transfer of data in the form of electrical signals or continuous waves is called analog signal or analog data transmission. An analog signal is measured in volts and its frequency is in hertz (Hz). Advantages of Analog Signaling Allows multiple transmissions across the cable. Suffers less from attenuation. Disadvantages of Analog Signaling Suffers from EMI. Can only be transmitted in one direction without sophisticated equipment. 2. Digital Signal - The transfer of data in the form of digit is called digital signal or digital data transmission. Digital signals consist of binary digits 0 & 1. Electrical pulses are used to represent binary digits. Data transmission between computers is in the form of digital signals. Advantages of Digital Signaling Equipment is cheaper and simpler than analog equipment. Signals can be transmitted on a cable bidirectional. Digital signals suffer less from EMI. Disadvantages Digital Signaling Only one signal can be sent at a time. Digital signals suffer from attenuation.

Techniques of Data Communication
There are two possible techniques of sending data from the sender to receiver, i.e.:- Parallel transmission and Serial transmission. 1. Parallel Transmission. In parallel transmission each bit of character / data has a separate channel and all bits of a character are transmitted simultaneously. Here the transmission is parallel character by character. 2. Serial Transmission. In serial transmission, the data is sent as one bit at a time having a signal channel for all the bit, i.e.: Sender Receiver

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Types of Serial Transmission - On serial transmission it is very essential to know exactly where one character ends and the next begins. The necessary synchronization that helps determine which bit is the first bit of the incoming character may be synchronous or asynchronous. Asynchronous Serial Transmission - Computer communication that occurs one bit at a time with start and stop bits at the beginning and the end of each character is called Asynchronous Serial Transmission. In this type of transmission, there is no fixed time relationship with one character. Advantages of Asynchronous Serial Transmission This type of transmission is very simple. This type of transmission is cheaper. Disadvantages of Asynchronous Serial Transmission This type of transmission is slow. Synchronous Transmission - In this method a clock signal is used and the sending as well as the receiving devices is synchronized with this clock signals. It doesn’t use start and stop bits but the character are sent in character groups called block Advantages of Synchronous Transmission It is very fast as compared to Asynchronous Series Transmission. Disadvantage of Synchronous Transmission It uses more expensive and complex equipment.

Modes of Data Communication - The manner in which data is transmitted from one location to another location is
called data transmission mode. There are three ways or modes for transmitting data from one location to another. These are: Simplex; Half duplex and Full duplex. 1. Half Duplex - In half duplex mode, data can be transmitted in both directions but only in one direction at a time. During any transmission, one is the transmitter and the other is receiver. So each time for sending or receiving data, direction of data communication is reversed, this slow down data transmission rate. In half duplex modes, transmission of data can be confirmed. Half Duplex Mode - Wireless communication is an example of half duplex. Advantages of Half Duplex Costs less than full duplex. Enables for two way communications. Disadvantages of Half Duplex Costs more than simplex. Only one device can transmit at a time.

2. Simplex Mode - In simplex mode, data is transmitted in only one direction. A terminal can only send data and cannot receive it or it can only receive data but cannot send it. Simplex mode is usually used for a remote device that is meant only to receive data. It is not possible to confirm successful transmission of data in simplex mode. This mode is not widely used. Speaker, radio and television broadcasting are examples of simplex transmission, on which the signal is send from the transmission to your TV antenna. There is no return signal. Advantages of Simplex Cheapest communication method.

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Disadvantage of Simplex Only allows for communication in one direction. 3. Full Duplex - In full mode, data can be transmitted in both directions simultaneously. It is a faster mode for transmitting data because no time wastes in switching directions. Full Duplex Mode - Example of full duplex is telephone set in which both the users can talk and listen at the same time. Advantage of Full Duplex Enables two-way communication simultaneously. Disadvantage of Full Duplex The most expensive method in terms of equipment because of two bandwidth channels is required.

A protocol performs the following functions:
1. Data sequencing. It refers to breaking a long message into smaller packets of fixed size. Data sequencing rules define the method of numbering packets to detect loss or duplication of packets, and to correctly identify packets, which belong to same message. 2. Data routing. Data routing defines the most efficient path between the source and destination. 3. Data formatting. Data formatting rules define which group of bits or characters within packet constitute data, control, addressing, or other information. 4. Flow control. A communication protocol also prevents a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver. It ensures resource sharing and protection against traffic congestion by regulating the flow of data on communication lines. 5. Error control. These rules are designed to detect errors in messages and to ensure transmission of correct messages. The most common method is to retransmit erroneous message block. In such a case, a block having error is discarded by the receiver and is retransmitted by the sender. 6. Precedence and order of transmission. These rules ensure that all the nodes get a chance to use the communication lines and other resources of the network based on the priorities assigned to them. 7. Connection establishment and termination. These rules define how connections are established, maintained and terminated when two nodes of a network want to communicate with each other. 8. Data security. Providing data security and privacy is also built into most communication software packages. It prevents access of data by unauthorized users. 9. Log information. Several communication software are designed to develop log information, which consists of all jobs and data communications tasks that have taken place. Such information may be used for charging the users of the network based on their usage of the network resources.

Computer applications in management Modem

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A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms. Fortunately, there is one standard interface for connecting external modems to computers called RS-232. Consequently, any external modem can be attached to any computer that has an RS-232 port, which almost all personal computers have. There are also modems that come as an expansion board that you can insert into a vacant expansion slot. These are sometimes called onboard or internal modems. While the modem interfaces are standardized, a number of different protocols for formatting data to be transmitted over telephone lines exist. Some, like CCITT V.34, are official standards, while others have been developed by private companies. Most modems have built-in support for the more common protocols -- at slow data transmission speeds at least, most modems can communicate with each other. At high transmission speeds, however, the protocols are less standardized. Aside from the transmission protocols that they support, the following characteristics distinguish one modem from another: Bps : How fast the modem can transmit and receive data. At slow rates, modems are measured in terms of baud rates. The slowest rate is 300 baud (about 25 cps). At higher speeds, modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps). The fastest modems run at 57,600 bps, although they can achieve even higher rates by compressing the data. Obviously, the faster the transmission rate, the faster you can send and receive data. Note, however, that you cannot receive data any faster than it is being sent. If, for example, the device sending data to your computer is sending it at 2,400 bps, you must receive it at 2,400 bps. It does not always pay, therefore, to have a very fast modem. In addition, some telephone lines are unable to transmit data reliably at very high rates. Voice/data: Many modems support a switch to change between voice and data modes. In data mode, the modem acts like a regular modem. In voice mode, the modem acts like a regular telephone. Modems that support a voice/data switch have a built-in loudspeaker and microphone for voice communication. Auto-answer :An auto-answer modem enables your computer to receive calls in your absence. This is only necessary if you are offering some type of computer service that people can call in to use. Data compression :Some modems perform data compression, which enables them to send data at faster rates. However, the modem at the receiving end must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique. Flash memory : Some modems come with flash memory rather than conventional ROM, which means that the protocols can be easily updated if necessary. Fax capability: Most modern modems are fax modems, which mean that they can send and receive faxes. To get the most out of a modem, you should have a communications software package, a program that simplifies the task of transferring data.

Multiplexer Definition - What does Multiplexer (MUX) mean - A multiplexer (MUX) is a device allowing one or more
low-speed analog or digital input signals to be selected, combined and transmitted at a higher speed on a single shared medium or within a single shared device. Thus, several signals may share a single device or transmission conductor such as a copper wire or fiber optic cable. A MUX functions as a multiple input, single output switch. In telecommunications the combined signals, analog or digital, are considered a single output higher speed signal transmitted on several communication channels by a particular multiplex method or technique. With two input signals and one output signal, the device is referred to as a 2-to-1 multiplexer; with four input signals it is a 4-to-1 multiplexer; etc. This term is also known as a multiplexor. For analog signals in telecommunications (and signal processing), a TDM (time division multiplexer) may select multiple samples of separate analog signals and combine them into one PAM (pulse amplitude modulated) wide-band analog signal. For digital signals in telecommunications on a computer network or with digital video, several variable bit-rate data streams of input signals (using packet mode communication) may be combined, or multiplexed, into one

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constant bandwidth signal. With an alternate method utilizing a TDM, a limited number of constant bit-rate data streams of input signals may be multiplexed into one higher bit-rate data stream. A multiplexer requires a de multiplexer to complete the process, i.e. to separate multiplex signals carried by the single shared medium or device. Often a multiplexer and a de multiplexer are combined into a single device (also often just called a multiplexer) allowing the device to process both incoming and outgoing signals. Alternately, a multiplexer’s single output may be connected to a de multiplexer’s single input over a single channel. Either method is often used as a cost-saving measure. Since most communication systems transmit in directions, the single combined device, or two separate devices (in latter example), will be needed at both ends of the transmission line. Other types of multiplexing technologies and processes include (not a comprehensive listing): Inverse Multiplexing (IMUX) Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Conventional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Add/Drop Multiplexing (ADM)

Network
A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including: Local-area networks (LANs): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). Wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. Campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. Metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. Home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks: Topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. Protocol: The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network. Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers. To connect two or more computers together with the ability to communicate with each other

Computer applications in management What is (Computer) Networking?

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In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. Area Networks - Networks can be categorized in several different ways. One approach defines the type of network according to the geographic area it spans. Local area networks (LANs), for example, typically span a single home, school, or small office building, whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The Internet is the world's largest public WAN. Network Design - Computer networks also differ in their design. The two basic forms of network design are called client/server and peer-to-peer. Client-server networks feature centralized server computers that store email, Web pages, files and or applications. On a peer-to-peer network, conversely, all computers tend to support the same functions. Client-server networks are much more common in business and peer-to-peer networks much more common in homes. A network topology represents its layout or structure from the point of view of data flow. In so-called bus networks, for example, all of the computers share and communicate across one common conduit, whereas in a star network, all data flows through one centralized device. Common types of network topologies include bus, star, ring networks and mesh networks. Network Protocols - Communication languages used by computer devices are called network protocol. Yet another way to classify computer networks is by the set of protocols they support. Networks often implement multiple protocols with each supporting specific applications. Popular protocols include TCP/IP, the most common protocol found on the Internet and in home networks. Home Networking - While other types of networks are built and maintained by engineers, home networks belong to ordinary homeowners, people often with little or no technical background. Various manufacturers produce broadband router hardware designed to simplify home network setup. Home broadband routers allow devices in different rooms to efficiently share a broadband Internet connection, enable people to more easily share their files and printers within the network, and help with overall network security. Home networks have increased in capability with each generation of new technology. Years ago, people commonly set up their home network just to connect a few PCs, share some documents and perhaps a printer. Now it’s common for households to also network game consoles, digital video recorders, and smart phones for streaming sound and video. Home automation systems have also existed for many years, but these too have grown in popularity more recently with practical systems for controlling lights, digital thermostats and appliances. Business Networks - Small and home office (SOHO) environments use similar technology as found in home networks. Businesses often have additional communication, data storage, and security requirements that require expanding their networks in different ways, particularly as the business gets larger. Whereas a home network generally functions as one LAN, a business network tends to contain multiple LANs. Companies with buildings in multiple locations utilize wide-area networking to connect these branch offices together. Though also available and used by some households, voice over IP communication and network storage and backup technologies are prevalent in businesses. Larger companies also maintain their own internal Web sites, called intranets to help with employee business communication. Networking and the Internet - The popularity of computer networks sharply increased with the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) in the 1990s. Public Web sites, peer to peer (P2P) file sharing systems, and various other services run on Internet servers across the world. Wired vs. Wireless Networking - Many of the same network protocols, like TCP/IP, work in both wired and wireless networks. Networks with Ethernet cables predominated in businesses, schools, and homes for several decades. More recently, however, wireless alternatives have emerged as the premier technology for building new computer networks, in part to support smart phones and the other new kinds of wireless gadgets that have triggered the rise of mobile networking.

Computer applications in management Network Types

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One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope or scale. For historical reasons, the networking industry refers to nearly every type of design as some kind of area network. Common examples of area network types are: LAN - Local Area Network WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network WAN - Wide Area Network MAN - Metropolitan Area Network SAN - Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network CAN - Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network, or sometimes Cluster Area Network PAN - Personal Area Network DAN - Desk Area Network LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks, while the others have gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution. Note that these network types are a separate concept from network topologies such as bus, ring and star. LAN - Local Area Network - A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet. In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring. WAN - Wide Area Network - As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth. A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address. A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances. LAN, WAN and Home Networking - Residences typically employ one LAN and connect to the Internet WAN via an Internet Service Provider (ISP) using a broadband modem. The ISP provides a WAN IP address to the modem, and all of the computers on the home network use LAN (so-called private) IP addresses. All computers on the home LAN can communicate directly with each other but must go through a central gateway, typically a broadband router, to reach the ISP. Other Types of Area Networks While LAN and WAN are by far the most popular network types mentioned, you may also commonly see references to these others: Wireless Local Area Network - a LAN based on WiFi wireless network technology Metropolitan Area Network - a network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city. A MAN is typically owned and operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation. Campus Area Network - a network spanning multiple LANs but smaller than a MAN, such as on a university or local business campus. Storage Area Network - connects servers to data storage devices through a technology like Fibre Channel. System Area Network - links high-performance computers with high-speed connections in a cluster configuration. Also known as Cluster Area Network.

Computer applications in management
LAN LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, school, or group of buildings. High speed (1000 mbps) LANs have a high data transfer rate. Network in an organization can be a LAN Tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring One LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. Layer 2 devices like switches and bridges. Layer 1 device like hubs and repeaters. LANs tend to have fewer problems associated with them, as there are smaller numbers of systems to deal with. Experiences fewer data transmission errors Typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. If there is a need to set-up a couple of extra devices on the network, it is not very expensive to do that. Have a small geographical range and do not need any leased telecommunication lines Because it covers a relatively small geographical area, LAN is easier to maintain at relatively low costs. High bandwidth is available for transmission. LAN covers 100 m Less congestion The network is spread to a very small location

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Definition:

Speed: Data transfer rates: Example: Technology:

WAN WAN (Wide Area Network) is a computer network that covers a broad area (e.g., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries over a long distance). Less speed (150 mbps) WANs have a lower data transfer rate as compared to LANs. Internet is a good example of a WAN WANs tend to use technologies like MPLS, ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over longer distances Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. Layers 3 devices Routers, Multi-layer Switches and Technology specific devices like ATM or Frame-relay Switches etc. WANs tend to be less fault tolerant as they consist of large number of systems.

Connection:

Components:

Fault Tolerance:

Data Transmission Error: Ownership:

Experiences more data transmission errors as compared to LAN WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management over long distances. For WANs since networks in remote areas have to be connected the set-up costs are higher. However WANs using public networks can be setup very cheaply using just software (VPN etc). Have a large geographical range generally spreading across boundaries and need leased telecommunication lines Maintaining WAN is difficult because of its wider geographical coverage and higher maintenance costs. Low bandwidth is available for transmission. WAN covers more than 100 m More congestion The network is spread world wide

Set-up costs:

Geographical Spread: Maintenance costs: Bandwidth: Geographical Area: Congestion: Spread:

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Network Interconnect Devices:
1. Repeaters: As signals travel along a network cable (or any other medium of transmission), they degrade and become distorted in a process that is called attenuation. If a cable is long enough, the attenuation will finally make a signal unrecognizable by the receiver. A Repeater enables signals to travel longer distances over a network. Repeaters work at the OSI's Physical layer. A repeater regenerates the received signals and then retransmits the regenerated (or conditioned) signals on other segments. To pass data through the repeater in a usable fashion from one segment to the next, the packets and the Logical Link Control (LLC) protocols must be the same on the each segment. This means that a repeater will not enable communication, for example, between an 802.3 segment (Ethernet) and an 802.5 segment (Token Ring). That is, they cannot translate an Ethernet packet into a Token Ring packet. In other words, repeaters do not translate anything.

2. Bridge - A bridge reads the outermost section of data on the data packet, to tell where the message is going. It reduces the traffic on other network segments, since it does not send all packets. Bridges can be programmed to reject packets from particular networks. Bridging occurs at the data link layer of the OSI model, which means the bridge cannot read IP addresses, but only the outermost hardware address of the packet. In our case the bridge can read the Ethernet data which gives the hardware address of the destination address, not the IP address. Bridges forward all broadcast messages. Only a special bridge called a translation bridge will allow two networks of different architectures to be connected. Bridges do not normally allow connection of networks with different architectures. The hardware address is also called the MAC (media access control) address. To determine the network segment a MAC address belongs to, bridges use one of: Transparent Bridging - They build a table of addresses (bridging table) as they receive packets. If the address is not in the bridging table, the packet is forwarded to all segments other than the one it came from. This type of bridge is used on Ethernet networks. Source route bridging - The source computer provides path information inside the packet. This is used on Token Ring networks.

3. Routers: In an environment consisting of several network segments with different protocols and architecture, a bridge may not be adequate for ensuring fast communication among all of the segments. A complex network needs a device, which not only knows the address of each segment, but also can determine the best path for

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4.

5.

6.

7.

sending data and filtering broadcast traffic to the local segment. Such device is called a Router. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model meaning that the Routers can switch h and route packets across multiple networks. They do this by exchanging protocol-specific information between separate networks. Routers have access to more information in packets than bridges, and use this information to improve packet deliveries. Routers are usually used in a complex network situation because they provide better traffic management than bridges and do not pass broadcast traffic. Routers can share status and routing information with one another and use this information to bypass slow or malfunctioning connections. Routers do not look at the destination node address; they only look at the network address. Routers will only pass the information if the network address is known. This ability to control the data passing through the router reduces the amount of traffic between networks and allows routers to use these links more efficiently than bridge Gateways: Gateways make communication possible between different architectures and environments. They repackage and convert data going from one environment to another so that each environment can understand the other's environment data. A gateway repackages information to match the requirements of the destination system. Gateways can change the format of a message so that it will conform to the application program at the receiving end of the transfer. A gateway links two systems that do not use the same: Communication protocols Data formatting structures Languages Architecture For example, electronic mail gateways, such as X.400 gateway, receive messages in one format, and then translate it, and forward in X.400 format used by the receiver, and vice versa. To process the data, the gateway: Decapsulates incoming data through the networks complete protocol stack. Encapsulates the outgoing data in the complete protocol stack of the other network to allow transmission Brouter - There is a device called a brouter which will function similar to a bridge for network transport protocols that are not routable, and will function as a router for routable protocols. It functions at the network and data link layers of the OSI network model. NIC - A NIC or Network Interface Card is a circuit board or chip, which allows the computer to communicate to other computers on a Network. This board when connected to a cable or other method of transferring data such as infrared can share resources, information and computer hardware. Local or Wide area networks are generally used for large businesses as well as are beginning to be found in homes as home users begin to have more then one computer. Utilizing network cards to connect to a network allow users to share data such as companies being able to have the capability of having a database that can be accessed all at the same time send and receive e-mail internally within the company or share hardware devices such as printers. Connectors: Network cards have three main types of connectors. Below is an example of what a network card may look like.

BNC connector: As illustrated in the above picture the BNC connector is a round connector, which is used for thin net or 10Base-2 Local Area Network. DB9 (RJ45 JACK): The DB9 connector not to be confused with the Serial Port or sometimes referred to as the RJ45 JACK not to be confused with the RJ45 connection is used with Token Ring networks. DB15 Connector: The DB15 connector is used for a Thick net or 10Base-5 Local area network. RJ45 connector: Today one of the most popular types of connections used with computer networks. RJ45 looks similar to a phone connector or RJ11 connector however is slightly larger. LED - The LED's as shown in the above illustration indicates if it detects a network generally by a green light which may flash as it communicates and then a red light which indicates collisions which will generally flash or not flash at all.

Computer applications in management Management Information Systems

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A management information system (MIS) is a computerized database of financial information organized and programmed in such a way that it produces regular reports on operations for every level of management in a company. It is usually also possible to obtain special reports from the system easily. The main purpose of the MIS is to give managers feedback about their own performance; top management can monitor the company as a whole. Information displayed by the MIS typically shows "actual" data over against "planned" results and results from a year before; thus it measures progress against goals. The MIS receives data from company units and functions. Some of the data are collected automatically from computer-linked check-out counters; others are keyed in at periodic intervals. Routine reports are preprogrammed and run at intervals or on demand while others are obtained using built-in query languages; display functions built into the system are used by managers to check on status at desk-side computers connected to the MIS by networks. Many sophisticated systems also monitor and display the performance of the company's stock. Definition - A Management Information System is an integrated user-machine system, for providing information, to support the operations, management, analysis &> decision-making functions in an organization. In Other Words - The System utilizes computer hardware & software, manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control & decision making and a database MIS - MIS provides information to the users in the form of reports and output from simulations by mathematical models. The report and model output can be provided in a tabular or graphic form.

CONCEPT - The MIS is an idea which is associated with man, machine, marketing and methods for collecting information’s from the internal and external source and processing this information for the purpose of facilitating the process of decision-making of the business. MIS is not new, only the computerization is new , before computers MIS techniques existed to supply managers with the information that would permit them to plan and control business operations. The computer has added on more dimensions such as speed, accuracy and increased volume of data that permit the consideration of more alternatives in decision-making process. The scope and purpose of MIS is better understood if each part of them is defined individually, thus 1. MANAGEMENT: Management has been define in process or activities that describe what managers do in the operation for their organization plan, organize, initiate and control operations. They plan by setting strategies and goals and selecting the best course of action to achieve the goals. They organize the necessary tasks for the operational plan, set these tasks up into homogenous groups and assign authority delegation; they control the performance standards and avoiding deviation from standard. The decision-making is a fundamental prerequisite of each of the foregoing process, the job of MIS is facilitating decisions necessary for planning, organizing and controlling the work and functions of the business so that specified goals of business are achieved. 2. INFORMATION: Data must be distinguished from information and the distinction is clear and important for present purpose. Data are facts and figures that are not currently being used in a decision-making process and usually are taken from the historical records that are recorded and filled without immediate intent to retrieve for decision-making. Information consists of data that have been retrieved, processed or otherwise used for information or interference purpose, argument or as a basis forecasting or decision-making regarding any business unit. Information is knowledge that one derives from facts for effective functioning of systems placed in the right context with the purpose of reducing uncertainty regarding the alternative courses of action as they are based on description and measurement of attributes of various entities associated with the enterprise. 3. SYSTEM: The system can be described as a set of elements joined together for a common objective. A subsystem is a part of a larger system with which one is concerned. All systems for our purpose the organization is the system and the parts (divisions, departments, functions, unit etc) are the subsystem. The system concept of MIS is, therefore one of optimizing the output of the organization by connecting the operating subsystems through the medium of information exchange.

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The Management information system (MIS) is a concept of the last two decade or two. It has been
understood and described in a number of ways. It is also known as the Information System, the Information and Decision System, the computer based Decision System. Information is the life blood of an organization, particularly in the case of system approach management. The MIS or Information system can be define as the knowledge communicated by others or obtained from investigation or study. It is a system providing needed information to each manager at the right time in the right form and relevant one which aids understanding and stimulates the action. MIS is an organized method of providing past, present and projection information relating to internal operations and externals intelligence. It supports the planning, control and operational functions of an organization by furnishing uniform information in proper time frame to help the process of decision-making.

Management Information System is generally defined as

an integrated user-machine system for providing information to support operations, management and decision-making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer hardware and software, manual procedure, models for analysis. Information is viewed as a resource much like land, labor and capital. It must be obtained processed, stored, manipulated and analyzed, distributed etc. An organization with a well-defined information system will generally have a competitive advantage over organization with poor MIS and no MIS. The MIS has more than one definition, some of which are given below: The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision-making in the organization. The MIS is defined as an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations, the management and the decision-making function in the organization. The MIS is defined as a system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization. The MIS is defined as a computer-based information system.

Management Reporting Alternatives - MIS provide a variety of information products to a manager which includes 3
reporting alternatives: 1. Periodic Scheduled Reports: E.g. Weekly Sales Analysis Reports, Monthly Financial Statements etc. 2. Exception Reports: E.g. Periodic Report but contains information only about specific events. 3. Demand Reports and Responses: E.g. Information on demand.

MIS Characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Management Oriented/directed Business Driven Integrated Common Data Flows Heavy Planning Element Subsystem Concept Flexibility & Ease of Use Database Distributed Systems Information as a Resource

Computer applications in management
STRUCTURE OF MIS

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1. Physical Components Information System Processing Functions Decision Support Levels of Management Activities Organizational Functions Based on Physical Components Hardware: E.g. CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, Printer etc. Software: E.g. System and Application S/W. Database: E.g. Data stored in files. Procedures: E.g. Manuals etc. Operating Personnel: E.g. Computer Operators, Programmers, System Analysts, System Manager etc. Input & Output: E.g. Printouts, Reports etc. 2. Processing Functions To Process Transactions To Maintain Master Files To Produce Reports To Process Enquiries To Process interactive Support Applications Based on Processing Functions To Process Transactions: E.g. Making a purchase or a sale of a product. To Maintain Master Files: E.g. For preparing an employee's salary, required data items are Basic Pay, Allowances, Deductions etc. To Produce Reports: For e.g. Specific or Adhoc reports To Process Enquiries: For e.g. Regular or Adhoc enquiry. To Process interactive Support Applications: E.g. Applications designed for planning, analysis and decision making. 3. Based on Output For Users Transaction Documents or Screens Preplanned Reports Preplanned Inquiry Responses Adhoc Reports & Inquiry Responses User-machine Dialog Results 4. MIS Support for Decision Making Structured / Programmable Decisions: Decisions that are repetitive, routine and have a definite procedure for handling them. For e.g. Inventory reorder formula, Rules for granting Credit. Unstructured / Non-Programmable Decisions: Non-routine decision in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insights into the problem definition. For e.g. Semi-Structured Decisions: Decision where only part of the problem has a clear cut answer provided by an accepted procedure.

Computer applications in management
ROLE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

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The role of the MIS in an organization can be compared to the role of heart in the body. The information is the blood and MIS is the heart. In the body the heart plays the role of supplying pure blood to all the elements of the body including the brain. The heart work faster and supplies more blood when needed. It regulates and controls the incoming impure blood, processed it and sends it to the destination in the quantity needed. It fulfills the needs of blood supply to human body in normal course and also in crisis. The MIS plays exactly the same role in the organization. The system ensures that an appropriate data is collected from the various sources, processed and send further to all the needy destinations. The system is expected to fulfill the information needs of an individual, a group of individuals, the management functionaries: the managers and top management. Here are some of the important roles of the MIS: The MIS satisfies the diverse needs through variety of systems such as query system, analysis system, modeling system and decision support system. The MIS helps in strategic planning, management control, operational control and transaction processing. The MIS helps in the clerical personal in the transaction processing and answers the queries on the data pertaining to the transaction, the status of a particular record and reference on a variety of documents. The MIS helps the junior management personnel by providing the operational data for planning, scheduling and control , and helps them further in decision-making at the operation level to correct an out of control situation. The MIS helps the middle management in short term planning, target setting and controlling the business functions. It is supported by the use of the management tools of planning and control. The MIS helps the top level management in goal setting, strategic planning and evolving the business plans and their implementation. The MIS plays the role of information generation, communication, problem identification and helps in the process of decision-making. The MIS, therefore, plays a vital role in the management, administration and operation of an organization.

IMPACT OF THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
MIS plays a very important role in the organization; it creates an impact on the organization’s functions, performance and productivity. The impact of MIS on the functions is in its management with a good MIS supports the management of marketing, finance, production and personnel becomes more efficient. The tracking and monitoring of the functional targets becomes easy. The functional managers are informed about the progress, achievements and shortfalls in the activity and the targets. The manager is kept alert by providing certain information indicating and probable trends in the various aspects of business. This helps in forecasting and long-term perspective planning. The manager’s attention is bought to a situation which is expected in nature, inducing him to take an action or a decision in the matter. Disciplined information reporting system creates structure database and a knowledge base for all the people in the organization. The information is available in such a form that it can be used straight away by blending and analysis, saving the manager’s valuable time. The MIS creates another impact in the organization which relates to the understanding of the business itself. The MIS begins with the definition of data, entity and its attributes. It uses a dictionary of data, entity and attributes, respectively, designed for information generation in the organization. Since all the information systems use the dictionary, there is common understanding of terms and terminology in the organization bringing clarity in the communication and a similar understanding of an event in the organization. The MIS calls for a systematization of the business operations for an effective system design. This leads to streaming of the operations which complicates the system design. It improves the administration of the business by bringing a discipline in its operations as everybody is required to follow and use systems and procedures. This process brings a high degree of professionalism in the business operations. The goals and objectives of the MIS are the products of business goals and objectives. It helps indirectly to pull the entire organization in one direction towards the corporate goals and objectives by providing the relevant information to the organization. A well designed system with a focus on the manager makes an impact on the managerial efficiency. The fund of information motivates an enlightened manager to use a variety of tools of the management. It helps him to resort to such exercises as experimentation and modeling. The use of computers enables him to use the tools and techniques which are impossible to use manually. The ready-made packages make this task simple. The impact is on the managerial ability to perform. It improves decision-making ability considerably high. Since, the MIS work on the basic system such as

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transaction processing and database, the drudgery of the clerical work is transferred to the computerized system, relieving the human mind for better work. It will be observed that lot of manpower is engaged in this activity in the organization. Seventy (70) percent of the time is spent in recording, searching, processing and communicating. This MIS has a direct impact on this overhead. It creates information –based working culture in the organization.

IMPORTANCE OF MIS
It goes without saying that all managerial functions are performed through decision-making; for taking rational decision, timely and reliable information is essential and is procured through a logical and well structured method of information collecting, processing and disseminating to decision makers. Such a method in the field of management is widely known as MIS. In today’s world of ever increasing complexities of business as well as business organization, in order to service and grow , must have a properly planned, analyzed, designed and maintained MIS so that it provides timely, reliable and useful information to enable the management to take speedy and rational decisions. MIS has assumed all the more important role in today’s environment because a manager has to take decisions under two main challenges: • First, because of the liberalization and globalization, in which organizations are required to compete not locally but globally, a manager has to take quick decisions, otherwise his business will be taken away by his competitors. This has further enhanced the necessity for such a system. • Second, in this information age wherein information is doubling up every two or three years, a manager has to process a large voluminous data; failing which he may end up taking a strong decision that may prove to be very costly to the company. In such a situation managers must be equipped with some tools or a system, which can assist them in their challenging role of decision-making. It is because of the above cited reasons, that today MIS is considered to be of permanent importance, sometimes regarded as the name centre of an organization. Such system assist decision makers in organizations by providing information at various stages of decision making and thus greatly help the organizations to achieve their predetermined goals and objectives. On the other hand, the MIS which is not adequately planned for analyzed, designed, implemented or is poorly maintained may provide developed inaccurate, irrelevant or obsolete information which may prove fatal for the organization. In other words, organizations today just cannot survive and grow without properly planned, designed, implemented and maintained MIS. It has been well understood that MIS enables even small organizations to more than offset the economies of scale enjoyed by their bigger competitors and thus helps in providing a competitive edge over other organizations.

Types of Management Information Systems - A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based
system that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. An MIS should be designed to enhance communication among employees, provide an objective system for recording information and support the organization's strategic goals and direction. There are four types of MIS that will be introduced in ascending order of sophistication. 1. Transaction Processing Systems - These systems are designed to handle a large volume of routine, recurring transactions. They were first introduced in the 1960s with the advent of mainframe computers. Transaction processing systems are used widely today. Banks use them to record deposits and payments into accounts. Supermarkets use them to record sales and track inventory. Most managers use these systems to deal with tasks such as payroll, customer billing and payments to suppliers. 2. Operations Information Systems - These systems were introduced after transaction processing systems. An operations information system gathers comprehensive data, organizes it and summarizes it in a form that is useful for managers. Most of these systems access data from a transaction processing system and organize it into a form usable by managers. Managers use operations information systems to obtain sales, inventory, accounting and other performance-related information. 3. Decision Support Systems (DSS) - A DSS is an interactive computer system that can be used by managers without help from computer specialists. A DSS provides managers with the necessary information to make intelligent decisions. A DSS has three fundamental components: Database management system (DBMS): Stores large amounts of data relevant to problems the DSS has been designed to tackle.

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Model-based management system (MBMS): Transforms data from the DBMS into information that is useful in decision making. Dialog generation and management system (DGMS): Provides a user-friendly interface between the system and the managers who do not have extensive computer training. 4. Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence - These systems use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily need human expertise. Mimicking human expertise and intelligence requires that the computer (1) recognize, formulate and solve a problem; (2) explain solutions and (3) learn from experience. These systems explain the logic of their advice to the user; hence, in addition to solving problems they can also serve as a teacher. They use flexible thinking processes and can accommodate new knowledge. 5. Considerations - A potential problem with relying on electronic communication and processing of information is the loss of the vital human element. Sometimes because of the complexity of information, an MIS report cannot effectively summarize it. Very rich information is needed to coordinate and run an enterprise and certain classes of information cannot be quantified. For example, it might be wrong to evaluate an employee's performance solely based on numbers generated by an MIS. Numbers can indicate a performance problem but a face-to-face meeting will be necessary to discuss the nature of the problem.

MIS professionals make business better - Below are some frequently asked questions regarding careers in MIS. This
information will help you learn more about a career in MIS and to better understand the opportunities such a career may have in store for you. What kinds of people pursue MIS degrees? The profiles of MIS professionals are varied, but in general, such individuals possess many of the following traits: Good problem solving skills; ability to effectively manage time and resources; a clear vision of “the big picture” as well as the “small details”; a desire to work closely with other people; excellent communication skills; ability to think strategically about technology and a desire to take responsibility for developing and implementing their own ideas What are typical career options for MIS professionals? IT Consultant; Web Developer; Information Systems Manager; Business Intelligence Analyst; Network Administrator; Business Application Developer; Systems Analyst; Technical Support Specialist; Business Analyst and Systems Developer Why should I choose to major in MIS? Job satisfaction; High placement rate; High salaries; Exciting field; Challenging field; Hands-on problem solving; Innovation and creativity; Global opportunities; Great chance for advancement and You can have an impact!