WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1


English Sound System: Pronunciation, Enunciation, Stress and Intonation

This topic intends to assist course participants tobe aware of the English sound syste with e phasis on special features of English pronunciation such as long!short "owels# final consonants# consonant clusters# diphthongs and triphthongs$ Learning Outcomes • • Listen critically to "arious sounds and respond appropriately %pea& fluently#correctly and confidently for a "ariety of purposes Features of Pronunciation Phone es


'onsonants %ingle "owels




)iphthongs Triphthongs



%upraseg ental *eature







). 2: Chart of the consonants used in English (R.P./ogle# 10012 . place and manner of articulation. otice that the s!m"ols for voiceless sounds are alwa!s placed on the left side of the "o# and voiced sounds on the right.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Phonology Phonology is the study of the sound syste %tudy the two charts below- of a language$ lower lip Fig. . showing degree of voicing. $: %peech &rgans Fig.

r2saɪ: feɪb.62l &l6ʊ8 l59ɡwɪdʒ p6ʊɪtri flaʊ6.r2 .WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Why teach ronunciation! i$ English is not pronounced as it is written$ ii$ (owels and 'onsonants can often be pronounced in different ways$ iii$ +ncorrect pronunciation is one of the ain reasons for brea&down in co unication$ i"$ Pronunciation helps students to be ore confident when they spea&$ Task: List other reasons why pronunciation is taught $ Phone es are the different sounds within a language$ +n English# they co prise of two categoriesi$ "owels 3 all "owel sounds are "oiced 3 ay be single4 • there are fi"e long "owel sounds4 and / i: / / u:/ /ɑː ! ! ɔː ! ! ɜ.diphthong24 • there are eight diphthongs !eɪ! !aɪ! !ɔɪ!!6ʊ!!aʊ! !e6! !ɪ6! !ʊ6! ay be a co bination of three "owels (triphthong) • Three ost co on three triphthongs !aɪ6! fire # riot !aʊ6! power# shower !ɔɪ6! e ployer# foyer can be either "oiced or "oiceless .r2 bɑːs&ɪt et6f6.r2 p6ʊɪ daɪ6ɡr5 pɪ&nɪ& sɒnɪt .*igure 22 3 ii$ consonants 3 E"ercise # Transcribe the phone ic sy bols into orthography$ .! • se"en short "owel sounds ! ɪ! ! u ! /5! /ɒ! /e! ! 6 ! /ʌ! 3 ay be a co bination of two "owels .62l lʌ" e&s6.iː &5lɪnd6.ead the words aloud$ b7uːt6f.

ɪ& eɪdʒ6.r2t .ising +ntonation • Acco panies state ents e<pressing doubt# yes or no >uestions • +ndicates uncertainty and so eti es politeness .'hoice ?uestions .Wh3>uestions .WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 ʌn.62 E"ercise $ Transcribe these words other pencil island police teacher table correct stop Su rasegmental Features Intonation is the way your "oice goes up and down in speech# or it is the usical sound of a language$ +t also e<presses gra atical eaning# e otions# attitudes = reactions$ There are two types of +ntonationi$ *alling intonation • acco panies positi"e state ents or is at the end of declarati"e sentences • usually signals confidence and authority • is used to gain attention# to a&e state ents or to answer# in co ands and in so e types of >uestions • in >uestions the spea&er e<pects an e<planation or agree ent • in three >uestion types?uestion type 1 . .r2 .ɪ 9 6ˈdʒestɪ& h5ns.ɔːt freɪ: ɪntr6st t6ˈ ɒr6ʊ fɪ:ɪ& &ɒns6.%ee&ing between choices2 ii$ .%ee&ing infor ation2 ?uestion type 2.Tag >uestions .%ee&ing agree ent2 ?uestion type 3.

WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 • +n three >uestion types?uestion Type 1.APDic# geoG.@es!Ao >uestions ?uestion Type 2.see&ing for assurance ! infor ation2 Practice 1'onstruct two >uestions for each of the >uestion type under falling intonation and then practise the with a partner$ Practice 2'onstruct two >uestions for each of the >uestion type under rising intonation and then practise the with a partner$ Stress Two &inds of stress1$ word stress 2$ sentence stress A word stress stresses on certain syllables signalling their i$ %tress on first syllablerule  Bost 23syllable nouns P.words with two parts2  *or co pound nouns# the stress is on the first part /LA'Hbird# G.EEAhouse  *or co pound ad&ecti'es# the stress is on the second part bad3TEBpered# old3*A%Dioned  *or co pound 'er(s# the stress is on the second part to under%TAA)# to o"er*LEW .Echo >uestions .E%ent# ECport# 'D+na#  Bost 23syllable ad7ecti"es P.APDic# geoLEGic  Words ending in %sion and %tion tele(+sion# re"eLAtion end2 eaning iii$ i"$ 'o pound words .E%ent# LE"ely# 'LE(er ii$ %tress on last syllable  Bost 23syllable "erbs to pre%EAT to e<PE.T to de'+)E %tress on penulti ate syllable .penulti ate F second fro  Words ending in %ic G.+nfor ational tag >uestion .re>uest for repetition2 ?uestion Type 3.

ost2 principal "erbs e$g$prepare# tra"el4 3 ad7ecti"es e$g$ handso e# fantastic 3 ad"erbs e$g$ usually# carefully Aon3stressed words are considered *JA'T+EA WE.E*E.E P.)% such as3 deter iners e$g$ the# a# so e# a few 3 au<iliary! odal "erbs e$g$ is# a # can# were 3 prepositions e$g$ behind# under# against 3 con7unctions e$g$ but# or# and 3 pronouns e$g$ they# she# us +f structure words are re o"ed fro a sentence# the sentence can still be probably understood$ Dowe"er# if the content words are re o"ed fro a sentence# the sentence ay not be understood$ The sentence has no sense or eaning$ *or e<a ple %ELL 'A.because+L"eGEAEto*.AA'E  %ELL y 'A. GEAE*.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 %entence %tress %entence stress is what gi"es English itsrhyth or IbeatI$ +t is accent on certainwords within a sentence$ Bost sentences ha"e two types of word content words  structure words 'ontent words are the &ey words of a sentence$ They are the i portant words that carry the eaning or sense$/asically# stress words are considered 'EATEAT WE.)% such as3 nouns e$g$ pantry# %usan4 3 .+K"e GEAEto*. GE DEL+)A@ E<ercise 1 Loo& at these sentences$ Which words do you thin& are stressedM 1$ +Lll type the letters and send the to her$ 2$ *ati ah will call hi later$ 3$ +f +Ld &nown she was a "egetarian# +Ld ha"e prepared so ething special for her$ N$ The parcel should arri"e by %aturday$ O$ + lo"ed the eal but it was a bit costly$ 1$ @ouLd better ta&e an u brella$ +t loo&s li&e itLs going to rain$ .AA'EM Aot all words in a sentence are stressed$ +t is i portant to &now which word to stress$ When wrong words are stressed# speech can be difficult$ *or e<a ple Where do you prefer to go on holidayM The content words areWDE.AA'E  Willyou%ELL y'A.

20002$ How to teach pronunciation$ Esse<.200O2$ A linguistic primer for Malaysians $ Huala Lu purJni"ersity Balaya Press$ /ogle# )$ .Pearson Education Li ited$ Bar&s# J$ (2 !)" #nglish pronunciation in use$ 'a bridge.'a bridge Jni"ersity Press$ .10012$ Practical phonology$ Edinburgh.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 )i(liogra hy /as&aran# L$ B$ .Boray Douse +nstitute of Education$ Helly# G$ .