Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 3, 2013

Edge Node Calculations using Potential Calculation for OLSR Protocol in MANET
K.Prabu a,*, Dr. A.Subramani b,1
Abstract - Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) is associate rising space of analysis within the communication network world. MANET may be a group of wireless mobile nodes dynamically establishing a brief live network with none use of network infrastructure or centralized administration. Additionally to the high degree of quality, MANET nodes square measure distinguished by their restricted resources like power, bandwidth, processing, and memory. Routing in MANET is serious issue as a result of topology that is changeable because of nodes quality. Routing algorithms uses specific metrics to work out the optimum path between senders and receivers like shortest minimum price, minimum total power transmission and min-max power price etc. several routing protocols are purposed in previous few years. Particularly energy economical routing is most vital as a result of all the nodes square measure battery-powered. Failure of 1 node might have an effect on the complete network. If a node runs out of energy the likelihood of network partitioning are exaggerated. Since each mobile node has restricted power offer, energy depletion is become one in all the most threats to the period of time of the mobile adhoc network. Therefore routing in MANET ought to be in such the way that it'll use the remaining battery power in associate economical thanks to increase the life time of the network. In this paper we proposed Edge Node Calculations (ENC) for optimized link state routing protocol (OLSR) using Potential calculations in MANET. This concept provides better performance to finding path from source to destination and also improves throughput and reduced end-to-end delay. Index Terms – MANET, OLSR, End-to-End, ENC, Routing, Throughput.

I. INTRODUCTION Recently, network researchers square measure learning networks supported new communication techniques, especially wireless communication. Mobile networks [1] [2] have been of serious interest within the past ten years attributable to their improved flexibility and reduced prices. Compared to wired networks, mobile networks have distinctive characteristics and dissent within the manner of communication. Wired networks transfer knowledge packets through physical cables; whereas, in mobile networks, the communication between totally different devices may be either wireless or wired. In mobile networks, node mobility makes the network topology change oftentimes,
Manuscript received 10/September/2013.

which is rare in wired networks. Mobile networks have a high error rate, bandwidth limitations and power restrictions. Thanks to the impacts from transmission power, which is rare in wired networks. Mobile networks have a high error rate, bandwidth limitations and power restrictions. Thanks to the impacts from transmission power, receiver sensitivity, noise, fading and interference, wireless link capacity frequently varies. Wireless networks may be deployed quickly and simply, and users stay connected to the network while they are moving around. Also, they play a very important role in both civilian and military fields. We have seen nice developments in Wireless networks infrastructure, convenience of wireless applications, and proliferation of Wireless devices everyplace like laptops, PDAs, and cell phones. According to the preparation of network infrastructure, Wireless networks is divided into 2 types. The primary sort is Infrastructure-based wireless networks and therefore the second square measure infrastructure-less mobile networks, normally referred to as mobile ad-hoc networks. Infrastructure networks square measure those networks with fixed and wired gateways. The bridges for this sort of networks square measure referred to as base stations. A mobile node connects to the closest base station that is at intervals its communication radius. as the mobile travels out of vary of 1 base station and into the vary of another, a “handoff” occurs from the previous base station to the new, and therefore the mobile is able to continue communication seamlessly throughout the network A (MANET) [3] could be a group of wireless mobile nodes dynamically establishing a brief live network without any use of network infrastructure or centralized administration. Additionally to the high degree of mobility, MANET nodes area unit distinguished by their limited resources like power, bandwidth, processing, and memory. If 2 mobile nodes got to communicate with each other, they will communicate directly if they are within the transmission range of each other; otherwise intermediate nodes (nodes in between) ought to forward the packet from one in all them to the opposite. Thus, each node within the network acts each as a host and router and should so be willing to forward packets to other nodes. All nodes in mobile impromptu networks area unit absolve to move, and the link between 2 nodes is broken once one in all them moves out of other’s transmission range, and hence the constellation could change often. II. ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANET

K.Prabu, Research Scholar in Computer Applications, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, India, Mobile No: +91-9843916940, (E-mail: kprabu.phd@gmail.com). Dr.A.Subramani, (Research Supervisor) Prof & Head, Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R College of Engg, Tiruchengode, India, Mobile No: +91-9843916940, (E-mail: subramani.appavu@gmail.com).

A routing protocols [4] [5] is required whenever a packet has to be transmitted to a destination via variety of nodes and numerous routing protocols are proposed for such quite Adhoc networks. These protocols notice a route for packet delivery and delivery packet to be correct destination. 66

Edge Node Calculations using Potential Calculation for OLSR Protocol in MANET

Basically, routing protocols are often generally classified into three varieties as Table -Driven (or) Proactive routing protocol, On-Demand (or) Reactive routing protocol and Hybrid routing protocol.

iv) SSA (Signal stability based adaptive routing). v) PLBR (Preferred link based routing protocol). vi) FORB (ipv6 flow handoff in adhoc wireless network). Hybrid Routing Protocol: This protocol is happiness to the current class mix the simplest options of the higher than 2 classes. Nodes at intervals a particular distance from the node involved or at intervals a selected countryside square measure aforementioned to be at intervals the routing zone of the given node. For routing at intervals this zone a table-driven approach is employed. For nodes that square measure placed on the far side this zone an on-demand approach is employed. Disadvantages of hybrid protocols is that success depends on quantity of nodes activated and Reaction to traffic demand depends on gradient of traffic volume. a number of the Hybrid Routing Protocols are: i) CEDAR (Core extraction distributed adhoc routing). ii) ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol). iii) ZHLS (Zone based hierarchical link state routing). III. OLSR PROTOCOL

Figure 1: Routing Protocols for MANET

Table Driven or Proactive Protocols: keep track of routes for all destinations within the unintentional network area unit known as Proactive protocols or Table-driven Protocols, because the routes will be assumed to exist within the sort of tables. Every node maintains one or additional tables containing routing data to each different node within the network. All nodes continue change these tables to take care of latest read of the network. the most advantage is that Communications with capricious destinations expertise lowest initial delay from the purpose of read of the appliance. The Disadvantages of proactive protocols is that further management traffic is required to continually update stale route entries. In Table Driven routing protocols a number of the present table driven or proactive protocols are: i) DSDV (Destination sequenced distance vector). ii) CGSR (Cluster-head gateway Switch routing). iii) WRP (Wireless routing protocol). iv) STAR (Source tree adaptive routing protocol). v) OLSR (Optimized link state routing protocol). vi) FSR (Fisheye state routing protocol). vii) HSR (Hierarchical state routing protocol). Viii) GSR (Global state routing protocol). On Demand or Reactive Protocols: In these protocols, routes are created as and once needed. Once a transmission occurs from source to destination, it invokes the route discovery procedure. The route remains valid until destination is achieved or until the route is not any longer required. The Advantage is that thanks to the high uncertainty within the position of the nodes, however, the reactive protocols are much suited and perform better for ad-hoc networks. The Disadvantages of reactive protocols include High latency time in route finding and excessive flooding leading to network hindering. Some of the On Demand or Reactive Routing Protocols are: i) DSR (Dynamic source routing). ii) AODV (Ad hoc on-demand distance vector). iii) ABR (Associative based routing). 67

The Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) [6][7]][8] protocol is a proactive routing protocol and it's an improvement over the pure link state protocol. In OLSR every node maintains topology data by sporadically exchanging link-state messages. OLSR minimizes the scale of the management packet by together with only a subset of its current neighbours, and minimizes flooding by the employment of a MultiPoint Relay (MPR) strategy. These two optimizations make OLSR appropriate for use in giant and dense networks. Using the MPR technique, every node selects a number of its current neighbours as its MPRs which square measure allowed to rerun management packets. when a node receives an effect packet, it only rebroadcasts the packet if it's a MPR of the causing node. Otherwise, it only reads and processes it but doesn't rerun the management packet. to work out the MPRs, every node sporadically broadcasts a hello message containing a listing of its one hop neighbours and their link status (Symmetric or Asymmetric). when a node receives a hello message, it selects a subset of one hop neighbours, which covers all of its two hop neighbours. One issue with OLSR is however its nodes decide whether a link is interchangeable. the answer is straightforward, if a node receives a hello message and sees its own address in the sender’s hello message, so it considers that the link is interchangeable. Instead of employing a straightforward flooding mechanism, OLSR uses MPR-flooding that aims to reduce the issues caused by duplicate reception of a message among a neighborhood. MPRs area unit accustomed diffuse topology info through the network. Every node acting as a MPR creates and broadcasts Topology control (TC) messages to all or any its 1-hop neighbour nodes. Also, MPRs transmit to their 1-hop neighbours the TC messages that area unit received from nodes among its MPR Selector Set. A TC message contains a listing of neighbour nodes that designated the TC’s sender node as a MPR and a MPR Selector Sequence range (MSSN) that is incremented for each new TC message created.

Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 3, 2013 OLSR [9][10] maintains a neighbours table, wherever a node records the knowledge regarding one hop neighbours, the status of the link, and a list of 2 hop neighbours which these one hop neighbours will give access to. Upon receiving salutation messages, a node will construct its MPR Selector table that contains the nodes who have elect it as MPR. every node in the network maintains another table referred to as a topology table wherever it stores the topological info regarding the network. The topology table contains the address of the destination node (T_dest), the address of the last hop to the destination (T_last), the sequence variety of the TC message (T_seq), and a holding time which indicates the time that this tuple expires (T_time). Finally, every node uses the knowledge in the neighbour table and also the topology table to construct its routing table. every entry in the routing table consists of the destination node (R_dest), consecutive hop to the destination node (R_next) and variety of hops to the destination node (R_dist). during route evaluation, the shortest path rule is used. IV. EDGE NODE CALCULATIONS (ENC) Assumption: The algorithm design is based on the following assumptions: All nodes are equipped with Grid base location service, digital maps, optional sensors and On Board Units (OBU). Location information of all nodes can be identified with the help of Grid base location service. The only communications paths available are via the ad-hoc network and there is no other communication infrastructure. Node power is not the limiting factor for the design. Communications are message oriented. The Maximum Transmission Range (MTR) of each node in the environment is 250 meters. Neighbour Node Selection: Neighbor node identification is the process whereby a node identifies its current neighbors within its transmission range. For a particular node, any other node that is within its radio transmission range is called a neighbor. All nodes consist of neighbor set which holds details of its neighbor nodes. Since all nodes might be moving, the neighbors for a particular mobile node are always changing. The neighbor set is dynamic and needs to be updated frequently. Generally, neighbor node identification is realized by using periodic beacon messages. The beacon message consists of node ID, node location and timestamp. Each node informs other nodes of its existence by sending out beacon message periodically.  Inform all nodes within the transmission range of source/packet forwarding node to intimate its presence by sending a beacon message every µ second.  After the reception of a beacon, each node will update its neighbor set table.  If a node position is changed, then it will update its position to all neighbors by sending beacon signal.  If a known neighbor, times out after α * µ seconds without having received a beacon (α is the number of beacons that a node is allowed to miss) and it will be removed from the neighbor set table. 68 Forward Node Selection: FNSn1 = BLn1+ Dn1 Here: FNSn1 = Forward Node Selection of Neighbor BLn1=  battery lifetime of n1 Dn1 = distance of n1 Distance Calculations: Notations: n1 and n2: nodes R: transmission range x’1,y’1 and x’2,y’2: coordinate for n1 and n2 v1 and v2: velocity θ1 and θ2 : direction t: time interval a) Distance traveled by node n1 and n2 d1=v1t, d2=v2t b) Calculate new coordinate with respect to old coordinate x1=x’1+x1=x’1+d1 cosθ1 =x’1+t(v1 cosθ1) y1=y’1+y1=y’1+d1 cosθ1 =y’1+t(v1 sinθ1) x2=x’2+x2=x’2+d2 cosθ2 =x’2+t(v2 cosθ2) y2=y’2+y2=y’2+d2 cosθ2 =y’2+t(v2 sinθ2) c) Distance between two node at time t
D2= {(x’1-x’2) +t(v1 cosθ1 - v2 cosθ2)}2 + {(y’1-y’2)+t(v1 sinθ1- v2 sinθ2)}2
2 2

d) Distance between next hop node from Source DC= (1- (Di /Dc)) Here Di = shortest distance from neighbor node i to distance D Dc=shortest distance from packet forwarding node c to distance D Di / Dc = closeness of next hop Direction of Motion Identification (DMI): The appropriate neighbour node which is moving towards the direction of identification node is identified using the following mathematical model [14]. DMI = cos (vi , li,d) Here vi = vector for velocity of edge node i li,d = vector for the location of edge node i to the location of destination node D

Edge Node Calculations using Potential Calculation for OLSR Protocol in MANET

cos (vi, li,d) = cosine value of angle made by these vectors The cosine value of vector for velocity of edge node i and vector for location of edge node i to the location of destination node D is measured. A large cosine value implies a node can still approach the destination closer and closer along it’s current direction Link stability between two nodes at time t: LS=R/D Here LS= link stability between any two nodes over time period t R=Maximum transmission range D=distance between two nodes at time t Potential Calculation (PC): The potential Calculation (PC) [12][14] of all nodes present within the different levels of transmission range of source/packet forwarding node is calculated. The potential calculation (PC) is calculated to identify the closeness of next hop to destination, direction of motion of nodes and reliability of neighbor nodes. The appropriate edge node with largest potential score will be considered as having higher potential to reach the destination node and that particular node can be chosen as next hop to forward the packet to the destination node. Potential calculation is calculated by addition of DC, DMI and LS and that mathematical model as follows PCi= ((α x DC) + (β x DMI) + (λ x LS)) PCi= α x (1- (Di/Dc)) + β x cos (vi, li,d) + λ x LSc,i Here PCi = Potential Calculation of node i α, β, λ = Potential factors Let α+ β+ λ=1; λ > α and λ> β Di = shortest distance from neighbor node I to distance D Dc =shortest distance from packet forwarding node c to distance D Di/Dc = closeness of next hop vi = vector for velocity of edge node i li,d = vector for the location of edge node i to the location of destination node D cos (vi, li,d) = cosine value of angle made by these vectors LSc, i = link stability between packet forwarding node c to neighbor node i Edge Node Calculation (ENC) In the Edge Node Calculations [11][13][14], edge nodes are selected for packet forwarding event. An edge node is a node which has shortest distance to the destination D compared to all other nodes within the transmission range of source/packet forwarding node. An edge node has the responsibility of saving received data packets in forwarding table and transfers it later when those nodes meet new neighbors. The overall objective of the algorithm is to forward the packet as soon as possible to increase packet delivery ratio, minimize the end to end delay and avoid packet loss. The Maximum Transmission Range 69

of a node is 250m. Notations: current node = the current packet carrier locc = the location of current node vc = speed vector for current node dest = destination of the packet locd = the location of destination nextHop = the node selected as next hop Nhi = the ith neighbor loci = the location of the ith neighbor vi = the speed vector of the ith neighbor Pseudo code for ENC: locc ← getLocation(current node) vc ← getSpeed(current node) locd ← getLocation(destination) Dc = distance (loccur – locdes) lc,d = locd – locc PC = β x cos (vc, lc,d) nextHop = current node for all neighbor of current node do loci ← getLocation(Nhi) vi ← getSpeed(Nhi) Di = distance (loci,locd) li,d = distance (locd – loci) PCi= α x (1- (Di/Dc)) + β x cos (vi, li,d) + λ x LSc,i if PCi>PC then PC=PCi nextHop = Nhi end if end for if nextHop ≠current node then forward the packet to nextHop else carry the packet with current node end if V. SIMULATION RESULT AND ANALYSIS In this section we evaluate the performance of routing protocol of MANET in an open environment. The simulations were carried out using Network Simulator (NS-2) [15]. We are simulating the mobile ad hoc routing protocols using this simulator by varying the number of nodes. The IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) is used as the medium access control protocol. The packed size is 512 bytes. The traffic sources are UDP. Initially nodes were placed at certain specific locations and then the nodes move the speeds up to 25 meter/sec. for fairness, identical mobility and traffic scenario were used across the different simulations. The simulation parameters are specified in Table 1.

Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 3, 2013 Parameters Simulation Area Number of Nodes Average speed of nodes Number of packet Senders Transmission Range Constant Bit Rate Packet Size Node beacon interval MAC Protocol Value 1000m * 1000m 20 - 120 0 – 25 meter/second 40 250m 2 (Packets/Second) 512 Bytes 0.5 (Seconds ) 802.11 DCF Figure4. End-to-End Delay vs. Transmission Range VI. CONCLUSION In the recent time there has been a lot of interest within the field of wireless networks. One in all the recent developments within the world of wireless technology is that the use of MANET is an ideal technology that was at first developed for military applications. The fast use of MANET has resulted within the identification of several issues, the research in this field can continue being very active and imaginative. In this Paper our proposed ENC mechanisms is take minimum energy for finding the path from source to destination compare to ordinary OLSR proactive protocol in 1 hop, 2 hop and so on. The ENC Performance is improved. In Fig 2 our proposed ENC throughput is increased with compare to existing OLSR. In fig 3 our proposed ENC is reduced End-to-End Delay with no of nodes compare to existing OLSR. In fig 4 is our proposed ENC is reduced End-to-End Delay with transmission range compare to existing OLSR. REFERENCES Figure2. Throughput vs. No of Packets End-to-End Delay: The average time interval between the generation of a packet in a source node and the successfully delivery of the packet at the destination node. It counts all possible delays that can occur in the source and all intermediate nodes, including queuing time, packet transmission and propagation, and retransmissions at the MAC layer. The queuing time can be caused by network congestion or unavailability of valid routes. It is measured in milliseconds. In fig 3 shows our ENC is reduced End-to-End Delay with no of nodes compare to existing OLSR. In fig 4 shows our ENC is reduced End-to-End Delay with transmission range compare to existing OLSR.
[1] C.E. Perkins, “Ad hoc Networking”, Addison Wesley 2001. [2] C.K. Toh, “Adhoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems”, Printice Hall, New Jersy, 2002. [3] K. Prabu and Dr. A. Subramani, “A Survey of Wireless Adhoc Network for MANET”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science (IJARCS), Vol-3, Issue-7, Nov-Dec-2012, pp: 279-283. [4] K. Prabu, and Dr. A. Subramani, “Performance Comparison of Routing Protocol in MANET”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJARCSSE), Vol-2, Iss-9, Sep-2012, pp: 388-392. [5] K. Prabu, and Dr. A. Subramani, “Energy Efficient M-OLSR for MANET”, Asian Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol-3, Iss-7, July-2013, pp: 98 – 102. [6] T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “rfc3626.txt”, Network working group DRAFT for OLSR protocol, Oct’03 [7] Floriano De Rango and Macro Fotino “Energy Efficient OLSR performance Evaluation under Energy Aware Metrics”, SPECTS 2009. IEEE 2009 pages: 193-198. [8] Thomas Kunz, (2008) “Energy-Efficient Variations of OLSR”, IEEE Transactions, pp. 517-522. [9] Thomas Kunz and Rana Alhalimi “Energy-efficient Proactive routing in MANET: Energy metrics accuracy” Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) 8(2010), PP: 755-766. [10] Behnam Malakooti et.al “Energy awarw proactive optimized link state routing in mobile ad-hoc networks” Applied mathematical modelling (Elsevier) 35(2011) pp: 4715-4729. [11] Govindaswamy Kalpana and Muthusamy Punithavalli “Reliable Broadcasting Using Efficient Forward Node Selection for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”, The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, July 2012. [12] M.Murugesan and A.Krishnan, “Efficient Forward Node List Algorithm for Broadcasting in Asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks”, (IJCSE) International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.

Table.1. Simulation Parameters Performance metrics to evaluate simulation: Throughput: Throughput is the number of bytes or bits arriving at the sink over time. It is generally measured in kilo bits per second or Mega Bits per second. In Fig 2 show our ENC is increased throughput compare to existing OLSR.

Figure3. End-to-End Delay vs. No of Nodes 70

Edge Node Calculations using Potential Calculation for OLSR Protocol in MANET
02, No. 04, 2010, 1219-1222IJCIS Vol. 1, No. 4, 2010. [13] Sanjaya Gajurel “Re-Configurable Antenna & Transmission Power for Location Aware MANET Routing with Multiple Objective Optimization”, JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 3, NO. 3, MARCH 2008. [14] K.Prasanth. et.al “efficient packet forwarding approach in vehicular adhoc networks using EBGR algorithm” (IJCSI) international journal of computer science issues, vol-7, iss-1, no 3, Jan-2010.. [15] The Network Simulator: ns2, http: //www.isi.edu/nsnam /ns/.".

BIBLIOGRAPHY
K. Prabu has received his MCA and M.Phil from Annamalai University, Chidambaram in the year of 2006 and 2008. He is now working as an Assistant Professor in Dept of Computer Applications, Shree Ragavendra Arts & Science College, Chidambaram and as a Research Scholar in Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli. His Research interested is Ad hoc Networks. . He has published more that 9 technical papers at various International Journals/National Conference He is a life member of ISTE, IACSIT. Dr. A. Subramani received his Ph.D Degree in Computer Applications from Anna University, Chennai. He is now working as a Prof & Head, Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode and as a Research Guide in various Universities. He is a Reviewer of 10 National/International Journals. He is in the editorial board of 6 International/National Journals. He is an Associate Editor of Journal of Computer Applications. His research interested includes ATM Networks, Ad Hoc Networks and High Speed Networks. He has published more that 50 technical papers at various National / International Conference and Journals. He is a life member of ISTE, CSI.

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