Plant Cells

Chapter 3

The History of the Microscope
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1500’s – not useful instruments 1600’s
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Anton van Leeuwenhoek, perfected the science of grinding lenses to produce larger and clearer images Robert Hooke designed the first compound microscope Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann stated cells as the “units of life” Rudolf Virchow: “cells come from preexisting cells”

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1830’s
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1855
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Methods to Study Cells

KEY TERMS
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CELL THEORY
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Theory that the cell is the basic unit of life, of which all living things are composed, and that all cells are derived from preexisting cells

The History of the Microscope
•! •!

1500’s – not useful instruments 1600’s
•!

•!

Anton van Leeuwenhoek, perfected the science of grinding lenses to produce larger and clearer images Robert Hooke designed the first compound microscope Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann stated cells as the “units of life” Rudolf Virchow: “cells come from preexisting cells”

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1830’s
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1855
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Light and Electron Microscopes

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1

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Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Cells

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Two fundamentally different types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic

KEY TERMS
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EUKARYOTIC CELL •! A cell that posses a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles PROKARYOTIC CELL •! A cell that lacks nuclei and other membrane-bound organelles (archaea and bacteria)

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LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2
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Describe the functions of the following 10 parts of a plant cell: plasma membrane, nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuole, cytoskeleton, and cell wall

Cell wall Nucleus Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores Nucleolus Chromatin

Plasma membrane

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Vacuolar membrane Vacuole

Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes

Vesicle Mitochondrion

Cristae

Golgi body (dictyosome)

Stroma Chloroplast

Granum Thylakoid Fig. 3-3, p. 49

KEY TERMS
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PLASMA MEMBRANE
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Living surface membrane of a cell Acts as a selective barrier to passage of materials into and out of the cell

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NUCLEUS
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A cellular organelle that contains DNA and serves as control center of the cell

The Cell Membrane

The Nucleus

KEY TERMS
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PLASTID
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A group of membrane-bound organelles occurring in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells Types of plastids:
•! Chloroplasts, leucoplasts, and chromoplasts

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Chloroplasts
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Sites of photosynthesis

The Chloroplast

Parts of a chloroplast
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Inner and outer membranes Thylakoids – membranous sacs of thin, flat, circular plates Granum – stack of thylakoids Stroma – jelly-like fluid

Other types of plastids
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Leucoplasts
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Colorless plastids that form and store oil, starch and proteins

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Chromoplasts
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Pigments that contain yellow, orange and red colors to certain flowers

KEY TERMS
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MITOCHONDRION
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An intracellular organelle associated with cellular respiration (in which chemical energy in fuel molecules is transferred to ATP)

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RIBOSOME
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A cellular organelle; site of protein synthesis

THE MITOCHONDRIA

Outer mitochondrial membrane

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Matrix Cristae
Fig. 3-6, p. 53

KEY TERMS
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ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
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An organelle composed of an interconnected network of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells Functions
•! Site of enzymatic activity •! Synthesizes membranes such as nuclear envelope •! Rough ER is associated with ribosomes; smooth ER lacks ribosomes

Mitochondrion Ribosomes Rough ER

Smooth ER

Fig. 3-7, p. 53

KEY TERMS
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GOLGI BODY
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An organelle composed of a stack of flattened membranous sacs Modifies, packages, and sorts proteins that will be secreted or sent to the plasma membrane or other organelles

The Golgi Body

KEY TERMS
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VACUOLE
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A large, fluid-filled, membrane-bound sac within the cytoplasm that contains a solution of salts, ions, pigments, and waste materials Vacuolar membrane – surrounds the vacuole

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The Vacuole

Functions of a vacuole
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Maintain cell shape
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The large concentrations of ions inside the vacuole cause water to accumulate

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Provide strength for non woody plants Temporary storage areas for ions

CYTOSKELETON
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Network of fibers that extend throughout the cytoplasm for support Types:
•! Microtubules – involved in the addition of cellulose to the cell wall; make up the spindle fibers; cilia and flagella and other hair-like extensions of the cell •! Microfilaments – responsible for cytoplasmic streaming

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CELL WALL
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Comparatively rigid supporting wall exterior to the plasma membrane in plants, fungi, prokaryotes, certain protists

Cellulose Fibers in a Cell Wall

Layers of the Plant Cell Wall

Plasma membrane of cell 1

Cell 1

Secondary cell wall of cell 1 Primary cell wall of cell 1 Middle lamella Primary cell wall of cell 2 Secondary cell wall of cell 2 Plasma membrane of cell 2

Cell 2
Fig. 3-11, p. 56

Plasmodesmata

Cell walls of two cells Cell 1 Plasmodesmata Desmotubule Plasma membranes

Smooth ER

Cell 2

Fig. 3-12, p. 57

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3

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Summarize the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells

Plant and Animal Cells
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Structures in common
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Plasma membrane Nucleus mitochondria Ribosomes ER Golgi apparatus Cytoskeleton

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells
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Found in plant cells only
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Plastids Cell walls Large vacuoles

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Found in animal cells only
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Centrioles Lysosomes

Plant and Animal Cells

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4

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Explain the basic structure of the fluid mosaic model of a membrane

KEY TERMS
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FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
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Current model for the structure of the plasma membrane and other cell membranes in which protein molecules “float” in a fluid phospholipid bilayer

Membrane Structure

Phospholipid Bilayer
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Nonpolar, hydrophillic fatty acid chains of phospholipids project into interior of the double-layered membrane Polar, hydrophobic heads located on two surfaces of the double-layered membrane

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Membrane protein Lipid bilayer

Outside cell

Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails (fatty acid chains) Hydrophilic heads

Water

Inside cell

Water
Fig. 3-13, p. 58

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5

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Define the following processes that are important to the cell: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport

KEY TERMS
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DIFFUSION
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Net movement of particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) along a concentration gradient from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

Diffusion

KEY TERMS
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OSMOSIS
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Net movement of water (principle solvent in biological systems) by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane

Osmotic Terminology

Turgor Pressure

Fig. 3-15 (1), p. 60

Plasma membrane

Nucleus Vacuole

Vacuole Vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) Cytoplasm Plasma membrane
(c) After a brief period, the begonia is completely wilted (the cells have lost their turgor pressure). Eventually, the plant dies.

(a) In hypotonic surroundings, the vacuole fills with water, but the rigid cell wall prevents the cell from expanding. The cells of this begonia are turgid.

(b) After a salt solution (that is, a hypertonic solution) is added to the pot, the cells lose water, and their cytoplasm shrinks. The plant begins to wilt.

Fig. 3-15 (2), p. 60

Facilitated Diffusion
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A carrier protein helps move a material across a membrane in the direction of the concentration gradient, from high to low concentration

Active Transport
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Energy is expended to move a material against the concentration gradient, from low to high concentration

Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Active Transport

(a) Simple High diffusion Concentration gradient

(b) Facilitated diffusion Outside cell

Plasma membrane

Low

Carrier proteins

ATP Energy required

Inside cell

(a,b) Passive transport

(c) Active transport

Fig. 3-16, p. 61

Animation: Common Eukaryotic Organelles

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Animation: The Endomembrane System

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Animation: Cell Membranes

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Animation: Plant Cell Walls

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Animation: Osmosis Experiment

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