Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 2, 2013

A Study on Functional Brain Metabolism using PET Scan Image Datasets – An Analysis
A.Meena a,*, Dr. K.Raja b,1 Abstract - The visualization of datasets with two or more
dimensions is a vital role in a medical image analysis and research. It normally based on the orientation, region or progression (time) of structures in clinical and non clinical datasets. The actual quantification of the data is typically required to evaluate regions-of-interest (ROIs) or volumes-of-interest (VOIs). It may be either one slice or multiple slices throughout the dataset. The look up table (LUT) in an image datasets is used to highlight structures of interest, control the magnification level and adjust the transfer function. This paper focuses the image datasets of brain and explains the functional brain metabolism of a healthy and Alzheimer’s disease in terms of clinical variables. Index Terms – Nuclear image, ROI, VOI, LUT, functional

It can be used to monitor human body substances such as glucose, ammonia, water, oxygen and blood flow during activation of specific areas. It uses a radioactive substance (tracer) to look for disease in the body [2]. The presence of disease measures the unusual occurrence of the substances. Cancerous tissue contains more level of glucose normally known as a type of sugar than normal body tissue [3]. It will show up as a bright area on the PET scan image. This scan images are more sensitive than other image techniques such CT and MRI [4]. II. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a condition where the brain slowly goes down, as well as a serious loss of thinking ability in a person and cognitive impairment. PET scan image is mainly used for the Alzheimer’s neurological disorder treatment and other kind of dementia. In 2006, there were 26.6million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050[10]. Every five years after the age of 65, the risk of acquiring the disease approximately doubles, increasing from 3 to as much as 69 per thousand person years. Normally women are having a higher risk of developing AD [9]. Brain imaging using PET can validate Alzheimer’s will typically show a reduction in glucose use in the cerebral cortex. The brain outermost layer is more responsible for many complex brain functions including memory, verbal and consciousness. The below figure shows the healthy human brain functional metabolism and patient with Alzheimer’s disease using PET scan [13].

metabolism, Alzheimer’s Disease. I. INTRODUCTION Image datasets analysis and quantification is a challenging task for medical image research. Medical images are derived from various modalities, such as microscopy, microarray data, X-ray, CT, MRI, fMRI, and PET. To analyze an image dataset, researchers may use several factors such as personal preference, data requirements, software limitations, and precedent. The datasets must be able to read and write in industry formats such as DICOM, TIFF, Analyze and RAW. The physician must understand the structures of an image datasets for subsequent treatment of patients. The attributes for quantification such as volume and various tissue types are used to study the diagnosis, monitor and treat various disorders. Medical image segmentation is used to identify anatomic structures of images as members of a general group. Many segmentation methods are subjectively changed due to user interaction. Manual VOI adjustments of the boundary are basically operator dependant. Statistical calculations on masked and contoured VOIs are improved reproducibility [1]. The image datasets have to be processed by a sequence of transformation steps. Each image has to be rotated and translated such that they all fit into the same frame. The resultant portions are saved to an ASCII text file. I. PET SCAN IMAGE A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is also known as PET imaging or a PET scan, is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. This scan image detects chemical and physiological changes related to functional metabolism.
Meena A, Research Scholar, Dept of CSE, Sathyabama University, Chennai, Tamilnadu. (E-mail: Dr. Raja K, Dean (Academics), Alpha College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamilnadu. (E-mail:

Figure1. Healthy human brain functional metabolism


A Study on Functional Brain Metabolism using PET Scan Image Datasets – An Analysis

neural cells. The metabolism is clearly lowered in the dementia region. In Alzheimer’s disease, the pattern of hypo metabolism starts at the hippocampus and spreads over the entire cortex as the disease progresses, sparing few areas such as the motor and primary visual cortices [7]. The images are converted in to ASCII files which representing the intensity of each voxel as a real value [19]. Normalization is done by dividing each voxel value by the mean voxel value of the image [8].
Figure 2. Patient with Alzheimer’s disease

VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The PET normal and Alzheimer’s disease datasets are undergone the preprocessing analysis. The principle component is calculated and the intermediate smoothing images are fetched. The former figure has shown the smoothing stage of Alzheimer’s disease using PET scan. And the later has shown the intermediate resultant image of normal brain functional metabolism. The smoothing steps can be extended up to more number of iterations. Some selected images are listed in below. Using MATLAB 7, the converted ASCII format of normal and AD is used to identify the Mean and Standard deviation of an image.

III. LITERATURE STUDY The cause of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of pathological proteins in the form of intracellular tangles and extracellular plaques. It is followed by neuron death and deficits in neurotransmitter systems. The result from neuroimaging is reconstructed into analytic and iterative approaches [5]. Selection of ROI analysis is mainly used to identify different kinetic behaviors and the associated regions are extracted from the data set, as long as there is a finite number of kinetics in the data [6]. The visualization of ROI in the training datasets labeled by human experts or according to some predefined rules. It is definitely not true in practical. Medical experts only label an image as normal or abnormal. But the presence of abnormalities is must for subsequent medical treatment [17]. In such cases, patient motion may also affect the accuracy of quantification and clinical interpretation. Reliable parametric imaging is highly dependent on the noise levels inherent in their datasets [15]. A study on gene generation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and to discover the dementia related proteins [18]. IV. SYSTEM MODEL
ASCII Conversion

Image Data sets

Data Analysis

Information Stored


Figure 3: Conceptual diagram of PET scan image datasets analysis

The above figure 3 explains the system model for PET scan image datasets analysis. The input data is preprocessed and normalized into DICOM standard. Then it is converted into ASCII code by image to ASCII converter. The ASCII format is further processed using MIPAV tool and stored the resultant value. V. PET IMAGE DATA SETS The sample data was collected from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). It consists of substance level and the PET scans showing the functional metabolism of brain. The recorded PET s in this study shows the transformation of glucose. This is a sign of the activity of 29

Figure 4. Smoothing image of Alzheimer’s disease

The task itself is critical to gain a better understanding of various stages of dementia.

Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 2, 2013
[7] Yeung H, Schoder H, Larson S. Utility of PET/CT for assessing equivocal PET lesions in oncology: initial experience (abstr). J Nucl Med 2002; 43:32P. [8] M. Wernick and J. Aarsvold, Emission Tomography: Fundamentals of PET and SPECT. San Diego: Elsevier, 2004. [9] C. W. Stearns, “NEC and local image noise in PET imaging,” in IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec., 2004, pp. 3106–3108. [10] O.T. Carmichael, et al., “Atlas-based hippocampus segmentation in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment,” NeuroImage, vol. 27, pp. 979-990, 2005. [11]C. S. Levin, A. M. K. Foudray, and F. Habte, “Impact of high energy resolution detectors on the performance of a PET system dedicated to breast cancer imaging,” Physica Medica, vol. 21, pp. 28–34, 2006. [12]C. S. Levin and H. Zaidi, “Current trends in pr eclinical PET system design,” PET Clinics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 125–160, 2007 [13] Brookmeyer, R; Johnson, E; Ziegler-Graham, K; Arrighi, HM “"Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer's disease” July 2007, 186 – 91 [14] Bermejo-Pareja F, Benito-León J, Vega S, Medrano MJ, Román GC "Incidence and subtypes of dementia in three elderly populations of central Spain". J. Neurol. Sci. 264 (1–2), Jan 2008: 63–72. [15]C. S. Levin, “New imaging technologies to enhance the molecular imaging sensitivity of positron emission tomography,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 439–467, Mar. 2008. [16]Ben-Haim S, Ell P. 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of cancer treatment response. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:88 –99. [17]Y. Gu, J. L. Matteson, R. T. Skelton, A. C. Deal, E. A. Stephan, F. Duttweiler, T. M. Gasaway, and C. S. Levin, “Study of a high resolution, 3-D positioning cross-strip cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET,” in Phys. Med. Bio., 2011, pp. 1563 –1584. [18] J.Y. Chen, C.Y. Shen, and A.Y. Sivanchenko. Mining Alzheimer disease relevant proteins from integrated protein interactome data. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing, 11:367 – 378, 2011. [19] [20]HTTP://WWW.TEXT-IMAGE.COM/CONVERT/ASCII.HTML Figure 5. Smoothing image of normal brain functional metabolism

A. Meena is presently working as Asst.Prof, Department of Computer Applications at Sri Sairam Engineering College since July 2002. She completed her B.Sc –Physics (1998), MCA (2001) from Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, M.Phil (2006) from Periyar University, M.E (Computer Science & Engineering) from Sathyabama University, 2008 and now currently she is pursuing her Doctoral degree at Sathyabama University. She has published various papers in national, international journals. Her areas of interest are Data Mining, Image Segmentation and Knowledge base system. Dr. K. Raja is presently working as Dean (academic) at Alpha College of Engineering, Chennai since Dec 2012. He acted as Principal, NSIT, Salem from Nov 2008 to Nov 2013. He completed his B. Sc (Mathematics) from Madras University,1989, B.E ( Computer Science & Engineering) and P.G. Diploma in Personnel Management from Annamalai University, 1993, M.B.A from Madurai Kamarajar University, 1997, M. E (Computer Science & Engineering) from Madras University, 2001, Ph. D degree in Knowledge based systems from Sathyabama University, India, 2006 . M. Phil (Human Resource Management) from Annamalai University, 2007. MLIS (Master in Library Information Science) in the year 2011 from Annamalai University. He is a life member in various professional bodies like Institution of Engineers (India), Computer Society of India, and Indian Society for Technical Education, International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology etc., He has more than two decades of teaching experience. He has published various research papers and participated in various national, international conferences. He is a reviewer in various National & International Journals. His areas of interest are Knowledge Based Systems, Knowledge Management, Technology Management, Computer Networks, System Software, Software Engineering, Network Security and Data Structures and Algorithms, HR and Quality Systems.

VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT This paper studies a functional brain metabolism using PET scan image datasets. The visualization of PET image datasets in two or more dimensions is processed and the quantification of resultant value is stored. The calculated ROI is used to identify the average voxel intensity and the standard deviation of the input image. Here, MIPAV tool is used to evaluate the comparison result of functional brain metabolism of a healthy and Alzheimer’s disease patient. The obtained results are encouraged to analyze the functional metabolism and assessment for further treatment. The next stage of the research will be further focus on the processed datasets are undergone to cluster approach. REFERENCES
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