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Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 2, 2013

Automatic Image Annotation Using Semantic with Fuzzy KNN

Sutha.S a,*, Dr. C. Kavitha b,1 Abstract - Large no of informations are available in internet
in terms of text, imagesdios, vidieos.Retriving accurate of these information is very essential. For retrieving images different techniques are used automatic image annotation techniques are mostly used for image retrieval. Content-based image retrieval, the problem of searching large image repositories according to their content, has been the subject of a significant amount of computer vision research in the recent past. While early retrieval architectures were based on the query-by-example paradigm, which formulates image retrieval as the search for the best database match to a user-provided query image, it was quickly realized that the design of fully functional retrieval systems would require support for semantic queries. These are systems where the databases of images are annotated with semantic keywords, enabling the user to specify the query through a natural language description of the visual concepts of interest. This realization, combined with the cost of manual image labeling, generated significant interest in the problem of automatically extracting semantic descriptors from images. Index Terms Image mining, Feature extraction, preprocessing, image classification.

joint distribution on the space of semantic keywords and image appearance descriptors (in the form of local features computed over image neighborhoods). After the annotation model is learned, an image is annotated by finding the most likely keywords given the features of the image. II. IMAGE MINING Image mining process: Image mining can be define as the nontrivial process to discover valid, novel, potentially useful, and ultimately understandable knowledge from large image sets or image databases. Image mining is not only a branch of data mining and knowledge discovery, but also an interdisciplinary research area which includes digital image processing, image understanding, database, artificial intelligence and so on another techniques used . The images from an image database are first preprocessed to improve their quality. These images then undergo various transformations and feature extraction to generate the important features from the images. With the generated features, mining can be carried out using data mining techniques to discover significant patterns. The resulting patterns are evaluated and interpreted to obtain the final knowledge [1] Image mining systems that can automatically extract semantically meaningful information (knowledge) from image data are increasingly in demand. In this paper, we describe the studies of image mining and remaining of the paper is organized as follows. Sec1 introduce image mining.[9] aSec2 discusses process of image mining. Sec 4 gives techniques used in image mining finally, section 5 concludes with some future research directions for image mining. In image mining, the goal is the discovery of image patterns that are significant in a given collection of images.

I. INTRODUCTION Image mining is an extension of data mining to image domain. Image mining is the concept used to extract implicit and useful data from images stored in the large data bases. Image mining is used in variety of fields like medical diagnosis, space research, remote sensing, agriculture, industries and even in the educational field. The earliest efforts in the area were directed to the reliable extraction of specific semantics, e.g. differentiating indoor from outdoor Scenes, cities from landscapes, and detecting trees, horses, or buildings, among others. These efforts posed the problem of semantics extraction as one of supervised learning: a set of training images with and without the concept of interest was collected and a binary classifier trained to detect the concept of interest. The classifier was then applied to all databases of images which were, in this way, annotated with respect to the presence or absence of the concept. More recently, there has been an effort to solve the problem in its full generality, by resorting to unsupervised learning. The basic idea is to introduce a set of latent variables that encode hidden states of the world, where each state defines a

Sutha.S, Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, India, (e-mail: Dr.C.Kavitha, Assistant Professor, Thiruvalluvar Arts and Science College, Government Rasipuram.(e-mail:

Figure 2. Image mining process


Automatic Image Annotation Using Semantic with Fuzzy KNN

III. RELATED WORK In this work we show that it is possible to combine the advantages of the two formulations through a slight reformulation of the supervised one. This consists of defining an M-ary classification problem where each of the semantic concepts of interest defines an image class. At annotation time, these classes all directly compete for the image to annotate, which no longer faces a sequence of independent binary tests. This supervised multiclass labeling (SML) obviously retains the classification and retrieval optimality of the supervised formulation, 1) produces a natural ordering of keywords at annotation time, and 2) eliminates the need to compute a "non-class" model for each of the semantic concepts of interest. In result, it has learning complexity equivalent to that of the unsupervised formulation and, like the latter, places much weaker requirements on the quality of manual labels than supervised OVA. The growing number of web and personal images requires an effective retrieval and browsing mechanism in either a content- or keyword-based manner. Much research effort has been focused on this area during recent years, resulting in remarkable achievements [1], [2]. Among others, automatic image annotation technology, which associates images with labels or tags, has received much research interest [3]. Image annotation is essentially a classification problem. In the field of multimedia and computer vision, many researchers have proposed a variety of machine learning and data mining algorithms for automatic image annotation recently [4][7] IV. PROPOSED WORK Although the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques based on low-level features such as color, texture, and shape have been extensively explored, their effectiveness and efficiency are not satisfactory. The ultimate goal of image retrieval is to provide the users with the facility to manage large image databases in an automatic, flexible and efficient way. Therefore, image retrieval systems should be armed to support high-level (semantics-based) querying and browsing of images. The basic elements to carry semantic information are the image regions which correspond to semantic objects, if the image segmentation is effective. Most approaches proposed for region-based image retrieval, although successful in some aspects, could not integrate the semantic descriptions into the regions, therefore cannot support the high-level querying of images. After the regions are obtained, proper representation of the content and context remains a challenge. In our previous work [7], we used color-texture classification to generate the semantic codebook which is used to segment images into regions. The content and context of regions were then extracted in a probabilistic manner and used to perform the retrieval. The computation of the content and context needed some heuristic weight functions, which can be improved to combine visual features. Image segmentation The purpose of image segmentation is to partition an image into meaningful regions with respect to a particular application The segmentation is based on measurements taken from the image and might be grey level, colour, 41

texture, depth or motion We generate the semantic codebook by using color- texture classification to classify the color-texture feature vectors for pixels in the images into cells in the color-texture space. By collecting the statistical data from the training images, we derive the logic to represent the content and context for all the images in the database for the semantics retrieval. We first generate the statistical data from the training images. V. AUTOMATIC IMAGE INNOVATION Image Annotation: Assigning keywords to digital images. It is an Labor intensive and Time consuming. It will need a system that automatically annotates images. An image region r in image I is placed under a concept w if (i.e)w is an annotation word for the image I. One of its hyponyms annotates the image I averaging the feature vectors of the images regions in the set produces a semantically-motivated initial cluster center. Weighted K-means clustering Weights can be assigned to image regions quantifying their contribution to the particular cluster Level-0 annotators are realized by fuzzy-knn.For each description space; k nearest neighbors of the image is determined. Word membership values are estimated considering the neighbors words and their distance from the image. High membership values are assigned to words that appear in close neighborhood.By using the formula Precision and Recall annotators performance are monitored. (i).Performance Criteria Precision=#WCorrect / #WAnnotations Recall==#WCorrect / #Wground (ii).Performance of Annotators Descriptor Color Structure Edge Mean Per word Precision 0.13 0.11 Mean Per word Recall 0.12 0.12

Annotation Example

Manual Annotation:house,Sky,Tiles Semantic with fuzzy KNN: House,Tree,Sky,blue,Roof,water.

The purpose of image segmentation is to partition an image into meaningful regions with respect to a particular application The segmentation is based on measurements

Journal of Computer Applications (JCA) ISSN: 0974-1925, Volume VI, Issue 2, 2013 taken from the image and might be grey level, colour, texture, depth or motion

VI. CONCLUSION In this we describe the study of Image mining taxonomy image mining, image mining process, techniques used. to research the basic theories and methods. Some experiment results confirm the validity of the methods of image mining, and shows that the framework of concept driven image mining could preferably mine the knowledge rules of texture and shape features. With fuzzy KNN. It uses the image features like mean, skewness, variance, energy,contrast which are easy to calculate based on this we can annotate the image and also retrieval performance are improved. REFERENCES
[1] R. Datta, D. Joshi, J. Li, and J. Z. Wang, Image retrieval: Ideas, influences, and trends of the new age, ACM Comput. Surv., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 160, 2008. [2] M. S. Lew, N. Sebe, C. Djeraba, and R. Jain, Content -based multimedia information retrieval: State of the art and challenges, ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput., Commun. Appl., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 119,Feb. 2006. [3] R. Bergman and H. Nachlieli, Perceptual segmentation: Combining image segmentation with object tagging, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 16681681, Jun. 2011. [4].L. Cao, J. Luo, H. S. Kautz, and T. S. Huang, Image annotation within the context of personal photo collections using hierarchical event and scene models, IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 208219,Feb. 2009. [5] G. Carneiro, A. B. Chan, P. J. Moreno, and N. Vasconcelos, Supervisedlearning of semantic classes for image annotation and retrieval, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. , vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 394410,Mar. 2007. [6] J. Liu, B. Wang, M. Li, Z. Li, W. Ma, H. Lu, and S. Ma, Dual crossmedia relevance model for image annotation, in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2007, pp. 605614. [7] X.-J. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Li, and W.-Y. Ma, Annotating images by mining image search results, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.,vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 19191932, Nov. 2008. [8].L. Zhu, A. Zhang, A. Rao and R. Srihari. Keyblock: An approach for content-based image retrieval. In Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2000 , pages 157166, Los Angeles, California, USA, Oct 30 - Nov 3 2000.

She is currently a research fellow in annauniversity,chennai.Her research area is image mining.

Dr.C.Kavitha is currently an Assistant professor in the CSE dept of Thiruvalluvar arts&Science College.Her research area include image processing,data mining.She is authored and co-authored over 75 technical papers over wide range of research topics.