2.2.

Inductor volt-second balance, capacitor charge balance, and the small ripple approximation
Actual output voltage waveform, buck converter
1

iL(t)

L + vL(t) – iC(t) R + v(t) –

Buck converter containing practical low-pass filter

Vg

+ –

2

C

Actual output voltage waveform
v(t) = V + vripple(t)

v(t)
V

Actual waveform v(t) = V + vripple(t)

dc component V
0

t
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
7

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

The small ripple approximation v(t) Actual waveform v(t) = V + vripple(t) v(t) = V + vripple(t) V dc component V 0 t In a well-designed converter. the output voltage ripple is small. the waveforms can be easily determined by ignoring the ripple: vripple < V v(t) ≈ V Fundamentals of Power Electronics 8 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis . Hence.

Buck converter analysis: inductor current waveform 1 iL(t) L + vL(t) – iC(t) R + v(t) – original converter Vg + – 2 C switch in position 1 iL(t) L + vL(t) – Vg + – C iC(t) R v(t) – + switch in position 2 L + vL(t) – Vg + – iL(t) C + iC(t) R v(t) – Fundamentals of Power Electronics 9 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .

we can now find the inductor current via vL(t) = L diL(t) dt Solve for the slope: diL(t) vL(t) Vg – V = ≈ L L dt ⇒ The inductor current changes with an essentially constant slope Fundamentals of Power Electronics 10 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .Inductor voltage and current Subinterval 1: switch in position 1 Inductor voltage vL = Vg – v(t) Vg + – iL(t) L + vL(t) – iC(t) C R v(t) – + Small ripple approximation: vL ≈ Vg – V Knowing the inductor voltage.

we can again find the inductor current via vL(t) = L diL(t) dt Solve for the slope: diL(t) ≈– V L dt ⇒ The inductor current changes with an essentially constant slope Fundamentals of Power Electronics 11 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .Inductor voltage and current Subinterval 2: switch in position 2 L Inductor voltage + vL(t) – + iC(t) C R v(t) – vL(t) = – v(t) Small ripple approximation: vL(t) ≈ – V Vg + – iL(t) Knowing the inductor voltage.

Inductor voltage and current waveforms vL(t) Vg – V DTs D ' Ts –V t 1 Switch position: iL(t) I iL(0) 0 Fundamentals of Power Electronics 1 iL(DTs) Vg – V L 2 vL(t) = L diL(t) dt ∆iL –V L DTs 12 Ts t Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .

Determination of inductor current ripple magnitude iL(t) I iL(0) 0 iL(DTs) Vg – V L –V L ∆iL DTs Ts t (change in iL) = (slope)(length of subinterval) Vg – V DTs 2∆iL = L Vg – V ∆iL = DTs 2L ⇒ Vg – V L= DTs 2∆iL Fundamentals of Power Electronics 13 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .

Inductor current waveform during turn-on transient iL(t) iL(Ts) iL(0) = 0 0 DTs Ts 2Ts V g – v( t ) L – v( t ) L iL(nTs) iL((n + 1)Ts) nTs (n + 1)Ts t When the converter operates in equilibrium: i L((n + 1)Ts) = i L(nTs) Fundamentals of Power Electronics 14 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .

An equivalent form: s 1 0= v (t) dt = vL Ts 0 L The average inductor voltage is zero in steady state. the net change in inductor current is zero: 0= 0 vL(t) dt Hence. T Fundamentals of Power Electronics 15 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis . the total area (or volt-seconds) under the inductor voltage waveform is zero whenever the converter operates in steady state.The principle of inductor volt-second balance: Derivation Inductor defining relation: di (t) vL(t) = L L dt Integrate over one complete switching period: iL(Ts) – iL(0) = 1 L Ts Ts vL(t) dt 0 In periodic steady state.

previously derived: DTs λ= 0 vL(t) dt = (Vg – V )(DTs) + ( – V )(D'Ts) Average voltage is vL = λ = D(Vg – V ) + D'( – V ) Ts Equate to zero and solve for V: 0 = DVg – (D + D')V = DVg – V Fundamentals of Power Electronics 16 ⇒ V = DVg Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis .Inductor volt-second balance: Buck converter example vL(t) Vg – V Total area λ t –V Integral of voltage waveform is area of rectangles: Ts Inductor voltage waveform.

The principle of capacitor charge balance: Derivation Capacitor defining relation: dv (t) i C (t ) = C C dt Integrate over one complete switching period: vC(Ts) – vC(0) = 1 C Ts iC(t) dt 0 In periodic steady state. the net change in capacitor voltage is zero: 0= 1 Ts Ts iC(t) dt = iC 0 Hence. Fundamentals of Power Electronics 17 Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis . The average capacitor current is then zero. the total area (or charge) under the capacitor current waveform is zero whenever the converter operates in steady state.