Modelling and control of automotive clutch systems

M.H.M. Dassen
Reportnumber 2003.73

Supervisor: A.F.A.Serrarens

Eindhoven, 22nd July 2003 Department of mechanical engineering TU/e Eindhoven

1 Introduction 1.1 Clutch control . . . 1.2 Literature overview 1.3 Problem definition 1.4 Objectives . . . . .

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2 Ciutch modeiiing 2.1 Driveline Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Gearbox and axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Wheels and external forces . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Driveline model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Equations slipping and sticking case . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Differential equations with reduced matrices 2.3.2 State space form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Karnopp's approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Simulation model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Controller design 3.1 Requirements of the controller . . . . . . 3.2 Decoupling controller . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 References for engine and slipping speed 3.4 Simulation with decoupling controller . . 3.5 Analyzing the decoupling controller . . .

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4 Conclusions and recommendations 26 4.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

A Sirnulink model

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B Matlab switching function for Simulink model

the performance of this controller is evaluated. Figure 1. Based on this analysis a control strategy is suggested and the designed control law is implemented. Finally. The engagement of the clutch is then simulated using the acquired model.1: Automotive clutch (Luk) .ntroduct ion In this report the dynamic behavior of an automotive clutch is analyzed using dynamical models.

1. To achieve a successful engagement. Hw control theory was applied systematically in this article to ensure robust stability. The vehicle now starts to move. 1. the friction plate is connected to the engine crank shaft.1. When the plates touch. torque is transmitted from the engine to the drivetrain. This method allows for a detailed design in the frequency domain. e H" control design for torque-converter-clutch slip system. Also fuel consumption during engagement can be minimized and the time it takes t o engage the clutch can be shortened. Next. . The plates are then sticking and the engine is directly connected to the drivetrain. avoiding unpleasant shocks and jerks. This plate is called the pressure plate. After a limited amount of time the speeds of the two plates will become equal.1 Clutch control Clutches in cars. several research articles on these subjects will be discussed briefly: e Optimal control of gear shift operations in automatic transmissions. F. For example wear can be predicted more accurately.2 Literature overview In the field of clutch control and drivetrain modelling a lot of research has been carried out recently. This can be done by the driver through a foot pedal or automatically by a programmed actuator force. R-Hibino et al. But also an automatic clutch can be optimized further. A. The pressure plate is connected by an axle to the gear box and the remaining part of the powertrain. A clutch has two plates that can be joined together by an actuator that exerts a force on one of the two plates. and of the (dis)engagement of the clutch. An advantage of controlling a clutch automatically is of course relieving the driver of the gear shifting task. the right input force has to be applied by the actuator. see figure 1. trucks and other vehicles are gradually engaged after selecting the different gears. On basis of an optimization criterion an analytical control law is derived and simulated. the other plate.Pfeiffer (2001) In this paper an optimal control approach for gear shift operations is presented.Waj-Fraj. As the clutch engages the plates are pushed together by the actuator. because the forces acting on the clutch components are know.

Centea.T. and Rosenberg. D. (2001) In this article a car transmission is modelled using Power oriented graphs. (1990) In this book a method for analyzing dynamics using bond graphs is presented. C. Garofalo et al. Rahnejat and M. L.. e e e . With this controller clutch engagement is simulated. System Dynamics: A Unified Approach. Han and S. Dynamic modeling and control of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain systems. System models are developed. Dynamic modelling and Control of a Car Transmission System. Powell. Smooth engagement for automotive dry clutch. Verhagen (2000) The start and stop process of a vehicle with a zero inertia powertrain is analyzed. H. Model and control of a wet plate clutch. W. D. e a e Stop-Go with the ZI@-powertrain: a first glance.C.R. C. Menday This paper describes the causes of torsional vibrations in the driveline. K. D. Bailey and S. A simple control strategy is proposed and implemented in simulation. F.P.. R. A study of shift control using the clutch pressure pattern in automatic transmission.E.a Karnopp. Also a shift control strategy using engine torque reduction and optimum pressure trajectory is discussed. Cikanek In this article a dynamic model of a powertrain is derived. R... T. Margolis. M.Zanasi et al. Yi The shift transient characteristics of an automatic transmission with Ravigneaux planetary gears are investigated.J. The influence of the interface coefficient of friction upon the propensity to judder in automotive clutches. The model is validated with experiments.W.K.J. control is also discussed. (2001) Based on a reduced model a controller is designed which decouples the slip speed and engine speed control.H. B. Edelaar (1997) This report describes modelling and control for a wet plate clutch.

1. The objectives of this exercise are: a Simulate and analyse clutch engagement with the model. o Design an adequate controller for smooth clutch engagement based on this model. 1.referred to as judder. but fast engagement of the clutch.4 e Objectives Describe the engagement of an automotive wet and dry clutch in a dynarnical model. engage the clutch within a restricted time window. Using the derived input force. Simulations of a nonlinear multibody dynamic model are found to agree experimental results.3 Problem definition The problem of controlling an automotive clutch can be stated as follows: Specify an input force that results in a smooth. o .

The structure of the model is depicted in figure 2.1: Drive line model 2. a model that can accurately predict the response of the driveline to a specified clutch input is needed. The drive line model is then written into three different forms.1. In order to achieve this.1 Driveline Compbnents To adequately control the clutch. a simplified dynamical model for the driveline is derived. Figure 2.In this chapter basic equations describing different parts of the drive line are presented. as .

.. the axles.1) In which p is the friction coefficient and R.) P2) 2. in dry clutches this oil is of course absent. transferred by the slipping clutch using the We then describe the torque TcL Coulomb friction model: T C L = FnpRa sign(+^ - @ .1.1 Clutch The function of an engaging friction clutch is to transmit torque gradually. the wheels. This represents a crude approximation of the real engine map. The clutch now starts slipping and an increasing amount of torque can be transmitted. the engine.9.2 Engine The engine torque Te is assumed to be a quadratic function of the rotational speed of the crank shaft. . Also external forces on the vehicle and driveline need to be included in the analysis.a t the The range for Te is given by: corresponding engine speed @l. These plates are pushed apart by a diaphragm springs. ) (2. When the clutch sticks the maximal amount of torque that can be transmitted equals: z~ma.NpRa s i g n ( ~ 1 . In wet clutches the plates are immersed in and actuated by oil. see figure 1.2]. This torque is transferred from the engine through the pressure plate onto one or more friction plates connected to the transmission input shaft. The velocities of the plates will become equal and the piates stick. When the clutch is engaged a normal force on the pressure plate pushes the clutch plates towards each other.1. to avoid high accelerations or jerks. the active surface of the clutch plates.1. 2. For this model the various driveline components need to be specified. with the maximum torque of the engine Tma. a clear understanding of clutch operation is necessary. The ciutch is now fully engaged and can transmit torque from the engine up to the maximum static friction torque. when the engine is connected to the rest of the driveline..done in [1. First. There are two main types of automotive clutches: wet and dry clutches. = Fnm. In dry clutches actuation is mostly performed by mechanical mechanisms... To describe the clutch mathematically we take the direct normal force Fn on the pressure plate as input. When the clutch is fully disengaged the clutch plates are not in mechanical contact and no torque is transmitted. gearbox. These include: the clutch itself.

x.1. The force Fext consists of the air drag F . 6 the angle of the vehicle with respect vehicle. which also includes the driven wheels inertia. and angle 9. These components are modelled as one inertia. the speed of the vehicle. is the wheel radius. The engine torque T. This inertia is connected to the clutch pressure plate through an axle which is assumed to be rigid.4) 2. In which R . The torsional stiffness of the rest of the driveline..e. The overal transmission ratio in the model is then written as: Z . V to the horizontal. See figure 2. Af the frontal surface area of the . . = Zg ' Zd .. g the gravitational constant.2 Driveline model Combining the described parts a dynamical model of the driveline is obtained. the acts on drive shafts. A load torque acts on the vehicle inertia J. the vehicle mass.. y is the air density. The gear ratio selected within the gearbox is denoted by i. m. 2. is incorporated into k2.2.1.3 Gearbox and axles The gearbox and axles are connected t o the friction plate of the clutch through a torsional spring. In these equations. torsional spring with stiffness kl attach the clutch to the gearbox with inertia J2and angle p2. the remaining reduction after the gearbox as id. the arm of-the rolling resistance. The rolling resistance FTdrZOZng . The torque transferred The by the clutch Tclacts on the friction plate with inertia J. : the rolling resistance of the driven wheels FTdrZven and the grade forces F. Furthermore FTdrZvtng acts on the driving wheels icertia J3. is directly applied on the engine inertia J1 with corresponding angle 91. ct: indicates the weight distribution on the front and back wheels respectively (0 < ct: < 1)..1. (2.4 Wheels and external forces The two powered wheels (usually the front whee1s)are described with a single inertia J3. i. This torque equals: Tl = FeZt&.

3 Equations slipping and sticking case The equations presented in the previous paragraph can be formulated in different ways. When sticking occurs the inertias J1 and J. The torque a t the wheels T . the equations (2. as cpl and 9. This property complicates describing the system mathematically.93). As stated by Verhagen [3]. is equal to the force: kz (iy2 . These unit vectors are used to insert the external torques into the model.I > 0): With the generalized displacement column q = [cpl cp.10) to (2. In this section three possible forms are presented. Each description of the system aims a t uniting the slipping and sticking systems into a single system formulation. The inertia of the rest of the vehicle is projected onto J.3. The difficulty that arises here is the apparent change in the number of degrees of freedom.1 Differential equations with reduced matrices To incorporate the two phases of slip and stick into one model the equations of motion can be manipulated using reduced matrices. . can be described by one coordinate instead of two in the slipping phase.+. The load torque TLacts on this inertia. For this system the equations of motion can be derived as: 2.]T. This is can be denoted by: . p2 cps cp.the inertia of the driving wheels J3with angle p3. Herein g j represents the jth unit vector: el= [l 0 0 0 0IT. 2..14) are written in matrix form: from which this differential equations results for the slipping phase. are now equal. The clutch torque is applied by the vector h: When the clutch is engaged the degrees of freedom of the system are reduced. The traction of the tyres to the road is taken into account by a linear damping force with damping coefficient b acting between the wheel inertia and vehicle inertia.

q is integrated. If we take -T q (t.RTQT]q(tT) (2.) = 0 and Q ( t T = ) - then -T Y (1. should satisfy the conditions mentioned above in equations (2.24) Substituting qT into equation (2.) = &Ti(&) (2. (RTh = 0 ) yields the equation: The matrices RT and QT are found by making sure they reduce the displacement column correctly. In the actual case these matrices become: .20) To determine q for t > t. And QT and R.19).) to be: then -T r = [I . The clutch is set to close at time t T :which implies RTjT (t. Let a matrix QT satisfy the condition: hTq(t.) .This represents a kinematic constraint. an integration constant -T position q ( t ). As the condition for stick is y will appear in the formulated in terms of velocity.18) and (2. is no longer a degree of freedom.12) and Pre-multiplication with RT.. The original displacement column is multiplied with the reduction matrix RT to obtain the reduced displacement vector. A vector qT with four instead of five components is introduced to take into account that cp.

however it makes implementation in a simulation model less compact. BStu$ f (t) (2.-. This results in an actual reduction in the order of the model. Ast and BSt are the system matrices for the sticking system. as described in 141. The term k2 (ip2. as the actual system indeed looses a. degree of freedom.LX-+ (1.2 State space form The system can also be described in the state space form x = Ax Bu.The model obtained here transforms the slipping equations into the sticking system through matrix multiplications. 2.e.(c. i.p3) represents the torque transmitted by the axle stiffness k2. The input u for this and the engine torque Te: clutch model is the clutch torque TcL + Writing the system in the form x = Ax+ B u allows for a model with switching parameter d with d = 1 if (c. = 0 x = d . In essence this is correct. The state vector x is defined in terms of the generalized coordinates. .3. the torque acting on the wheels. -kc > 0 and d = 0 if the slipping speed becomes zero. The The matrices for both cases were column f (t) contains the load torque found t o be: r.d) . A.x + d . . A.29) The matrices ASLand BsI represent the system when the clutch is slipping while..d) . BsLu+ (1 ..

The advantage in using this formulation is that the same set of equations is used for both the slipping and the sticking phases. are equal in the sticking case. A disadvantage of this method is that essentially the same equation is solved twice as pl and 9. Another formulation of the model that does not have this drawback will be discussed next. However when the clutch locks. The sticking and slipping system however can also be described within one expression according to Karnopp [5]. increasing Fn does no longer influence the torque Tcltransmitted through the clutch.14) are also valid for the sticking system.3.10) t o (2. that has to be substituted can then be found from equations (2.3 Karnopp's approach The previous two formulations described two systems within one mathematical description. Consequently there is no . 2.10) and (2.. The clutch system is seen as the two migrated inertias J1 and J. has to be substituted for Tcl.11): Consequently when the clutch sticks. so the torque transmitted at the interface of J1 and J. the torque Tclabruptly changes from the torque as result of Fnto the torque in sticking case derived above. this expression can be used. As the system equations (2.The column of forces f ( t )acting on the system only contains resented as follows: and is rep- This model adequately describes the system in state space form. The torque TcI.

2. The engine torque T. As can be .4 Simulation model In order to get a better understanding of the properties of the clutch model. In this model the system formulation according to Karnopp. To engage the clutch in the simulation model. The resulting engine and clutch disk speed are plotted in figure 2. Stick is detected by observing the difference between the engine and clutch speeds. If this difference becomes smaller than 0. I I I I Figure 2. this torque is implemented as a step function after 0.3. These equations are implemented in a function that incorporates switching behavior of the torque at the clutch interface TCI.01 rad/s the clutch is assumed to stick.is taken to be constant a t 50 Nm from 0.5 seconds with a magnitude of 52 Nm. Engaging first gear with the clutch is now simulated. Only the torque Tcltransmitted by the clutch changes as the clutch sticks. as presented in section 2.2. the initial engine speed is assumed to be 100 rad/s. see appendices A and B. a simulation of this system was carried out in Matlab Simulink.4 seconds. The vehicle has no initial velocity.Englne and clutch dlsk speed time [s] Silpplng speed LO$. is used.2: Engine and clutch disk speed during engagement switching required within this set.

only damping in the tyres is taken into account. It is also clear that the torque in the sticking phase is lower than the engine torque T. resuIting in an engine stall. as at this time the maximal torque is transmitted by the clutch. . Again the vibrations caused by the springs damp out very slowly.1 the difference between the engine speed and the clutch disk speed decreases to zero..33).3: Torque at the clutch interface (Tcl) observed in figure 2. The torque a the clutch interface is plotted in figure 2. It clearly switches from the specified step function to the torque in the sticking phase derived in equation (2. as kinetic energy is stored by the engine and clutch disk inertias J1 and J. The torque then drops to a lower level after the clutch sticks and then remains constant. In the actual drive line this vibration will damp out much faster as axles will have some damping. It reaches a maximum value in the slipping phase.Torque transmitted fhroug the clutch during engagement Figure 2.4. This torque level is of course lower then the torque in the slipping phase otherwise the clutch is not able to engage and stay engaged.. The specified value of 52 Nm is chosen small because larger values would decrease the engine speed too much. The oscillation occurring in the torque is caused by the clutch disk springs kl and the axle stiffness kz. This low value for TcL also results in a rather slow engagement of the clutch. The torque at the driving wheels is plotted in figure 2. The clutch is then assumed to be engaged. This damping is not modelled.3.

Tomue at the driving wheels I 3 time Is] Figure 2.4: Torque at the wheels (T.) .

The engine should not stall. applied to the clutch disk.1 Requirements of the controller To guarantee successful clutch engagement two conditions. and consequently the transferred torque Tcl is very high. These oscillations depend on the time derivative of the slip speed. we can formulate the no-lurch condition as follows: . 3. have t o be satisfied: e The engine speed during engagement must satisfy the no-kill condit i o n . The slip speed is defined as: If for now. This condition can be stated as : In order to maintain a decent level of driver comfort. on basis of the clutch model presented in the previous chapter. The main source of driver discomfort are oscillations in the drive train. the engine speed could drop too severely resulting in engine stall. The difficulty in designing a controller for this system lies in the variable degree of freedom of the system.ontroller In this chapter a controller for clutch engagement will be designed. as seen in [ 4 ] . clutch engagement should be as smooth as possible.e. If the force F. we assume an constant engine torque T. i..

1 4 1 a controller that w. Secondly the engine torque Te can be seen as an input variable. A compromise between the different requirements and the desired engagement time has to be made. on the pressure ted by the clutch Tcl. A l s ~ a too fast engagement could cause an engine stall. independently controls the engine speed and slip speed With this controller it should be possible to prevent discontinuities in the difference between F.l can be derived. the difference between the engine and clutch disk velocities is found to be: . 3.e. The following equations are found: After transformation of these equations to the Laplace domain the engine and clutch speed can the be written as: With Jd the combined inertias of the driveline: NOWthe slipping speed w S l ( s ) i. These requirements however are in conflict with a fast engagement of the clutch. the stiffness terms will therefore be discarded. .2 Decoupling controller To avoid vibrations in the system the derivative of the slip speed (F. As described by Garofalo et al.F2) should be continuous. To derive the controller the axes will be assumed to be perfectly rigid. The input variable used to control the clutch is first of all the torque transmit. that induces unwanted oscillations in the drive train.Created by applying the input force F plate. we need to apply an amount of torque that could cause a high deceleration of the clutch disk (. and Fl.With C a positive constant.j. If we want to engage the clutch within a limited amount of time.

1. because this represents the desired time in which the clutch should stick.l a function that goes to zero within a certain time frame and then remains zero has to be chosen. As reference for the slipping speed w.3 References for engine and slipping speed The references for the engine speed a linear function was chosen starting at 100 rad/s and rising with 75 rad/s. Another important factor in choosing this function is the time in which it reaches zero. A simple representation of this approach in schematic form is given in figure 3.With this in mind the system can be written as follows: By choosing the following controller the two speeds can be decoupled and controlled separately: The obtained decoupling controller can now be substituted into equation (3. 3.11). in which independent control of both engine and slip speed should be possible by substituting for example PID controllers for u1 and uz. Subsequently as reference function for the slipping speed . This results in the following expressions for the engine and slipping velocities: in which This system represents a decoupled system. Furthermore the initial value of this reference has to be equal to the initial engine speed. This ensures that there is no step in the reference and it matches the initial difference between engine and clutch disk speed.

5 seconds.4 Simulation with decoupling controller To test the designed controller.L = 100 .is the most three values were tested. Ct2 (3. with tuned controllers . 5 .5 seconds.1) is about 1. t = 0: W. As controllers for the decoupled systems a PID controller for u v2 were chosen. 8 simulations were carried q and u2 specifically for every constant. this translates into a r of 5. What does become clear however is that the shortest time in which the clutch can be engaged without violating the no kill condition (3.2. For constants 7.1: Scheme decoupling controller wsl a function is chosen that goes exponentially to zero and has a value of 100 rad/s at. .= 5. simulations were carried out using the simulink l and model. Clearly the differences between the different values for r and thus wslref are small.= 2 . The out.Figure 3. resulting slipping speeds are plotted in figure 3. With this knowledge it seems relevant to take a wslref which reaches zero in 1.15) 3. So further simulations were carried out with the 7. To find out which value for the time constant 7.

At this setting the engine torque T. D = 0.qand P = 1.01 for the slipping speed controller v2. This value is added to v:.3 results.8 seconds without the engine speed dropping lower than the starting value of 100 rad/s.2: Comparison between different references w. Because by increasing TCI engagement will be reduced further. but also the value for z limited.8 2 15 25 35 tune [s] Figure 3. the no-kill condition. As clutch engagement is slow the slipping speed controller P-value is slightly increased. = 2. q .01 for the engine speed controller .3.5 seconds. The controller is tuned iteratively by starting at safe values for both controllers. as seen in figure 3. the engine speed before will worsen the problem. although it remains above 100 rad/s. for example 1 for both proportional values. This causes a drop in the engine speed. To obtain a fast engagement but also limit the drop in engine speed a compromise between them has to be made. The drop is caused . If we set the lower limit for the engine speed.lref The system is simulated with parameters P = 0.57. 5.021 and I = 0. at 90 rad/s the controller can be tuned to engage in about 1. is already saturating a short time. I = 0.to obtain the input value for the clutch This means increasing the output ulof the engine speed controller torque TcI. It was observed that it is possible to engage the clutch in 1.sl~p speeds for. . which is not not only by the limited engine power.72 D = 0. the behavior shown in figure 3.018.

_ . The torque at the wheels T .6 0.. resulting with this controller is much smoother than the torque curve achieved earlier with the step input.4 0. --.2 1.engine and clutch disk speed 0.4 1.'. The other control signal is the engine torque T. 12 0-20 0 02 04 06 08 1 time [s] --. occurring.6. i. . ' \ .3: Engine and clutch disk speed during engagement For the transmitted torque through the clutch TcI we find an interesting result as seen in figure 3.-. This input is limited at 100 Nm and also shows a smooth curve. . The signal is smooth before engagement and shows vibrations after the clutch sticks.8 2 slippmg speed as. . 1 ' ' . caused by the discontinuity in w.60 r u Z 40" 20m - .8 1 time [s] 1. plotted in figure 3. which means we have no direct control over the engine speed during this period. should be as smooth as possible. .2 0.e. see figure 3.4. preferably showing no oscillations. . for reasons discussed earlier.6 1. T . This curve determines the driver comfort.5 . However it does saturate for a significant time.5. 100 80 - C & --- --. \ '._ 14 16 18 Ii 2 Figure 3. .

Figure 3.5: Transmitted torque Td during engagement . during engagement Figure 3.4: Engine torque T.

the matrix of (3. the bode plot in figure 3. The function G(s) (3.13) is not diagonal. the decoupling controller simply represents a combination of the PID-controllers 4 for we and v2 for w.5 Analyzing the decoupling controller To get a better understanding of the working of the decoupling controller its frequency response is evaluated.14) represents the decoupled system. except for the term JIG(s)s. during engagement 3.6: Torque a t the driving wheels T. For low frequencies the controller derived from equation (3.12) becomes: remains the same and T. becomes: And for high frequencies the TCL . for low frequencies the system has a gain of -7.~. If the control inputs are examined it seems that.7 is obtained: As seen in this bode plot. The slipping and engine speeds are in that case not completely decoupled. For higher frequencies the gain falls with a slope of -1 and the system has a phase delay of 90 degrees.28 dB and no phase delay.Torque at the driving wheels I I I 06 08 1 time [s] 12 14 Figure 3. So the decoupled system represents a first order system. i.e. Of course when the model is not exact an error in the decoupling will be made. If we evaluate this transfer function for s = j w .

This means the decoupling controller will weigh the error of the slipping speed as well as the engine speed according to the chosen PID parameters of each speed. cannot compensate for the drop in engine speed we anymore. This will result in a slower engagement.7: Bode diagram G ( s ) An interpretation of this is that the absolute value of engine torque must be smaller or equal to the torque transmitted trough the clutch plus a contrbution of the driveline and engine inertia. Obviously if saturation of the controllers is not allowed. By adjusting the PID parameters a compromise between fast engagement and a drop in the engine speed can be achieved. below which the clutch cannot transmit transmitted TCL enough troque to engage. However as soon as the control input of the engine torque T. This then also states that the torque has a minimal value. control over the engine speed is lost as T.10' 10: Frequency (radk68) Figure 3. . From the control point of view this controller is basically a summation of the two PID-controllers plus a small constant. saturates. it can be avoided by selecting smaller values for the P and D parameters of the controllers.

With other types of control. The decoupling controller works by summarizing the PID-controllers for slipping and engine speeds. for instance optimal control. The model was implemented in Matlab Sirnulink and simulations were carried out.5 seconds. e e 4. e e On basis of a reduced model a decoupling controller was derived. Although the decoupling controller performs well. without significant oscillations in the torque at the wheels. If an inaccurate model is used. This controller was tested by simulation and clutch engagement was achieved within 1. the optimal trajectories for these speeds could possibly be calculated.2 e Recommendations The references chosen for the engine and slip speed are arbitrary. decoupling will fail. The robustness of this type of controller is limited. it has some disadvantages: e .ns and 4 The clutch and drive line were modelled and written into three different descriptions.

.e The tuning of the PID controllers for this system seems very sensitive. un-modelled disturbances will affect performance.

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wc = u ( 4 ) .7. Tkl = u ( 9 ) .wc.function [output]=switchfunc(u) %switchfunc(sh. % stifness & damping . % inertias Jl=O.we.2.Tc) sh = u ( l ) . Tc = ~(13). Fn = u(2) . w2 = u ( 5 ) .Tkl. J2=0.Te. Jc=0. Tk2 = ~(10). w3 = u ( 6 ) . wv = u ( 7 ) . Rw=.w2. we = u ( 3 ) .Tllstick. stick = ~(12).156. Jv=mv*Rw*Rw. J3=l.5.Tk2.w3. mv=1200.Fn.31. Te = u ( 8 ) . T1 = ~(11).

if abs (we . end Tkld = kl* (wc-w2).1/2.1/0. ig = l/3. 1/Jc*(Tc . I/J3*(Tk2 .73.Tc).i*Tk2). == 1 = Fn*cstick*sign(Tc). Ra = 1. i = ig*is(sh) .1/1. % clutch parameters N =I. cslip = mu*Ra*N.Tb) . 1/J2*(Tk1 .% gear ratios is = [1/3.wc ) . cstick = 2*mu*Ra*N. Tk2d = k2*(i*w2-w3) . = if stick Tcfn else Tcfn end Fn*cslip*sign( we .41.wc) <= eps & abs(Tcfn) >= abs ((Jl*Tkl+Jc*Te) / ( J1+Jc)) Tc = (Jl*Tkl+Jc*Te)/(Jl+Jc). mu =I.14.891. wedot wcdot w2dot w3dot = = = = l/Jl*(Te -be*we . stick = 0.1/1.94. Tb=b*(w3-wv) . eps = Le-2.12. stick = 1.Tkl) . else Tc = Tcfn. .

i].stick.wvdot.Tc.w3dot. . output [wedot.~k2d.Tkld.wcdot.w2dot.wvdot = = l/Jv*(Tb - Tl).

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