THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING
ENGINEERING





MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF
ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED DIESEL
INJECTORS


by

Xuan-Thien Tran


A thesis submitted in fulfilment of
the requirement for the degree of
Master of Engineering


Supervisor : Dr. Michal Tordon

Co-supervisor : Prof. Brian Milton






August 2003, Sydney, Australia

ABSTRACT


The study presents a one-dimensional, transient and compressible flow models of a
commercial Common Rail Injector (CRI) and a prototype of a single-fuel
Hydraulically actuated Electrically controlled Unit Injector (HEUI) developed at the
University of New South Wales (UNSW) in conjunction with local industry. The
unique feature of the UNSW HEUI is the fact that it uses diesel fuel as the driver for
pressure amplification within the unit injector. The work undertaken is part of a
wider study aimed at optimization of the design of diesel injectors for dual-fuel
systems to reduce green house gas emissions. The contribution of this thesis is the
development of the model of the UNSW HEUI injector, which can be used to
investigate possible modifications of the injector for its use in dual-fuel injection
systems.

The developed models include electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems
present in the injectors. They are based on Kirchhoff’s laws, on the mass and
momentum conservation equations and on the equilibrium of forces. The models
were implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, which
provides a high degree of flexibility and allows simulation of both linear and
nonlinear elements.

The models were used to perform sensitivity analysis of both injectors. The
sensitivity analysis has revealed that the temperature of the solenoid coil is one of the
critical parameters affecting the timing and the quantity of the fuel injection of both
i

injectors. Additional critical parameters were found to be the dimensions of the
piston of the CRI, the stiffness of the needle spring of the HEUI and the dimensions
of the intensifier of the HEUI. The models also revealed that in the case of pilot
injections the speed of the solenoid is the major limiting factor of the performance.

The developed models provide better understanding of the issues and limitations of
the injectors. They give detailed insight into their working principles. The
investigations of the models permit making quantitative analysis of the timing of the
HEUI solenoid and to evaluate the proposed change of the direction of the pressure
acting on the HEUI solenoid plunger.
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


I would like to express my grateful thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Michal Tordon, and
my co-supervisor, Prof. Brian Milton, for their consistent guidance, permanent
encouragement and great support through my study in the University of New South
Wales.

I would like to thank my fellow students, Tim White, Canh-Quang Nguyen,
Slobodan Ilic, Daniel Hanafi, Seong-Pal Kang for sharing ideas, knowledge and
funny minutes.

A number of laboratory staff who helped me complete a series of experiments must
be thanked: Tim Anderson and John Dodd of Internal Combustion Engine
laboratory, George Otvos of Electronics laboratory, Alfred Hu of Mechatronic
Systems laboratory and other members of Mechanical School workshops.

Finally I wish to thank my family and friends for their continuous support,
understanding and encouragement.
iii
CONTENTS



Abstract .................................................................................................................. i
Acknowledgement.................................................................................................. iii
Contents ................................................................................................................. iv
List of figures.......................................................................................................... vii
List of tables............................................................................................................ ix
List of charts............................................................................................................ x
Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... xi
Acronyms ................................................................................................................xiii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1
Aim of the study.............................................................................................. 4

CHAPTER 2: CRI AND HEUI DESCRIPTION…................................................ 5
CRI ................................................................................................................. 5
HEUI .............................................................................................................. 8

CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................... 16

CHAPTER 4: SYSTEM IDENTIFICATIONS ..................................................... 26
Fuel characteristics......................................................................................... 26
Spring stiffness coefficient's measurement ................................................... 29
Measurement of small size holes .................................................................. 30
iv
Friction coefficient ....................................................................................... 30
System of units .............................................................................................. 31

CHAPTER 5: MODELLING COMMON RAIL INJECTOR ............................... 32
The solenoid .................................................................................................. 33
The hydraulic part ......................................................................................... 46
Model implementation in Simulink .............................................................. 52

CHAPTER 6: MODELLING UNSW HEUI INJECTOR ......................................57
The solenoid .................................................................................................. 57
The hydraulic components............................................................................. 58
Hydraulic differential valve, HDV ...................................................... 60
Intensifier.............................................................................................. 63
Injection needle..................................................................................... 65
Model implementation in Simulink .............................................................. 68

CHAPTER 7: EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND VALIDATION .........................70
CRI ................................................................................................................70
HEUI .............................................................................................................77

CHAPTER 8: SIMULATION ...............................................................................87
CRI ................................................................................................................87
Investigation of multipulse regime...................................................... 87
Sensitivity analysis of the model ........................................................ 93
HEUI .............................................................................................................96
v
Investigation of the forces of the solenoid ........................................ 96
Sensitivity analysis of the model ........................................................ 99


CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................... 102
Model conversion to C program .................................................................. 104

REFERENCES ...........................................................................................….......105

APPENDIX A: The 2003 IEEE /ASME conference paper ...........................….... A

APPENDIX B: CRI model program ...............................................................…... B

APPENDIX C: HEUI model program ........................................................…....... C
vi
LIST OF FIGURES




Figure 1. Smoke comparison Common Rail and Conventional Fuel Injection
Equipment............................................................................................... 7
Figure 2. Diagram of CRI .................................................................................... 8
Figure 3. Caterpillar HEUI .................................................................................10
Figure 4. Diagram of the UNSW HEUI ..............................................................13
Figure 5. Spring force coefficient test rig ........................................................... 29
Figure 6. Schema of solenoid force test .............................................................. 37
Figure 7. Force coefficient test rig ...................................................................... 39
Figure 8. Wartsila solenoid ................................................................................. 42
Figure 9. Nippondenso solenoid ......................................................................... 43
Figure 10. Bosch solenoid design ....................................................................... 43
Figure 11. CRI hydraulic part ............................................................................. 47
Figure 12. VCO nozzle ...............................................................................….... 51
Figure 13. Simulation scheme based on derivative blocks ................................. 53
Figure 14. Lord Kelvin’s simulation scheme ..................................................... 54
Figure 15. Block-diagram of CRI model ............................................................ 55
Figure 16. Schema of the HEUI solenoid ........................................................... 57
Figure 17. Simplified schema of the UNSW HEUI .…...................................... 59
Figure 18. Poppet valve of the HEUI ..............…............................................... 62
Figure 19. Block-diagram of the HEUI model ................................................... 68
Figure 20. CRI test rig schema ........................................................................... 71
Figure 21. CRI test rig in the UNSW ................................................................. 73
vii
Figure 22. The detector location .................................................................….......73
Figure 23. The test of detector delay .......................................................................74
Figure 24. Comparison of timing for the 2ms control pulse ...................................75
Figure 25. Comparison of timing for the 4ms control pulse ...................................75
Figure 26. Simplified diagram of test engine setup for the HEUI ......................... 79
Figure 27. HEUI test engine .................................................................................. 80
Figure 28. Cylinder N
o
1 .........................................................……...................... 80
Figure 29. Superimposed injection rate traces of the UNSW HEUI experimental
responses with fixed fuel delivery and varied actuating pressure
(adopted from [31]) ............................................................................... 81
Figure 30. The experimental cylinder pressure waveforms …….............................82
Figure 31. The simulated responses with the line pressure of 10 MPa ....................83
Figure 32. The simulated responses with the line pressure of 15 MPa ...................84
Figure 33. The simulated responses with the line pressure of 20 MPa ...................84
Figure 34. CRI response (5ms control signal)....................…............................…. 88
Figure 35. Pilot injection (control time interval of 1 ms) ....................................... 89
Figure 36. Pilot injection (control time interval of 0.9 ms) .................................... 90
Figure 37. Pilot injection (control time interval of 0.8 ms) .................................... 91
Figure 38. Pilot injection (control time interval of 0.7 ms) .................................... 92
Figure 39. Direction of the force of the pressure is against the solenoid
opening ................................................................................................. 97
Figure 40. Direction of the force of the pressure is "helping" the solenoid
opening ................................................................................................. 98

viii
LIST OF TABLES



Table 1. Distillate characteristics ...........................................................................27

Table 2. Main units …............................................................................................31
Table 3. Comparison of the injection quantities ....................................................76
Table 4. Comparison of fuel delivery ....................................................................85
Table 5. Comparison of duration of injection ........................................................85
Table 6. Sensitivity analysis of the CRI model ......................................................94
Table 7. Sensitivity analysis of the UNSW HEUI model .....................................100

ix
LIST OF CHARTS



Chart 1. Flow coefficient ................................................................................. 28
Chart 2. Force vs displacement of the plunger (for fixed currents).................. 40
Chart 3. Force vs current (for fixed displacements of the plunger).................. 40

x

NOMENCLATURE
1





A - effective cross sectional area of the solenoid;
d - diameter
e - control voltage of the solenoid;
b
e - back emf voltage;
F - force;
f - function (no suffix);
f - coefficient of friction (with various suffixes);
g - the gravitational acceleration;
i - current through the coil;
I
K - flow coefficient from inlet line to working chamber;
O
K - flow coefficient from HDV to return line;
Z
K - flow coefficient of the injection flow;
b
K - back e.m.f. coefficient of the solenoid;
f
K - force constant of the solenoid;
k - stiffness of the springs (with various suffixes);
L - inductance of solenoid coil;
l - length;
m - mass of the components (with various suffixes);
N - number of turns of the solenoid coil;
L
P - pressure (with various suffixes);
U
q - injection flow rate;
U
Q - injection amount of one injection;
R - solenoid coil resistance;
S - cross-sectional area (with various suffixes);
4
S - effective area of the needle;
5
S - effective area of the nozzles;
I
S - equivalent area of the inlet orifice to working chamber;
O
S - equivalent area of the outlet orifice from working chamber;
T - temperature;
t - time;
u , - displacement and maximum displacement of the needle;
max
U
0
u - preload of the needle spring;
V - volume (with various suffixes);
x , - displacement and maximum displacement of the solenoid plunger;
max
X

1
Except in Chapter 3 and where otherwise specified.
xi
0
x - preload of the solenoid spring;
y - displacement of the intensifier;
0
y - preload of the intensifier spring;
z , - displacement and maximum displacement of the HDV;
max
Z
0
z - preload of the HDV spring;
α - angle;
β - bulk modulus of the diesel fuel;
δ - pressure coefficient of bulk modulus
0
µ - permeability of free space;
r
µ - relative permeability;
Φ - variable
Ψ - variable
Ω - variable


xii
ACRONYMS




bmep – brake mean effective pressure
CRI – Common Rail Injector
DF – Dual Fuel
ECU – Electronic Control Unit
ECM – Electronic Control Module
EUI – Electronic Unit Injector
HEUI – Hydraulically actuated Electrically controlled Unit Injector
HDV – Hydraulic Differential Valve
I/O – Input/Output
LCD – Liquidized Crystal Display
MOS – Metal Oxide Semiconductor
NG – Natural Gas
PC – Personal Computer
PDE – Pumpe-Düse-Einheit (unit injector)
PLD – Pumpe-Leitung-Düse (unit pump)
PID – Proportional-Integral-Derivative
PWM – Pulse Width Modulation
VCO – Valve Covered Orifice
VGA – Video Graphics Array
VMA – Versa Module Eurocard


xiii
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays throughout the world, the calls for a cleaner environment can be heard
everywhere. The legislators in most countries continuously issue tougher and tougher
requirements related to the car industry in particular. Similar procedures are now
being implemented for trucks and buses. This forces automotive producers to apply
new technologies for the purpose of improving efficiency and reducing harmful
exhaust gases. As an important component of the engine industry, diesel engine
producers are also looking towards solving this problem. Although diesel engines are
considered more efficient than spark ignition engines due to their higher brake mean
effective pressure (bmep), there are many tasks for the producers to undertake in
order to meet these tough legislations.

Presently, the main direction towards solution of the problems is the creation of a
new generation of highly effective fuel injectors based on the latest technologies that
incorporate electronic control. There are two recent examples of these new
generation injectors: the Common Rail Injector (CRI) and the Hydraulically actuated
Electrically controlled Unit Injector (HEUI). These injectors are built on a base that
is a combination of a traditional mechanical injector and an electronic control unit
(ECU). The ECU calculates the optimal quantities for combustion parameters, such
as air volume, amount of fuel, ignition timing, injection pressure and exhaust gas
recirculation. It manages the combustion so that it fulfills the driver’s intention in
1

accordance with road and vehicle conditions. The ECU allows these high-
technology injectors to inject specified amount of fuel at the required instant of time,
independent of the engine speed and crankshaft position. These exclusive features
make CRI and HEUI the most effective diesel injectors so far.

In addition, another approach for the solution of the problems is the application of
alternative fuels for vehicles. Natural gas (NG) is targeted thanks to its clean burning
and plentiful supply. One alternative solution to achieve a highly environmentally
friendly diesel engine is to convert existing truck/bus diesel engines to dual-fuel (DF)
systems using diesel and NG. Full NG operation requires a change to a spark system
with high conversion costs and loss of route flexibility due to the current (and for the
foreseeable future) inadequate NG fuelling infrastructure. Partial NG operation
requires dual-fuelling (DF) where the gas fuel is ignited by a pilot diesel spray. A
well controlled system would use a low diesel percentage where possible but would
have the ability to revert to 100% diesel fuel when NG is not available. To date, the
gas has been generally introduced in the inlet manifold. While this overcomes the
cost and route problems, some combustion problems remain. These can be overcame
by direct injection of NG with the diesel into the engine cylinder. A combined NG,
diesel injector with good control features is therefore required. Both NG and diesel
would have to have high injection pressure and short, precise injection times.

In-cylinder dual-fuel systems require fast acting injectors with precise control of the
combined DF injectors. Processes in modern high-pressure electronically controlled
diesel injectors are complex and involve interactions of electrical, mechanical and
hydraulic systems. Development of the combined dual-fuel injector is a complex
2

processes requiring detailed understanding of both the diesel and gas components of
the dual fuel injector.

At the University of New South Wales (UNSW), a compact, flexible HEUI diesel
injector has been undergoing development, in conjunction with local industry. The
unique feature of the UNSW HEUI is the fact that it uses diesel fuel as the driver for
pressure amplification within the unit injector. The HEUI under development has
been tested in an engine to an injection pressure of 230 MPa. It can maintain a high
injection pressure for fuel deliveries down to about 1% of the maximum. The
characteristics of this injector make it a good candidate for the diesel components of
an in-cylinder DF (diesel-gas) system. Work is in progress to develop such a DF
(diesel-gas) injector based on the UNSW HEUI [39].

A parallel research in the UNSW is to examine the use of a CRI as the diesel
component for another DF (diesel-gas) injector. CRI is also targeted because of its
current widespread use and its relatively simple construction compared to the HEUI,
as well as its ability to work in the multi-pulse regime. The multi-pulse regime is one
of the promising methods to reduce NOx, smoke and noise in diesel engines. For the
best economical results, further work is required to modify a CRI and HEUI for their
use in the dual-fuel system. It is important to stress that planned DF injectors should
be able to be fitted into existing diesel engines without any significant engine
modification.


3
AIMS OF THE STUDY

As a part of efforts to explore fuel injection-combustion systems and to modify
diesel injectors’ characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a number of studies
have been undertaken to develop detailed computer models of the CRI systems. The
existing models of CRI in most cases present only the hydraulic part of the injector.
They do not target the detailed modelling of the injector internal components. Due to
relatively short existence of HEUI, to our knowledge, no computer models for them
have been published.

The aim of the present study is to build a one-dimensional, transient and
compressible flow model of a conventional CRI and the first computer model of the
UNSW HEUI. The developed models should include electrical, mechanical and
hydraulic subsystems present in the injectors. They should be based on Kirchhoff’s
laws, on the mass and momentum conservation equations and on the equilibrium of
forces. The models should be implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical
software environment, which provides a high degree of flexibility and allows
simulation of both linear and nonlinear elements. They should provide a better
understanding of the issues and limitations of the injectors. The models will provide
the tools to evaluate the suitability of the CRI and the UNSW HEUI for the DF
system. They will also help to study any possible characteristic and detail
modifications required before practical implementations of a DF injector.

4

CHAPTER TWO

CRI AND HEUI DESCRIPTION

CRI

It is known that although diesel engines are famous for their efficiency, their exhaust
particulates (smoke) and NOx emission are their significant drawbacks. One way to
make diesel burning better is to improve the atomization of the diesel fuel within the
cylinder. One way of achieving this target is to provide higher fuel injection
pressures than those commonly used in conventional diesel engines.

The first development in that direction was the creation of the PDE injector (Pumpe-
Düse-Einheit – unit injector). The PDE combines pump and injector into one housing
and the generation of pressure is mechanical by means of a cam operating the pump
plunger. There are no high pressure fuel lines to inhibit the use of high pressure and
these systems are capable of injecting at up to 160 MPa. The other variation of the
PDE is the PLD system (Pumpe-Leitung-Düse -unit pump), where the pump and the
injector are separated. In this system, the fuel line is very short and injection pressure
is possible up to 150 MPa. But these injectors, in conjunction with conventional
injectors, are fully mechanical so the injection amount and duration are dependent on
the engine speed and crank angle. Further development along these lines was the
electronic unit injector (EUI) that use a solenoid valve on a spill line to control the
5

length of the injection process. However, these parameters still remained controlled
mechanically as before.

The turning point was the application of the Common Rail Injector, which was
initially developed by Bosch and Nippondenso. Electronic controls, which allow
greater flexibility in the setting of individual parameters, and reliable sensors, which
give engine control systems increased information, have been combined with
improvements in materials, manufacturing techniques and computing power to
produce a fully flexible fuel injection system whose settings change throughout the
steady state and transient operating regimes. With common rail technology, the
quantity, timing, and pressure of the injection are controllable separately. The high
fuel pressure is supplied by a separate high pressure pump while an Electronic
Control Unit (ECU) calculates and sends a signal to the Common Rail Injector,
which opens and shuts a control solenoid to obtain the required amount of fuel to be
injected at the desired instant of time. By application of the ECU, the fuel injection is
no longer dependent on the position of crankshaft. This feature allows fuel to be
injected as required, which means that a more precise amount of injected fuel can be
metered giving higher diesel efficiency. On the other hand, the fuel pressure is
controlled by the pump from the pressure transducer signal so that it remains stable
at a high pressure of approximately 160 MPa. Higher fuel pressure results in better
fuel atomization, which leads to higher efficiency and less emissions. Lastly, an
electronically controlled device permits a combination of many more related engine
signals than just crankshaft angle and engine speed in the mechanically controlled
counterpart, which leads to much more precise injection. Figure 1 shows how
significantly the CRI reduces exhaust smoke, especially in low load regimes.
6


Figure 1. Smoke comparison Common Rail and Conventional Fuel Injection Equipment
(http://www.bba-reman.com/crdp.htm)

Figure 2 shows the Bosch CRI. The Bosch CRI , which is under investigation in the
University of New South Wales, works as follows: The injector is connected directly
to the high pressure fuel accumulator (rail) and the high pressure exists permanently
at the needle seat chamber, which allows the injection timing to be controlled
accurately. In order to control the opening and closing time of the needle, a small
chamber (thereafter the chamber is called working chamber) with pressurized fuel is
present on the top of the needle. The chamber is connected to the rail through a small
orifice, which ensures that same pressure exists between the nozzle and the working
chamber when the needle is closed. A solenoid balanced valve, which receives an
electrical signal at an accurately specified time, is located on the top. When the
solenoid valve is open, it creates a pressure drop in the working chamber so this will
cause a negative force which overcomes the force of the needle spring and initiates
7

the injection. As soon as the solenoid valve closes, the pressure in the working
chamber rises again and forces the needle seat back.



Figure 2: Diagram of CRI [19]

8


HEUI

The HEUI Fuel System represents one of the most significant innovations in diesel
engine technology in the last decades of the previous century. An HEUI system
overcomes many of the limitations of conventional diesel injectors, and achieves the
highest standards for fuel injection efficiency, reliability and exhaust gas control.
HEUI injectors use a liquid in a common rail accumulator at moderate pressure and
amplify this within the injector to give a high injection pressure. One of the biggest
diesel engine producers, Caterpillar, has manufactured HEUI injectors since the mid-
1990s. A feature of the Caterpillar HEUI is that pressure intensification in these
injectors is achieved by using the engine's lubricating oil. That is, it is a two-fluid
injection system. The Caterpillar HEUI, shown in Figure 3, consists of four basic
components [17]:

* HEUI injector, which uses hydraulic energy from pressurized engine lube oil for
injection. The pressure of the incoming oil (5.6MPa to 23 MPa) controls the rate of
injection, while the amount of injected fuel is determined by the Electronic Control
Module.

* Electronic Control Module (ECM). This sophisticated on board-computer precisely
manages fuel injection and other engine systems. The HEUI injector solenoid is
energized by an electronic signal generated in the ECM. Using input from multiple
sensors, the ECM’s dual microprocessors use proprietary software and customer-
9

supplied performance parameters to produce maximum engine performance under
any conditions.

* High Pressure Pump. The variable displacement axial pump features a built-in
reservoir to immediately supply oil at cold start.

* Injector Actuation Pressure Control Valve. This electronically operated valve
controls the oil pump output and injection pressure.


Figure 3. Caterpillar HEUI.[17]
10

Recently, a group of researchers in the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in
conjunction with local industry is developing new kind of HEUI called UNSW
HEUI. The significant difference of the UNSW HEUI compared to Caterpillar
counterpart is that the UNSW HEUI uses a single-fluid system. This term means that
the UNSW HEUI employs diesel fuel for the driving side of the pressure
intensification in the injector, avoiding the use of the engine's lubricating oil. The
UNSW HEUI is a state-of-the-art injector, having three main significant advantages
over the Caterpillar HEUI:

1. The Caterpillar HEUI system injects at 140 to 160 MPa pressure. The UNSW
HEUI injects at pressures up to 230 MPa.

2. The UNSW HEUI is much smaller and less complicated because the use of the
single-fluid system.

3. The UNSW HEUI can be fitted to standard engines without any changes because
of its smaller diameter while the Caterpillar requires specially designed engines. The
Caterpillar HEUI requires a supply of oil (as a driver) as well as fuel to be delivered
to the engine. This makes it physically larger than conventional mechanical injector
and sometimes difficult to fit to new engines that are not purposely designed to
receive it. The two-fluid systems are larger than single-fluid ones and therefore
present more difficulties in this respect.

11

The description of the UNSW HEUI presented here is compiled from [31]. HEUI
injectors use hydraulic rather than mechanical energy to raise the pressure of the fuel
to a level suitable for direct injection. This is achieved with a differential piston
inside the unit injector. The injection timing, duration and thus quantity is controlled
by a solenoid. The HEUI injectors are fed by a common rail. However, since the
injector contains its own pressure-amplifier, the rail pressure is significantly lower
than the injection pressure. The controlling solenoid works against this lower
pressure.

A particular benefit of the UNSW HEUI is that it also exhibits a very high turndown
ratio to less than 2% of the maximum delivery [42] whilst maintaining high injection
pressure.

12


Figure 4: Diagram of the UNSW HEUI [38]

The design of the UNSW HEUI also allows high injection pressures and better
control of the fuel flow than the Caterpillar since the solenoid control valve is
subjected to a much lower fluid pressure. Injection pressures of up to 230MPa have
13

been achieved whilst the solenoid may have to cope with only a little over 20MPa
from the accumulator. Figure 4 shows how this HEUI uses diesel fuel as the driver
for the amplification instead of an alternative oil supply.

The UNSW HEUI works as follows: In the initial position, the solenoid valve is not
energized and the connection via the throttling hole from the control chamber to the
return line is closed. The hydraulic differential valve (HDV) is closed and the line
pressure in the control chamber forces the intensifier into its bottom position. The
pressure in the needle chamber combined with the force of the spring keeps the non-
return valve closed. This prevents leakage into the combustion chamber of the
engine, which could otherwise occur due to worn nozzles.

When the solenoid is energized, it opens the port and allows the fuel to flow from the
working chamber to the return line. The flow of the fuel is restricted by the poppet
valve. When the pressure in the working chamber has decreased to a specific level,
the intensifier will start to move upwards, driven by the pressure difference between
top and bottom of the intensifier. This intensifier movement causes pressure to
decrease in the needle chamber, thus initiating the opening of the non-return valve.
This is the fuel-metering phase of the operation, called preliminary metering.

The fuel-metering phase is terminated by the de-energizing (closure) of the solenoid.
After this closure the pressure difference between the inlet line and working chamber
forces the HDV to move downwards. This allows the fuel to enter the control
chamber. The pressure in the control chamber increases and causes the intensifier to
move down, thereby compressing the fuel in the needle chamber. The compressed
14

fuel overcomes the force of the needle spring, opens the nozzle and initiates the
injection of the fuel into the combustion chamber.

This is the design of the UNSW HEUI, which is to be investigated and modeled. As
mentioned earlier, the UNSW HEUI is in the prototype stage so it has a number of
slightly different-from-each-other models. The HEUI described above is the basic
design of the UNSW HEUI so it is the one used for modeling. Additional sub-models
for added features in the HEUI design could be easily modified from the basic
model.
15


CHAPTER THREE

LITERATURE REVIEW
2


In a study of CRI system, Woermann et al. [40] describe a high-resolution real-time
model of pump, rail, control valve and injector, which results in an approximation of
the dynamic characteristics of pressure and mass flow of the fuel. The model is
combined with a steady-state model of a diesel engine. Input variables are the engine
crank angle φ, the signal for the pressure control valve ι
c
and the control signal ι
I
for
the injector. It calculates the rail pressure p
R
, the amount of injected fuel m
p
, m
I
and
the start of injection φ
p
, φ
I
for pre- and main injection. These values feed a steady
state model triggered every ignition stroke to calculate the torque M
E
of a diesel
engine with engine speed ω.

The model was built based on a number of approximations and assumptions. For
example, the injector control signal is first processed by a delay line to approximate
the time delay T
d
caused by hydraulic effects in the injector. The mass flow m
F

through the injector is assumed to be proportional to the relative opening s
I
of the
needle and the rail pressure p
R
. The opening of the control solenoid valve s
C
is
assumed to be proportional to the current i
C
of the solenoid, and the valve opening is
assumed to be at maximum for all i
C
higher than a certain value of current (i
c,max
).
These approximations and assumptions may be too restrictive. This approach does

2
The symbols in this chapter may be different from those of the Nomenclature as we keep the
symbology of the referred articles.
16

not allow observing and quantitatively calculating the influence of a specific
injector component on a specific injector delay.

The diesel engine simulator used in this study consists of a multiprocessor VME-bus
system as the real time unit. System is very powerful and enables real time
simulation of their relatively simple model.

The simulated and experimental results show good agreements of dynamic
characteristics so for the calibration purpose it was easy to optimize parameters of
the control algorithm implemented in the ECU. It is useful to test and verify the
implementations under real-time conditions.

The model has proved itself to be a useful tool for parameter optimization for the
ECU control algorithm, but a number of assumptions and assumed constant delays
make the model not suitable for detailed optimization of the injection system. The
model building does not allow prediction of system characteristic changes caused by
each injector detail so it cannot be useful for the purpose of injector’s detailed
geometric optimization.


Arcoumanis et al. [3] present a one-dimensional, transient and compressible flow
model that was used in order to simulate the flow and pressure distribution in
advanced high-pressure fuel injection systems. These include electronic distributor-
type pumps with either axial or radial plungers and a common-rail system. Different
types of injector nozzles have been used to validate the model. The model is targeted
17

to reveal the important parameters of the injector which are difficult to obtain by
experiments, such as the actual injection pressure at the nozzle tip, the effective hole
area at the hole exit due to the presence of hole cavitation, the fuel injection
temperature and the hole-to-hole variability of inclined nozzles. In the model, the
flow directions are assumed to coincide with the pressure variation along the fuel
injection system, this being justified on the basis that in most engine systems the
length of the pipe is much longer than their diameter. The flow elements used in this
study consist of a cam plate profile, pressure profile, pipes, valve, volume, chamber,
slots and nozzle tip. In addition to the above elements, various flow phenomena have
been considered to enhance the model predictions. The flow phenomena considered
include cavitation, variable discharge coefficients, pressure losses, pipe wall
flexibility and leakage. Fuel viscosity, compressibility, density and other fuel
properties such as surface tension, latent heat of vaporization, specific heat are also
simulated and assumed to be functions of temperature, local pressure and vapor
volume.

The model simulation and validation show a good match between simulated and
experimental results. But the model does not include a solenoid valve into its
simulation so a number of important delays and responses related to the solenoid are
not examined.


Yudanov [42] describes the key design factors of an HEUI which determine its
injection rate, pressure, energy efficiency and accuracy of fuel delivery, and the
correlations between these design factors and performance parameters. The study
18

describes two types of HEUI. The first type has a built-in small accumulator and the
second uses a common external accumulator. The second type obtains significant
advantages because it allows independent control of fuel delivery and injection
pressure as well as the ability of obtaining a desired shape of an injection pressure
curve. This second type is the base for the development of the UNSW HEUI used in
our study.

As stated in [42], the significant feature of the HEUI is the application of an internal
hydraulically driven plunger, which makes the HEUI significantly different from
conventional mechanically driven fuel injection systems or from the CRI. An
important characteristic is that the injection pressure is practically independent of the
intensifier’s diameters d and D if the value
2






=
d
D
M is kept unchanged. This
means that the HEUI pressure amplification can be achieved using a much smaller
diameter for the plunger than in the case of mechanically driven injection systems.
This important feature allows the injector size minimization and an improvement of
the stability of the fuel delivery in consecutive injections.

Another unique feature of the HEUI is that the correlation between the injection
pressure and flow area (µƒ
nz
) of the nozzle can be very small while, in the
mechanically driven injector, the injection pressure is roughly inversely proportional
to the flow area. It is one more advantage of the HEUI because changes in the flow
area due to wear or coking of the nozzle’s orifices will not significantly affect
injection atomization.

19

The paper also presents two methods of fuel metering in the HEUI. The preliminary
metering method is chosen because it avoids the drawbacks of the direct metering
method. For all electrically controlled injectors, the correlation between the duration
of the electric control pulse applied to the solenoid and the actual fuel delivery is an
important factor. For the injector with the direct metering method, this correlation
changes according to changes in the total flow area (µƒ
nz
) of the nozzle’s orifices.
The HEUI with preliminary metering is free from this drawback so the control is
more precise and independent of the condition of the nozzle.

The paper also presents the working principle of the HEUI and supplies important
equations for the calculations of the injector characteristics, but it does not present a
mathematical model of the HEUI. To understand the complex processes of the
HEUI, a mathematical model needs to be developed.


Milton et al. [31] describe the research for development of a tuneable diesel engine
injection system. The research was undertaken in the University of New South
Wales. The project used a medium pressure Accumulator Fuel System because a
high pressure Accumulator Fuel System has a number of disadvantages. The goals
for development of a new HEUI system are:

- Injection pressure should be able to reach at least 200 MPa;
- The HEUI should be able to fit on conventional fuel systems without any design
changes;
20

- The whole accumulator fuel system should be installable on a conventional diesel
engine with no alterations to the engine design;
- An electronic device for injection shape control should be feasible.

The HEUI used in this study was manufactured in the University of New South
Wales in conjunction with local industry. The maximum possible injection pressure
of this HEUI was quantitatively determined based on other injector characteristics:

2
max
3
) / ( 1
in nz
ac
F
f f E M
M P
P
µ µ +
=

where is maximum possible injection pressure,
F
P M is geometrical intensification
factor of the injector, i.e. the ratio of the areas of the intensifier's ends,
nz
f µ is the
effective flow area of the nozzle,
max in
f µ is the maximum effective flow area of the
inlet valve, E is a coefficient depending mainly on the friction losses within the
HEUI, and is the hydraulic accumulator pressure.
ac
P

The results achieved in this study show significant advantages of the UNSW HEUI
system compared to the standard Bosch fuel system in the same engine under
identical working conditions. For example:

- The smoke emission is reduced by more than 53.3%
- The NOx emission is reduced by more than 3.2%.

21

The research also suggests a number of methods of engine parameter optimisation.
The methods of optimisation of the injection timing and injection pressure are
presented using the computer-based controller. There are also suggestions related to
improvement of the injector and the controller so that the system can be finally
commercialized.

The research is also an experimental approach to improve the HEUI performance. It
is focused on building a precise, high-level Test Controller and performing an
analysis of the HEUI performance based on received measurements. It does not
present a theoretical base to obtain a dynamic model for the HEUI. Our study would
build mathematical and computer models for this HEUI.


Schechter [35] describes a new concept of a fast response multipole solenoid and
discusses factors leading to faster solenoids. The factors, which affect the response of
a solenoid to an electrical signal, are the time constant of the solenoid coil and the
ratio of the magnetic traction force to the moving mass. The time constant
determines the time delay involved in building up the magnetic force to the required
magnitude, while the force to mass ratio represents the acceleration of the moving
mass.

Analysis of mathematical relationships between various parameters of a solenoid coil
indicated that the time constant T can be expressed by a simple equation as follows:

22
P
Fl
T
2
=

where is a single magnetic pole, l is the initial air gap, and is the power input.
Because the magnetic pole and initial air gap are usually fixed for a solenoid, the
time constant of a particular solenoid depends on the input power only. A fast
response solenoid is a high energy solenoid and must have a high power to force
ratio, at least during the activation period. The force to the moving mass ratio
declines with increase in the force and size of the coil.
F P

The author also presents a new concept of a fast response solenoid, which is a ring-
shaped multipole solenoid where a multitude of magnetic poles of alternating
polarity appear on the traction surface of the solenoid core. A list of equations, which
describe the main solenoid parameters, such as current, voltage, force, acceleration,
velocity, travel and travel time, is presented. Schechter made the conclusion that
multipole solenoids having very large forces can be designed with the fast responses
usually associated with a small solenoid coil.

Although the study shows a good theoretical base for solenoid calculations, it
requires an enormous experimental facility to determine a number of the coefficients
and parameters. A separate study is required to build a solenoid model based on the
equations, which are presented by Schechter. In our approach we are trying to build a
simple model for the small size type of solenoids.


23

Cheung [7] presents a project which has the purpose of building control models for
solenoids to evaluate the feasibility of using them in force and position control. Two
models of solenoids are presented.

The first model is based on linear magnetic principles. The equations presented in the
model assume that saturation does not occur; hysteresis and eddie current effects are
also omitted. A software simulation package SIMNON is used to perform the
dynamic simulation, which simulates the dynamic response of the plunger when a
constant voltage source is applied to the solenoid. The simulated results illustrate a
significant drawback of the model showing large differences between simulated and
experimental results (The simulated plunger travel time is 18 ms vs. 32 ms actual
time).

The second model is non-linear and considers that the relative permeability and
inductance are functions; the flux linkage of the reluctance has non-linear relations
with current as well as with air gap distance. For the second model, induced flux is
measured to establish the magnetic characteristics of the solenoid. Also hysteresis
loops at different plunger positions and current levels are obtained from the
measured data. The simulated results of the overall system show a better match with
actual solenoid responses. Position, velocity and current curves are approximately
the same shape as the measured dynamic profiles. However, the predicted travel time
of 69 ms is much shorter then the measured travel time of 101 ms.

The inaccuracy occurs because the equations do not reflect the reality in some
sensitive instances, such as when the solenoid begins moving or stopping. The
24

models also do not include hysteresis and eddie current into the calculation.
Moreover, the effect of temperature is not considered in the models, and it may cause
changes in the solenoid electrical characteristics. The models are difficult to apply to
a miniature solenoid like the CRI or the HEUI solenoids, in which the very short
movement makes the above-mentioned magnetic characteristic measurements
practically impossible.
25
CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION


FUEL CHARACTERISTICS

The system uses distillate as fuel. For all calculations, the main characteristics of
distillate were taken from the Table 1.

In Table 1, the fuel density is shown at 15
o
C. It is well known that fluid density
heavily depends on fuel pressure. It also depends on fuel temperature but in a smaller
scale. Therefore, the fuel density will be calculated with a thermal expansion
coefficient of 480⋅10
-6
K
-1
(Source: from the Internet http://imartinez.etsin.upm.es/)
and pressure coefficient of 4⋅10
-7
kg/(m
3
.Pa) (Source: from the Internet
http://www.amesim.com). The density is assumed to be identical for every particular
element volume, in which it occurs.







26

CIMAC Requirements 1990 for Distillate Fuels for Diesel Engines
Characteristics Limit CIMAC
DX
CIMAC
DA
CIMAC
DB
CIMAC
DC
Related to ISO 8217 Specification

ISO-F
DMX
ISO-F
DMA
ISO-F
DMB
ISO-F
DMC
Residual Inclusion

None None Some
Trace
Allowed
Density at 15°C, kg/m³ max. - 890 900 920
Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C, cSt (1) max.
min.
5.5
1.4
6.0
1.5
11
2.5
14
Flash Point, °C min. 43 60 60 60
Pour Point °C Winter (5)
°C Summer
max.
max.
-
-
-6
0
0
6
0
6
Cloud Point, °C max. -16 - - -
Carbon Residue
Ramsbottom on 10% res, % m/m
Microcarbon % m/m

max
max

0.20

0.20


0.25


0.25
Ash, % (m/m) max. 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03
Sediment by Extraction, % (m/m) max. - - 0.02 -
Total Sediment, % (m/m) max - - - 0.05
Water, % (v/v) max. - - 0.30 0.30
Cetane Number (4) min. 45 40 35 35
Visual Inspection

Clear (3) Clear (3) May be
Black
May be
Black
Sulphur, % (m/m) max. 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0
Vanadium, mg/kg max - - - 100
Aluminium plus Silicon, mg/kg max. - - - 25
Table 1. Distillate characteristics.
(Source: http://www.plazamarinefuel.com/cimac1990distillatefuel.htm)


There are some difficulties in determining the Reynolds number for different flows
inside the injectors. Because the injection occurs over a very shot duration of time
and under high pressure, it is assumed that all flows are turbulent and therefore the
27

Reynolds number is bigger than 3000 for all of flows. The relationship
l
d
(where d
is the diameter of the orifice and l is the length of the orifice) applicable for all
orifices in injectors is less than 0.1 so the flow coefficient for flow calculations in the
models can be taken as equal to 0.6, according to Chart 1.



Chart 1. Flow coefficient [34]




28

SPRING STIFFNESS COEFFICIENT'S MEASUREMENT

All springs used in the two high-technology injectors are miniature but they are stiff
enough to bear high pressure forces in the injectors. This feature causes a need to
manufacture a special tool for the measurement of the spring stiffness coefficients.
Figure 5 shows this special tool under working conditions.


Figure 5. Spring force coefficient test rig.

It is a piston-cylinder system, with the clearance between piston (1) and cylinder (2)
being 0.05 mm. It is lubricated by oil and has a tray (3) to place a weight (4) in. The
spring is placed inside the cylinder and when a certain weight is put on the tray, it
29

moves downwards. The displacement of the tray is recorded by two micrometers (5)
and (6). The micrometers are first placed bottom up, and then top down. The mean
value of these measurements will eliminate the influence of the micrometer spring’s
force on the measurement system.


MEASUREMENT OF SMALL SIZE HOLES

For measuring the very tiny holes of these high-technology injectors, the Nikon
Shadowgraph model 6C is employed to measure holes with diameters less than 1
mm. The weakness of the shadowgraph is that, if the measured hole is not cylindrical
and access to the hole is available from just one end, the result is only the diameter of
the accessible end. This drawback may cause some errors in measurement and
therefore it may result in some lack of precision in the models.


FRICTION COEFFICIENT

Friction coefficient (the ratio of the force resisting motion to the applied load) is a
key design parameter in all machinery with moving parts. Frequently published data
for friction coefficients is difficult to find. Since friction is very dependent on the
contacting materials and the state of the interface (i.e. lubricated, dry, wet,
contaminated etc.), it is usually best to measure friction under conditions as close to
those of the operation as possible.

30

Because of time limitation of this study, the friction coefficient is taken as constant
for all contacts inside the injectors. Its value is assumed to be equal to 0.16 for well
lubricated surfaces of the steel parts (source: From the Internet
http://www.carbidedepot.com/formulas-frictioncoefficient.htm )


SYSTEM OF UNITS

The system of units used in this study is SI Sytem of Units. The units for the main
quantities are as follows:

Quantity Unit
1 Pressure pascal
2 Temperature degree of Kelvin
3 Weight kilogram
4 Length meter
5 Square square meter
6 Volume cubic meter
7 Velocity meter per second
8 Flowrate cubic meter per second
9 Voltage volt
10 Current ampere
11 Electric resistance ohm
Table 2. Main units
31
CHAPTER FIVE

MODELLING THE COMMON RAIL INJECTOR

As mentioned earlier, the development of a new injection system requires a high
level of understanding of the injectors in general and their parts in detail. One of the
possible methods of investigating the characteristics of injectors is an examination of
their computer models. Such modeling should be a fast and cheap way to determine
the potential for detailed modifications and to predict the results.

While several CRI injection systems are present in the market, the only commercial
HEUI is that of Caterpillar. The UNSW HEUI is in the prototype stage and huge
efforts are being made to perfect it. Moreover, the application of dual-fuel injection
systems and the multi-pulse injection regime require further modification and
improvement of both the CRI and HEUI types.

For the purpose of modification of the CRI and HEUI systems to fit them in the new
designs, the traditional “trial and error” method is not considered to be useful.
Because they are working under extremely high pressure, the mechanical parts of
these injectors have to be made with extra high precision. For example, the tolerance
of the HDV piston diameter of the UNSW HEUI is less than 10 µm. These tolerances
make the “trial and error” method especially time consuming and financially costly.

32

A computer model may overcome these drawbacks of the “trial and error” method
and can be used for investigation of the characteristics from further geometrical
modification of the injectors. This is also the aim of this study, which aims at
building a proper model of these high-technology injectors. The chosen software is
MATLAB SIMULINK for a number of reasons. Firstly, SIMULINK is strong in
modeling complex nonlinear systems. Any system, which can be defined by
continuous differential equations, could be modeled in SIMULINK. It also allows
adding non-linear features into the model, which gives a high level of flexibility to
the model. Secondly, in SIMULINK it is easy to build and analyze the model.
SIMULINK permits the placement of Scopes at any point in the model so that, not
only behavior of the whole system can be observed, but also that the response of any
part of the system can be analyzed. This feature permits an observation and effect
valuation of any change in system characteristics or the detailed dimensions on the
overall system behavior as well as on each individual component. Thirdly, models in
SIMULINK can be easily converted to C code. This is a convenient way to obtain C
code for further real-time control system testing. Finally, the availability of
MATLAB SIMULINK in the University environment makes the model easy to be
built and to be shared.


THE SOLENOID

The solenoid is important part of both the CRI and HEUI. The solenoid receives an
electrical signal from the ECU and opens port(s) in the CRI or HEUI to begin the
injection process. Because of the short duration of the injection time, especially in
33

high-speed engines, these solenoids must be extremely fast. In addition, the
dimensions of the solenoid must be reduced to a minimum to fit on top of the
injectors. It is therefore difficult to measure the solenoid force and magnetic
characteristics.

Cheung et al. [8] describe the dynamic behaviour of the solenoid based on a linear
magnetic circuit model. This model is relying on standard magnetic circuit principles
where the force and the inductance of the solenoid can be expressed as:
2
2 2
0
) , (
x
Ai N
i x F
µ
=
(5-1)

x
l
A N
x L
r
+
=
µ
µ
2
0
) (
(5-2)

where x is the plunger position (displacement), is the number of turns of the
solenoid coil,
N
A is the effective cross-sectional area, is the effective return
magnetic path,
l
0
µ and
r
µ are permeability of free space and relative permeability
respectively.

The voltage equation can be represented by:

Ri
dt
i x L d
e + =
) ). ( (
(5-3)

therefore the dynamic equation of a solenoid can be expressed as:

34
x k g m i x F
dt
x d
m . ) , ( .
1 1
2
2
1
− − =
(5-4)
where is the spring constant, is the mass of the plunger, and is the
gravitational acceleration constant.
f
k
1
m g

The problem of the above model is the fact that it does not include the phenomenon
of the back e.m.f. voltage generated in the electrical circuit of the solenoid due to the
movement of the plunger. This was also pointed out by Cheung et al. [8] when they
showed large discrepancies between the model and experimental results.

They have subsequently introduced the non-linear magnetic model which included
an extra term in the voltage equation (5-3). The term represented the back e.m.f.
voltage generated by the movement of the steel plunger. The voltage equation of the
solenoid was expressed in a new form:

b
e Ri
dt
i x L d
e + + =
) ). ( (

(5-5)

with the back e.m.f. voltage is:
b
e

dt
dx
K e
b b
=
(5-6)

It should be noted that the force generated by the solenoid is proportional to the
current via the force constant and can be expressed by the equation:
f
K
35

(5-7)
i x K i x F
f
). ( ) , ( =

Although functionally the force constant (parameter) and back e.m.f. constant
(parameter) of the solenoid are two separate parameters, they are closely
related and for the SI unit system they are numerically equal:
) (x K
f
) (x K
b

(5-8) ) ( ) ( x K x K
b f
=

This relationship is similar to that one of back e.m.f. constant and torque constant of
a DC motor which are also equal for the SI unit system as shown in [26].

In further development of models of the CRI and the UNSW HEUI we will be using
the generic solenoid model described by equations from (5-4) to (5-8).

There are principle difficulties in measurement of parameter of the model.
The use of equation (5-8) allows establishment of through measurement of
. For the measurement of we have made an experimental setup. The
working principle of this setup is shown in Figure 6.
) (x K
b
) (x K
b
) (x K
f
) (x K
f

The force generated by the solenoid coil is determined by two sets of experiments.



36


Figure 6. Schema of solenoid force test.

In the first set of experiments:

• The solenoid plunger is scaled with a weight. The solenoid is located
vertically, bottom down (see Figure 6).

37

• DC current is applied to the coil. An amperemeter is connected to measure
the current. A resistor is connected to adjust the current.

• A piece of paper, the thickness of which is precisely measured by a
micrometer, is put on top of the solenoid plunger.

• The solenoid plunger with the weight are hooked to the solenoid and kept
fixed in position under the force of the solenoid coil.

• The current is reduced gradually, with low speed, until the plunger with
weight falls down.

At this instant, when the plunger with weight falls down, the force caused by the
solenoid coil is assumed to be equal to the force of gravity of the plunger-weight
system. The value of current applied to the solenoid is recorded.

This step is repeated several times to obtain an average value. After individual
measurements the solenoid was demagnetized to avoid residual magnetism.

In the second set of experiments, the current remained constant while the weight was
gradually changed to find the force that correlates with plunger displacement. The
experiment was performed to check the results of the first set of experiments and to
establish the relationship between the force generated by the current through the coil
of the solenoid and the individual displacements of the plunger.

38

Figure 7 shows the test setup in the laboratory to measure these characteristics of
the solenoid. The solenoid (1) holds the weigh (2) under a current supplied by the
power supply (3). The multimeter (4) measures the current through the solenoid coil.



Figure 7. Force coefficient test rig.

A sample of the experimental results of the solenoid force measurement is presented
in Chart 2.

39

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Displacement of the plunger
(mm)
F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
I=1 A
I=2 A
I=3 A
I=4 A

Chart 2. Force vs displacement of the plunger(for fixed currents)




y = 0.3866x
2
- 0.9771x + 0.578
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 2 4 6
Current (A)
F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
X=0.5 mm
Poly. (X=0.5
mm)

Chart 3. Force vs current (for fixed displacements of the plunger)

40

For the purpose of modeling, it is useful to obtain analytical expression for the
dependence of the force of the solenoid on the displacement of the plunger. When a
polynomial of the fourth order is applied to the experimental data, the approximate
functions , where is the force of the solenoid and ) (x f F = F x is displacement of
the plunger, are established as shown in Chart 3. Based on experimental results we
have establish 5 functions ) (x f F = namely for measured current dependences for
current 1,2,3, 4 and 5 amperes.

The force is calculated by the experimental formulas as explained above,
these being determined for discrete values of current . Inside the interval - , the
force is assumed to be directly proportional to the increment of , i.e.
) , ( i x F
i
i
i
i
1 + i
i
i
i

i
j
i j
i
i
x f i x F ). ( ) , ( = (5-9)

where ≤ ≤ .
i
i
j
i
1 + i
i

The solenoid is located in the hot compartment of a diesel engine so the effect of the
temperature on the coil resistance must be included [8]:

(5-10)
20
)]. 20 ( 1 [ R T R − ⋅ + = α

41

where is the coil resistance at 20
20
R
o
C (297 K), α is the temperature coefficient,
and T is the actual temperature of the solenoid coil. It could be taken equal to the
temperature in the engine compartment.

There are several designs of the solenoid “actuation method”. For example, the
Wartsila solenoid has a plunger as a spool valve [16]:

Figure 8. Wartsila solenoid[16].
while Nippondenso [18]:

42


Figure 9. Nippondenso solenoid[18].

and Bosch [19] use a ball valve as an actuation device. The solenoid plunger keeps a
ball underneath and close to the orifice which connects the return line to the working
chamber. When the solenoid is energized, the plunger rises allowing the pressurized
fuel to force the ball up to open the port. The opened port allows fuel to flow through
the orifice and relieve the pressure in the working chamber.


Figure 10. Bosch solenoid design[19].
43

This design of the valve has a number of advantages:

• The design of the valve with a ball eliminates the friction between the
plunger and its liner such as that which exists in the case of the spool valve.

• The direction of force of solenoid coil is in agreement with the direction of
force of the pressurized fuel to open the port. This provides shorter opening
time.

So the movement of the solenoid plunger for the CRI injector is modeled by the
following equation:

dt
dx
f x x k g m S P i K
dt
x d
m
L f
. ) .( . .
1 0 1 1 1
2
2
1
− + − − + =
(5-11)

where is the mass of the solenoid plunger,
1
m x is the plunger movement, is
the maximum plunger movement, is the pressure in the working chamber, is
the cross-sectional area of the outlet orifice (see Figure 11), is the stiffness of the
solenoid plunger spring, is the gravitational acceleration, and is the friction
coefficient between the plunger and the stationary parts of the solenoid.
max
x
L
P
1
S
1
k
g
1
f

The driving force for this movement of the solenoid plunger is the current of the
solenoid coil helped by pressure in the working chamber and opposed by solenoid
spring force, friction force and the force of gravity.
44

There are a number of assumptions for the hydraulic part of the solenoid model
which are applied because they do not greatly affect the results while making the
model much less complicated:

• Firstly, the coil inductance is assumed to be constant. This assumption is
made because the plunger travels outside the internal part of the solenoid coil
and the travel itself is small (up to 0.5 mm).
L

• Secondly, the weight of the ball is ignored (actually it weighed 0.0097 gram,
small enough to be ignored).

• Thirdly, the force of the pressurized fuel in the working chamber, which acts
on solenoid plunger, is assumed to be inversely proportional to the plunger
movement, e.g. it obtains its maximum value when the valve is closed and
reduces to zero when the plunger reaches the top upper position.

• Lastly, any possible friction due to bulging of the solenoid spring is ignored.
Even though the spring is long enough, the movement of the plunger is
relatively small and the system is submerged in fuel so it is assumed that the
spring does not bulge sideways. Even if this happens, it is small enough to be
ignored.

45

The above equations present a mathematical model of the Common Rail Injector’s
solenoid. It is also applicable to other designs of solenoids, for example, that of the
HEUI solenoid as mentioned later.


THE HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS

The equations used for building mathematical models of the injectors, as mentioned
earlier, are based on well-known equations of fluid mechanics, which are presented
in [34].

When the pressure in the working chamber (see Figure 11) drops, the force of the
pressurized fuel in the needle chamber overcomes the force of the compressed needle
spring and causes the piston and the needle to move up, opening the nozzle and
letting an injection occur. Although the piston and the needle are designed as
separate parts, in operation they act as a united part so in the modeling they are
considered as a single component.

For an hydraulic system such as this CRI, the system is considered as a spool valve
system. The rate of flow of fluid through such a valve depends on the spool
displacement from the null position (valve closed) and on the pressures upstream and
downstream of the valve.

46


Figure 11. CRI hydraulic part

For the model of the hydraulic components of the CRI, the following assumptions
are applied:

• Speed of the pressure propagation is infinite, meaning related events are
simultaneous. The assumption is based on the fact that the distances inside
the injector are sufficiently short (maximum distance is not over 0.1 m while
the pressure wave requires just 1ms to travel a distance of 1.5 m).

47

• Fuel leakage between the components of the injector is ignored.

• The outlet orifice’s cross-sectional area is proportional to
max
X
x
.

• The pipe wall expansion also is not taken into calculation. The actual inside
diameter is 4.3 mm while the wall thickness is about 10 mm, which ensures
that the metal expansion can be ignored.

• It is assumed that no air is present in the fuel.

With these assumptions, a one-dimensional, transient and compressible flow model
of the hydraulic component of the CRI is built based on mass conservation, force
equilibrium equations. These equations describe flows through an orifice, and take
into consideration the fuel compressibility. Although the fluid compressibility is
often ignored in steady state flow, for transient flows, especially in high pressure
regimes, it may be extremely large. Transient flowrate associated with fuel
compressibility are likely to be significant compared with other flowrates in a
system. This transient flowrate may be expressed as:

dt
dP
V
q
c
.
β
=
(5-12)

where is the volume of the fuel involved, V β is the effective bulk modulus and
dt
dP
is the rate of change of pressure of the fuel.
48

The fuel flow through the outlet orifice when the solenoid valve is opening and
closing (
W L I Of
P P S K q − = . .
1 5
) causes a flow out through outlet orifice
(
R W O O Of
P P
X
x
S K q − = . . .
max
6
), acts on the fuel volume (
dt
dP V
W w
.
0
β
) and moves the
piston system (
dt
dy
S
2
).

Hence the mass conservation equation for the working chamber can be expressed as
follows:

R W O O W L I
W w
P P
X
x
S K P P S K
dt
dP V
dt
dy
S − − − = − . . . . . .
max
1
0
2
β

(5-13)

where is the volume of the working chamber,
0 w
V β is the bulk modulus of the
fuel, is the pressure in the working chamber, is the pressure in the line
(accumulator), is the pressure in the return line. Also, is the cross-sectional
area of the outlet orifice, is the cross-sectional area of outlet orifice, is the
cross-sectional area of the piston, is the inlet flow coefficient, and is the
outlet flow coefficient.
W
P
L
P
R
P
0
S
1
S
2
S
I
K
O
K

In this equation, the fuel bulk modulus β is a function of pressure, which is
determined specifically for a particular fuel. Therefore, β is calculated by an
equation adopted from the curve in [15]:

49
)] ( 1 [
0 0
P P − ⋅ + ⋅ = δ β β
(5-14)

Here
0
β is the bulk modulus for distillate at 10 MPa, δ is a coefficient, is the
current pressure in MPa, and is the base pressure (10 MPa).
P
0
P

The force acting on the piston system is the force of the pressurized fuel in the needle
chamber. This overcomes the force of needle spring, the force of the pressurized fuel
in the working chamber and the force due to friction. The actuating force causes the
piston system to move upwards, open the nozzle and provide an injection.

The piston system motion equation is:

dt
dy
f y y k S P S P
dt
y d
m
W N L
. ) .( . .
2 0 2 2
2
2
2
− + − − ⋅ =
(5-15)

where is the weight of the piston system, is the piston movement, is the
pre-compressed spring movement, is the effective cross-sectional area of the
needle, is the spring force coefficient, and is the friction coefficient in the
system piston-liner.
2
m y
0
y
N
S
2
k
2
f

It is useful to note that the nozzle type is valve covered orifice nozzle (VCO-nozzle)
(see Figure 12). This design of nozzle stops the injection flow immediately after the
needle regains its seat. It eliminates the main drawback of the sac-hole nozzle. Sac-
50

hole nozzles keep the hole-to-hole variation low but cause more fuel to dribble after
the end of injection.


Figure 12. VCO nozzle[13]

Based on the “flow through an orifice” theory, the injection flow rate is calculated by
the following equation:

W L I I I
P P
Y
y
S K q − = . . .
max

(5-16)

where is the injection flow rate, is the flow coefficient through the nozzles,
is the effective nozzle area, is the maximum movement of the needle.
I
q
I
K
I
S
max
Y

For the VCO-nozzle, there is an assumption that the actual effective nozzle area is
directly proportional to
max
Y
y
, i.e. the injection flows through "changing" orifices,
51

which is equal
max
Y
y
S
I
. Therefore, the orifice effective area changes from 0 when
the needle is shut to when the needle is fully open.
I
S

Note that the application of a sac-hole nozzle may cause inaccuracy in the results
because the model for a sac-hole nozzle is not yet implemented.

Because the needle chamber of the CRI is directly connected to the high-pressure
accumulator, the line pressure is assumed to be constant during injection. Also, it is
assumed that the temperature of the fuel remaining unchanged inside the injector.

Lastly, the injection quantity is the integral of the injection flow rate for every shot:

=
t
I
q Q
0

(5-17)


MODEL IMPLEMENTATION IN SIMULINK

As mentioned earlier, MATLAB SIMULINK is chosen as the software program to
build the model because of its strength in dealing with nonlinear systems. Presented
in a block scheme, a SIMULINK program provides a more intuitive understanding of
the physical phenomenon than does a set of mathematical equations.

The first requirement for a computer program is stability and high speed. To achieve
these targets, a number of techniques are applied. Behind the clear program setup or
52

appropriate organization of look-up tables, Lord Kevin’s simulation scheme is also
used. The basic principle of the scheme is presented according to [6] as follow.

The direct method of resolving a differential equation, for example:

f = Φ + Φ
• •
(5-18)

is building a simulation scheme as follow:


Figure 13. Simulation scheme based on derivative blocks [6]


The significant weakness of this approach is that every signal is corrupted by noise.
When such a differentiated signal is differentiated again, the output could be out of
range and cause the simulation to be stopped.

The idea of using integrator blocks as basic method for simulating such scheme is
presented by Lord Kevin. According to the method, the differential equation

) , , , ,..., (
1
1
Ψ Ω Φ
Φ Φ
=
Φ


dt
d
dt
d
f
dt
d
n
n
n
n

(5-19)
53

can be solved using a scheme deputed in Figure 14:


Figure 14. Lord Kelvin’s simulation scheme [6]

This approach gives the scheme stability and flexibility, these being very essential
for such a complicated program. The integration method is set to auto, which allows
an automatic choice of an appropriated integration method from the MATLAB six
basic integration methods and a speeding up the simulation. All of the techniques are
used in the model for this CRI.

Based on the mathematical model above, the computer program has been built in
MATLAB SIMULINK for the purpose of simulation. Figure 15 shows the block
schema of the model of CRI built in SIMULINK. The Solenoid block and Hydraulic
component block are separated and a number of scopes allow observation of the
behavior of the solenoid as well as details of the hydraulic part. The advantage of this
54

structure is that it allows observation of inputs and outputs of individual blocks,
which helps in the debugging stage of the program development. It also allows
independent evaluation and modification of individual blocks without changing the
structure of the whole model. The use of strategically placed scopes permits tracing
of specific signals and thus gives a valuable graphical insight into the internal
working of the CRI.


Figure 15. Block-diagram of the CRI model


The non-linearities and discontinuities of the system are resolved by placement of
MATLAB “Fcn” blocks. These blocks are functions written in MATLAB and
present non-linearities and discontinuities, such as that plunger hitting the upper end
or the needle reaching the spacer.

By implementing the program, different scopes, which are acting as oscilloscopes,
show the behaviors and responses of every detail of the injector as well as the
changes in the electrical and hydraulic characteristics of the system. The flexibility in
the scope placement could help in the understanding of the responses and behaviors
55

of any targeted detail, which may be impossible to achieve by experiments. The
observed results could provide a base for further justification of a development in the
injector’s modifications.

The listing of the complete program is presented in Appendix B.

56
CHAPTER SIX

MODELING THE UNSW HEUI INJECTOR


THE SOLENOID

The UNSW HEUI solenoid is slightly different from the CRI solenoid. The biggest
difference is in the direction of the line pressure on the solenoid plunger. In the CRI
case, the line pressure “helps” open the solenoid valve while in the UNSW HEUI
case, the line pressure resists the opening (see Figure 16).


Figure 16. Schema of the UNSW HEUI solenoid

57

This difference causes the only change in the HEUI solenoid model (compared to
that of the CRI solenoid model). This is that the sign in the force equilibrium is
changed from plus to minus, i.e.:

dt
dx
f x x k S P g m i K
dt
x d
m
L f
. ) .( . .
1 0 1 1 1
2
2
1
− + − − + = (6-1)

Other equations applied for the HEUI solenoid model are similar to those of the CRI
solenoid model (equations (5-4) to (5-10)).


THE HYDRAULIC COMPONENT

The hydraulic component of the HEUI is much more complicated than the CRI
because it also includes valves and a pressure amplification device. The significant
difference is that the HEUI includes a pressure amplifier, which can increase the
pressure up to 9 times. This feature ensures an extremely high injection pressure
while keeping the inlet fuel at a modest level of pressure. It helps to avoid using a
high pressure pump, which requires energy and can cause fuel leakage.

The UNSW HEUI is still in the prototype stage so the design is still being changed
slightly from model to model. In this study, the model which is taken in the
investigation has a simplified schema as presented in Figure 17.

58


Figure 17. Simplified schema of the UNSW HEUI



The UNSW HEUI hydraulic component consists of three main elements: the
hydraulic differential valve (HDV), the intensifier and the injection needle. Each of
these has a separate input and output so it is possible to establish a mathematical
model for every element separately. This method simplifies the whole model and
makes the programming easier.


59

This approach also allows modifying the model according to possible changes in
injector design. As mentioned earlier, the UNSW HEUI is in prototype stage so its
design is not finalized. The main target of the HEUI improvements is the intensifier
with the goal of achieving faster metering and a better injection shape. So this
approach allows changes in the intensifier model to adapt design modifications while
keeping other parts unchanged.

Like the CRI model, the UNSW HEUI hydraulic component model is a one-
dimensional, transient and compressible flow model. It is built based on well-known
fluid mechanical equations, which are presented in [34]. The model also includes a
number of non-linearities, which represent specific design features of the injector.


HYDRAULIC DIFFERENTIAL VALVE, HDV

When the control current is applied to the solenoid valve, it opens and allows the fuel
to flow from the working chamber to the poppet chamber, then further to the control
chamber and finally out to a return line. There is a restriction to this flow by the
poppet, which causes an hydraulic force to act on the HDV in the direction of the
flow holding the HDV closed with the additional assistance of the HDV spring.

This outflow reduces the pressure in the working chamber and causes the intensifier
to move upwards, which begins the metering phase. The solenoid closing causes this
flow to stop and the pressure difference between the working chamber and the inlet
port then makes the poppet valve open.
60

The movement of the poppet valve is performed in very short time, so it is not
precise if a steady-state model of a poppet valve is included. The model plays an
important role in the precision of the whole model, because the poppet opening
determines the time during which the intensifier is pressurized.

When the pressure difference between the inlet port and outlet port of the poppet
valve overcomes the spring force, the poppet valve begins to open. With an
acceptable accuracy, the flow through the valve opening can be considered to take
the form of a jet (of annular section) which follows the face of the poppet. The jet
causes a reaction force which equals the rate of change of momentum of the flowing
fuel. The inlet port chamber of the poppet valve is much larger than the opening port
volume (due to the very short movement of the poppet valve disk) so the velocity of
the fuel in the inlet port can be ignored when it is compared to the fuel velocity of the
jet.

The equivalent orifice area of the poppet valve when it opens with a movement in the
axial direction [29] (as shown in Figure 18) is: z

(6-2)
) cos sin . ( sin . . α α α π z d z S
P
− =

where is the seat diameter. d
61


Figure 18. Poppet valve of the HEUI


Then, the flow force of the jet can be expressed as:

j j
j
S K
q
F
2
=
(6-3)

where the flow through the poppet valve is calculated using the formula for a flow
through an orifice:

(6-4)
W L j j
P P S K q − =

After summarizing all the possible forces acting on the poppet valve disk, the
equation presenting the motion of the poppet valve (it is also the HDV of the HEUI)
can be written in a form as follows:

dt
dz
f P S F z z k g m S P
dt
z d
m
W j L
. . ) .( . .
2 22 0 2 2 21
2
2
2
− − − + − + =
(6-5)

62
0
z where is the movement of HDV piston, is pre-compressed amount of the
HDV spring, is the mass of the HDV, is the force coefficient of the HDV
spring, is the friction coefficient between the HDV and the liner, is the cross-
sectional area of the working chamber side of the HDV, and is the cross-
sectional area of the poppet chamber side of the HDV.
z
2
m
2
k
2
f
21
S
22
S

The equation describing mass conservation in the working chamber end of the HDV
is presented under the next heading, “Intensifier”.


INTENSIFIER

All equations in the reviewed literature simply illustrate how much the intensifier
could amplify pressure. They cannot be used in the calculation because the
phenomenon is much more complicated in transient conditions. The fuel is
compressed in both end compartments of the intensifier. Moreover, there are flows in
and out of the compartments, for example, the injection flow. This flow will occur
only when the fuel pressure in the needle chamber, which is directly connected to
high-pressure compartment of intensifier, is intensified up to the level which
overcomes the force of the needle spring. At the same time, the fuel continues to
flow from the pressure accumulator into the low-pressure compartment. Based on
these justifications, the equations applied for the intensifier are written as mass
conservation equations for both compartments of the intensifier – i.e. the working
and needle chambers; and the motion equation for the intensifier itself.
63

When the pressure in the working chamber has decreased to a certain level, the
intensifier begins to move up under pressure difference between the two ends. The
movement releases the non-return valve spring, which was holding the non-return
valve closed. It is assumed that the non-return valve does not cause any pressure loss
downstream; it is working entirely as an open-shut gate.

The motion equation for the intensifier can be expressed as:

(6-6)
dt
dy
f P S g m y y k S P
dt
y d
m
W N
. . ) .( . .
3 31 3 0 3 32
2
2
3
− − − − + =

where is the mass of the intensifier, is the movement of the intensifier, is
the pre-compressed motion of the intensifier spring, is the spring stiffness
coefficient of the intensifier spring, and are the cross-sectional areas of the
low-pressure chamber and the high-pressure chamber of the intensifier respectively,
and is the friction coefficient between the intensifier and its cylinder.
3
m y
0
y
3
k
31
S
32
S
3
f

The flow entering the working chamber through the annular control orifice of the
poppet valve causes flow out to return line through the solenoid valve and makes the
intensifier move and compress the fuel in the chamber. The equation is:

W L j j R W O O
W w
P P
Z
z
S K P P
X
x
S K
dt
dP V
dt
dy
S − − − = − . . . . . . . .
max max
0
31
β

(6-7)

64

where is volume of the working chamber, is the pressure in the working
chamber, is the flow coefficient of the flow into the working chamber, is the
flow coefficient of the flow out from the working chamber, and are the
effective areas of the inlet and outlet ports of the working chamber respectively, and
is the pressure in the return line.
0 w
V
W
P
j
K
O
K
j
S
O
S
R
P

The high-pressure compartment of the intensifier is directly connected to the needle
chamber via a hole, the diameter of which is big enough to assume that the high-
pressure compartment of the intensifier and needle chamber can be considered as a
united chamber. Thereafter, this is called the needle chamber so the mass
conservation equation for the needle chamber, which is presented in the next
heading, is also for the high-pressure compartment of the intensifier.


INJECTION NEEDLE

The next event is that the non-return valve opens and transmits the pressure from the
inlet port to the needle chamber. When the intensifier is in the metering phase, the
pressure in the needle chamber is equal to the pressure in the line accumulator (as
with an assumption that the non-return valve does not cause a pressure loss). When
the intensifier is in the pressing phase, the pressure goes up and, at the moment when
the pressure reaches a certain level, injection occurs.

The movement of the needle can be expressed by the force equilibrium as follows:
65

dt
du
f u u k g m S P
dt
u d
m
N
. ) .( . .
4 0 4 4 4
2
2
4
− + − − =
(6-8)

where is the mass of the needle, u is the movement of the needle, is the pre-
pressed motion of the needle spring, is the spring stiffness coefficient of the
needle spring, is the effective areas of the needle , and is the friction
coefficient between the needle and its cylinder.
4
m
0
u
4
k
4
S
4
f

The mass conservation equation for the needle chamber can be written as:

U
N n
q
dt
dP V
dt
dy
S = − . .
0
31
β

(6-9)

where is the volume of the needle chamber, is the pressure in the needle
chamber or the injection pressure, and
0 n
V
N
P
β is the bulk modulus of the fuel.

It is also noted that the bulk modulus is changing according to pressure, i.e.
) (P f = β as mentioned earlier. The bulk modulus is also dependent on temperature
but not to such a degree as with pressure, so for the calculation in needle chamber,
the temperature effect on bulk modulus is ignored.

In the above equation, is the injection flowrate caused by the fuel compressed in
the needle chamber. In turn, this can be presented as a flow through orifice-nozzle
holes as follows:
U
q
66

(6-10)
C N Z U
P P
U
u
S K q − = . . .
max
5


where is the flow coefficient of the injection flow, is the total effective area
of the nozzle holes, , and is the maximum movement of the needle.
Z
K
5
S
max
U

As stated in the CRI chapter, a VCO type of injector nozzle is used so it is assumed
that the injection flow at every position of the needle is proportional to u
max
5
.
U
u
S .
Beside that, the value of pressure in the cylinder is inserted manually. It is also
considered unchanged during the injection because there is insufficient data for the
cylinder pressure during the injection. For a future model, an approximate trace of
cylinder pressure may be included to provide a more precise pressure difference
between the pressure inside the needle chamber and the cylinder.

Like the CRI model, the injection amount is the integral of the injection flow rate for
the time period from to t :
0
t

=
t
t
I
q Q
0

(6-11)

The volume flow rate is then calculated according to fuel properties in standard
conditions (20
o
C, 10
5
Pa) to obtain the quantity of the fuel delivery in kg (mg).


67
MODEL IMPLEMENTATION IN SIMULINK

Based on the same approach as applied for building the model for the CRI injector,
the model of HEUI is built in blocks. A simplified diagram of model is presented in
Figure 19.

Figure 19. Block-diagram of the HEUI model
68

The program consists of four main blocks: Solenoid, HDV, Intensifier and Needle.
The output of every block is connected to the Main Scope, which allows observation
of the complete system's characteristics on a single monitor.

A number of M-functions are created to implement non-linearities of the system.
These M-functions slow down the speed of simulation, so their number is kept to a
minimum. A number of programming techniques are also applied to avoid Algebraic
loops, which may also slow down the simulation.

The listing of the complete program is presented in the Appendix C.


69
CHAPTER SEVEN

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND VALIDATION


CRI

For the purpose of validating the model of the CRI and for further CRI
investigations, an injector test rig has been built to directly examine the injector
characteristics. The test rig allows measurement of rail pressure, engine speed, and
injection quantity as well as the duration of control signals. The test rig also allows
photographing the form of the injection flow leaving the nozzle. The diagram of the
test engine rig is presented in Figure 20.

The main components of the test rig, which are used for the purpose of obtaining
experimental results for this study, are:

1. A swash-plate variable displacement pump, which has a PWM
(Pulse Width Modulation) pressure regulator mounted at the end of the rail. The
pump can create pressures up to 135 MPa and deliver up to 60 cubic millimeters of
fuel with each revolution of the pump.

70


Figure 20. CRI test rig schema

2. An injection control unit, which consists of an electronic board based on a
PowerMOS transistor BUK9524-55, a DC power source and a Pulse Generator GPG-
8018G. This injection control unit can supply electric signal of 24 V with a drain
current up to 45 A with a range of time duration from 10
-5
seconds to 0.5 seconds.

3. A Max 213 series Flow Meter together with a Micromann Universal Frequency
Transmitter UHZ/A. The Flow Meter is a positive displacement piston type unit
which is capable of very high accuracy over a wide range of flow rates with a K-
factor (number of pulses, which the flowmeter sends out when 1 cubic centimeter of
71

fuel flows through it) of 115. The movement of the piston is converted to a circular
motion at the central crankshaft, which is coupled to a magnet in the flow meter.
This motion is sensed by an external electronic transmitter which converts the flow
into a pulse train. The Universal Frequency Transmitter displays the number of
pulses received and converts them into an output voltage.

4. A Tektronix Digital Oscilloscope TDS3TRG. It is four-channel oscilloscope with
500 MHz bandwidth equipped with a full VGA Color LCD. It has a plug-in Printer
for portable documentation of results and a built-in Floppy Disk drive for easy
storage and documentation. These features allow the storage of experimental results
on a PC for easy comparison with computer simulated results.

5. An injection detector is based on a SY-509 Photo-Interrupter. It is a high
reliability, high speed photo sensor, which has average rise and fall time of less than
5 µs. The sensor gives a signal in the instant when the injection spray reaches the
sensor passage, and shuts down the signal when the injection spray passed the
sensor. The signal is then captured on the oscilloscope to record the instants of the
beginning and the end of the injection.

Figure 21 shows the picture of the test rig located in the Internal Combustion Engine
laboratory in the UNSW. Figure 22 shows the detail view of the CRI and the
injection detector.

72


Figure 21. CRI test rig in the UNSW.

Figure 22. The detector location.
73

Due to the size of the injection detector used, it is detecting the injection at the
distance of 2.8 mm from the nozzle. The speed of the fuel departing the nozzle is
estimated to be over 300 m/s, which would cause negligible time delay. A number of
additional measurements were performed for the distances of the detector from 3 to 6
mm as shown in Figure 23. The results confirm that these different gaps between the
nozzle and the detector cause no noticeable difference between the received signals.


Figure 23. The test of detector delay.


Using the test rig described in Figure 20 we have performed measurements of
injections for the solenoid control pulses of 15 VDC with the durations of 2,4,6, and
8 ms. The results of measurements together with simulated responses for 2 ms and 4
ms control signals are shown in Figure 24 and 25 respectively. These figures show a
very good match between the experimental and simulated results. The actual timing
errors between simulated and experimental results are below 3.5 % (2.4 % for 2 ms
control signal and 3.2 % for 4 ms control signal).
74


Figure 24. Comparison of timing for the 2ms control pulse.

Figure 25. Comparison of timing for the 4ms control pulse.



75

The quantities of injections were also compared. To obtain the average value of
injection quantity from every particular shot, a number of the injector shots were
performed. For the simulated results, the temperature of the solenoid coil is set to
40
o
C. Table 3 presents the results received from the experimental and simulated
tests. The calculated errors between experimental and simulated injection quantities
are below 5 %, which was considered to show acceptable agreement between
experiment and simulation.

Duration
of pulse
(ms)
Number
of
injections
Pressure
(bar)
Total
quantity
(g)
Average
measured
quantity
of an
injection
(mg)
Simulated
quantity of
an injection
(mg)
Error
(%)
4 100 500 11.4 114 115.819 1.6
6 100 500 17.2 172 169.017 -1.7
8 100 500 22.7 227 222.402 -2.0
10 50 500 14.2 284 275.825 -2.8

Table 3. Comparison of the injection quantities

The results show that the CRI model can be, with a good degree of accuracy, used
for the purpose of further improvements of the CRI system. Such improvements
could include injector size reduction for DF injection systems or the investigation of
possible use of the injector for multipulse (pilot injection) regime.

76
HEUI

The engine used for validation was a 6.7 litre 6-cylinder engine D7B230 donated by
the Volvo Truck Corporation (Sweden), which was used for the development of a
tuneable diesel engine injector system for engine calibration and optimisation [31].
The engine was then modified to adapt to the requirements of this project. The N
o
1
cylinder manifolds are separated from the remaining five cylinders to create a single
cylinder test engine. The N
o
1 cylinder has its own inlet air supply from a pressurized
air accumulator which can be controlled to any desired value. The remaining five
cylinders operate normally and help stabilize the system under test conditions. A 400
kW eddy current dynamometer provides the power absorption. The engine is
equipped with Accumulator Fuel System which supplies the fuel to the UNSW HEUI
in N
o
1 cylinder. The other five cylinders remain on the existing conventional pump-
line-nozzle fuel system. The exhaust gas path of the cylinder N
o
1 is also separated
from the main exhaust gas pipe. Therefore all the operating conditions of the cylinder
N
o
1 (intake air pressure and temperature, exhaust pressure, load and speed) can be
set individually, and all of the cylinder N
o
1 performance parameters (indicated mean
effective pressure, power, fuel consumption, and exhaust emissions) can also be
measured separately.

The fuel pressure in the accumulator is controlled by a PID controller. The PID
controller controls the opening of a by-pass valve from the outlet of the pressure
pump (fitted to the engine) back to the suction line. The test engine is equipped with
two PCs to control the system. The first PC is used for programming, storing data
about the duration and timing of the HEUI control pulses, and for actuating the
77

pressure specific to particular tests. The other PC provides synchronization of the
in-cylinder pressure measurement as well as synchronization of the HEUI control
pulses with the position of the engine's crankshaft.

The HEUI injection flowrate is measured by a Max 213 series Flow Meter together
with Micromann Universal Frequency Transmitter UHZ/A and transmitted to the
computer. Tektronix Digital Oscilloscope TDS3TRG is used for storing experimental
results on the PC and for making comparisons with computer simulated results.

Figure 26 shows a simplified diagram of the engine setup. Figure 27 shows the HEUI
test engine in the laboratory. Figure 28 presents the location of fuel supply lines for
the Cylinder N
o
1, which was used to test the UNSW HEUI.


78




Figure 26. Simplified diagram of test engine setup for HEUI

79


Figure 27. The HEUI test engine.

Figure 28. Cylinder N
o
1

80

Due to breakdown of the prototype of the UNSW HEUI we were unable to perform
full validation of the HEUI model. Partial validation of the model was based on the
results obtained from earlier experiments on the UNSW HEUI [31] as shown in
Figures 29 and 30.


Figure 29. Superimposed injection rate traces of the UNSW HEUI experimental responses with fixed
fuel delivery and varied actuating pressure (adopted from [31]).

The experimental results of the UNSW HEUI were obtained from the running test
engine. The UNSW HEUI injected fuel into the Cylinder N
o
1, in which the pressure
81

was changing according to crank angles. To match the simulated conditions with
the working conditions of the engine, the cylinder pressure in the model was set
based on a cylinder pressure waveform in Figure 30 (obtained from [31]).



Figure 30. The experimental cylinder pressure waveforms [31].

82

We have simulated the performance of the HEUI for line pressure values of 10, 15
and 20 MPa.


Figure 31. The simulated responses with the line pressure of 10 MPa..

Figures 31, 32 and 33 shows the simulated injection rate curves and injection
quantities for the line pressures 10, 15 and 20 MPa respectively. All simulations
were performed with fixed injection quantities of approximately 120 mm
3
/stroke. It
should be noted that we have tried to match in simulation experimentally obtained
quantities of fuel delivery.



83
Figure 32. The simulated responses with the line pressure of 15 MPa..


Figure 33. The simulated responses with the line pressure of 20 MPa..
84

The unusual forms of the simulated injection rate curves could be explained by the
use of the experimental cylinder pressure waveform.

Table 4 shows experimental and simulated results for the fuel delivery quantities and
Table 5 shows the results for the duration of the injections.

Trace
No
Line pressure
(MPa)
Experimental fuel
delivery (mm
3
/stroke)
Simulated fuel
delivery (mm
3
/stroke)
Error
(%)
1 10 122.2 112 -8.3
2 15 121.9 132 8.2
3 20 119.8 129 7.7
Table 4. Comparison of fuel delivery

Trace
No
Line pressure
(MPa)
Experimental duration
of injection (ms)
Simulated duration
of injection (ms)
Error
1 10 1.8 1.57 -12.7
2 15 1.43 1.36 -4.9
3 20 1.29 1.35 4.6
Table 5. Comparison of duration of injection

The largest errors of –12.7 % and –8.3 % are observed for the trace N
o
1
corresponding to the line pressure of 10 MPa. While the magnitude of the errors is
large, the shorter simulated duration is, with high probability, linked to the smaller
quantity of the delivered fuel. Similar argument can be applied to the trace N
o
3
where increased duration of simulated injection corresponds to increased simulated
85

fuel delivery. The largest discrepancy can be observed for the trace N
o
2 where
shorter simulated duration of injection is linked with larger fuel delivery. Taking into
account the magnitudes of errors are relatively small (8.2 % and –4.9 %) it is
considered that the simulated results show acceptable agreement of the UNSW HEUI
and its model.

Improved accuracy of the simulated results will require further experimental results
of the UNSW HEUI. This may require modification of some of the parameters of the
model. It is considered useful to employ the partially validated UNSW HEUI model
as a tool for investigation of the internal processes of the injector.
86
CHAPTER EIGHT

SIMULATION

The two computer models of the CRI and the UNSW HEUI were then investigated in
details. The CRI model was examined from the point of view of its ability to work in
the pilot injection regime. The UNSW HEUI was analyzed from the point of view of
possible change in the solenoid design with the aim of reducing the metering period.
Sensitivity analysis was performed for both models with the aim to find critical
parameters of the models affecting the time delay duration and the amount of fuel
injection.


CRI

INVESTIGATION OF MULTIPULSE REGIME

The investigations of the model were performed to observe the system behaviour.
This is an investigation of the injector's ability to perform pilot injections, which
represent a very important feature of a Common Rail Injector and are indicative of
the speed and accuracy the injector can perform its function.



87
Figure 34 shows the injection rate curve developed from a 5 ms control signal.



Figure 34. CRI responses (5ms control signal)





88

Figure 35 presents simulated injection rate curves of the CRI when the main control
signal of 5 ms together with the pilot control signal of 1 ms are applied. The interval
between the pilot control signal and the main control signal is also set to 1 ms.


Figure 35. Pilot injection (control time interval of 1 ms)

The responses shown on the simulated Scope indicate that the time interval between
the pilot and the main injection rate curves (i.e. between the pilot and main
injections) is approximately 1.9 ms. This time interval is caused by the time
constants representing activation and deactivation of the solenoid and is influenced
by the pressure in the working chamber of the injector.
89

The time interval between the control signals was then reduced with the step of 0.1
ms to examine what is the minimum time interval between the pilot and main
injections. When the interval between the two control signals is reduced to 0.9 ms,
Figure 36 illustrates that the pilot and main injections are now separated with a time
interval of approximately 1.88 ms, practically no difference from the previous
simulation.


Figure 36. Pilot injection (control time interval of 0.9 ms)

90

The control time interval was then set to 0.8 ms. Figure 37 shows that the pilot
injection is "dissolved" into the main injection. It is believed that this is a
consequence of the overlap between the closing of the solenoid valve after the pilot
injection and the opening of the solenoid valve for the main injection.



Figure 37. Pilot injection (control time interval of 0.8 ms)




91

Figure 38 shows that for the control time interval of 0.7 ms, the pilot and the main
injections are totally dissolved. For the shorter time interval (i.e. less than 0.7 ms),
similar responses were obtained.

The simulated responses reveal that the shortest time interval between the pilot and
the main injections (or between any two consecutive injections) is approximately
equal to the sum of the solenoid delays.


Figure 38. Pilot injection (control time interval of 0.7 ms)

92

The model investigation shows that the shortest possible time interval between the
pilot injection of 1ms and the main injection is approximately 1.9 ms for the working
pressure of 50 MPa. If the injection system requires a shorter time interval then a
faster solenoid will be needed. Increased speed of solenoid, while possible, requires
much more power. This may lead to an undesired increase in the size of the injector
which acts against the requirement to fit it to a standard (unmodified) diesel engine.
If shorter pilot injections are required, the possible alternative would be a
piezoelectric actuator which is known for having far better efficiency and much
faster actuation [20].


SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE MODEL


We are interested in the investigation of the sensitivity of major output parameters of
the CRI injector, which are:

• Injection delay
• Injection duration
• Injection quantity

Using the developed model we have performed sensitivity analysis of these
parameters for following input parameters:

• Force coefficient of the spring of the solenoid ( ).
1
k

93
• Force coefficient of the spring of the needle ( ).
2
k


• Diameter of the piston ( ). The diameter here is understood as a complex
parameter affecting the values of other dependent parameters. These include
the cross-sectional area of the piston, the mass of the piston, and the volume
of the working chamber.
p
d

• Temperature of the coil of the solenoid ( ).
s
T

The results of the sensitivity analysis are shown in Table 6.


1
k
2
k
p
d
s
T
Injection
delay
-0.173 0.085 0.69 1.6
Injection
duration
-0.049 -0.051 -0.05 -0.512
Injection
quantity
-0.061 -0.059 -0.068 -0.638

Table 6. Sensitivity analysis of the CRI model

The results show that the system is relatively insensitive to changes in the force
coefficients of the solenoid and needle springs, but it is very sensitive to the solenoid
94

temperature and the possible design change in the "overall" diameter of the piston.
According the model investigation, the change in the diameter of the piston, which
consequently causes changes in the related parameters, may significantly affect the
injection delay. The positive sensitivity of 0.69 points out that a possible dimension
minimization may reduce the injection delay. The revealed significant sensitivity of
the injection delay and the injection quantity to the temperature of the solenoid coil
may help the future design of a controller for the DF injection system. The sensitivity
analysis shows that the temperature must be taken into calculations, especially in the
case when the CRI is used as an ignition source for NG.

95

HEUI


INVESTIGATION OF THE FORCES OF THE SOLENOID

We have used the developed model of the UNSW HEUI to investigate the responses
of the HEUI injector with a focus on the solenoid delay. As mentioned earlier for the
investigated UNSW HEUI, the direction of the pressure force acting on the solenoid
plunger opposes the solenoid opening action. A possible change in the direction of
the pressure force is examined by changing the sign of the force in the solenoid
model. In this arrangement (used in some CRI injectors) the pressure force will
“help” to open the solenoid valve when the solenoid is activated and it will “oppose”
the solenoid valve closing when the solenoid coil is deactivated. The results in Figure
39 and Figure 40 show that the possible solenoid modification may lead to the
following effects:

• The metering phase may begin earlier by 0.26 ms.

• The injection quantity may be higher by 27 % for the same control signal.

• The closing action of the solenoid may be delayed by 0.45 ms.

The benefit of this arrangement is that the injector can deliver required fuel delivery
in shorter time despite the slight delay in solenoid closing.
96



Figure 39. Direction of the force of the pressure is against the solenoid opening

97



Figure 40. Direction of the force of the pressure is "helping" the solenoid opening

Note that, while the HEUI has the potential for pilot injection and leading edge pulse
shaping, this has not been implemented yet in the models available here.
98
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE MODEL

Similar to the CRI case we have performed sensitivity analysis of the UNSW HEUI.
We used the same major output parameters as for the CRI, i.e.:

• Injection delay
• Injection duration
• Injection quantity

Using the developed UNSW HEUI model we have performed the sensitivity analysis
of the above output parameters to the following input parameters:

• Force coefficient of the spring of the HDV ( ).
2
k

• Force coefficient of the spring of the needle ( ).
4
k

• Diameter of the intensifier ( ). The diameter of the intensifier here is also
understood as a complex parameter affecting the values of other dependent
parameters. These include the cross-sectional areas of both ends of the
intensifier, the mass of the intensifier, and the volumes of the working and
the needle chamber.
i
d

• Temperature of the coil of the solenoid ( ).
s
T

99

2
k
4
k
i
d
s
T
Injection delay 4.49e
-5
0.088 0.04 -3.575
Injection
duration
-6.556e
-4
-0.416 0.497 -0.435
Injection
quantity
4.55e
-5
-1.59 5.68 -3.510


Table 7. Sensitivity analysis of the UNSW HEUI model

The investigations show a negligible effect of the stiffness of the HDV spring ( ).
As indicated in Table 7, the variations in the force coefficient of the spring of the
needle ( ) may cause significant changes in the duration and quantity of the
injections. The phenomena could be explained by the fact that, compared to the CRI,
the injection pressure in the HEUI is significantly higher and the high pressure
volume is much smaller. In the CRI case, the pressurized injection fuel is fed directly
from much bigger volume – the system accumulator.
2
k
4
k

The injection quantity is very sensitive to the diameter of the intensifier ( ). This
means that the possible intensifier size reduction (e.g. in the case when the HEUI
needs to be combined with a gas injector to form a DF injector) and consequently,
the whole injector minimization will significantly affect the injection duration and
quantity. It indicates that the minimization may lead to the reduction of the injection
i
d
100

quantity, so that the intensification value M [42] must be changed to keep the
injection quantity unchanged.

The other important result of the investigation is that the temperature of the coil of
the solenoid ( ) has also a considerable effect on the injector behaviour. The reason
is that the HEUI solenoid has relatively high inductance (2.3 mH) and relatively high
resistance (2.8 Ohm). Increase in the temperature of the coil can cause significant
change in the current of the solenoid. This may significantly affect the metering
period of the injector and consequently, the injection delay and injection quantity.
Possible solutions of this problem may include an application of a current driven
solenoid or the faster type of the actuating device – the piezoelectric actuator.
s
T



101
CHAPTER NINE

CONCLUSIONS


The study presents a one-dimensional, transient and compressible flow models of a
Common Rail Injector and UNSW Hydraulically actuated Electrically controlled
Unit Injector. Based on electrical, magnetic and fluid hydraulic equations, the models
represent complete dynamic models for both these high-technology diesel injectors.
The significant features of the models, compared to existing computer models, are as
follows:

• The model of a solenoid is present as a submodel in both the CRI and the
UNSW HEUI models. Because these injectors are electrically controlled, the
used electromechanical device (solenoid in our case) connects the electrical,
mechanical and hydraulic parts of the injectors. This allows to include in
models all major electrical, mechanical and hydraulic parameters affecting
behaviour of the injectors.

• The HEUI model is the first computer model for the UNSW HEUI. As
mentioned earlier, the UNSW HEUI is at present the most efficient and the
only single-fuel HEUI in the world. The structured nature of the developed
model of the HEUI allows investigation of possible design changes of the
102

HEUI. It is relatively easy to add new design features to the model
developed.

The developed models were used to perform sensitivity analysis of both injectors.
The sensitivity analysis has revealed that the temperature of the solenoid coil is one
of the critical parameters affecting the timing and the quantity of the fuel injection of
both injectors. Dimension of the piston of the CRI was also found to be critical. For
the UNSW HEUI, additional critical parameters are the stiffness of the needle spring,
and the dimensions of the intensifier. The models also revealed that in the case of
pilot injections the speed of the solenoid is the major limiting factor of the
performance.

The developed models provide better understanding of the issues and limitations of
the injectors. They give detailed insight into their working principles. A number of
injector parameters, which are especially difficult to measure in practice, can be
observed during simulation. The investigation of the model of the UNSW HEUI
permits making quantitative analysis of the timing of the solenoid and to evaluate the
proposed change of the direction of the pressure acting on the solenoid plunger.


Due to the time limitation and the availability of equipments, this study presents the
models of the CRI and the UNSW HEUI with an acceptable accuracy. For the
purpose of further improvement, a number of additional instruments maybe needed
for more detailed evaluation of the models of the injectors. For example, a needle
motion sensor [31] is needed to obtain more accurate timing on a running engine and
103

for building a model of a sac-hole nozzle type. A more detailed model for the
solenoid may also be required.


MODEL CONVERTION TO C PROGRAM

The models running in MATLAB/SIMULINK require the time from several seconds
to several minutes to simulate an injection process of some milliseconds. The
simulation speed depends on the size of the program and the speed of the computer,
on which the program is running. A task for future work is to convert the finished
models into C programs, which allow the simulation to be run in real time. The C
models may help in performing data acquisition, in designing and testing a
microprocessor controller for the diesel injection systems.
104
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o
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111
APPENDIX A


The 2003 IEEE /ASME conference paper
A


2
A-1


3
A-2


4
A-3


5
A-4


6
A-5

7
A-6
APPENDIX B


CRI model program
1
B



2
B-1


3
B-2


4
B-3


5
B-4


6
B-5
M FUNCTIONS FOR THE CRI MODEL


f unct i on F = CRI Sol enoi dFor ce( u)

gl obal m
i =u( 1) ;
Max_x=u( 2) ;
x=u( 3) ;
i f ( i <=0)
F=0;
el sei f ( i >=0 & i <=1)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( 772. 5*xx*xx*xx*xx- 945. 67*xx*xx*xx+403. 02*xx*xx-
69. 905*xx+4. 1427) *i ;
el sei f ( i >1 & i <=2)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( 1894. 1*xx*xx*xx*xx- 2346. 1*xx*xx*xx+1014*xx*xx-
178. 65*xx+10. 866) *i / 2;
el sei f ( i >2 & i <=3)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( 2396. 2*xx*xx*xx*xx- 2960*xx*xx*xx+1286. 6*xx*xx-
234. 99*xx+17. 279) *i / 3;
el sei f ( i >3 & i <=4)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( 2338. 8*xx*xx*xx*xx- 3011. 9*xx*xx*xx+1420. 9*xx*xx-
302. 12*xx+29. 075) *i / 4;
el sei f ( i >4 & i <=5)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( 2407. 2*xx*xx*xx*xx- 3123. 4*xx*xx*xx+1522. 8*xx*xx-
302. 12*xx+42. 14) *i / 5;
el se
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( 2407. 2*xx*xx*xx*xx- 3123. 4*xx*xx*xx+1522. 8*xx*xx-
302. 12*xx+42. 14) *i / 5;
end
F=F;




f unct i on Kb = Kb_f unct i on( u)

gl obal m
der i _i =u( 1) ;
F=u( 2) ;
i f ( der i _i ==0)
K=0;
el se
K=F/ der i _i ;
7
B-6
end
Kb=K;



f unct i on FF = For ce_sum( u)

gl obal m
x=u( 1) ;
x_max=u( 2) ;
Fp=u( 3) ;
Fn=u( 4) ;
i f ( Fp>=Fn & x==x_max)
Fn=Fp;
FF=0;
el sei f ( Fp<=Fn & x==0)
Fn=Fp;
FF=0;
el se
FF=Fp- Fn;
end
FF=FF;


f unct i on F = CRI f or ce( u)

gl obal m
Fp=u( 1) ;
Fn=u( 2) ;
y=u( 3) ;
y_max=u( 4) ;
i f ( Fp>=Fn & y==y_max)
Fn=Fp;
FF=0;
el sei f ( Fp<=Fn & y==0)
Fn=Fp;
FF=0;
el se
FF=Fp- Fn;
end
F=FF;



f unct i on C = CRI cond( u)

gl obal m
y_max=u( 1) ;
f or ce=u( 2) ;
y=u( 3) ;
8
B-7
i f ( f or ce==0)
C=1;
el sei f ( y==y_max)
C=1;
el se
C=0;
end
C=C;



f unct i on VV = CRI Needl e_vel oci t y( u)

gl obal m
v=u( 1) ;
y=u( 2) ;
y_max=u( 3) ;
f or ce=u( 4) ;
t =u( 5) ;
i f ( f or ce==0 & y==y_max)
vv=0;
el sei f ( f or ce==0 & y==0)
vv=0;
el sei f ( t ==1 & v>=0)
vv=0;
el se
vv=v;
end
VV=vv;

9
B-8
APPENDIX C


HEUI model program
1
C



2
C-1


3
C-2


4
C-3


5
C-4


6
C-5


7
C-6


8
C-7
M FUNCTIONS FOR THE UNSW HEUI MODEL


f unct i on F = HEUI Sol enoi dFor ce( u)

gl obal m
i =u( 1) ;
Max_x=u( 2) ;
x=u( 3) ;
i f ( i <=0)
F=0;
el sei f ( i >=0 & i <=1)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( - 83. 333*xx*xx*xx*xx- 7. 4074*xx*xx*xx+86. 389*xx*xx-
60. 958*xx+25. 008) *i ;
el sei f ( i >1 & i <=2)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( - 125*xx*xx*xx*xx+13. 889*xx*xx*xx+97. 083*xx*xx-
68. 437*xx+33. 512) *i / 2;
el sei f ( i >2 & i <=3)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( - 62. 5*xx*xx*xx*xx- 92. 13*xx*xx*xx+161. 6*xx*xx-
85. 009*xx+44. 014) *i / 3;
el sei f ( i >3 & i <=4)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( - 812. 5*xx*xx*xx*xx+726. 39*xx*xx*xx- 109. 79*xx*xx-
64. 258*xx+56. 03) *i / 4;
el sei f ( i >4 & i <=5)
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( - 604. 17*xx*xx*xx*xx+471. 76*xx*xx*xx- 2. 1528*xx*xx-
82. 446*xx+66. 026) *i / 5;
el se
xx=Max_x- x;
F=( - 604. 17*xx*xx*xx*xx+471. 76*xx*xx*xx- 2. 1528*xx*xx-
82. 446*xx+66. 026) *i / 5;
end
F=F;



f unct i on Kb = Kb_f unct i on( u)

gl obal m
der i _i =u( 1) ;
F=u( 2) ;
i f ( der i _i ==0)
K=0;
el se
K=F/ der i _i ;
end
9
C-8
Kb=K;



f unct i on FF = For ce_sum( u)

gl obal m
x=u( 1) ;
x_max=u( 2) ;
Fp=u( 3) ;
Fn=u( 4) ;
i f ( Fp>=Fn & x==x_max)
Fn=Fp;
FF=0;
el sei f ( Fp<=Fn & x==0)
Fn=Fp;
FF=0;
el se
FF=Fp- Fn;
end
FF=FF;



f unct i on Fp = HEUI For ce_poppet ( u)

gl obal m

FdownZ=u( 1) ;
FupZ=u( 2) ;
z_max=u( 3) ;
z=u( 4) ;
x=u( 5) ;
i f ( FdownZ<=FupZ & z==0)
For ceZ=0;
el sei f ( FdownZ>=FupZ & z==z_max)
For ceZ=0;
el sei f ( FdownZ<=FupZ & z==z_max)
For ceZ=FdownZ- FupZ;
el sei f ( x>0)
For ceZ=0;
el se
For ceZ=FdownZ- FupZ;
end
Fp=For ceZ;



f unct i on C = HEUI _HDVcondi t i on( u)

10
C-9
gl obal m
y_max=u( 1) ;
f or ce=u( 2) ;
y=u( 3) ;
i f ( f or ce==0)
C=1;
el sei f ( y==y_max)
C=1;
el se
C=0;
end
C=C;



f unct i on V = HEUI Vel o_poppet ( u)

gl obal m
v=u( 1) ;
f or ce=u( 2) ;
z=u( 3) ;
zmax=u( 4) ;
i f ( f or ce==0 & z==0)
v=0;
el sei f ( f or ce==0 & z==zmax)
v=0;
el se
v=v;
end
V=v;



f unct i on O = HEUI _HDV_openness( u)

gl obal m
x=u( 1) ;
z=u( 2) ;
i f ( x>0)
O=x+z;
el se
O=x+z;
end
O=O;



f unct i on P_N = HEUI _Pneedl e_chamber ( u)
gl obal m
Pl i ne=u( 1) ;
11
C-10
P=u( 2) ;
vel o=u( 3) ;
i f ( vel o>0)
P=Pl i ne;
el se
P=P;
end
P_N=P;



f unct i on F = HEUI For ce_W( u)

gl obal m

Fdown=u( 1) ;
Fup=u( 2) ;
y_max=u( 3) ;
y=u( 4) ;
i f ( Fdown>=Fup & y==0)
For ce=0;
el se
For ce=Fup- Fdown;
end
F=For ce;



f unct i on V = HEUI Vel o_W( u)

gl obal m
v=u( 1) ;
ymax=u( 2) ;
f or ce=u( 3) ;
x=u( 4) ;
y=u( 5) ;
i f ( f or ce==0 & x==0)
v=0;
el sei f ( f or ce==0 & y==0)
v=0;
el se
v=v;
end
V=[ v] ;



f unct i on V_YT = HEUI Vel o_condi t i on( u)

gl obal m
12
C-11
v=u( 1) ;
i f ( v>=0)
V_YT=0;
el se
V_YT=v;
end
V_YT=V_YT;



f unct i on F_t = HEUI For ce_needl e( u)

gl obal m

Fr oom=u( 1) ;
Fneg=u( 2) ;
t =u( 3) ;
t max=u( 4) ;
i f ( Fr oom<=Fneg & t ==0)
For ceT=0;
el se
For ceT=Fr oom- Fneg;
end
F_t =For ceT;



f unct i on C = HEUI needl e_cond( u)

gl obal m
f or ce=u( 1) ;
i f ( f or ce==0)
C=1;
el se
C=0;
end
C=C;



f unct i on V_T = HEUI Vel o_needl e( u)

gl obal m
v=u( 1) ;
t max=u( 2) ;
t =u( 3) ;
For ce_T=u( 4) ;
i f ( For ce_T==0 & t ==0)
V_T=0;
el sei f ( For ce_T==0 & t ==t max)
13
C-12
V_T=0;
el se
V_T=v;
end
V_T=V_T;






14
C-13