EXPERIMENT 6 THREE-PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTOR 1.

0 Introduction
The motor used in this experiment is a Three-Phase AC Induction Motor . A three-phase induction motor is a machine that has a stator and a rotor. Stator and rotor are made of highly magnetizable core sheet providing low eddy current and hysteresis losses. The stator carries a 3-phase winding (called stator winding) while the rotor carries a short-circuited winding (called rotor winding). Only the stator winding is fed from 3-phase supply. The rotor winding derives its voltage and power from the externally energized stator winding through electromagnetic induction rather than being physically connected by wires. So this is why there machines are called induction machines. The induction motor may be considered to be a transformer with a rotating secondary therefore, be described as a “transformer type” a.c. machine in which electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy. Three -Phase motor is widely used in industry due to its low maintenance characteristics. Typical applications include fans, pumps, domestic appliances, office equipment and industrial drives. This experiment is conducted to operate a Three-Phase AC Induction Motor with its AC driver and to study and analyze the relationships between Speed, Current, Power Factor and Efficiency of a ThreePhase AC Induction Motor. The speed of induction motor is dependent on motor design. The synchronous speed (the speed at which the stator field rotates) is determined by the frequency of input ac power and the number of poles in the stator. The relationship between poles (P), frequency (f) and synchronous speed (ns) is:

Like any other a.c. machine, the power factor of an induction motor is given by;

While efficiency of a.c machine is given by;

The three winding resistance between were measured and then the readings were tabulated. 2. The resistance between were measured and then the readings were tabulated.0 Procedure 1. All winding resistance to ground connection was checked.Equipment and Part: No. The equipment was set up and connected as shown in Figure 6.2. All cables were disconnected from stator and leaving in delta connection.1 – Circuit Diagram . Figure 6. Then the connections were checked by the instructor. 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Equipment Three-Phase AC Drive Three-Phase AC Induction Motor Digital Multimeter Ammeter AC Voltmeter Contactor Selector Switch Tacho Meter Cable Quantity 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 2.1 and Figure 6.

(VA) 8. A conclusion was stated for the whole experiment. 3. Voltage. The power was switched on and the potential divider at AC Drive was adjusted to allow the motor running at 100rpm.5 Table 1 .3 22. Both of the graphs were analyzed. Current and Volt-Ampere for frequency from 10Hz to 60Hz were measured and observed. The motor was run and the Speed. A graph of Speed against Frequency and Current against Frequency were drawn. The values of Volts-Ampere was calculated using the tabulation of the reading in Table 1 with the following formula.L Selector Switch A1 A2 240V Contactor N Figure 6. 9.2 – Control Circuit 4.0 Experiment Result Measured point Resistance (Ω) 22.4 22. The power was then switched off. 7. 6. The reading was then tabulated. 5.

3 205.63 0.4 142.7 122.51 117.8 219. (Hz) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Voltage .63 0. (V) 30.0 177.5 162.2 201.62 0.8 236.1 198.6 258.3 182. (rpm) 296.7 158.2 Current.66 0.64 0. (A) 0.85 93.67 0.46 Table 3 2000 1800 1600 1400 Speed.80 102.8 898.6 239.6 1046 1196 1345 1494 1645 1794 Volts-Amperes.63 0.5 446.64 0.Measured point Resistance (Ω) ∞ ∞ ∞ Table 2 Frequency.62 0.7 Speed against Frequency Speed.3 745.03 81.4 220.5 597.4 135. rpm 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Frequency.66 0. (VA) 34. Hz .9 257.

By using formula: √ When frequency = 10Hz.2 0. Volt .8 0.6 Current 0.Current against Frequency 0.67A = 34.03V x 0.Amperes = √3 x 30.7 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Frequency 4.4 0.5 0.0 Calculation At 100 rpm.3 0.85 VA .3 Hz. the frequency is 3.

3 V x 0. Volt .4 V x 0.4 VA When frequency = 25 Hz.66 A = 117.Amperes = √3 x 81. Volt .Amperes = √3 x 162. Volt .8 VA When frequency = 45 Hz.3 VA When frequency = 60 Hz.Amperes = √3 x 102.4 V x 0.64 A = 135.80 V x 0.7 VA When frequency = 30 Hz.2 V x 0.1 VA When frequency = 40 Hz. .Amperes = √3 x 239.63 A = 198.6 V x 0.Amperes = √3 x 220.Amperes = √3 x 201.8 VA When frequency = 50 Hz.62 A = 236.5 V x 0. Volt .0 VA When frequency = 35 Hz.9 VA When frequency = 55 Hz.63 A = 219.When frequency = 15 Hz. Volt .Amperes = √3 x 182.2 V x 0.64 A = 158.Amperes = √3 x 122.63 A = 177. Volt . Volt . Volt .7 V x 0.51 VA When frequency = 20 Hz.62 A = 257.66 A = 93. Volt .Amperes = √3 x 142.

we have learned that the AC induction motor is a rotating electric machine designed to operate from a three-phase source of alternating voltage.Volt .4Ω and 22. Next. This is due to voltage is inversely proportional to current which obeys the Ohm's Law. According to the graph of Speed against Frequency obtained above. When all cables were disconnected from the stator. This magnetizing current generates a rotary field which turns with synchronous speed ns.Amperes = √3 x 258. the three winding resistances between are infinite values which indicate that there is no connection. This shown that the changing of frequency will affect the speed of AC motor. . When it is connected to the power supply.2 V x 0.7 VA 5. from the graph of Current against Frequency shown that when the frequency increases the current decrease. the three winding resistance . Besides that. Besides that. Power Factor and Efficiency of a Three-Phase AC Induction Motor is clearly shown in this experiment. the relationships between Speed. Therefore.0 Discussion From the experiment. the frequency also increases. when the power is switched on and the potential divider at AC drive is adjusted to allow the motor running 100 rpm. 22. Furthermore. frequency is inversely proportional to current. the pole number of the induction motor produced is four. The Voltage .5Ω respectively. Current.3Ω. are 22. The stator winding consists of three individual windings which overlap one another and are offset by an electrical angle of 120°. the incoming current will first magnetize the stator. it showed that the Speed (rpm) is directly proportional to the Frequency (Hz) which means that when the speed increases . are approximately same indicate The resistance between resistance that the Y connection of induction motor is balance. when all the winding resistances are connected to ground connection.Ampere (VA) is calculated using the following formula: .46 A = 205.

The lowest value of 30. (v) It has self starting torque.0 Conclusion Throughout the experiment. From the researches. shunt motor 7. (iv) It has high efficiency and reasonably good power factor.Ampere increases as the frequency increase. 6.0 Additional http://en. It has been shown that the Induction Machine is useful and efficient method of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Current.org/wiki/Three-phase_electric_power . Disadvantages (i) It is essentially a constant speed motor and its speed cannot be changed easily.03 VA when the frequency is at 10 Hz.wikipedia. (iii) It requires little maintenance. Power Factor and Efficiency of a Three-Phase AC Induction Motor. (ii) Its starting torque is inferior to d. We are also able to analyze the relationships between Speed. the Voltage .c. It reaches a peak value 258. (ii) It is relatively cheap. or vice-versa.Based on the calculations. it has been identified a few advantages and also disadvantages of Induction Motor as below : Advantages (i) It has simple and rugged construction.2 VA when the frequency is at 60 Hz. we have learnt the way to operate a Three-Phase AC Induction Motor with its AC Driver.