SERMONS

Selected and edited by

Don

NAZARENO ORLANDI
Translated by

HELEN JOSEPHINE ROBINS

i><L

SIENA
TIPOGRAOTIA SOOIALB 1920

691806

TO THE REVEREND FATHER

PASCHAL BOBINSON

O.

P,

M.

WHO MADE THE PREPARATION

OF THIS TRANSLATION POSSIBLE, NOT

ONLY BY HIS INTEREST AND ENCOURAGEMENT BUT EVEN BY GIVING

MUCH VALUABLE TIME TO READING AND REVISING THE MANUSCRIPT,
THE EDITOR AND THE TRANSLATOR WISH TO EXPRESS THEIR TRUE
APPRECIATION AND THEIR GRATITUDE.

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PREFACE
To
ilies,

the humble FraDciscan Friar

Bernardi ne Al-

bizzeschi, a

member
ot

students

of one of the oldest Sienese famthe Middle Ages are looking back

to-day with peculiar interest and aftection. Since the beginning of the last century such distinguished men of letters as Zambrini and Milanesi

have made accessible

to

a

wilder literary circle

than

that ot special students of the period, the rich treasure

of that vernacular of the fifteenth century in which Albizzeschi preached. Zambrini has published a hun-

dred or more volumes of moral tales and fables taken from the Sermons, and Milanesi two of the most delightful and interesting of the sermons themselves, delivered in August, 1427, to a great multitude assembled to hear them in the historic Campo of Siena. The figure of Saint Bernardino was later brought into historical prominence through the publication in 1880 by Cav. Luciano Bianchi of the forty-five sermons delivered in the Campo and in \hQ Piazza S. Francesco between the fifteenth of August and the end of September, 1427, which revealed how important an influence Albizzeschi exerted upon the municipal laws and the customs of the first half of the fifteenth
i

century.

The

result

of

this

revival of

interest in Saint

Bernardine's work has been shown in the
scholarly research undertaken
in

amount of our own century, especially by others than Italians in the publication of many important articles in foreign reviews and above all in the Life of Saint Bernardine by Paul Thureau-Dangin. This has been translated from French
; ;

we often find the reading of his sermons difficult because of dry scholastic disquisitions and involved and tedious mechanical divisions and subdivisions of the subject matter. which as Saint Bernardino was born in 1380. when he went back to his shop. into Italian by that learned scholar Monsignor Telemaco Barbetti. Here multitudes assembled at dawn or at sunset. The reason probably to follow in is that as Saint Bernardine was forced general the rules of the school of preaching of his day. reestablished the For about fortypreached alinost unceasingly in cities and villages. and were held entranced by his eloquence. may well ask why the sermons of Saint Bernardino are not better known and generally read We to-day. By great good fortune many of the popular sermons have come down to our own time. more often m the piazzas than in the churches. and heart and soul are laid bare with the frank naturalness and ingenuous . Benedetto of Mastier Bartholomew. and this through a shearer of cJoth. wrote out on parchment everything he had noted on his tablets. Pontifical Seat in the Eternal four years Albizzeschi for it was to preserve to posterity some part at least of our Saint's invaluable preaching. who played the part of amanuensis in a most remarkable manner. delightful as they are for spontaneity and transparent clearness of thought. He accomplished for the religious life of Italy as Saint Catherine life much did for the political when she City.TI into many languages. and afterwards. the year in vSaint Catherine Benincasa died. In this admirable piece devout Sieuese shearman of patient work the unconsciously performed a task ot priceless worth. But once these give place to the expression of deep feeling. and for the vigour and sincerity of their popular style. As he stood listening to the sermons he took them down with a style on waxcovered tablets.

so splendid a harvest of glorious the battle he waged for the salvation of souls and for the betterment of the deplorable social conditions of his century. the colouring and the language fluent and direct. who so nobly adorns the history of his country. If the pluck up by saintliness of his life had not permitted him this its simplicity. then the characteristic grace of his style reveals itself. primitive in striking and or effective^ manner of speech he would in never have reaped results. . so so ruthless in the intent to the roots whatever evil he found. Abstract arguments as well give way to glowing images. closely resembling in their sweet simplicity and ingenuous . it is true. To the memory of this glorious Sienese Saint. ' and which derive a peculiar charm from the unusual character of the vivid little stories and anecdotes. N. to moral fables and to illustrations conveyed through that masterful gift of narrative which was of so immense advantage to him in his battle against the general corruption of the time then invading Italy. The reason for publishing this edition of the sermons carefully is therefore obvious. O. It has been objected. his words ring out in the golden Sienese idiom of that classic century. Selections have been made which are of moral value to our time. piety the Fioretti of the great Saint Francis. the so holy a victory editor offers won this volume as the filial tribute of a fellow citizen. and of the moral fables and illustrations.VII piety of the Franciscan. that in the outpouring of his torrent of eloquence Saint Bernardine made use of words and conceptions which may justly be criticised as broad and free. as grows vivid. But restrained expression could not satisfy such a soul as his.

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above everything in which the said elements have any part. above the fire. of Mars. and Angels. ' The famoQB Piazza. because we have no power in ourselves to use any strength of ours except with the help of the angels who guide us. which God exerts over human how God watches over us with Sis 1. now called Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. and to which you pay such heed that if it were Saint Paul himself preaching to you. who make you pay heed to the words which I speak to the glory of God. and the whole Campo is full of angels. above the air. It is the angels who have led you hither into this Carnato * to listen. The soul is greater than the heavens of the Moon. and of Mercury and of Venus. of the Sun. Of the marvellous care nature.I. . But the angels are greater than the soul. ' above the water. ° everything on the whole earth. In ourselves we have only right intention.and is This soul is above more noble than any material thing. and enlighten us in all those things which we should do. The soul is above all corporeal beings . but from the angels. the will to act. and these angels rule us and guide us. For this reason saith David: Nisi Dominus aedificaverit domum. And whence doth this arise? Surely not from me. of Saturn. I believe you could not listen with more attention. here of frhich la the magnif- icent palace of the Commune. in dignity and power *' — !Nie toui i$ "^"J"! real beings. and of all their signs. near one of the doors the Saint used to deliver these sermons to the people. and after this good will doth come to us we are impelled to the performance of it. of Jupiter. and it is greater than the seventytwo constellations. f '""^'" .

do not hold such opinions or believe the writings that teach such things. likewise fire. as if he had not free will to act or not to act according to his own feeling hearken now I wish to make the truth plain to thee. lamentable indeed would it be body ruled If things went after this fashion. God would not punishment for it. they labour in vain that build then thou canst come near to understanding in what way the planets govern these bodies of ours while the blessed spirits if govern the soul. neither by the constellations. 3. as the planets or the constellations direct him ? Man free has the to . likewise water. '^^ — Where is the man that believes in the influence still is er to influeno'e ^^^ coustellations? If there be anyone foretell. and gave its own separate office to each one. all things that he made. Look now at the matter from the other side: if the constellation or the planet maketh thee -to do anything good. that is. humm beings. See this then. this man shall become wanton. If the make thee do wrong. he inade for the sake of man. and so in like manner the constellations have no power over a human being. and that man shall come to a bad end. The earth doth perform its duty above all by giving of its increase — ! ! : to sustain men. and thou doest be just in condemning thee to suffer it. who truly would be most excellently the contrary ! were true. likewise the heavens. so that thou shalt perceive and believe it. nor by the planets. nor by the elements. if the guided The oonsteiia- ! 2. what speak have goo or evi ^^^ draw thy conclusion from it. how then canst thou believe that man is forced to do only as thou sayest. and consider it God made all things and established the order of them. such a one bold. ^^^^^ — And if thou dost Still persist in the listen to wish to I will do ^q ^Yf^ìj^i^ j^ this thine own way. vanum làboraverunt qui aediftcant earn Except the Lord Verily- build the house. byl.what they — who guided as for instance._ in 2 it. and not be deceived by falsehood. for in truth the soul cannot be governed by any material thing. that is to say. such a one shall grow handsome. the ass would the angels govern his master. And if it be true that God hath made all things for man and for his good. by the same reasoning God would not be ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ planets are able to .

Away then with any belief contrary to this one. you no longer. is not Ihat one more guilty who doth compel thee to do the wrong ? And' I tell thee then that God is more guilty. if thou hast held any such. thou who doest the wrong. read in the first chapter of Genesis When he had made and created the heavens. Tell me further: Dost thou believe that the constellations have more power than thy will ? If thou dost consent to do what they make thee do. for I wish to reason with thee. And thus you may see that — if should hold this belief. that man is left free to choose whether he will do evil or good as pleaseth him. then the dry land appeared. thou art wicked. and hold to the right one. then the one who doth force thee is still more wicked. Dost thou believe that God is good? Thou answerest. and when these things were made. craz'd-headed it you have held . because he made the planet which doth compel thee to do wrong. and may not be forced to do anything contrary to his will. whióh compelleth thee to do it? Answer thou. But thyself : answer me now with reason. which is a wicked one. and the birds of the air. and then man was made of earth. because thou didst not do it of and of thine own will. and waters were parted from waters. the fishes of the sea were made. being the first cause. and the Sun was made. either than thou or the planet. And from this freedom of choice it doth ensue that then God doth punish or reward according to the works that we do. but believe iastead that man may choose freely whether to do good or evil. Believe nothing then except that which the Holy Church holds true and her Doctors hold true. Go. So that God. and which thou canst perceive for thyself. namely. Yes. and whoever made that one must be more wicked than either one of you. and now or the planet tell then thou hast it in order: if thou doest evil. et erant valde bona God saw all the things that he had made. thou sayest that thou art compelled. me.— just if he 3 rewarded thee. and that thou canst not act otherwise. but wast forced to do it by the power of the planet or the constellation. is worst of all. vidit Deus cuncta quae fecerat. Answer me and further: who is more guilty. that is he must be worst of all. and they were very good. if thou sayest: I am forced to do so.

but a little thing can deprive them of power. the constellations or the human body? The body. to bring them into danger Have faith therefore in that which thou seest made so clear by reason. Who dost thou believe is more powerful. and forsake that . God or the angels ? God.madmen. or some other drug from the apothecary. of power. and hath never been taken from him. thyself then to that which and holds. when they are to give a medicine to a patient. or some kind of water. those Know who that the devil hath taught the opposite of this to the malice of men. Holy Church teaches and believes which in thine own opinion thou hast held true. And thus it is indeed most clear that a very little thing can take away its power from the part of the creation which is above us. It is possible to 4 which hath naught that it to ! wish to believe that to ! do to with reason 4^ _ know that this Is a link with the devil to Biit X wish show thee is possible pianeu'^and constellations. and never will be while he shall exist in mortal flesh. Which has more power. give it with some little thing. Holy Church and her Doctors or thine own opinion? Holy Church. the work tliis against the planets and the constellations. The physicians who understand the planets and the signs and the constellations from which we have our governance. some herb. Which has more. the angels or the soul? The angels. Who is more powerful. so that they may have none and over also man. the soul or the constellations? The soul. in such a way that these little things may take away its power from that planet which is in the ascendant. Which has more power. See then that possible to resist the power which the planets have over that they cannot deprive us us. Which has more power. and to so clear that thou wilt not to persist show be able an opposite opinion. the reason or the senses? The reason. and not alone is this true. contrary to the influence of these same planets Hearken whether true or not I now to this saying of the pagans in in ! to thee by a proof any way or manner — cannot say : Sapiens dominabitur astra The wise it is man will rule the stars. think then how much greater power hath the free will to act as it will. Attach listen to them. for free will was given to man.

and if of these two duties thou canst perform but one. Sacrament of the Altar if this had not been preached in . Canst thou not perceive and understand without further argumem? For tell me. And when thou art about to make some contract in thy business. But tell me^what would become of this world. but some preaching. I » this morning ihatwUehthm thought I did well o ^^'^^^owest (.II. we And because of this Holy Church hath ordered that every Sunday there shall be preaching. thou dost not so endanger thy soul by not hearing Mass as by not listening to the preaching. of gocL what I should do. And in thiswise it will befall thee merely because of the words which thou hast heard preached I to thee. thou wilt pause first to think. and of the part that ielongeth to each. our faith would have perished.jj while rather I was doing evil. addressing these words to God: Verbum tuum lucerna mea est Thy word is my enlightenment. that is either hear Mass or hear the preaching. in such matters you must do thus or thus. should you believe in the Blessed — . — *' will say: I how many of you knew not what I : here present did. and this I wish to do. Treats of the preacher and the listener. but this is good. and remembering this sermon tu word they will say to themselves now am I enlightened as to comtth from. And she hath ordered thee to go to hear Mass. thou shouldstj rather lose Mass and hear the preaching since the reason for this doth appear plainly. much or little. for mean of the Christian faith. that is not commendable. 1. that is evil. if there were no preaching ? a Within very little should believe nothing of that which we now believe. saying: what said Friar Bernardino of such matters ? He told me.

If he doth the contrary of this. there is no way more sure to know this than to a prove him by the touchstone. that which we have of the faith of Je* sus Christ hath come merely through preaching. holy sermons? Thou hast learned to believe in the Mass only from preaching. how dost thou prove gold ? By what ^^aus dost thou prove it pure? By the touchstone. . And this is a sovereign rule. if not from preaching. giving out 1 That is. and I have found them that they went about gathering in rings and bits of broken silver. And SO Silver may be proved by the touchstone. And because of this I hold many . if not from preaching ? What wouldst thou know of hell. since her doth act contrary to that which he hath promised. or what wouldst thou know of the glories of Heaven ? All these things that thou knowest came to thee through the words heard by thine ears. he is not good. which shows at once if it be mixed with baser metal or if it be pure and therefore I say that this touchstone is a necessity. for they I And have said: I belong to Friar Bernardino. if he be 'wholly virtuous. anH to stand under obedience. 2. and you should beware. if there were no preaching? What wouldst thou know of any good work. • hypocrites in hatred.'^heshouZ be proved by the tffuehatone.— 6 — 20 discover whe- goDd. and it is in thiswise that thou comest by knowledge to faith. or if he have vices as well as virtues. More than this. 0. and so to find out if he be /' pure gold or if he be alloy \ If you see that one of us/ pursueth after gold or silver he cannot be good. and they have been tested and proven. and chastity. And there have been some as well who have made themselves out to be my nephews. And this faith will never perish while it shall be preached. or only half gold. and also very many of my companions have gone far and near. or how thou shouldst perform it. If you would discover whether one of our friars is good. and should prove him by the touchstone. and that which thou knowest and which thou hast bath come all through the word of God. goldsmith. The touchstoue tells you Whether it be pure gold. how ever shouldst thou have known what sin is. He ham promised perpetually to follow poverty. Foh ! I know not how to call them ! say this because I have gone about hither and thither.

who converted a king to the Christian by whose. Believe not in them. had he faith. and also many chess-boards. and yield such fruit that it is a marvel. he had all trailing gowns cut short throughout the whole country. Put them to ! : evil. but believe in them only when you find them in the spirit of good. that way you believe not in him. and perchance in this world as well. of 1 for that they wished to make be them chalices and crosses of these that churches. I have also among my companions another whose name is Friar John of Apulia. receiving it from them. He performed many marvels. * and will know if they belong to me or no. And I there said. many go about and do as have when one of these cometh your because there is the proof to see whether they be of my family. . a very great number of them. woman thou who wearest a trailing gown. And more than this. and he converted so many souls that I cannot tell you how many. In an evil moment didst thou put such a garment on thy back. Nolite credere. and he also performs many great deeds. I have very many companions who are good and are of such a kind as lead good lives. with his whole country not succeeded. thou workest indeed to thine own injury. And know there were such false hypocrites as these even of that habit I ' By their attitude towards money. You will know them in the matter of money. enemies. then you. You then be upon your guard. it is to thee I would say If thou wearest it. and it was a pious and beautiful thing to do. I have wished to tell these things for this reason because there are those who are good and those who are . many of which were of ivory. Of this number is Friar Matthew of Sicily. bringing you true teaching. there would have been a very different clamour made about it. since it will be the occasion of much suffering to thy soul In the other world. And then he performed another great deed in that he burned 2700 draught-boards in one day at Barzalona. and see to it that they be proven by the touchstone. test them by it. so great was the number of them.. and among other things know you what he did ? In six days he had made a dwelling-place for our friars. when you find them have told you of.

— ^ •' God i$ helpful to man. » prove that in order to have the people present with their daily work. or your brother. near which he always preached. or your son. ^ but see to it that you wake him out of to life '. this is an order from God. go to the fount ° thou comest to ' the fount of life and of the teaching of God. who was heard from ducked him over ears^ et well. on whatever Buly'eot the oooasion demanded. to the sermon. in large numbers. * The Swint had twice already delivered a series of long sermons in Siena: but ' These words. AgaiTut him ^ Being here present to listen thou wilt cleanse sins. head Home again! * I tell thee that making not a long time ago. the proof in this or false. 3. I could earn a soldo in the morning. The ivord of „ ._ in the time of the apostles. 8 ~ I fallen in Had with one such. I cetera! I would have would have doused him. And so ..eitheruving or dead. Hearken to me. because these are things ordered by God for if something good hath been ordered by a city. and others later. B. while thou wouldat lose if thou earnest not to hear it. come to the 1 . because by hearing it thou wilt profit. doing thou dost not despise the word ' of God. — sleep. . without interfering each time that he came to his beloved city he preached to the people. leave not your husband abed. I hear that fellow yonder who saith. Ay me or do you wish to be. if and see to it that he also cometh to hear that which will restore him fellow-citizens ! he be dead do you wish Siena to prosper ? You tell me. ^ Are you. and way thou wilt know whether they are true now thou seest how gold and silver must be are cold and the proven. Probably he celebrated Mass first in the Chapel of the Piazza. who had even denounced him this oxpression to the Holy See as a heretic. worse than the last time *? I cannot believe that you are worse in respect of this and I believe moreover that if you did well then you will do well now. and thus amending thyself. which word to Here he refers to his adveraaries. thou wilt of thy thyself preaching and aettieth himself to come to warm thyself in the burning love of God. in faith. and better. * The Saint very frequently makes use of mean : « Let na re- turn to the Bulyect. oi "f© you who womau in ! moming when dead. he used to deliver his sermons at daybreak. morning shall any man open his shop. See to it then that you hear the word of God have the ordinance proclaimed that not until after the sermon shall have been preached each . ! sermon. at the very hour of sunrise. his sleep. yes.

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and in this you do well indeed. And I say that your having this good custom is the most hopeful token of a wish to return to God and to receive his aid. When a man heareth preaching were he the most dull ot all men in the world. and take heed to that which I shall say to you. if later he shall I jiave coHie . and with. And you have also another good custom in that you hasten not to go away before the whole hath been preached. And he therefore who arriveth at the beginning heareth the foundations. Punctuality is ina^JllchinT^ ing preaching. And for this I praise you. Here is said how you should forsake evil and do good. or if they were without wings or tails ? And so I would say of the preaching: if thou dost not hear it from the beginning to the middle and so to the end. Oh. And I say that so you should be able to understand and to perform better far than many others. think you he would ever sell them.III. praised Siena for this. and heareth word by word how the house is built and how it goeth up continually higher and higher. and for this reason I say. justice. Therefore the scholar. thou canst never understand it well. Of that which is good one must say well. that you always betimes to the preaching. it is needful to come betimes. he listeneth for a while at the least before he doth understand anything of it. Consider in your minds for example's sake that a man wish to sell a pair of capons: if their heads were wanting. And if a man of most excellent under* standing come to the preaching after a part of it hath been said. (and there are such in truth) if he should go to hear the lecture when the master had already delivered half of it. by little and little. if he listen to the whole of it he understandeth much.

but when he hath been up for a little while at the least. fore. One knoweth not who setteth out to ' At dawn. and that thou dost rise with the Sovana *. and dost skim off the grease. as I have told thee. . either cooking or other things. and that thou dost put the become meat upon the fire. for at first when a man riseth it will always seem to him as if his brains were addled. for however it may be that which thou hearest is helpful to thee and see now whether I do not speak truly. 2. — If sometimes it befalleth that in a sermon thou Of a man who setteth wilt hear a thing that thou hast heard at another time be- outto walk i and with falleth be not troubled by this. And if thou dost rise and dost come presently to the sermon. it seems so no longer. n another ^^°"* ^* ^«f*^ ''"^'rBeenUfore. and thou wilt have but to warm it again. arid take heed to this example. and it will be half cooked before thou must set out. it did not then perhaps pierce and penetrate well into thy mind. « Sovana » is the name of the largest bell of the Duomo of Siena. because of the night thou hast passed without sleep thou sleepest during the preaching therefore arise. perchance thy husband will be unwilling that thou shouldst come to the . then clothe thyself. and thou wilt be awake in both body and mind. and come to the sermon.11 — \ I « Doctor > he may well be called a sorry Messer Doctor! Therefore I say to you. And if thou comest at midnight for the sermon. When thou Shalt leave. and in this manner all will go well. then it will be fully cooked and so thou shalt give something to the temporal and to the spiritual. a little betimes. thou art scarce awake when thou dost arrive there. of a ther man who whom walk and talleth in with anonever he hath seen before. be be orderly and act betimes. which rings every morning at sunrise it is so called because the Sienese took it from the bell-tower of the magnificent cathedral of the deserted city Sovana. Punctuality and wanting this nothing can be performed. preaching. and thou wilt come to the preaching with a clear mind and not with a distracted mind. And this is natural . orderly! If thou hast the meat to cook before thou comest to the preaching see that thou hast it bought. . In everything that you do woman. If thou hast heard it before. which comes from Saint Gregory. for on the way thou still slumberest as it were. And therefore. For if thou shouldst not perform the duties of thy household. .

since be of USO and wiU help you to remember. who living as he did in a very humble little cell in ter side first asketh the other . thy trade ? > « I am a weaver . » Now < Whither goest he knoweth so much more. since that weakness which came from within. 3. all the best morsels on the side also of the platter for the other and by this thou seest that he is well brought up. his name. . And having to do with him so much. he doth carve. Hearken Listen hermit who^waa example which once befell. am « I ^ > Now is Next he doth ask: of fustian. and further also that he is of good custom and condition then when they set out again he wisheth to pay the reckoning. thou ? > « I Now he am going knoweth to Eome. nor doth the other know who he is. wilt hear his speech fail. There was a holy ' he could remetnber naught. and he doth treat thee with honour. And on the journey if he see that his companion is weary he saith < Give me thy knapsack that I may help thee. and putteth . nor whence he Cometh.— the other 12 ~ is. then being accompanied with him for so long thou liast learned who he is. and which perhaps will ^° ^^^^ how tThec^^the wordofOod. — 1 '' •' t Here Saint Bernardine imitates the dialect of Lombardy. : thus that he is kindly. One of them to learn something about his com- panion^ saith: Whence comest thou. > thou seest . wisheth to serve. And observe this. thou seest also that he goeth not beyond the allowed stint if he drink. that first thou knewest not who he was. Thou wilt also see him overcome by weakness from the fatigue of walking thou wilt see him grow pale. If they go to bed. he giveth the betto his companion. » What He doth reply « I he hath learned thus much. They go along together in this manner and arrive at the inn. also this. . If they eat together. friend? am from Milan. thou hast even seen within into him. what he is about. There are certain. so that he will speak lower than he hath been speaking. and that in his day he was a most worthy person. father. and telleth that he is old and in his dotage. thou hast perceived it because of the familiarity thou hast had with him. and even his manners and his habits. Then when they are abed the if he hath a father he answereth yes.men who say: I go not to the Ota holy fathpreacMng becauso I can remember naught. whence he cometh. Thou knowest then that he is gracious.

Look now. and pour it out. Go. pour it out without cleansing it. and each time was it and the father said: : cleaner. And he did so.— 13 — a wood^ had with him one of his good little hermits. and pour some water into thy mind. And this time also was it cleaner. And when he was telling to the holyfather the reason because of which he went not to hear remember naught. . and thus greasy like the pan. until that thy mind shall be wholly cleansed and clarified. The other the preaching he said : I : did so. for he had a little pan in which to cook fish. and thou wilt see that it will be cleansed. And thus the father made him to do many times. Knowest thou the reason of this ? Because thou art fat-witted. and he said: Boil this water. The fathit was at as Put some water in it once again. who could remember naught of that which he heard for his instruction. Then said this holy father: Take this little pan. the more shall thy mind be cleansed and thou wilt be able to hear the word of God. and for this reason he never went to hear preaching or aught else. and when the water is boiling he says Fill a glass full with it and pour it into this little pan which is all greasy. And he said then to him: Thou sayest that thou dost remember naught. Gro. Pour in more and again it will become cleaner^ and the more often thou shalt hear the word of God. and see if it be as greasy first. He said that it was less greasy. said er He did so.

Such an one hath done such and . with its tail it doth twist it. eh? What is it? 0. And knowest thou who What this ambassador is ? They send forth a sigh. and outwardly he is glossed over. third. -^ „ jn xi tell you of IS so poisonous that if it toueheth a spring of — -. The manner doth the backbiter do. e. what I am about to say. In this same.. This evil tongue that doth in this way is like to the scorpion. evil of others. and lift it into the air._ Qfttimes the backbiter goeth about with and speaketh . . show -.• the shadow of a fair manner. and in all these he will lie in his throat.. . it licketh with its tongue circleth with its claws. . and to me it doth appear that he hath the wish to do thus and thus. i • j. and all second. seeming possessed of charity. and such men as these when they wish to hide their malice do after this fashion ere they speak of a thing they send before an ambassador. «-. God knoweth it (and he giveth him the sure token ^). backbiter may be likened to the serpent which ia called the basi' lisk. a a backbiter is to the like scorpion. I have a great melancholy upon me Arid then he will begin and will say: Brother. • -i • i -r .. 0. . He doeth this or that. Knowest thou what he doth resemble? He is like to a canker. kmdness . j. 2. which doth perform three things. . * I. Bacìibìters are treated of with The tongue of ^ most leautiful examples. This serpent which I .. Thus such a backbiter may be likened to the m serpent which is called the basilisk.. And he will say very many things. and malice lurketh beneath. it enmaliciously. ^ «j. . in faith I wish to tell it thee. o aileth thee. the sigh. -r^- He walketh under . I will say for a good purpose. Meseems that such another is doing a certain wrong.IV. o. 01 „. First. and then it doth bite. in my opinion. . . ! ! such a thing'..

so deadly manner doeth the evil tongue. of ten. .what ? Both that ye shall perform good and that ye shall give good example. There are very many who see no other evil than that which their neighbour doth perform. 3'. to others while thou thyself remainest in sin. of twenty years. and so thou wilt do better than if thou dost correct women. . Art thou here. . his horse. There are tiny children. and so everyone doth aid himself as far as he is able.. as thou hast and I say that the priest doth more it in the Decretals grievous wrong by giving bad example merely by scandalizing his neighbour by a wicked life. but with a kind manner.-15water at once is its this is wholly. ^'^^ there cometh a tempest so violent that dasheth the : ship against a rock. — ".. thou who seest no wrongdoing but that of others ? Pay heed to that which the Gospel saith when it telleth thee that thou seest the mote in the eye of thy neigh- bour and seest not the beam in thine own. there are elder ones of five years. and 5.. as l^H^" the Church hath taught thee. brothers. There will be one child ... that he who standeth in the highway doth rob the man who passeth by. and leaveth him to say and to do evil and to commit sin. " whenasupis "f^"^^^. do? Do memory. with wicked speech it can at once poison a a country.. a province. to the priest.. but the other with his evil example doth make away with both soul and body of the man whom he doth scandalize thereby. see to it that thou dost correct thine own defect. to the Knowest thou that which thou shouldst and lay up this example in thy A man setteth out to sea. the wife. one upon a plank. — as I shall tell thee. and the servants. poison. And when they ship to is are thus out it at sea. — If thou seest that another doth evil. what are ye bound ? Know ye . correct him ^o that which not with a slandering tongue. And therefore I say to these. ^° ^*** o°°^ examplebelongeth most of all priest. '"'"""'f everyone endeav«'^^'«'^ '" «»''« all of one household. than if a layman were to go out to rob in the highway. . The reason is this. his garments. and all that which he findeth. And to give good example belongeth most of all 4. one upon a log. for city. and doth take from him his money. and there are in one same boat fathers and sons. In its like dyed and infected. The everyone endeavoureth wholly shattered at once save himself. rather than to any other person. .

methinks. me I for if I thou helpest ply me not. because he looked at naught else but at that heap. hml'^ is ~ and the wind bloweth against him and he hath his eyes turned towards the dust in such a way that it bloweth into his eyes. who when they see a strange dog coming. would have so great difflculties in helping myself. And then he can see clearly neither his own deeds nor the hath a heap of dust The slandering tongue ts made a mad dog. and knowest thou how the mad dog doth ? What doth he do ? He holdeth his mouth open. instead forsooth he even saith little about his own concerns. help thyself. help . because their delight flesh. and saith that he is like a man who . times . and by his smell they know that he is not one of them. is ever in devouring blood and to those curs raw Such as these may be likened who stand about the shop of a butcher. run all together towards him and sniff at him. in faith and therefore I say. And therefore lay up this example in thy heart wish not to practise such rashness busy not thyself so much about the deeds of others. I shall ! drown help me. ! ! The lackliter others. for can re- out no longer And the father.who hold will say to his father : 16 my father. which a very excellent one. and his eyes are filled with dust. Doh Hast thou heard that any man increaseth his substance who doth busy himself about the affairs of others ? Not I. And he who is a natural and an upright man seeketh ever to correct his own evil practices and doth not sift the intentions of : Child. When they have found out this they begin presently to snarl . : . that more is beyond me for the father knoweth that if he attempt to go to the aid of his son. ^" ^^^^^^^ ^^^®^ ^^ *^® example of a backbiter. is raging mad. r^ rj^^iQ curscd slandering tongue _ ^^^ fy that he ever speaketh evil. and that ofttimes he is siand this is the habit and conlent when he should speak dition of the raging backbiter. He hath a bloody mouth. And the wise man speaketh no evil of the deeds of others. for I . they will both perish. Know^^^^ ^^'^ ^* ^^ made? It is made like the mad dog. tu'haTa of dust. all inflamed with rage from biting. do that which concerneth thee. he hath a bloody mouth. The open mouth doth signi- deeds of Others. and that he speaketh at most when he should be silent.

then how they sniff him. and learn-. his mouth stinketh. that one who knoweth him saith: Come. he stinks with a fearful stench . the stench of wells . I mean not the chestnutitself ^j^^jitlglj^M. And I wish you to know this. . it doth not seem to them as if the. holding his nose. all these curs rush . for thou art one of us. show their teeth . saying Thou art not one of us. their stench in their mouths. and such theirs. men. They do not thus when one of their own goeth there. that the stench of such as these may be likened to 8. how he stinks And if you do : ! never will the stench of anything wicked come to you. as soon hearest him. And though he be not known to them all. Italian -word for * hedgehog rioeio. Dost thou ask the reason of this ?] If there be gathered together one hundred who all stink. do that which thou shouldst do. and it doth seem as if they would say. knowing that he is one of their slandering companions. ! retiring thyself a little. — And know thou that ^« «**"«'* "-^ Z\ikIned^to"7ht stench of weUa. how he stinks And if he continue with his speech continue thou too with thine. and turn thyself away. close thy nose ! and do so*.stench were greater than before. and caress him. for thou seest a well that sendeth forth is a stench from is its mouth. which doth throw He The accompanies these -words -with the gesture. which stinks by speak of the its nature. so that if one or two more should come. that because they stink the fact is that when they find themselves together they do not seem to one another fetid. 9. the' stench is great among them. for they stink so much among themselves that they do not perceive the stench of others.and to 17 - and when he beginneth to bark upon him and one doth bite him here and one doth bite him there. and say: Oh. 0. and say : Oh. in such wise that he is all torn by then and so they chase him away. has also the meaning « chestnut-burr ». children forget not whensoever you hear someone who speaketh evil of people at once to close your noses and say Oh. one to another He is one of us. yè women. Such men as these may be likened to the hedge* this.YÀnd therefore see that every time thou of these hearest one as thou who speaketh evil of others. and ye also. burr % ' hedgehog. stop here. : : whosoever hath this vice. — I ^^"^ "f '^*«« hog. And do ye so.

They the lion ready to spring infection upon And such a one as this spreadeth throughout his guard. Thou liest in thy throat.. for thou hast eaten it many a time. speak others is to because evil of devour them- women. They (ton. may be 10. God knoweth I have never eaten it. and hast eaten it raw. I slandered the Pope. — He is also like to the lion whose mouth is fetid. And thou. gj.g j^ bacJcbiters — ' Backbiters devour. The to and poisoneth every creature who doth hear the backbiter if he be not aware and be not upon the world.. A priest hast thou eaten. 0. and so doth carry them away. The Pope thou hast devoured. I slandered a cardinal. have ye never broken the last t-. 11. ^ his : words he killeth everyone. a nun a nun hast thou . Have ye never eaten meat on Friday or Saturday. sicut leo And therefore it is Susceperunt his prey. in thy cruelty. devoured and thou. thy neighbour hast . covered with them. A man hast thou eaten. And whom hast thou slanderI slandered ed? It was a man.— often as it 18 quills upon the grapes. of Lent ? : "^ a priest. and which hath doth roll itself so sharp it is all that as over the grapes. or the eve of the day commanded by the Church to be kept holy ? Saith this woman No. ' likened auo to the ^^^ with said so doth the backbiter: ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ devoureth creatures. Hast thou slandered anyone? Yes. because to speak evil of othr^ devour. thy neighbour thou devoured. ^q devour. me have poisoned me like as doth paratus ad praedam. A cardinal hast thOu devoured. . . Of which hedgehog I say that it doth emit a foul odour from either end. I slandered a bishop. A bishop hast thou devoured.

which it would not be a great marvel to see fall down dead. And as they were going forward in this way. and he also mounteth. while he himself doth ride. there was a man who said How now look at those two who have one ass and both are mounted on it. Methinketh this is madness in him And moreover they might both ride on the ass if they wished and it would be far better so.V. and bring with thee our little ass. there was in one place much mire and deep. Sere the evil tongue and remedies against haclcbiters are treated of again. When he heard these words at once he got down. who hath a beast and is old. and he mounted it. and as they passed amongst the people. Of auiy father There was once a holy father who was very "^„" of this world. who permitteth the other one to go on foot through so much mud. and permitteth the youth to ride. Hearing this also the holy father at once 1. I think they care naught for the little ass. The young monk obeyed and brought the ass. and when he had got down he made the young man to mount. and the ways who had in observed experienced ^^l^g ^^ to «com th& ub live in any way could not here whatsoever man that a '^°^^' and hinder from slandering him those who wished to do Son. he went along urging the ass forward through this mud. and goeth on foot. so. and he said therefore tq. and the youth followed after the holy father on foot. : — : ! ! : ! . And another man saith: Ho! see the strange behaviour of that man. who would not consider fatigue or the mud. The holy father then apprpacheth the ass. how cruel is that wretched monk. and one man crieth out and saith What look there at him. and going on a little farther. one of his young monks come with me.

who man saith have an ass. . good matron of Rome. And therefore. I got down and put thee up there. and walk through mud so deep. . and that it was madness in us to go on foot since we had an ass. heed it not and attend not to it. and from it there Cometh forth naught else than sin. and a)iother see what madness this is in these two. calling out and little they went forward on their way. let us go home. and yet smce she was band. Come here. cannot do so that evil shall not be said of him.- 20 — : ! got down. . said to the young monk: come away. who had been left a widow and was wTio wishing to yQ^-^cf ^nd rich: and who being of a sober mind did not " <^ take a secondhus. Thou hast also another example of a wise and 2. and said that I who was old ought to mount the beast. deairea first wish ever to fall mto dishonour. to testthe opinion youug and beautiful she was fearful. my son^ lay up in thy mind this which I shall say to thee know that he who remaineth in the world performing as much good as he is able.. which was too heavy.. and do good ever. and made the youth get down. my Son. and that thou who wert a young man oughtest to go on foot. and that we were cruel to the ass. The holy father having perceived that no man can live in any manner of way so that people murmur not against him. and they both gee up and by little go on foot behind it. . and thou knowest that ill was said also of this. because of this burden. ill was said of it. J ^Q ^^^ ^^^^ whether I shall be able to remain a widow. ofamatvon. and exerting himself to do as much as in him lies.a wHov) of Borne. and therefore despise it. Then moreover we both dismounted. and have no desire to be of it. And let who will say either the evil or the good that they do say. And when they were in the cell the holy father said. and said within herself: of the world. : — . and another spoke ill of this also. thou being mounted. And therefore. „ . hast thou paid heed to the fable of the ass ? Saith the young hast thou not perceived that in whatsomonk: Of what ? ever way we travelled ill was said of us ? If I rode and thou went on foot. my son. for whoever remaineth therein in any manner whatsoever doth always lose his soul. and it was said that because thou wert a youth I should have put thee up on the ass. -. Then again we both mounted. and thou knowest that they said ill also of : this.

and what was said of it through Rome. what will be said of me ? It will be said that I could not remain without one. The woman asks her servant What was said of this horse . and in like manner sent this servant throughout Rome. Again the following day she had another horse flayed. and they say little thereof. and when she had taken him. Said he: Madame. The servant mounted on the horse goeth straightway throughout Rome. and to whatever is said of the horse. and not so great a number of people ran to look as they had done the preceding day in regard of the other. again the woman asked him how this matter of the horse had gone. and go throughout of her household Rome. and everyone said What marvel is this so that it seemed he was indeed happy who saw it. they will talk but for a little while. two or three days afterwards no one will talk of that which concerneth me. and she chose this way. almost no person came to see it. The next day she had another horse flayed. so great was the crowd. And as he went throughout Rome barely a person went to see the horse. And as she thought so she did. again the woman asked him how the matter of the horse had gone. and gave it to him. And when he returned to the house in the evening.-SIIf I take a husband. and what had been said of it throughout Rome. Then she said within herself I may take a husband for though people may wish to talk of me. and then they will tire. And when he returned in the evening. She took a husband. She had a horse flayed and she said to one of the servants Mount this horse. he returned to the house in the evening. And when he returned home in the evening. and pay heed to what doth befall. she asketh him: What was said of this horse in Rome ? He doth reply Madame. And yet desiring within herself to take a husband^ she wished first LO ! to test the opinion of the people. Happy was he who could run to look upon this flayed horse And having been abroad all day. He went through Rome in the same manner riding this horse. saving that he should do in the same manner that she had ordered in regard of the other. but few ran to see it in comparison of the people there were yesterday.oh throughout Rome ? He replied All Rome ran to see this horse. straightway the people : ! : : ! : ! : : : .

oh. and legs in air. And this endured for two or three days. Tht ia like And evil I evil tongue 3. si. for how doth he get pleasure but out of hearing and reporting what is dishonest and shameful? Seest thou that which the beetle doth? The beetle never useth any other matter than dung he maketh his ball. doth the backbiter. And this is because he doth not know how to perform any other practice. goest to the right who The Uyeth lare the like home of the devil! I tell thee that although thou hast knowledge of that thing. So. he is straightway upon it. and say then they said almost nothing concerning her. who maketh the ball. thou wilt do well to be 4. stuff. si. si I In like manner do many cursed backbiters who go about devising these slanders.— commenced to : ! 22 — ! woman say What fye such and such a young hath taken a husband she could not then remain . and walketh along backwards in this manner until that he doth arrive at a ditch. — — this he doth disport himself. mm wary about telling it. — The man who layeth bare the hidden canker is like Ztheb7etie Such is the nature of the oeetle that hardly doth upon the ground. be sure. and goeth backwards with it. know ye what an tongue unto nest- like unto ? It is like unto nestlings. and the very instant he knoweth it. as soon as he knoweth it. and then he doth . the little ball I say. He maketh of dung and disporteth himself therewith. and in a moment of time he hath made a little ball of it. and doth never use any other matter. and at length both he and the dung fall into the ditch. So. and such and such a thing did I see KnoAvest thou what I have to say to thee: thou ! when they have aught to say how fat they grow Si and nun. he delighteth in this putrid and fetid and he doeth in the same manner as the beetle. concerning a priest or a and I hear thus and thus. I say. and with to the beetle. si. to And - there are many such who would seem ! grow fat. eat it. and he and the ball of dung both fall into the ditch. that she did excellently well. ^^^ I know not what messengers he ^^^S hath to tell him. and setteth himself with head down. and backwards he goeth with it. doth the backbiter. : Know ye what they ^*"^*' do ? They say without ceasing Si. is — little children. . as she was.

Those who go about in this manner slandering 6. qua. may be likened to the frog. and that I have taught contrary to the Gospel. others and wishing to hide themselves. The Italian -word qua. so that he maketh blood to flow. — Hearken ! Hast thou. who stingeth and maketh a lump with his slanders. 5. he settleth upon the ear in such a way as to bite. Where when like the fly. qua ! He who heareth hiinself called cometh forward. call When you shall hear one speak him a beetle. and stings. But I wish to speak a little of myself. — Also he may be likened to thèfrog. : : — mean? He meriteth law he is to lose his head. which awhich The doeth as hornet. such^ 7. and the dog shaketh them. In precisely this manner doth the backbiter. And by the ecclesiastical excommunicated. hath stung. things have been put into my mouth which God knows I — Me Viose defends Mmself against who have landered him. and knowest thou where he doth settle? He doth settle behind. Hast thou never seen those dogs with long ears ? The fly is wont to settle on those ears. qua. and it goeth away and then settleth back again and he shaketh them and it doth settle there again. in that same moment they vanish beneath. and not one makoth a sound. So doth the slanderer do. he meriteth who slanders? According to the civil law. so that it maketh the blood to flow. Likewise I ask thee further. or let us speak of the hornet. seen the 'horse-fly lighteth on the ear. Precisely in this manner doth the backbiter. backbiter the and biteth alighteth behind.boys ! 23 evil of another. » * Saint Bernaidiue uses to represent tlie sound . and it hath been said that I have said this or that. and in the end finally it bites. Knowest thou how the frog doth? The frog doth thus qua. Oh. means « here. it and settleth there. qua I * And when I have come to the ditch where they are. qua. and this he doth suck. and not in front. yrhiob made hj the frog. there ariseth a swelling. what of and knowest thou what me ? There is naught more to it. and such another thing. when he wisheth to slander anyone he useth that call nua. as soon as I draw near. Behold me here. I . things have been said concerning the doctrine that I have taught and imparted to you in my sermon! All of it teaching taken from the Gospel and from the holy Doctors.

oven. opening of the ' Elsewhere as well in liis sermons the Saint alludes to those who slandered him. And therefore if ever thou hear again one who speaketh slander of me after I shall have left. even if it should be in a sermon. with his tongue. away with thee And stay not to listen. B. and the ear of the listener standeth open like the mouth of the oven. they did not spare him it seems. if thou doth hear that he slandereth.- 24 - never said them. take thyself off. jj^q qj^q -^j^q who speaketh are to listen. even in their sermons. that is. And whence doth this come ? This too from slanders. and one oven the peel. that is to say. . he taketh his stand the with his peel. Dost thou wish to be assured that thou wilt do weir to get thence? If thou stay to hear. thou wilt not be able to profit neither believing nor unbelieving. and if thou knowest that his words are slanders stay not there. ear. and slideth his slanderous speech into the oven. And if thou do not believe that which thou hearest. and do not remain at the sermon And to judge well.gg ' qj. and at times attacked his teaching as well. ' is like to the peel. I say that I to liste» and he -^Qj. and as he findeth the mouth of the ear open. and : of the this men one is like upon which the slideth it inside the oven. There were more of these among the churchmen than among the laity. Thou bread these mouth laid. Such are to the mouth of the oven. truly this is a good sign in thee. * The wooden shovel used by a baker. see that thou run first to thy conscience. — know not which of these two or the one the is spcakcth ^ evil. he setteth himself to work with his peel of a tongue. EewhoBtayeth 8. ' who stayeth «^ how he is made who and he who speaketh? He is made like seest at the is stayeth to listen. and therefore the better part is to get ! * thence. and ariseth from true zeal. they did so perhaps out of jealousy rather than actual enmity. Knowest thou made like the oven. when thou seest a -backbiter at who hath the wish to slander.

And as thou hearest of the child so is it with all of us .VI. who now despised and made and . Seest thou not how when thou it leadeth thee into pride. with the things which are in it. how many : are the bites of the this thou wilt say ! be said world ? And when thou shalt consider thou traitor world. and crieth: tpu. by him thou comest to know that there is no truth it. aespiaetheJorU in the world. there these. it leadeth thee into vainglory. it leadeth thee into avarice. once twisteth face away from the pap. at doth it doth taste this. which hooks ever draw us downwards. These are the hooks of the world. possessing things which are sweet. because it findeth the bitter. Seest is much bitter mingled with thou how many dangers which it there are in these delights. tpu. and sometimes thou dost put there ^^ the child a little taste wormwood? And when the bitter. and it doth spit out. but accustomed to to that milk. thou hast honours. ever damnation. I have faith in scandals. and majesty. man should hridle ?iis tongue. thou bitter with the — the mother — take g^et thJe iT*^ wean it dost put some it muchutter ming^**'' '^«*«- sweet. into pride. and thou hast fame. And when when and when thou dost possess the things of this world the world doth to itself. may thee no longer state for thou hast is seen this man great and in low. still Possessing and it already grown. tpu. ^*« detractor since — The detractor doth help thee to despise the world. — is Seest thou not when thou is hast a sucking-child. Holo a 1. for draws us down to hast might and dignity thou hast possessions. because when grapple thee 2. and young as it is so it commenceth to taste the bitter in the world. and when it its would suck.

rich is now poor. this is put happeneth that the first mouthful this greedy fellow puts into his mouth he doth come upon a fly which hath fallen into it. this. she hath put on trinkets. . : and loved. Wait I commend thee to the mother-in-law She is covered with ornaments. so it is in small. and a ring of gold.-26 that Thou wilt never find any morsel in this world man who was it. How many there are who have attained worldly height and then have fallen into lowliness. he orders the dish carried away. And when it she hath prepared The woman marry mother- who and doth the in-law. As thou seest it in great things. and this often and often. — ! ! : . and so there is noth- ing stable in 3. as he is greedy. and when upon the board by ill chance . and buy it. It is a right true proverb which saith The ass cometh from the mountain and chaseth away the horse out of the stable. And see the example hereof. 0-o-o-h! know I well what can befall. Avoman doth marry she goeih to her husband clothed in fine garments and fairly combed and in elegance and in neatness. ! : macaroni. and he will seize upon a fine piece of fat veal. woman who hast a greedy husband At one time thy husband. . And she does it so. she doth commence at once to make discord. Thou seest. As he hath found this at the outset. and then he returneth home and doth say to the woman Let me have a good mess of things. and least of all at my beckoning. and for all that they have these things yet at some time or other in falls the fly for thou wilt never find belong» ing to this world any morsel which is clean. There where the wife thought to be assisted and reverenced she doth pour into the dish. or at another time he would have a mess of macaroni most richly dressed. How many have found themselves amid very great delights. is desirous of delicate morsels. when a 4. And she cometh to the house of her husband and she hath been there but a little time when the mother-in-law makes this complaint of her to the husband Thy wife doth carry herself towards me in such and such a manner to me she says that she would be the mistress of the house and would do everything according to her own feeling. What doth he ? He goeth to the butcher. she hath garlands of pearl acorns on her head. she is adorned from head to foot. Doh ! Thinlt how the world deceives thee in all without a fly.

for it is traitorous. what then wouldst thou do with it ? I would give it all to whosoever wished to say evil of me. . where is the moment of sunshine that thou didst enjoy ? It hath endured but a little while the fly hath fallen into the dish. thinkest thou. I say. If a man be good. When I wished to go from one place to another. what wouldst thou do with spend it in alms.-.. And there is naught that maketh me more fearful for myself -. and therefore trust it not. he who praiseth me. . each one. -. And since I have travelled hither and thither for a long time I have heard what hath been said of me. . h^wouu it aii to ^f^osoever should . and there is one who says evil.. Pray. to have Wouldst thou ? marriage ? No. I mean for my good. : : ! ' I. e.. And so I think would you do. fair promises and maintaineth them I it — Lo ! should not wish but for one reason money. doth he act who doth slander me.. . for is full of falsity^ since maketh 5. 'what is this ? What is this ? 0-oh^ Friar Bernardine is coming and there is one who says well of it. But if thou wert pulled down by one and held up by tell me another. that there is as great difference between one and the other as between one who should pull me down from here' to the ground and another who should hold me here. there are one hundred who say evil. or he who slaudereth me ? Consider this. from the pulpit. he will draw close to Grod rather is it than to the world. that faith not to be put in the world. .-. For the prisoners? No.-^ -r- . to give damsels in the needs of the Church? No. Wishest thou better witness of it forsooth? Is there any woman here among you who is content or any man ? Is there any one here who hath had anything good into which the fly hath not fsillen ? I have never found any man or any woman who had not been bitten thus by the world. In like manner. For V give Friar Ber- "ZlZT. in that place whither I am going is said 0-o-oh.- 27 — . And if I find one who saith well of me.. . Tell me. I should cling rather to him who held me up than to him who pulled me or pushed me to the ground. doth more good to my soul. saying it : I know ill. Who doth slander me exalteth me and who doth praise me casteth me down. I say to thee that there is nothing good in this world. say evil of him. These are the bites of the world. who.

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-r 1 A. given man two eyes. What doth it signify that he hath not given him more than one tongue ? Why. 1 -«.^^^^g^ ^^^„ „„g fifty there passed by here one who had two heads and likewise two tongues. and was seen here in and when he returned from Rome. so that thou mayest hear more than thou epeakest. Likewise he hath given thee two eyes that thou mayest see EpLore than thou speakest. I pray you ? It must be for some right excellent reason. -. of more hearing than more seeing than speaking.Why 1. he hath given him two hands. he hath given him two feet. and therefore . He hath not done so with the other soises. of speaking. of more touching than speaking. and with how many n 1 T T ^T tongues doth he speak ? Never have I heard that any man had more tongues than one. could not long survive. And the living head was expecting to die because they could not live separated one from the other. God hath given us a tongue. who went to Eome. But commonly God hath given only one tongue to man he hath hot done so in respect of the other members. And knowest thou why ? That thou mayest not speak but with one tongue. *""' ""* . he returned Siena weeping with one of the heads because the other one was dead. he hath given him two nostrils to smell with. given man more (. God hath it . because he wisheth . '^°^ tongues hath man. He hath given thee two hands that thou mayest touch more than thou speakest. And again in respect of smell he hath given thee two openings in thy nose that thou mayest smell more than thou speakest. I have heard that in the year — How many . that is to say: he is desirous of more smelling than speaking. He hath given thee two ears and one tongue. nor even of the other senses.

doth often err. love. . 127) « OfttimeB but ill accordB the form ». — . If thou speakest to God. * One of tlie ch'a rispondar la materia è sorda (Par. . m . ^g ^q j-. 3. -i .. In every word that thou sayest. which thou hast in thy heart thou sayest with thy tongue. We have it that the Blessed Virgin spol?:e seven times in all the length of her life. . how it IS fastened? So in ! — . love. which is fastened to it and to it alone. — thou vain prattler.fasieneito the is speak seldom and speak low. when thou speakest to thy husband say little. speak in a low tone: do not speak so that thou seemest a locust. What doth this Its colour is red like fre. to its neighbour. Then speak little. and not more. let this be always with charity within thee there is naught but love. to itself. charity to God. she ^'^^''i c^^*») clua. . the design of Art Trans.q^ ^qq-^ tjjg tongue of swine. FerI.e is the root of the tongue? Tell me Hast {. Woman. Gary. speak with charity and so in speaking see that to thy neighbour. say and The Blessed Virgin spoke seven times in all the length of her life. . but that of all those things which she said we know only seven. is a bad neighbcmr. it should speak with charity. . . That which it says should be all charity. . What doth So should the tongue. speak with charity. see that thou speakest always with charity.]. — . Whe^. ^ r\ who never cease order to rest.— senses. by H. 30 — that thou Shalt do less with thy tongae than with the other He tuho speak- 2. — it is red. Hast thou considered how it is made? teach thee ? It teacheth thee this that . Knowest thou the proverb: He who speaketh often. so Thou seest that the colour of fire signifjT^? Charity. i — ! like manner is ours fastened to the heart. a chatterer. W. charity. because who sayeth little can seldom err. do not chatter as many women do cMa. if thou speakest of thyself. and speak seldom and in a low tone. Our tongue .ot understand. I mean not to say that she never said more. to frequent Dantesque reminiscences to be found in the Bermons. : hearken ! A j sage giving little ^"^^ tftenTr counsel to mankind saith If thou speakest. And moreover when thou speakest. And since thou seest that love is portrayed all fiery because of its great heat. like fire.Our tongue maketh clear to us many things which 5. since the form must correspond to the idea *. 4. do not shout and verily this is a most useful saying woman. wouldat thou please thy husband? Yes.

since thou hast charity see that thou makest the spoon of silver or of gold. but her head. or again. If thou dost speak : wilt succeed ill but if he speak with harshness to thee. speak in such a way that thou mayest be understood. 6. Let not thy speech be obscure. ! A man I I to say he will never constrain him. speak with that out fully and openly that — tongue which thou hast in thy heart. Do not say first one thing and then its contrary.— Slit )S right that thou shouldst do in regard of thyself that which thou dost when thou hast a good dish. speak call bread bread. for the sake of charity. 7. and again speak to him very softly. or for thyself. for thou seest that the tongue in sweetly smooth and soft. and thou shalt see that at once he will be soothed. hearken now When another flies into a passion. Women. which thou sayest have recourse to charity. do not reply otherwise than gently. be not brief and thick of utterance. and then wait a little. for it doth seem to demand more than sole leather. So I mean to say of him who should try to constrain a man by threats. As thou perceivest the' tongue is without bone. so this showcth thee that thou shouldst use it softly and gently in that which thou sayest fore speak always with charity. What . and speak clearly. so that thou mayest be understood. Thou knowest that when thou hast a very good dish thou dost never make the spoon of sole leather but rather of silver. must have patience. The tongue is broader and longer than it is thick. we can ask and have all of which we are in need. In like manner. when a thing goeth not indeed very well and must wait a little while. is. that is. in charity. him with harshness. Dost thou not understand that the tongue is our spoon. when thou speakest. do not speak as many do who speak so warily that they are not understood. and would dash her head against a wall in order to break the wall. What resource is there? have told thee speak to him gently. thou — ^' ^ broader plainly and at length. And consider also that it is made like a spoon. by which is signified to thee that thou shouldst speak out . and in that — it is wholly oj- ^* ^^^^ — is either to God. and with charity. Be not itself harsh in thy speech. or of thy neighbour. what think you she doth? I believe that she would not break the wall. and is every part flexible. And thereand with it having charity within thyself.

sayest thou? 32 — The tongue placed inthe is mouth as it were in an oven.. On the other hand. . speak out plainly and not with that chi. . All that which we do proceedeth either from God or from the world.. . Your speech is obscure. But let your speech be yea. a mala est. I wish m the mouth like the baker' s peel to make this clear to you so that you shall understand it. It is placed ^ a hot oven.. — — . If thou art of the world thou wilt never do any glowing deed. and he who speaketh obscurely is vicious and walks in vice. Sé. est. make me a pair of good little I : «Oh.. and thou hast lied. est : non non : quod autem hie abundantius est. chi.. he who speaketh with clearness showeth a will to go forward straight in the line with no thought of deceit. Is there a bakeress here? Listen then. . : shoes. chi. The tonguc is placed in the mouth as it were in ^^ oven. and thy tongue is not of God. a man cometh to thee: What price dost thou ask for these little shoes? I wish fifteen soldi for them. yea. If thou givest them for less. p. . because thou hast not charity within thee. If this be not true. . If thou makest them not as thou hast said.. Nor again is that tongue of God which doth ask for a thing more than it is worth. From what thou dost say she is the best and most virtuous damsel in Siena. So that from those works which thou performest it may be known whether thou belongest to Grod or to the earth. yes. thou dcsirest to get thy daughter married. Again shoemaker. no. thou art not one oi those who belong to God. no.» Oh. .hast not spoken with charity. * m . it is I'ather of hell. Lay up this example in thy mind: If thou art a shoemaker.inly! Hear what Saint Matthew says in the iifth chapter 8it autem seismo vester. nor moreover with charity towards thy neighbour. And therefore consider thyself of which thou art. thou hast not spoken in the love of God. thou. He doth reply: I will make thee the best that may be found in Siena. 8. If thou art one of those who belong to God thou always performest thy works with glowing and ardent charity. Again. mean. or which doth give a bad thing for * See footnote 2. oh! I give. pla. no: call bread bread.. plainly.

there is the left ear. but not always. If I speak there. but talk rather of those things which belong to life eternal. never to say it. for here is the right ear. and then commenceth to speak. 12. so that when thou sayest aught about thy neighbour. to know how to distinguish the true and the false. and keep guard over it one on each side. first he touoheth his nose. which doth hear what I say. God put the tongue in man's head. Is thy tongue put in a high place? yes. 9. 13. and he placed one ear on this side. and when a thing is not true. The tongue is placed below the nostrils of the nose. if you shall ever become lewd. since thou canst do naught which the senses do not perceive. Hast thou seen what the swine doth ? The swine cometh across the mire. when sometimes worse could not be found. the first thing which it doth it sticketh its snout into it.33 a good. and according as thou speakest. And the true thing if thou knowest it. And therefore when thou speakest thou shouldst consider from which side do I speak ? I shall be overheard if I speak here. — It is put in mail's head. Then do on the ground as the swine doth into every kind put in a high place. and they keep the tongue in the middle between them. boys. 10. And these senses surround the tongue placed among them. Knowest thou why he put it in the head rather than in any other place ? Because in the head are all the senses. saying: thou wilt not find better merchandise than mine. thou mayest say it most times without sinning. It is — it it not put of filth. 3 . 11. first thou touchest thyself. showing that whatsoever thou speakest. God placed the tongue lower than the ears. signifying the two kinds of knowledge that a man ought to have. So doth he who is so lewd a talker that he doth delight in talking of every foulness. woe unto you And so I say to you all set not yourselves to say every kind of infamy say not aught that is filthy. esteemed. namely. proving : — It is loioer than the ears- It is placed lower dawn than the eyes. It is also below the nose. so shalt thou be when 1 : . that when one man wisheth to speak of another. The tongue is placed under the tAvo eyes. I know not whether thou hast given heed to this. to see whether thou hast the same fault. thou shouldst speak with caution. and the other on that side.

in the seventh chapter: Hypocrita. and when people bell with him.^. and this was the manner of it.^^. and so he came and went. And he showed the hardened skin on his hand. Thou hypocrite. look and afterwards to thy neighbour. . who heareth another spoken of.wipe thy nose! prove others. and she saith They say.first in 34 is full very fault do not point out that thou art good and thy neighbour bad of the regard to himself that he of which he doth accuse first to thyself. and he took a little man. and went on all tours heard the bell they supposed he was a pig. his neighbour. and accused of something infamous. man. And of such as these speaks Saint Matthew. who wishest to show that the thou art esteemed of thy a good cast out first beam out own eye. It happened that a thief had been taken and led to justice. I will tell you what befell once in went by night to ^-^^ ^^. I say that he should work as hard as he may. . eilceprimum trabem de oculo tuo. and he did steal it. what do they say ? What do they say ? Knowest thou what I say to thee ? Go. one of St. Then she is very bold to reveal that infamous.. and carried it home. p.^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^j^ ^^^^ steal m the Fiazand a man wished to steal some here in the Campo ' at za. and took out flour from it two or three times in the night. but which he himself hath done.. . meaning : « Look to yourself. very ones ^^ j^nng a pouch down under hira. *' *' . thing which is charged to the other. In those days pigs and fowls were allowed to wander about as thoy pleased in the piazzas. by some one for that : ! — 1 . and then re- Thou. and then wished to -pass night. » ' ' See footnote. Antony 's*. who art reproved which thou hast not done. Now to that man might have been said when he spoke thus of the other: Wipe thy nose In like manner one might speak so to the woman who hath led a most abandoned life. And therefore . and this man who stole the flour every night said He deserves a thousand hangings. which had been made there by his going on all fours. say to him Wipe thy nose * iToui a man Hearken 14. ! : ' An expression in popular use to-day. 1.^j g. they say.. He opened the vat. on the other hand. and should do as I do..

but never there. 1. Until this I have given you sweet syrups in my se^mtms. Of divisions and factional feeling. and pay no heed to anyone who doth oppose thee. woe to each and every one And of what I said no one spoke evil. now I shall commence to give you such medicines! Of those who belong to. Knowest thou what ? Proceed with firmness and justice. in Lombardy and in other places. I have already spoken in my preaching. as Christ said: thy eyes and thy ears to hear and to understand things which thou hast never heard before. everyone believed rather that what had preached of this my words produced so great fruit that if I had not preached. whether Guelf or Ghibelline. — This is morning I wish ^. the factions. Open anyone who doth those "^^"^ *^**- will speak^ . and each one wished me well because of I I said. : .vili. and of the destruotion sent ly God. for there were present both those of one faction and of the other. and thou endeavour to under^jtand that which I shall say because this which I desire to say is for the salvation of Siena. spoke only for the sake of the truth. that I And when matter in Lombardy among ! other places. and it would seem that it might have been displeasing to one party or the other. say to each one of you.o speak of the discord which P»-o<'««* «'^'^ there I among a people divided by factions. or held in suspicion but . Knowest thou why? Because I was ever armed with the teaching of the Doctors of the Church. nor in any other place was anything of that which I said either thought of or spoken of with distrust. I and therefore ju^ZZtidteom ephpheptha. Hear what Ambrose saith inter duos inimicos nemo therefore I say. although there were those present of each faction.

and no will to he not always in mortal sin ? when ho hath no thought sin.B.. / • > ! This thou knowest. pei'son. ! .n . whereas I was ever firm and 2. and though the hatj'ed be sin is not put into practice. thou wile see spring. see how thou shalt feel it So I wish to say of a people who cherish hatred and who consent to divisions and factions. the on thou wilt growing them. far otherwise. in his ^ Those who belong to parties — „ He who may to be compared thistles. and thou dost commence to desire the death and the destruction of the contrary faction and so dost thou hate the contrary faction that not alone hast thou no charity for it. eveii fco the m. even while he doth sleep. That ÌB. thou hatest it it to the death and art murderous. • . -. 3. And how and green things ? It grew from a very tiny thorn. opcu ci'osswise ' who doth pare a peach. oh. even to the is Gueif fruits . Kuowest thou what this in the heart of that like man ? Listen then to an example. put thy foot upon it when it is grown and hardened. all the plants are dry and without leaves thou returnest there in wilt see thom all and thou green. reacheth -. which wild he hath in his mind. like the thistle in August. yet of sinning is Yea. The reason is this. not permitting myself to bo influonoed in favour of one party or of tbe other. by little and little the love of one faction increaseth and the hatred of the other. for all that hath i. or to the cutting ^' 01 ganic when a man doth pare a peach r t • : or Ghibelline. the flowers odours. then God sendeth his judges. The partisans have brought it about that everything. but. find them all plensant. and lovest .. G-o. that the third man who is between them must lean to the side of one or otlier of the two. it not as thyself. _ oh Qh. When it was very young hadst thou put thy foot upon it. And when they are very hard. because either one or the other must suspect him. and by little and little the thorn grew and hardened.36 - potest esse fidelis no man between two enemies can be loyal.iiti he doth soul a hatred for another practice that not put mio . thou wouldst not have pricked thyself. Hast thou never seen the wild thistle in winter? Thou knowest where thou lookest about thee in a field in winter. constant. And so forth sweet they groAV sending up by little thistle hath the grown up with the other little. and then they harden in this love and this hatred.. who when they love one fèiction more than another. oh. .

you would never eat them. ! belline ifamamoere country became Guelf or Ghiamong all the rest one man for^iotuimln who did nut take the part either of one or of the other. and that «'"«'^ &« «««««^r one or more should go to him and should say to him Long '^^^^^ted\hmlive such a faction! I tell you that if this man wish to save sands of sins. reply: Long live God. who the dieth in such a state of partisan feeling.-B1in a certain way. or . John is my witness Maiorem charitatem nemo habet. of to get it And all these are mortal sins. in order not to have to do with the contrary faction. judge — to the thou go est 4. 1 believe that if a if — and there were in it : himself he cannot do better than to. some stander-by will say or Ghibelline. : man then lay down his life for his friends. every boy. more than go to the more than to reHoly Sepulchre. — : prove it to me ? Willingly. Greater love than this no man hath. is He is Guelf And this matter : Guelf or Ghibelline an invention of the devil. and to » faction he say that the rumour of this was spread abroad. only remain which you have not made Guelf or Ghibelline. wished to give his life for Christ. Knowest thou what ? Bread and wine and making these two things partisans. which perhaps you would do well to make such. that a Yes. even the fruits — are Guelf or Ghibelline? Two things your souls. for if thoii dost offend for thyself God in house he goeth to order of fire to please the devil. I tell you that if he were cut to pieces. And I say to you that he . Perceivest thou not how great charity that man hath shown who. ut animam suam ponat quis pro amicis suis. in order — Now do you not see that you have brought about that every man and every woman. although he had committed thousands of sins. thou seest. long live God and even if they were to seek to constrain him by force to say: Long live such a faction! and he were not willing to say it. ! — without other confession I believe that he would be saved more surely than if he had fulfilled vows or made restitution can this be? I say that he is freed from all guilt. to communion. tlie home of devil . and who rather than do anything against his will wished rather to die a martyr? He hath shown greater charity than it would have been in him ceive to give all his possessions.

robberies? All this wickedness hath grown out merely fi'om the root of these . than 5. terrible — Thou pcrccivest.to 38 — Eome. such an action springeth from an evil i o Yoot. yet thou with thy words hast been the occasion of much evil. or should say it in order to save his life. If : if thou diest in such a state. for if in jest qj. 6. thou goest to an example. thou goest to the house of fire. Hearken Take ! Q the home of this as the devil. tor self Every time when he he cannot have greater charity within himsaith I belong to Christ. or in jest. hast thou given scandal ? Yes. even consider in act to the faction of the Guelfs. whence the adulter ies and fornications. ij. of the devil if . I Say. of thine doth serve in itself to make many believe the thing. or in jest. out of whatsoever motive thou sayest it. ^-^^^ perceivcst that ^ whence are come the worst homicides. 0^ iiecessity a millstone will drag thee down to hell if thou dost not now make reparation as thou roayest. In like one of you. : Z^'dSo/Z through fear or 171 jest that thou leiiinljhougoest to thou woman there. So. because people incline rather to believe evil than good. Behold an example of this in fact. in each and everyway thou sinnest mortally because of the injury which thou dost : : — . or in truth. and there should be one out of a hundred who should say in jest I have left the faith. women. so much the worse I mean that this speech home manner the . or through fear.^ any other way thou hast been occasion of scandal. whence the burning of houses. pagans or infidels should come and should enter into the city. banishings. because of the scandal of which thou art occasion to thy neighbour. and should say: I would sleep to-night with such a man^ and if he were a pretty youth. *^°^ ^^^^ actcd Contrary to the will of God. I would say. and this alone would suffice to bring thee to damnation for the evil that it produces in others even while there should perhaps be some one good who would not believe it. So that if lor pastime. to It is to God. or of the the evil which IS done every day the m world by of these means factions. that whosoever doth hold Ghibellines. although thou hadst not thought of doing this thing. and you beautiful too. oome of it. should stand up in the midst of the sermon. and because of its malignity naught but evil only can women. thou art like the man who saith I belong to the Guelfs even if it were not true or to the G-hibellines I say. cutting one another to pieces.

— ! ! and violated -them. what a terrible thought is this.- - 39 see tliat divisions. There have been so great horrors because of these factions that this which I have recounted is as it were naught. save by death. some hurled down from the tops of towers. women have been dragged before their fathers or their husbands upon torn . and then buried in dung Some have been roasted and eaten. But beware. Ay me. then slaughtered there before anywise ever show the other pity. how many have been disembowelled Likewise. . is. And he. how many women have been slaughtered in their own cities.' What think you of this. she was set on a horse by one who is carrying her away with him. that they have put spears into the hands of their baby sons. And therefore. raw How many have been killed by the sword. who . There was one woman so cruel that when a did one in : woman of the other party was fleeing. how many children have been killed for revenge 1 How many their fathers. one of these women killed the other. In the same manner babes have been from the wombs of their mothers and their bodies trodden underfoot. women. from a body and eaten raw. she said to a certain man on her own side Such and such a one is fleeing. Ay me What hath been done in the two years which are passed ?* evils have proceeded from these factions. away after her at once. others thrown from ofl" bridges into the water. only to consider the wicked deeds which are committed to-day in — the world 7. during his absence from. e. in their own^ houses. •' * That by putting him to death. painted certain A man there is. and said to the one with her : Set down that woman. might by murder avenge these factions. and when she was set down./ vowed to > at M$ I. if thou wishest not to die. women ? More yet! I hear there have been certain women so rabid in their devotion to faction. and little children seized and their heads dashed against the wall the flesh of an enemy sold at the heart torn the butcher's shop like any other flesh.. ! — to be to painted because he and ' hath caused himself ohrin mrset have himself painted ^fn^^hm'^ey themseivea ''*?* have given him a blessing " o by Christ. if you hold in I hatred these two words as they were devils. Siena. nor in their sight. so that these.

in the house of fire. they all came to me saying should do ? And they gave themselves up to me that I might counsel them. blotted out that « a » and put ! an When Friar Bernardine preached at Ore- « e » there. it — a sormon of which we have only a few pageb beoanse was interrupted by the lain. And because it was the time of the vintage I preached in the very early morning. And so did these words enter into their hearts that they called a council. requiescat in pace. hut instead he curseth thee. and I was silent about nothing that should be said. and then I it read it is : requiescat in pece in pitch. And in this place there was a very worthy and excellent noble. This lord was very familiar with me. somewhat covertly (for this is a subwas preaching in . in my preaching I spoke in general and not in particular. I told him what I desired. against those who have made them suffer punishment for no fault of theirs. Another hath carved and inscribed in letters of marble when he is dead: Here lieth the body of such a one. lest thou art deceived ! thou he doth bless thee. And when I was leaving. and so early that I had already preached four hours before the break of day. counselling him to act well.40 rogue. Nevertheless limiting myself to my preaching I left the rest to God and to them. 8. and he himself being pushed towards Jesus Christ by Saint Antony. . ma against the factions he verted all the con- people by his words. And when I was preaching on this subject. ' This passage i« found also in another aennon on the same snbject. one after anothWhat think you that we er. And another partisan hath a painting made of Saint Antony and of himself at his feet. — — but they who go there When not to be spoken of too openly). One there was who when he saw this tomb so inlest — at length — thinkest that scribed. Cuius anima requiescat in pace. in which ject . They said that this rested wholly with the lord of the city. And in my preaching I spoke of the unceasing cries of the innocent before God. Crema in Lombardy \ it happened beciiuso of the factions and divisions that men to the number of about ninety. asking for vengeance against those who have persecuted them. with all their families were and they were all named to the Duke of outside the city Milan as those to be banished. Then considering that they were so docile I commenced to say how the matter should go.

those also who had his cattle and his property. cleared the house of all his possessions. it is went on so that the : . For all that is not a city. who when he saw him ran and fell on his neck and wished to lead him home to supper with him. sent it to at once. his coffers. because of to felt. Moreover on the days that followed. And many other places took example from this. And another who was in possession of the house where he lived. every one came Here are thy oxen. he : could not he he the joy that me. it and in this way very selfsame evening he was led into his house and slept in his own bed in the midst of his own possessions. excellently well populated. and I talked to one of those exiles. while they supped. And I say to you that it seemed as if that man were blessed who could carry him his goods and his chattels. And hearken to a wonderwhen he was returning to his house. or drink. Then leaving Crema I went to a village which was distant perhaps ten miles. at once. harmony that it was marvellous and in this was decided that each of those might return to his home. his silver. or sleep. and in a little while from then came a messenger sent from Crema. He laughed in mockery of that which I said to him. his that house of his. . And he asked me: How then doth the matter stand ? And I said to him By the grace of God thou mayest return to thy house. and so great was the gladness felt that he could not speak. who told him that he might return at will to his own house. and left there those of this other man and whosoever had anything of his. who had left in Crema great possessions of his which were in value worth about forty-thousand florins. his horses. his bedstead. was such. here are thy asses^ here before him so that almost everything of his was returnare thy sheep and so it was with all the others. his bowls. And I say ed to him that I think I may believe that because of this thing God saved that land from many dangers." He came : .there it 41 . his casks. . and to-day it is one of the best villages of Lombardy. — table-cloths. And hearing this. he found ful thing in the Piazza his enemy. because I know well what they intend. eat.

and each time he would say in these words « I would that I might begin to do a little good ». which indeed when they must diminish. It thee is best for 1. Though he was doing it. oh. ohi I say to such an estate of perfection that it was a wonderful thing. from good to better I have greater faith in him who doth proceed by little and little. see alw. from good to better. indeed very pleasing to — : depart? Such riches do not so as have come by little and little. though it may be a little. — If thou of love docst a good deed. But he doth wish in truth that thou shouldst proceed from good to better. Hast thou seen such great riches as come of a sudden and as quickly as they come so quickly do they ^^^ good. and / to proeeei doest it and of from and virtue to virtue by little little. this is ^ ever so simple. diminish by . And I saw his soul attain to such an estate. and you too have beheld him. be charitv. who said If thou hadst a thousand years to live in the service of God. is him. Wishest thou an example of this? Yes. When shall we begin to do a little good ? And he was ever performing good. And therefore I say that if there be one who doth begin of a sudden with very great zeal to do good. and to enter into every great undertaking for the love of Christ. yet for all this he did not seem to himself to be doing good. I once beheld a man. and in like manner if thou hadst to live but for a day go thou always from good to better. Of those who begin to do good mid then turn it lack.iys that thou dost go from good to better. : most pleasing x a to God. admonishing and teaching. than in him who leapt of a sudden into every great undertaking. and doth proceed by little and little.IX. As &aid a holy father. and he would say to himself. and another who doth begin to do good. who had within him that which cometh from God. oh.

by little and little they run into grievous peril. Knowest thou also how riches go. which goes so far in one day that then it cannot walk so far even in four days.-43little and little. and return in a half day. it stay- And in like manner do many who when the intent to do good comes to them. medicine that doth cause to vomit. And because they care not thought for that which they might perchance have need of. And ! therefore I say it is better that thou by little and little from Take heed. very soon it falls to this degree when it is lukewarm. thou art every month behindhand thirty coins. Lo! consider water there are two facts regarding it first. ca. thou wilt drive off And going many dangers which else ! consider the contrary of this If might overcome thee. and finally in the shouldst proceed virtue to virtue. and thou takest it from the fire. . ca. And leaving it still longer on the fire it passeth from the lukewarm stage to heat. When thy revenue doth fall in arrearage. which go away suddenly? It goeth as thou seest that the goose doth. and wisheth to attain to the heat of the love of God. and so eth. it is very cold if thou wouldst heat it. So doth a soul which is cold. as it was at first. when it beginneth to grow . : A goose flyeth and crieth out. and he should go in a half day. Thou knowest lukewarm vinegar which is the 2. : end it is forspent. first it riseth to such a degree that it becometh lukewarm. that is it becometh cold and freezing cold. First it goeth from freezing cold to lukewarm. now Tell me if a man must go from Siena to Eome. and when once it is lukewarm it doth never remain so. and runneth and goeth cai and then doth settle itself on the ground. run rashly without considering aught. tu Lord 'o "<""**• . thou art rich and every day dost take away one coin of thy substance. ' — Being iuke- !" '^"j"^ """T" good. this is bad. forward so. I say to thee that it is better to go with great slowness and to take heed of everything. but doth fall to a lower degree. if it be warm. thou dost cause the Lord to vomit. So the contrary is true. and thou perceivest it not. thou aost cause . Being lukewarm in doing good. But if thou Shalt consider him thou wilt see that he will have done as the Corsican horse. and sometimes such a one will be admonished and he mocks the others to take who admonish him. would this not be well done ? Assuredly.

4. So that thou cause not for lukewarmness is most unpleasing to God. and so endau- . So doeth the devil he endeavoureth wir. he en tereth therein soul and taketh up his abode there. because having ouce committed a certain sin and having Confessed It. and heat thyself. falleth the sooner. That man who is used to perform some evil act 5. he is more prone to commit it again. that is a greasing of so quickly as that othor.. — „-. who hath never committed such a sin. who hath not been able to abstain. while that other. but hath abstained from it. than one. but with seven others Avorse than himself. to cause thee to fall so that he may enter into thy and if he doth cause thee to fall. That man who hath sinned is more easily lost. .. man who hath never committed sin. how ill this is Seest thou backwards ? returneth to luke- not that he . ^^* ^® findeth no place more pleasing to him than that in which he was at fli'st and knowest thou then what he 3. If thou hast a piece of then extinguished. eome out. . goeth con- And therefore remain thou in this state tinue to do well. and when he doth use to becomcth inclined to that evil commit a sin and maketh this a habit. and maketh himself firm in of his master's house if . he find any tiny crevice he doth endeavour to enter in there. . He who com- mits a sin once is prone to commit it again. because he goeth from sin to sin. For an exampje: . such a way that he is more sure than he was at first because he dotli not enter in alone. goeth from good when a man is once warm and then warmness.— 44 — degree it warm.. The devil endeavoureth in uirn to7he liaee whence he hath the evil spirit in the swine goeth out from goeth about seeking slimy and vile places. doeth in order to return there whence he hath come out ? He doeth as doth the dog who hath been chased away out he goeth round and round the house. So is with the — . the axle. . If a it wood hath never once burned it will not talie fire That is man who to used perform Zmlth'\nciined to that evil. this piece of wood which is half burned and is wood taketh fire more easily. . the Lord to vomit . — When it one of them.h all his might in every way which he knoweth or in which he can. Ofttimes he setteth himself at the opening of the door and with his paws he endeavouretìi and endeavoureth to get inside. and : . and not remaining at and attain eth to heat so that but ! this it doth persevere to better .

not anlike that vanity and which the divine poet had rebuked in them a it is century before. and burn them. for in thiswise to .««««^'«««"'«» the Sienese and the '' ^ ^ Pemgians. I say you would do well to abandon it presently. perhaps in a public piazza. I admonish thee. more and more often. their vanities. stable. B. and so. and there was one bale which was ! of the value of many thousands of florins.. . and all the rest of their « vanities ». he falleth and falleth again. Are there here any virgins? Hearest thou that which I say? If one of these give herself to religion while she is yet a virgin. and that this punishment might now come sooner than you have ever known such a thing to happen before. and again.* above all when you perceive danger. not changing as you do so of a sudden. because he hath not the will to resist. and there I accomplished far more than I did ever accomplish here. * It is evident that some words are missing here. and let himself be overcome. I admonish thee. and to take it up again slowly. But if he yield. There is as great difference between you and the Perugiajis as there is between women I preached there a sermon on heaven and earth. but that the Saint succeeded in persuading the quite clear nevertheless in women of Perugia to gather together to sacks their trailing gowns. The reason is that she hath not proved them by experience.. 6. if it were not that the Sienese blood is sweet and tractable but I could wish to see here a steadfast spirit. this in like — Thereisa great f5«'. And for the abandoning of evil. I have gone about "vVith my balances weighing Italy. he groweth weaker so that his estate is indeed bad. for seven loads of their hair and of all those objects which were occasions of vanity in them. gereth his soul. little and little. that I seem to myself to see an evil omen.45 A Greek Do^ ^^^r "^ ^^*^ dh^^rph speaketh of manner. fickleness frivolousness. And for this reason I say that he who hath once fallen findeth it more difficult to resist temptation when it cometh to him. .' Have you never seen sacks of cotton ? Like to such as they were those seven sacks. and all these • Here he reproves his fellow citizens for a fault of long-standing. you turn in a moment as quickly to evil as good I would have you look a little into those things which befall you and not be in so great haste to change. she hath never so great temptations of the flesh as she who hath once fallen.

this too they have done away with. 7. In the Constitution of Cana. p. like a people among whom I had never been. by the Connoil of Camarlenghi of the Guilds. on November 10. It was forbidden. But know you this ? Eeflect that I did not come the last time when I was called. you know those men who burnish arms. and the saints. now it is the most pure. now it is put an end to. 1425. and. When you shining that Lane of the Blade-smiths. Of gaming it seems there was never anything I speak of that which can be seen. ' He who smells Vicolo degli /Spadai near Piazza Tolomei. after ' the preaching of Saint Bernardino.'* So God looketh upon us because we have returned unto such disorder and unto customs so dissolute. Sienese qicod people. I speak not in the same way of you. .* They would blaspheme God so horribly. these too have been put an end to.46 The file of fast were got rid of. because thou hast abandoned the right Way charitatem tuam primam reliquisti. but reflect that I am here now Home again ' Hast thou never seen one man who is angry with another ? Knowest thou how he doth show it ? He showeth it by a grim face seest thou ? In this way. • See footnote 8. Of that combat they used which was so direful and so violent a business.^ ' and turn up there by the Tolo' a woiiderfui thing. know you. Thou hast given me cause to grieve.Is there no smith here. j^^j Palace. And he sayeth unto us Hob adversum te. that city was more infected than any other by this vice. in the constitutions of other places in Italy. « Dancing and singing are not allowed in Siena » This constitution was compiled iu Dances in church. --. in accordance with a very old custom. a pagan custom.* Also those dances. under pain of severe punishment. such as anyone makes or sees something offensive. and whereas it was the most foul. relic of 1486. because you have so deceived me. B. when he performeth penpass through the maketh so bright and it is ance. a small place in the Sienese Maremma. It would be easy 2. which they had on certain feast-days. to iind more examples of such regulations. no bladevanities of theirs to hold. no goldsmith. lasted through almost the whole of the sixteenth century. B. there is a heading. who "^ ' Tliis wns a sanguinary joust in -whioli the youths of Perugia engaged on Sundays during the spring. by means of perseverance. who rigorously condemned it. ! ! — : : and abstinence the aotil smith ? A man doth with his soul. — . under very heavy penalties. for most heavy penalties were imposed there. as doth the blade-smith. accompanies these words with a grimace. towards the close of which they were forbidden by laws.

and hast thou forsaken this? Return not they as thou hast taught them — ! — Tum back- '^'^^^ /^saininto ! loMch^lZ'^^hatt forsaken. Wert thou used to give alms. return unto them Hast thou renounced the long doublet? Return unto it! Hast thou forsaken all that was good and honest ? Eeturn unto it Wert thou used to hear vespers ? Return unto them. and I do not distinguish her. why do : ! ? Why do they not abstain from such vices as thou hast preached against ? Likewise I say of you. So doth the smith with his file. Ah. hast forsaken. when it is performed with and with willing zeal. Wert thou used to hear Mass? Yes. if you do worse than other people^ wherever I have preached and where I go to preach it could with justice be said to me Oh thy Bienese. why do you not abstain from so much miserable sin ? Which one of you was always here watching me ? Oh. and he doth this for so long a time until he maketh it bright and clean and gleaming like a baby girl. who had so great love for thee. and rub. that it is a wonderful thing. when you put her in prison for me. And I believe that if you would do penance for the wrong that you have done. and have also a sword. my brothers and fathers and sons. doth burnish' them and maketh clean and bright. and they put this on the rusty arms. Truly you did me a very great service by ridding my nose of that fly. I do not see her here. and would return to well-doing you would have more grace and greater the second time than the first. return unto it Hast thou forsaken many good works ? Oh. who have shown that you wish me well. and rub. In like manner doth the goldsmith when he hath an old cross or a chalice. I need no such flies on my nose Perform again the former good works which thou 8.— these a 47 - have a piece of wood. ! ! . and this same penance. women. Hast thou forsaken this ? Yes. And it penance doth to our souls of fasting is . he maketh it more beautiful than it was before. Oh. and they so exert themselves in workmanship that beautiful even than these things look so more them when they were new. and with little powder. He burnisheth it with his tool. and rub. In like manner the file of abstinence and the burnishing and the polishing by means of penance. true sorrow. maketh the soul so bright and so clear and shining. and burnish.

-

48

!

unto this. Were you ever just in your dealings, and now art thou the contrary ? Come, return unto this Come, return
!

Was

all

thy method of living honest

?
!

unto every good act that thou hast forsaken man, once abandoned the practice of beautifying thy face, and now thou art more vain than at first Come, return
!

Come, return woThou,

These women say I granted them to wear slippers two « fingers » high, and this was true but certain of them say that they understood by this the length of two fingers. Never said I this. I said, and I repeat, the « width of two
unto
this.
;

And this, mark you, while yet I am here present among you ^ Oh, the men will do well and not the women! You are the most blameworthy women in all the world, if
fingers»!

you do not as well as they, or even better. And therefore God said by the mouth of John Et prima opera fad] that is, do the first works et poenitentiam age and do penance
:

:

for the evil that thou hast performed.

And
come

if

thou wilt
return
?

do

penance
the right

for thy evil deeds thou wilt

to

unto
turn

way
thy

of G-od. Hast thou

gone astray

Now,

The example
of the fig-tree.

and and commit it no more. And thou, confessor, shouldst give him the penance which is opposed that is, if he be avaricious, give him to his besetting sin if he as a penance the contrary, order him to give alms be proud, give him as a penance humility order him to go barefoot, or aught else which leadeth to humility. If he be a vain prattler, order him as penance not to talk if he be a sluggard, who sleeps too much, order him as penance that he shall rise at least when the Sovana ^ rings. If he be gluttonous, give him abstinence, that he shall not eat too much. Doth he not hear Mass ? Make him hear it, and hear and in this manner also Vespers and Tierce and Nones thou shouldst correct the sin and vice of the sinner. in 9^ _ Hear the example which Saint Luke narrates ^^^ thirteenth chapter. Christ saith that there was a man who had a vineyard, wherein he planted a fig-tree; he went
back, and enter into the right way.
disclose
sin,

Go

to the confessor,

:

;

;

;

;

there at the time
«

when

it

should begin to bear my

figs,

about
am not

Implied: « Imagine what advantage you will take of

words when I

here. »
'

See footnote, p. 11.


it

4&

-

two years having passed, and went without a basket, and was one of those that beareth those good large purple figs,

thou knowest,

from Massa/

And when he had

arrived

at

and he found thereon no figs. He went then the following year, and he went with a hook thinking that there would be some; again be found none. Then thought he within himself: Oh it hath taken
the foot of the tree, he looked up,
!

thought only for
the third,

its

growth.

He

goeth thither another year,

and with him he doth carry the hook and the basket, saying within himself: It must have grown, and there must be many figs on it. He arriveth at the fig-tree and findeth not one upon it. Therefore he calleth the labourer and saith to him This fig-tree is good for naught
:

;

hew

it

down
:

therefore, for
1

labourer

Nay, then
it

cumbereth the earth. Saith the Let us allow it to remain this year,
it
;


it

let

us not cut

down

I will

dig the earth a

little
it,

about
to see

at the foot,

and

will lay bare the roots

around

will do not better; but if it doth not bear coming year, then will I hew it down.
if it

fruit this

10 We may say J thus, that the city J of Siena is the trunk of the fig-tree. The first year it was in which I was here, that with the word of God I led you to yield fruit to God the most high. The second year, when I went hence,
•^
'

f^' ^, that the

J^y
city

'«v
of

sienaisthetrunh
of the fig-tree.

thought you would do better than you were doing when was with you; but not alone have you borne no fruit, but you did worse than ever. The third year now is this one, in which I have found you with less disposition than
I

I

perhaps you have ever had at any time to yield fruit. ' God hath waited and waited, and you yield no fruit in his praise, but do all things contrary to his will; for which reason he is now filled with anger, and believe me, he has it in his thought to cut down this tree, for that it hath the disposition to be unwilling to yield fruit, since he hath waited now so long. But if he shall be patient and wait

'

A

reminisoence of Saint Bernardine'syontb; Massa Marittima was his birthplace.

not easy to determine with accuracy iu which years Saint Bernardino preached in Siena before 1427, since he journeyed with amazing activity from one
*

It is

end of Italy to the other. It
to Siena in 1423

which

it

is probable however that here he alludes to his visits and in 1425, and to the sermons he preached in those years, during may be eaid that he preached unceasingly in northern and central Italy. B.

until this
est

50

still

\

coming year, the fourth year, and
fruit
to

thou

yield-'

not
!

him,

beware, Siena, beware, and ag-ain/
in other

beware

waited your conversion these four years.

that God hath He hath provided for you in your need that you may amend yourselves for the first year he gave thee many corporal blessings, which have protected thee against mortal infirmity and many othor adversities. Tlie second year he gave thee many temporal

You may understand

ways

;

grain, wine, oil, herds, and of each in grei.jt abundance, and flocks. And truly he gave thee these thinjj's that thou shouldst yield fruit, but thou hast been mea^iwhile and still art more hard of heart than thou hast ever

blessings

;

been.

The

third year he gave thee spiritual blessings.

How

many excellent who have come
Believe me,

preachers have you had, most able teachers
to this city of

yours only for thy salvation! he will be unwilling to wait for a longer time. If thou await the fourth year

God hath waited
fruit

so long that

and yield not
cursed people!
is

to

God,

he

Avill

say

:

Down, down,

Thou

hast naught to excuse thee

— the earth
;

and hast been thy vice and thy sin hath been pointed out to thee. Knowest thou what God will do after. that time in which he will wait no longer? He will cause the earth to be ploughed and hoed for you will die of pestilence like dogs, and with death
laboured
;

thou art illumined,

;

he will send one so great that people will be lacking in so great number that there will not be enough oi you to help one another. Nor will this suffice. He will send a war so terrible that they Avill not be a.ble to till the ground,

and they

will not gather in the harvesting of grain or wine,

then there will follow so great a famine that you will

see

your own children die of hunger.

X.

Of

the

anger and pride of sinners.

Are you used, women, to fly into a passion ? I see certain of you nere that are so lean and spent' I believe that at times you do even get one another by the hair. I am looking also to see if there be any here with a black
1,

^

""*"

^*

reviled, do not at

gnce jiy into
passion.

a

eye, because ofttimes they do even devise quarrels in their
it that there is a kind ot anger which is not As when thou dost chastise, and dost grow angry, in training up those of thy household and at times too thou wilt reply in anger of a sudden, and thou knowest that thou

sleep. True" is

a sin.

;

speakest

in

anger, and thou dost check thyself

:

this

is

not

a mortal sin. Rather indeed I say to thee further, that

by

such anger as this thou mayest even merit, for if thou seest one who doth evil, and thou wishest to chastise and admonish him,' and of a sudden there cometh to thee a thought

which
resist

is
it,

far

from good, and thou dost check thyselt and

then thou dost merit.
resistance, the

And

the greater the struggle
merit.

and thy
hast
it

more thou dost
Irascimini
is this

Whence thou
Be ye The teachword is said

in

the Psalms

:

et

nolite peccare

angry and
to you,

sin not. See that thou dost resist sin.
^
:

ing of Brother James

When any

little

do not thou fly at once into a passion, because perhaps God hath permitted this to be said to thee, so that thou mayest acquire merit. Would you be convinced of this ? Tell me. What merit shouldst thou have if any should
'I.
*

e.,

with rage.

James of the Marches.

-- 52

-

hatefully reproach thee, or do thee an injury and thou hadst

not patience
art
it
;

? None what? oever. Knowest thou how thou made? Thou art worse than this wood.* Let me prove I say to this wood Thou art an unthankful creature,
:

and wicked. See you that it hath said naught in reply to this, but hath been patient ? Thou wilt say ; It hath then merited? No, because it hath no soul. But what sayest thou of man ? Man hath a soul, and is endowed with an understanding faculty, and hath knowledge, and can reply. And if aught ill be spoken to a man or to a woman, and he hath patience, at once he acquireth merit, and it is a glorious merit. What a blessed thing it is to have patience
!

woman who hast a querulous mother-in-law law who hast a perverse daughter-in-law, if
tience,

;

mother-in-

thou hast pa-

thou wilt always acquire merit.
!

thou with a per!

thou with a perverse husband thou dost always acquire merit whensoever thou hast patience. But although thou be wroth sometimes, let not thy
verse, unreasonable wife

anger pass beyond the bounds of reason, and if thou wilt always have such patience thou dost ever merit. Of one who 2. There is however an anger which is called the anger ^^ grace. This anger may be kindled when tbou hearest or ^anTthmrepent seest those things which are wicked, and thou canst not ed. endure them, and hast not patience in regard to them, because they are in contempt of God, and against His commandments, and thou because of thy zeal for God hast not patience. I will tell of a thing which befell at Perugia There was a man who blasphemed God out in the Piazza, and another man, hearing him, struck him a blow on the mouth. At once the man who had received the blow, recognizing that he had said what was wrong, said to the one who had dealt it, give me another, and he turned his other cheek to him. The father hearing that this his son had been struck by that other, hastened there at once, and when he knew the cause of it, said to the one who had struck him the blow that he should give him another one. All this was out of zeal for God. I say that here there is merit, and the one who blasphemed acquired merit also by his patience.

:

'

Of the pulpit from which he

is

preaching.

hearing the cause and the reason for which this man had been moved to treat the other thus. and after that I had besought your porter again and again to open to me. . and gave him many blows and kicks and thus fled.* Such anger when it doth proceed from such a source. this man hearing the blasphemies at once Mm. he arrived at the gate. . is. holy and seized the porter. I say. finally he opened to me blaspheming God most shamefully. Psalms LXVIII Iq. And he was pardoned for the quarrel he had with the porter. „ was struck by a certain man. said to him: Thou hast done excellently well. ' M l'or the zeal of tliy lioase hath eaten me up ». gave him as you could know and see^ many a kick and a blow. And he said And I am well satisfied. and blasphemer — 1 Also there was in Florence at the governor's gate • a man who wished 1js A. because I wished to demand of you a favour.i?j. When he ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^o^ had opened it. He was sent after. Then the governor. and then he What favour didst thou wish from me ? He asked him replied I wished such and such a favour.i J governor J. gate did not wish to open it : The man who wtts at the but in the end the other said '^°^ ''^« governor pardoned the one BO much to him that he opened it. Zelus domus tuae comedit me.1 to demand a go before the ~ '-' favour. I not being able to suffer this insult to God. and was at length taken.3. because he did this out of zeal for God. 63 of a Florentine who _. to T. . when he had beaten him : : : : : righteous. When the governor asked him Why didst thou beat my porter ? he said I came to speak to you. cursing God.

XI. you sliall be as Gods knowing good and evil and so he caused her to fall. and said to her: Eritis sicut Dii scien- and cvcn before the beginning of the was formed he sought became incarnate world. this fashion They made men take up certain devices when they were divided into different factions. Of the love of one's neigKbour. and Satan Christ throughout said to the Destroying of those places wherein that Demon Since we have been cast we used to be adored. apd he made : we may be them love and honour and reverence these devices so that they were held more dear than any other thing. they took counsel among themselves. let us so : out act but in another manner than that which is past. in the form of a serpent with the face of a beautiful woman. And being cast out of them. and even be- terrestrial paradise. he entered into those idols. they were cast out by the Apostles from those images wherein they had been adored. in order to you shall eat of this apple. almost all the world. whotakeththe sideoruareihthe device of a faction 1. he tempted Eve our first mother. and they were loved more than God. sliow thee that way which the devil ^^^^^^ ^^ acloriid. And when Christ came in the flesh. We will bring it about that we shall be adored in so hidden a manner that we shall be left undisturbed. Again at many divers times he sought to be adored by other ways and acts and deeds and thoughts. As every one then can see clear- . And then they did in adored. and when His voice and His faith grew and spread. In the be adored.^^^ — I wisli to ^^^. j^. Before Christ adoreth the devil. because they will not perceive us. which endured until the time of tes et : honum malum If . fore the world to be adored.

He allows them to fall through their desires into shamefulness and filth. ^ ^^^ a matter of conscience or that they avoid partisans the devil carry lohich this sin. whither . „ are occasion of sin. or that they do penance for it? it I tell thee if they I they have adored. . One hath the great eagle with : Avings outspread is so that devil we may understand and say ! Oh. : restitution. Oh. I. and it grieveth him. carrj'- arms and devices with their standards and these are hung up there that they may remain in memory of one who is dead. . and he is bound to make : ! ! — Thepainterwho paints such . and tie doth remember the offence that hath been done as if it had been done to God. This is a When one giveth an occasion of injury it is as rule of law if he had done the injury himself.ly. there they the great their Likewise in the churches. kuowest thou what is said of thee? Qui occasionem damni dat. Vropter quod tiadidit illos Deus in reprobum sensum : wherefore God gave them up to shameful affections. to show how he hath persisted in such adoration even to death.^2. he who hath it in his house.o^ symbols goes «''e to home of the devil. he who sees it. and first the man who has it painted. have died in gates. and so in a hidden manner are the devils adored. have at in their times seen over the entrance to their homes and over their arms and devices which they carry ever hearts. Thou hast the devil above thee Enough. Then seeing this I have said Lord God. 2. What do I niean ? Even to the tomb they carry that God whom they have adored. he who all go to the home of the devil. he who paints it. Sometimes I have seen them even at the head of the crucifix. datnnum dedisse videtur. chap. Seest thou not made for this injury by him how great injury thou doest? Thousands of creatures are lost by the making of this device. can not — ^"«"^ »""' '^* to thee by they make those this who are partisans. . it. and do the contrary of that which they should do. -. hath gone ill with all of them. enough Consider thou now. in the confessions which have been made device of a faction. 55 - whosoever doth hold with a faction or doth bear the suffer that any ill be said of this party. who paint such arms and devices as 3. what may and can happen to them at their death. •in-. -. if satisfaction is not who did it. priest. And therefore loveth it said Paul in his epistle to the Romans. painters. dost thoa see to it that ^^^ ^^.

by young. So hath the devil brought it to pass tJiat this matter shall not be forgotten. if they the thing seen better than the thing heard. young men. which are adored even in the churches^ as you see. I say that though I have said it now. by the lowly and by the great and all those who follow this faction or have followed this. . a man was hanged many years ago in a certain place. I ask of thee that for their — — ! — : ' I. there is no need of many proofs. and you women.citizens. And I have been in many and many where they do hold to them and adore them. in a very little while they will not re4. all go to the home of destruction. quam a udita. And they have had made there paintings and images with the arms so that these may never depart from the minds of men. to symbols made. Do you wish to understand this ? young men. Wouldst thou know how many sins follow upon it ? More yet.men. Says Bonaventure Plus movent visa. my fellow. as you see is done here and they are adored by old and young. e. these images. From an-example you will understand me. have any of thy dear ones died ? Wouldst thou know whether they are saved or damned? Yes.. If thou seest their banners. I ask of thee that if my father or my mother. and they do excellently well. or any kinsman of mine hath died in the love of these factions of which I speak. They would not torget because we remember it so quickly. these banners. say g^ ^^ ^^ thosc who belong to the devil. and of my kinsmen. Then look. it.Wt remember letter that 56 - we see which than that which we hear. My Lord Jesus Christ. for they violate even the church of God. . These things you see every day. if thou seest them there *. by women. The end of it I have told thee all to the home of the devil 5. he hath had these The prayer of ^tt'" against those ivho have held parties. We remember better the things which we see than the things which we hear. And therefore. where God alone should be adored. of . women. which never wished to hold to a faction. which they have kept for love of a faction. above their tombs. : member had seen it. have Been at times cities which do not hold to which Venice is one. I wish you to hear a prayer which I will make this morning for the souls of my father and of my mother. — I factions.

for their souls. . B. they were separated by a curtain half the height of a man. the greater would be the number of those tempted. which divided the space before the pulpit into two equal parts. . my God. example. . And moreover I pray thee. Only by seeing the devices. And they will all go there if they cherish them unto them.. — m . and even he "'^^ ** '^^'' makes them.. should strip herself naked and were standing up here in the midst of you women. ' . many and many! And the more beautiful she was. we come to remember the man who is dead and so to love or to hate him. : In those days it was the custom at serroons to separate the men from the women.- 67 - souls may not avail either any mass or any prayer that I have ever said in behalf of any one of them. and he who makes them. peril of going to the home of the g^^„ ^^ ^^„ ^^^^ who sees them. only because of being seen ? For aevn. If a woman among you. to how many women and men thinkest thou there would come to a temptation? I say to thee merely from seeing this. And in this way thou mayest see and understand that in every way there is sin in it. And this prayer is made 6. And there. Dost thou wish to see this more clearly? How many " the home of the things come to be desired. So I woald say of the arms and the devices. . J^« '^^o *« * Hast thou seen how the devils have been able to find a way so that they may be adored? Yes. . it any one of them hath held to a faction unto the time of his death. a custom which still exists in our country parishes. „ „ . he doth follow the same party. .- '' * — . and he who keeps them. who keeps them. are all devil. So the man who did not know him asketh Who was this man ? And so when he hath known.^J^^J^ ^^ \l fore I say that he who is a follower of the devices. and hath never confessed this. As may be seen in the paintings which represent the Saint preaching in the Piazza. and . To the right of the preacher were the women. that a thousand devils may have their souls and that for them there may not be redemption. and the painted standards and pennons. are aii in pf^^f going to death. with their linen head-coverings to his left were the men.

If one of you had a shoulder that pained and the cure were applied to the heel. So therefore we should apply the cure to j^^^ ^^j. first of Septhember. it would not serve. It is well to spea things of those which it behooveth '° *"• rulers spoke yesterday of the living and harmonious ^^^ another which there should be anions ^ us. Or dost thou wish^ if thy head doth ache. we will continue the matter commenced. which I consider to be equally useful and necessary as any matter that I could preach. Of governments and 1. tlie for I becoming have arrived late. ' ' . and cursed Old Scratch did not wish us to preach to the end as we had commenced but he shall be well paid for it. the day on whlch the li. it things which have assumed office. with the help of the blessed Jesus. And that I should let my words be few. — We that part wherein lieth the ofifence. Hearken! This morning the new this rulers who govern your It and doth occur often. lioiv we sliould govern with justice. we will preach in regard of this matter. .* good to speak of . Because this is a very great error into which you have all fallen. and with interest. * This sermon was preached on tho rulers regularly assumed office. since all this week. that each one of tliem may learn it. so that they may know well how to rule the republic rightly.XII. new . it is ' So in jest lie blames the devil for rain wliich liad preveuted his finishing tho preceding sorniou. and this defect which you have in you must be cured in that part in which it is found to lie. that the cure be applied to thy shoulder ? I say if thou hast an ache in thy head apply the cure to thy head if thou hast an ache in thy arm apply it to thy arm.those behooveth them to perform and in order city is . Well then.

thou who wouldst practise prudence. possess is justice. that is with his grace. Even God and not of thyself . art empty. how so to do. Another Another quality which he who governs should 3. although thou wilt deceive thyself. tnou suait u Consider thyself and look how fitted thou art to govern enUght. Wouldst thou love justice? Then fail not: see that thou dost punish with mercy do not hinder it. Now if thou knowest not how to rule and govern thyself. without the grace of Grod./"***"*• that thou — is inces decline fore is it when justice is not maintained there. of not being able to. And should possess. What are kingdoms without justice ? Know. there- highly commended. who ofttimes with humility doth mingle pride. And of what? Of not wishing to govern thyself. Knowest thou to govern thyself? How far art thou able to govern ? How able art thou to keep thyself from sin? How able art thou to do those things which concern the safety of thy soul ? But poorly.- 59 - and the error was mine into which I fell through ig-norance. the more God will fill thee with air and with grace. Stand with bowed head. God will fill thee full. — Dost thou desire to rule well ? Keep thou thy ^o '«^« «»«" head bowed in humility. so thou mayest understand . thou who dost wish to practise the virtue of humility. do not in thiswise. Seet thou not for thyself that thou art empty? Yes. though perchance thou dost deeeive men. consider this of if thou because of thyself alone thou wouldst do only evil and if thou knowest that thou art empty.with air. because it is most plain and apparent that cities and prov. Diliglte iustUiam qui iudicatis terram Love justice you that are the judges of the earth.ned by others. and who dost oft. verily thou wilt certainly not deceive God. 2. I thought I was to preach at a quarter of an hour before Tierce. be a hollo. of not know^ ing rulest well. and so thou wilt be a hollow reed ^J^j^^^^n^ so and wilt listen to all with sweet and yielding magnanimity. As I speak of this virtue. What shouldst thou do ? Be humble^ and so thou shalt be enlightened by God. for thou canst never deceive God.w réed. think with how ill success thou art able to govern others. do nothing feignedly. times use so great malice. and the more thou shalt recognize .^^^l^Ztis est thou what they are ? They are very great robbery.

and deceive Bend everything forward straight to its end. . and am the lord of them all. listen to this story. And therefore I wish that everyone should tell me his sin. he mounted into a seat. I have heard that through your fault many injuries have been performed. confessing their error. And so seated the lion said I am unwilling that we should be less than others in such a matter. nor left. Come before me all of you each in turn to accuse yourselves as sinners of that which you have done. traitor. 1 done ofttimes. nor to the How the lion 4. that to it should neither bend backwards nor forwards. Saith the ass Sire. And so when they were assembled. I belong to a peasant. where as sinners they accused themselves of the sins which they had committed. I address myself to him whom it toucheth. and taketh me into the city to sell it it hath sometimes happened that I have taken a mouthful of it on the way thither. and knelt down and said: Sire. I who am the superior of the ani- mals on the earth. and so thou wilt have the staff of office.of all the others. in which chapter 1 wish that every sin shall be told. the right. and when he was in it. Says the lion : if the friars hold a general chapter for themselves all all before their superior. mercy Saith the lion What hast thou done. and thus have : . not. I desire that we hold a chapter as the friars do. What is the staff of office ? Knowest-thou. animal ^° respect of this. It was said to the ass that he should go first and the ass went forward to the Hon. and at times he loadeth me with panniers of straw. what hast thou done ? Tell it. : ! : : . the little rod which is put in the hand of the governor and also of many other administrators ? That signifìeth how he should use justice towards everyone. 60 - Go on straight in the way. A most beautiful example comes to me woman mark this. all The lion once heard that the friars had held a chapter and how he m judged them. should I be less than they? And at once he had a chapter' proclaimed of all the animals that they should come before him. and every wrong that is done because I being the superior wish to know them. — Hearken. without that my master perceived it. and that justice should stand upright. he ordered that they should seat themselves about him. thief. Then saith the lion : thief.

and this was done. And straightway he ordered that the ass should be seized and that he should be bufifetted with many blows. them. and in like manner fell down upon her knees asking for mercy. thyme. Dost thou make it a great matter with thy conscience that thou eaten these herbs. After him went the goat before the lion. who had a little yard where there were many sweet smelling herbs. Thou hast a good excuse because thou art Inclined by thy nature to do so. as I go. And beonuse they believed that . though at times I have carried away one or more. go. and : came fell : the lion Now tell thy — flew to the ground at once in fright. Go. The goat saith my fault. I assoil thee. and I would eat what I could. which were very tender. which is that I have gone at times into the yards of certain women and there have I done damage. Quoth the lion Tush So I have met with two consciences that differ widely. and most of all in the yard of a widow. Tush go. and at times I have broken into the yard where they lodge. which is that I have killed many hens and eaten them. — is go gaily. for I cropped off the tops.villain ! 61 - knowest thou not what wrong thou hast done? And make restitution of that which thou hast stolen and eaten. not trouble thee. and even some basil and many a time have I spoiled certain cabbages and certain little young trees. and the rest I would leave there dead. After the goat next on his knees before the lion Saith sins. I confess done ? tell thy sin. and sometimes I have done so much that I have lelt nothing green in them. marjoram. and think no more of it. I confess my fault. they and then I ran among them and as naruiy of them as I could reach I killed. while the other hath a hast it conscience too easy. I have feigned that my tail was a stick and. it was a stick. what hast thou done ? Said the fox: Sire. and because I saw that I could not reach them. parsley. it of the nature of goats to do this. so I have done in many yards. as hath that thief of an ass. And as I did this damage to her.^ that it was my intent to throw it up at the fox. Saith the lion What hast thou My lord. One hath a conscience when wilt thou be able to : : . Of this sin you need say naught. and give no thought to I ! let it. Eh go thy way in peace — go. : ! so tender that it is too delicate.

the sheep came there.* thief. I have sometimes passed along the roads on the side where oats are sown. — and thou robbest on the way. cursed thief. very high. ' The first syllahle of the Italian -word hene « good ». e. to see in what condition it was. those hens. 'be. so thou hast then done so great evil as this ? And ! thou goest about ever saying: &e. I have gone at times around the sheepfold. Masaying &e. and seeing those tender green little shoots. and straightway I killed more sheep than I had need of. Go. then wolf came and said My lord.. Saith the lion dame Hypocrite ? She doth reply Sire. Thou knowest that the net all roundabout it is very. what ! evil thou hast done Away ! Give her a good beating Give her such a beating that you break her bones. that tender part. and I try to go in and out again with this. treacherous thief. And when I have done this. which I think doth weigh as much as a sheep. and she came with hanging head. Saith the lion: here we have another tender conscience! Knowest thou Avhat I say to thee ? Do not have such things on thy conscience. ^ And when the fox had gone. without any thought of me. What hast thou done. I have eaten such delicious mouthfuls of them I have not plucked them up by the roots^ but I have cropped off the tops. and at times have I climbed to the hedge. and this I do so that I may not be overtaken by the dogs. go ! — Go all that thou dost is of thy na- no penance. And when I found the opening. And so when the wolf had left. . Then of those the : : : : ! saith the lion : cursed &e. and see that you keep her three days without eating aught.62 Saith the lion 0. and I have noted well the opening by which I can enter most easily. * I. and do not be disturbed except in regard ture. I tell thee even which remain. I give thee in thee. I enter. I went for a log of wood. and I came away carrying one. and act boldly from this time forward. and I do not account it a sin that thou dost valiantly to do as thou hast done. thou hast too tender a conscience : ! thy way in peace. as softly as I could with the burden of the log.

And therefore I say to you: thou who governest. or a poor man who doth say or do some s As for ^"'"^ Z 'C out Cut flesh of others. In his business ho steadily manifested his uprightness and honesty. thou Shearman. when shall we return prophecy they said to him: to our homes. his trade. antl then it Avill happen to you so another time. there is much eyes. kill him ! Kill him ! That is what you want ! And they are so despoiled that naught remaineth to them. ut Siena. B. and certain exiles had set out for Pisa. » Here he addresses that Benedetto. He died Decembers. He spoke these words to buy iron combs '^ for wool. then doth he cover it. now I wish thee to have an example. who day atter . attend and hearken to these good words. every the which I know not whether thou hast ever heard. which was gone. ing that time in which he was a : When they shall be full of sins deserving of punishment. But if the widow it be the wretched sheep. 1289. from which we have been driven out by him who was more powerful than we? The blessed Peter replied. you shall return. there had been one of those changes of government trade. trifle. 6. ' A little street of Ihe city his nama: it is supposed that here he carried on his business. Wolf and wolf devour not one another. and they shall be driven out. so frequent in the history of Siena. they will ' It is this « Peter the Comb-MercTiant » to whom Alighieri refers in Canto XIII of his Purgatory. a man deservedly enrolled among the « beatified » of Siena becanee of the integrity of his life. as ho longed to the «Thinl Order of for wool. or the goat. and theirs have been washed away. the selling of combs That is. On the way they met with the blessed Peter as he was returning to Siena. of V justice were not done. he doth cover it so that it is not seen. 63 — Crows never Woif and woif <'«'""*''/*'" OtilBTf — Oh. ' and write them down. salt in this story! pick out one another' example: when a wicked wolf or a fox doth anything. Believing that he had the gift of Peter.^ He had gone to Pisa Mi of iniquity. — List ! and durgovernment had been overthrown at Siena. do 7iot beat the ass and the sheep for a trifle and commend the wolf and the fox for a grievous crime. a shearer of cloth by day wrote down the sermons as they were delivered. but they eat the flesh of others. By puhlio ordinance a marble monument had bebears still was erected to his memory in the St. that when your sins shall have multiplied. Church of San Francesco Prancis». as doth the cat. or the orphan.— 5. of i^nd ivouia be what Peter the Comb-Merchant said. that is. and when you shall be purged of your sins.

punish. or restrain him in order that he shall not longer practise his vice. measure the people. every city would be full of iniquity. And even then close up his mouth. and even all Italy. . If there be an evil-doer in the city. measure the community. so that it may not stink. seldom Shalt thou find injustice there. that is. and that he may not make thy room stink: because God permitteth that this should be done? and if thou puttest it in the out-place. be plucked up by the . : ! — man be wicked you imprison him. shut him away so that he may not do harm to others. thou wilt never gather it in at the harvest. See that if a wilt not do so. And therefore says John Measure the temple of God and them that adore therein. Hast thou understood this? It is were not done.— return and drive if 64 — out. measure the subi'ect. thou So if . he will ruin the rest of the company. hold to justice and punish the wicked. measure the city. correct him and punish him either punish him. until the evil official see that thou dost not roots. seldom indeed wjill there be robbery if the traitor be taken away seldom will there be treachery and so I say of every vice. Seest thou not how each one doth in his own house ? That because the dung is putrid and fetid. but the may ! ruin not whole city. justice not spring up. for if the thief be taken away. official. thou dost take away the wicked from a city. his It is possible that one evil-doer alone. own house And thererest fore punish. Thou seest this example pjainly. if the grass doth you because. I say to thee.

slioìiìd love our neighhour. In the beginning thou seest that God created Adam alone. and this too is a mystery. Did not God wish the generation of humanity to have its beginning in a mystery? This was merely because of the harmony that should exist among us. see to it that thou dost always help him. he did not create Adam and Eve together. for these he itfromoncaiont. he made one male and the other female: and so all thebeastSj two and two. nor yet from his feet. We do when thou dost shove away the not f^hou dost always "^''^ " — ' thus in respect of the beasts and the animals. at f"*" ^^^~^ ° from plurality. yet that she should still be drawn forth from Adam. ! . and if thou to theC. to signify that man must not degrade his wife. I say. and loveth with his — He who truly lovelh. created two and two. Do not so wjtien thou seest that a certain thing is needful for the god'd of thy neighbour. And again thou seest whence he formed woman: he created her not from the head of man. two oxen. Jive in heart. And for this reason. he did draw her forth and form her from the middle in order that they should be equal one unto the other. In like manner he made the birds. two asses that Is. see to it that must of necessity wish to do as the ass: ass ^J^^^ '^ dost draw it it will push itself towards thee. the same time^ but Adam first. we. and then Eve. .Hoiv 1. it draweth itself backwards. He made two goats. he should hold her as a woman and not as a slave. He did not wUUmMntaTceth harmony with cill. moreover See that ke wished not to draw her rule man from man' s feet. Animals take 2. two sheep. Not thus did he do in respect of the beasts. but he created her from the middle. to signify that woman is not the things go ill indeed when she doth overhead of man.

Again thon knowest that in thus they were preserved in the ark flood. you wlio are here.All the things that God hath made in this world. — ! ! ! . the sun with its heat doth melt the ice. it is one doth abide as he bath established.— two. His Jove must be united in one. the air. fire. since he wished to preserve upon the earth those souls which were good. and maketh it to spread out as water. And as I say of animate nature. the time of the one male and one female. bones. war not one against another. and cold. dry. or nigh as many. that thej'. What have I heard of merciful thing was that Ay me you ? thou who dost hold a prisoner for a debt of three what florins. so do I say of inanimate nature. Again you see in man divers things: there is in him flesh. 3. and thou seest how it doth distil beneath the and this doth earth. Thou seest make of itself ice above the earth. 4. not divided in many and in divers ways. Mark that which I say. the male 66 and the female. the What a mercito ful deed aid prisoners. ay me then dost thou wish from him if he be not able to pay thee? that each the water in winter . And yet these all are within the body and keep man alive. hot. many divers things exist together in nature. for although they be contrary yet do they come together in mutual correspondency to make the earth bear fruit.never war in any manner against the tendency given them by nature. the earth. well I knoAv what was done in Rome^ when there was collected so much money that by it prisoners were libwhat a erated from thirty prisons. for water is in opposition with fire. yet is there so great concurrence amcmg them. and yet God hath disposed and placed them in such a way He made the water. and while so many divers things are here together. yet they are his books. blood. And so I say this clearly showeth and proveth man to be a beast whensoever he doth become estranged from pure love. the air with the earthy and the earth with the water. Although so . I say that the beasts take their beginning from plurality. humid. and there dost let him pine away. while man taketh it from one alone. nerves. I know not how you are used to do. In like manner man hath this fourfold nature. although there were there more of men. and from this the gourds grow up bring forth the vines and the fruits of the trees. and and these four elements are by their nature far distant one from another.

provide for these ! whom if the city hath this you be unable to aid them. — Thou shouldst if take example from the beasts. in what ! what then do confusion will the cruel man is find himself. and maketh him to waste away and — there. boys. the when you take captive swallows. thou who hast a debt of five soldi. I am the Lord of the World!' Shall not all be permitted to come there where is the Lord of the World? surpass belief that I here. at least have compassion on them in your hearts. That am preaching in Siena. that at least those debtors who are unable to pay. ^ And should have a worse return because they can not to the preachit doth seem to me you than Ah am ! let them come hither ! to me in this little while that I with you 6. shut up. thou hast not intelligence of thyself to little "'*' boys. learn. his fellow ' I.love of God.. 67 ! Dost thou wish his flesh ? Alas have pity on him for the If thou seest that he is unable to pay. or who are fled from Siena ^ remain here ing to in safety. those I would say who are here the preaching. when I preach the Gospel I repceaent the Lord of the World. women. from ah. that when one doth squeal all the others run to aid him. So mayest thou see of the swine which are merciful one towards another. but he hath not even compassion on him. mother birds? All the mother swallows unite together. Oh! tle. those who are imprisoned for debt or those who have fled from Siena be- cause of their debts. For the ti- love of the Virgin Mary. .. Worse than the birds is man Oh. and dost 6. and do in every way endeavour to aid the little pretty birds. I hold that thou art not merciful. this is called the city of mercy. ! who hath not compassion on him who For thou seest that the beast is more merciful than thou art. * e. e. it is God who speaks tbiough me. that these might come for so long as I I am from have had in those other places where I have preached. I asked of thee ' on jt would be a merdfui thing if e orsmig '* come to the day before yesterday a boon. make him not so to waste away and die in this manner. while I is. Not so doth man: not alone doth he not endeavour to aid his brother. for the love of Grod I pray you take thought at least for some beds. Man ^""^ is wan ^'''^^ a from the birds. keep the debtor in prison. * I. Oh.

I am not. see at least that thou dost grieve thereat. We are all brothers. I need not take thought for this.. hath the finger which hath no ring envy to that which hath ? Take example from Saint Francis. And he hath envy to him. bccausc I heard that there was very great *^^"^^ y^"^ mouth closed dissension among you. all good renown^ every honour.citizens? .' it : 8. if he must guard his lands. In respect of all this the gain is mine. and was so glad of it that he said: I am as glad of — . all wisdom. • : as if it were mine. ^^^ therefore every good thing that thou seest of thy neigh. BuLphtZiZ ^^^^ have had half of his ^^*^ ^®®^ *^® occasiono! my coming? The occasion was this. and to pay men at arms. every gift of nature. see that thou art glad of it. And I I said within myself: all to I do good others. I must not. It were well that the envioas man should have more eyes than the peacock^ and that he should see all the benefits that every creature doth possess in order that he might burst anon wholly. look to it that thou dost rejoice thereat together with him. and that thou dost Btmardine had endeavour bring about peace there. woman. if he have to spend money. If Friar — When to thou hearest of dissension among others. He hath tribulations and cares in the maintenance of his high estate. as far as in you lies. who rejoiced in the good which the' King of France had. and he is in danger of losing. if he be in danger of poisoning. giving then these reasons for it If he be at war. every benefit which he hath. by so much more should he rejoice. t . Hence Paul teaching us this maxim saith Gaudete cum gaudeniibus Rejoice with them that rejoice. am not bound most of my fellow. and see that thou beest armed against the accursed sin of envy.naM Francis wai glad of the good that oame to others as if it were his own. If thou see one receive something good. -i. and by how much greater the good. all beauty. I am not. He should rejoice that his fellow hath aught good. hast thou envy to thy and is sorrowful thereat. and I have somewhat to eat without any peril whatsoever. if it be possible. finger which hath a ring ? Or. and it was said to be even if greater to "^' than it is. n n bour. Let it never be out of thy mind that we are all from One Seed begotten by one father. And so he rejoiced in the good fortune of others as if it were his own. Do I speak to you obscurely^ so that you understand me not? 7.

. And I wished to come in the manner in which I am come. And I the love I be<ir to all of you. In monte salvum te fac First of all save thyself. in order to be able to speak out freely for so shall I be able to say that which I wish to say. I could not have done as I now do. before any other. after my own will. for this reason I grieved the more over it. half of my mouth would have been closed up. as soon as Easter was passed.-thus: in this condition should I have been. but with a close mouth. for were I come so soon. * He adds to the vividness of his words by tightly closing his mouth. I withheld myself out of fear lest I might be inveigled. Were I come as you wished me to come here^ as your Bishop. say unto you that because of every word I heard from And you wherein goodness was wanting was to me a bombarde. and to speak of everything rather after my own habit. B. And were it not for the matter of the Bishopric I should have come here straightway. and boldly to admonish you of your sins. . because the faith I have in you is so great that I think there is no religious in whom you believe more than you do in me. in order to illustrate Lo-^v the episcopal dignity would have interfered with his liberty of speech.69 Verily in tratli I am. See. but I turned first to consider myself. ^ so that I should in no way have been able to speak.

Laedetur quasi vinea. that all the women should go clothed after one fashion. — Consider i^j-jjig. beoanee I am content to b« as I am. Knowest thou that which . yet just cause. although to myself ^ I seem so. nor Emperor. flare money. I would say times it ? As the grape. I there unused. and then thyself as take thy money and not afterwards thy money with thee: for if he love rather thy. those who take to themselves a wife that " : awomanaiidnot after a doivry. in prima batrus ejus. e. be unwilling to take husband one who hath it in his thought to thee. thou knowest. This I say because if it lay in my might I would introduce as a practice. for many doth befor that the woman lie is endowed with much dowry. what feeling of friendliness think you can there be ? And even if the dowry gjjQ j^g^y tiiem a fail" come. Hmv the husband should love his wife. as the Roman women. and this great dowry are made garments of very great price. and' in Mice manner Everyman should seek after goodness in 1. since thou hast thou shouldst have regarded the doing of for ofttimes much which afterwards money many do doth cause repent of. and then they had of them. the wife her husband. and no manner is of how wrong a fashion this! good is Hearken! Pope. But wish rather to take him who wisheth first before all else to take thee.XIV.. And to therefore I say to you^ woman. and then the dowry cometh not. . dowiT when it hath been proHiised. who all go neither < am I. in blossom then next the shoot grow- ing up doth become a tendril fall . is the friendliness such as springeth not from a not had regard to that which . it is not well.

pardons » their garments of and patterns. it is dowry alone which maketh not even a fair dowry nor it beauty. if she should have both if . see is. And when they go into a house of death. And as well. But if another woman should have more than this one. even the wives of famous princes. 2. that women. will fear God. will give alms and offer prayers to the all ed by honour of God. white cloth of linen. When they go to the they go simply clad they do not go trailing nor do they spoil these with cutting them in designs cloth. as well -as the other women. and of having this. . When she doth arrive at her husband's wi/e. sions. stones will say well of her. house. and shall have beauty and right feeling. . nor beauty. the lirst thing that is it said to her. — See now how goeth when and the man taketh her in order that he a woman marries. to it about that she is greatly. of good customs. may have her posses•^ u not the ^ f'"*'^ "J""' which inaketh Hast thou got her possessions without goodness or him care for his virtue besides? Yes. there will be great! dowry and beauty er friendliness: if you add thereunto if that she is rich. will carry herself kindly towards her father-in-law. they go all of them. And marry. she will bear children.* Within a very little while there will be no true friendliness between them. and with it so great waste much it •^'\*'. will treat all of the household lovingly. it is said to her in deeds for in faith he took thought only of the dowry. shall be of such condition. loved. who have daughyou let your daughters have ocoasions That when they go to church od those when pardon may be ohtained through a plenary indulgence. true. 71 — wear on their To their praise they all backs and on their heads. wise. If one shall possess goods. It is not the a not they Oh fair ! if she do with her alone but the very To such as these will true man to care for his wife. and truly this manner « of dress * doth please after them. clad in nionrning goAvns . love be shown. me miglitily. * Beoauae of her greater pretentioaenesB._ clad in cloth of liiien. ters to • but only goodness bringeth therefore. is this : Thou art ^^"gXTtbZ that she is greatly '''^*^- not welcome here! be not said to her in words. oh then she is indeed a shrew. for when she shall grow a little yellow then he will not care so much for her. and those who shall have will to make herself belov.

obeyest never. Of what kind wishest thou this wife to be ? Ag thou dost wish thy wife lo j if^isix her virtuous. There is a country where the women are married by measure. and when tlie measure of this maiden was made she was the tallest among them all. a little wren this fifoeth not well. and thou wouldst scold at a straw that falleth athwart thy feet. e. in truth she please th me well But the maiden seeing him so insignificant as he was. . and thou art crazod This goeth not well. this *"" *"' gc'eth not well. e. and he was a little tiny fellow. thou must needs be so thyself. and thou dost never leave to be ? I wish her temperate. nor any one else thou dost not deserve her.^^ wìsh a womaii who is wbolly wise and good. said And thou plcasest me not. * and thou art no hen. and thou always the tavern. of virtue. ^. eubmiesive. . imperious dictatorial.. beautiful. that if thou wishest her to bo of such condition. and thou art a waster of the whole day. ' wh© wish to have a wife. and thou art uudergrown. and Becjuise he saith : beaumi. How do you wish this woman to be? ^ZdinTgnificant. ^ I. * How dost thou wish her to be ? I wish her good. ^^^^ ^^^^^ kiiowest tiiou whv ? . of what kind dost thou wish her thyself. How and thou dost thou wish her to be ? I wish her obedient. How dost thou wish her to be ? I wish her not to play the part of the cock. I do not wish her greedy. with thy dainty morsel of fried liver How dost thou wish her to be ? I wish her busied about things. I ! maiden rejected a yovth who %vas like aimiewren. humble. neither father. Further. Again. wished to see her and he was brought to see her by the brothers of the maiden and she was shoAvn to him barefoot. How dost thou wish her to be ? I wish her mild.the their 72 that they be dowry 3. if you wish loved by husbands. and thou art dishonest. a crazed man accords well ^'^^^^^ ^ cj'azcd womah. Finally they said to him: Well. with nothing on her head. This is not well. doth she please thee? AjuI he said Oh. . Aha how well he deserved that 4. then.. Sow a tall — There be many ^^^^. And it happened once that one of those who wished a wife. strutting about in pride. accustomed to the practice of every virtue. good I. wise. Thus I reply to thee. I wish her tall. nor mother. : ! : ! ! — — — ! — — — : — that like as thou goest * in search of and a- virtuous wife.

obedient and courteous? It is not this. so think that she doth wish thoe to be. is a better proof. which illuminates all the earth. virtuous. Knowest thou how well the woman doth become the house? As the sun. women. . little slime and look at the water that off. tall wife. lee each one take clean water not this. temperate. Of a man and a woman let each one wash as well as they know how and are able to do. to j^ottse. . shalt see it. and I say that the woman is cleaner and more precious in respect of her flesh than the man is and I say that whosoever hold to a contrary opinion he doth lie in his throat. let us draw our reasoning from this And woman was made of flesh and bone. Wouldst thou know how to answer and tell me 5. fl^^t'^nthe man.. e. — . pleasing and endowed with good understanding? It is not this. What then is it ? Knowest thou what it is ? It is to have a beautiful. and I bring it to the proof.~. Truly there is no ornament in a house more beautiful than this nor can there be any such. if a rib with the flesh upon and will be a little dirty. I will hold with the women. What thou mayest have the proof of it daily. good. — ihe woman w „„gfo„. for above the earth there is seen naught more beautiful than the sun. . wise and endowed with every virtue. in m -r . Wash This brick. goblets It is and plates of silver. Would you understand this ? But tell me then.73 — and beautiful. As sun u «" ornament in '*« heavent. Would it be to have such adornments as are discreet. or velvets ? Is it manner is and pru'^'"' '*'""? "" ornament a ujce the wise m have obedient children. or cloth. who is wise. . so that she was made from a more precious thing than thou. it. was not man created by God from slime? Verily. and such as to bear children. and then look at ings of one and of that other. what is the most beautiful and most useful thing iu a house? 1 1 o Is it to have very many servants. and then when that they are washed. but yet further it will not be foul like that from the slime. or silks. i„ respect of her . how the woman is cleaner and more free from dirt than thou.. how it ' dirty it will be. . ! ! and. If thou wash an unbaked whereas thou wilt have always dirty water from I. 6. thou ' the water. let them rinse themselves. and thou wilt those of the the rins- perceive that Wherefore floweth ? man are Wash a and thou far more foul than those of the woman.

Who first arriveth. and would seat herself in front of My Lady Ready. for selves « your salvation ? that you should carry youreven a in such ! a manner that no one should utter . take your seats. where the Saint used to celebrato Mass every morning before preaching. but falleth perforce with a shock to the earth. women. Among Other vanities which I have seen. * devotion that here it seemeth to me a great confusion with no nor reverence therein. which to my amazement bear witness to so great shamelessness in you. which you show in hearing holy . for the man is of slime and the woman is of flesh and blood by their nature in the beginning. continually.. this is devotiou forsooth. ^^^^^ — mtd^fi^m slime bone ^^ Q womeu. woman. Thou say est truly. the Son of God. Do you noi call to mind is celebrated the glorious body of Christ. found nouc SO great as here in Siena: because you. and the leap being made. * at the mill. the who is of slime. But will you answer me this ? If. ^ reference to the high heels of the women' i slippers. — bones do ever That it is true 7. thou wilt not so. SO do may he you cry out ! One of yoa mounJane ! niaile thatlhe Another callcth great doth make Katherine! Another: Frances! Oh. you wiio say What remedy is there. e. the : ' That is. who is of bone. Hcem to me to DC SO tall as to overtop other women when you are set up on stilts ' with garments trailing behind you. And saith she: The purchase is made. Thereianoiiity ivherein evils Lazy-Bones. And let the proof of this be that the man. is more quiet than rattle. Mass ! For me. I have 8. _ - 74 - wash a bone. sh » Here cometh My Lady ! — have to multiplied as in Siena. what then must we do ? The deed being done we can not now. how much in fault you are *^® morning while I am saying Mass. turn back. * I. a man standing upon the tower leap forth from it. you make so a whole saith : and not from great a noise. . if he shall then perceive and comprehend how ill he hath done. may first grind *. So do I believe it will befall you because of the fashion of your garments.. he can not turn back. In order as you arrive. that I fear lest through this alone you will bring terrible destruction upon this city. and let not any enter in front of you. that in truth I seem to hear tain of boncs. So it is in respect of the man and the woman. women. in the chapel of the Campo.Betimes Do so no more.

and every act of mercy that the city a is at fault . inclading of course religious bad inspired services. or less than this . Now I know not of are. I see not of it. On the other pomp and ies " vanity. found not one is weak in this part. was requisite. etc. which were the rightful possessions of the church. Jiving under that Rule which holy Francis gave to Saint Clare women of very great piety and devotion. which he bad reformed and zea]. Also at Crema there are many of the Third Order of Saint Francis. and how great yield there hath been therefrom Three months ago. and that those things which are what good can come Here are no more to be found men of spiritual mind as there were used to be. nor yet such women for there were many both in the city and in the confines outside the walls as well. Further. there is as yet no that * respoot to all war to hinder tho cultivation of the soil.— deed being done? This 75 — I know full well. ! ' For the present Cared for in . * Beligious sooieties of the laity. I see that evils multiply and that good is wanting. . diminished. In truth of those that I saw then in these Companies. for are so multiplied here. which were once quite filled with them. I see here as well of the spirit are so lacking. I see that the prisoners have no aid from those who could help them. that I when I consider that vani- only do am ties awaiting a great shock. which were used to be provided with all that was requisite *. All have vanished. another hath many parts that are weak. their observance of piety was true devotion.how matters have gone in regard of this you know it far better than do I. "We must speak in praise of that which is good. Likewise when I consider the churches. I hand I see money lavished in saw before that your Compan- wi've what condition they most deserving of praise. I see the widows and orphans abandoned. I tell you that at Milan there are two monasteries of the Observance and the whole number of women therein is forty. the hospitals. I know not the meaning of this: yet I see that you till your fields '. in that hospital there is - bed which can harbour the pilgrims. . anew witb . Also I remember well how many most worthy religious there were of the Observance who are no more to be seen here. such as were once seen here.

And therefore I say to you. . or nigh that number nor do I speak of the confessions. and that the fruit thereof is the noblest thing that there can be. For such there are who know better how to bear with a hen. when thou seest a male child. and when he doth see that they do something which is childish. and many having them prize them not at all. who do merit chains. of those with w^hom I have had to do. for all beat themselves with chains of iron.hundred. who doth content thee with that which thou dost ask of him. given over to so holy a life that it is a marvellous thing. And you. Many are there who consider not of how great value is a boy or a girl. fruit. of whom there are many who receive communion every week. in the terrestrial paradise. he knoweth not how to bear with them. and it was a pious thing to see. do help one another to endanger your souls. thee and likewise thy husband. than to bear with his own wife and sometimes the hen will break a water jar on him or a glass. — . Now at Perugia there are well nigh thirty young men. By the fruit of the woman shalt thou know if she many who mile a thing is a boy or a girl good when a woman is good. when they are good. You have so destroyed you as no other people have ever destroyed it. Now I say not thus. Not hero doth it appear that such things are done. and this is a pious thing to see.— it is ^76 - I discipline do remembei' that there were heard beatings of the by about five . 9. Nor do I speak of the rest. now ten. and the blood flowed. faith in my — . For thou knowest that God planted the tree. help your husbands that they may not endanger their soulS. help your wives. which are the most noble fruit that can be brought forth in this world. she doth bear children. . men. whereby thou seest well that they make thee to sin. and lay not away your goods in coffers. Oh. all of them having put on our habit. liiere are conj^^. women. so lacking is he in est discretion. now thirty. simply because he can not endure that he should lose its ye many madmen. yet when I went hence I believed that you were all saints. and he will not beat it. that egg. as thou know1 was planted in so precious a place. thou hast never seen fairer fruit This tree. now twenty. and was made by the hands of God himself. For thou by so doing and he likewise. who doth lay every day a fresh egg.

that she doth tire herself in nurturing it. in washing and cleaning by belongeth to day and by the night. — yet the hen. -be patient. no 10. When the woman seeth aught to be done there doth she stand in readiness. If she be with child or in the pangs of childbirth. wherefore dost thou not regard that which thou oughtest to do ? Seest tbou not likewise the hog. And thou therefore since thou dost see in how many ways she doth suffer and endure much. consider the noble fruit of the woman. Consider in thy mind in regard of her that she doth suffer pain in giving birth to her child. and thou dost suffer this until the time cometh wherein thou shalt slaughter it ? Such patience thou hast only in order that thou mayest have to eat that fruit. and doth never cease. when thy wife hath need of any care. see that thou aid her to bear the burden. -^ which sometimes the hen even breaketh for thee. that thou mayest have the little egg. so. and yet thou hast patience because of the egg! Many unamiable fellows seeing that the woman is not so quick nor so clean and dainty as they would wish^ straightway buffet her. All this labour feest thou woman alone. yet thou hast patience. thou naughty rogue. she suffereth in bringing forth ^uLhoid her children. song on his and the man goeth forth care-free with a There was once the wife of a gentleman . which doth cackle all day. she endureth toil in looking well to them. husband. which doth squeal and grunt. and the hen ofttimes even befouls the table for thee. Oh. and forever doth befoul the house for thee. lips. because that child is thine. Let each one aid her in that which he can. and doth tire herself as in looking to the comfort of her husband when he in any need whatsoever of care. straightway doth he seize upon a stick and set himself to beat her. 77 — you who can not bear a word from your Avife^ who yields for when she saith one more word than seemfruit so fair eth good to him. and doth more trespass than she doth repay. the meat. not for every trifle is it fitting that thou shouldst beat her. in well is teaching and training them. help her in that which thou canst. with her thou has patience. Consider. or in sickness. If she be with child she suf! — The woman endureth toiUn "^uire fereth pain in her condition. in teaching and training it.— .

Would that least God had given some in to part I of this burden to man. say to thee contrariwise. and he doth well^ say I but the woman alone and by herself hath the burden of the child in many ways. Saith that fellow: further. and if forsooth she see that aught in the house goeth not well she careth not how what need is such things go. And so for this reason she permitteth that to spoil which the wife would never let spoil. so with her house. She doth ask this and that. I have no wish for a wife. I far better than I should be tended by her. and so the matter goeth ill indeed. I j Why must take a wife? am not wakened by children as I while I eomfor a wise wife doth look to thy house. replied thy cause is just. Again I tell th«e. and at times she doth suffer great pain therein.who 78 . for she -saith within herself there that I should tire myself out and attend with so great care to all things here? For when I shall grow old. that a woman of that condition she will look to naught else than to hoarding for herself will be diligent ever in stealing. or knowest not is it to take a how to resist the . better wife since thou canst not. so shall my comfort at the least be looked Mine and the care of my house and of my possessions. : her : Meseemeth I that Never mayest live thou in ^'' «ss I H. but Solomon : that hath found a I will take a mistress. said to me: Meseemeth that the good God doth according to his will. Hearken to He Qui posaedit bonam uxorem. at child-bearing ! And hearing these arguments. his possessions. honum inchodbit good wife hath found a good thing. she will look to it better than any other person in whatsoever there be need of. yjeep I need not to spend so r at nigl't: r » much should I fall then have to. that is. and the crazy madman giveth her that which she asketh. she who must take care for it. that a wife will tend her husband better than anyone else in the whole world. : ^ strumpet scattereth his substance. perdit substantiam he who cherisheth the mistress and the to. . Whence it is said: Qui nutrii' scortum. she who must bear it. he will take pleasure no more in the sight of me. And therefore I say to thee.— know uo Saith this fellow here: cares. Why should I wish this burden? If sick I shall be cared for by the servants of my But household. And as with her husband. she it is who must carry it.

and with money doth buy linen. . for. She taketh thought for all that is in the house. She taketh care for the salted meat. and thinketh no more of it: sometimes the cask will burst open behind and the wine leaks out. And if there be one who hath neither wife nor any one who looks to it. a He who hath house. thinkest thou^ is bis ! house ? Oh. this other must be kept.79 impulses of the flesh. Likewise a hoop or two will break. She doth care for the jars of oil^ deliberating in her mind this one must be thrown out. and some of it leaks out. and the mice. when the jars break. in * The Jars. She keepeth it free from dust and giveth to it her thought and care: this must be sold. she doth labour unwillingly therefor. because he looketh not well to it. that they leak not. the sparrows eat it for him. see that thou to live. since the goods are not hers. both in salting it and next after that in preserving it. She maketh her household to spin^ and her. She taketh no thought how things go. He keepeth it not heaped in order. it leaketh away . this other one must be preserved. If he have oil. and doth drain out the wine. and that no dog or other beast may nose it. and there is an end of it. and she bestoweth but little care upon them. and when thou hast true her. she keepeth it clean. who looketh true? well to the house in : ^ then causeth them to sell make that cloth of fine linen. and in every way that she can looketh to them. he puts a little earth over this. but will so scatter it about that all the house is dirty with it. for in all that she findeth to do she doth steal something. this will I tell you. She watcheth over the granary. And the wine ? Finally he reacheth the cask. Not so doth the mistress. because I know it well If he be rich and if he have much grain. thou knoweat. She taketh thought for the casks of wine — if she doth find the hoops thereof broken or if they leak in any part. in what condition. She taketh care of it and doth look to it that naught may fall into it. dost live as ought every Christian I Knowest thou who doth know that what say is good and careful mistress of the all ways. and he pays no heed. She payeth heed. so that nothing filthy may get in there. i\he doth the bran.

e. look in what condition they are KnoAvest thou how ho doth live ? Like a beast. and the dog licketh them and cleanseth them. In like manner. I say to thee that it can never go well with him who liveth in such a manner. Abed knowest thou in what condition he sleepeth ? He sleepeth in a ditch. — and never can go well with thee ' thou livest as thou dost. the indentation bed where he lies. . bow your heads. bones. there on the ground lie the rinds doth of melons. ' The woman it Avliich is laid the cloth this ! upon is who knoweth how if to take care for the house. until that it doth tear apart from age. go. The platters he washeth as little as ever he can. some of the wine turneth to vinegar and some become musty. the earthen pots are all greasy. in that room where he is used to eat. all left there upon the ground without being ever swept up.like sa ~ manner. the bed is never shaken up and smoothed. it — to all else she payeth little heed. refuse leaves of lettuce. so it doth stay. made in that part of the I. * and as he hath put the sheet on the bed. * Having been praised they mast be on their guard against the sin of pride. Women. Knowest thou the state of the table of it ? It is such that from is that part never taken up until it is mouldy.

he must perform it in that manner according to which it is ordained and prescribed that it should be done. I ought to speak with modesty and you should hear me with faithful attention. Am I not bound in like manner as other religious to drag your souls from the claws of the demon. precisely so far as doth lie within my power? Nay. and moreov^er my conscience doth dictate to me. Hearken Wouldst thou have proof that I am bound to admonish thee of thy sin ? Now think upon this. tell me thi» if I should see over which is : . The preacher account 1. as I have said to you. And such is in my thought to say to you this morning and this sermon is called the sermon which doth lay bare cankers because thou hast never heard of so many cankers laid bare. as thou shalt hear of to-day and to-morrow. ! : ' The office of the preacher. that We will speak briefly and will speak of ^17 6od spoken always unwillingly in sermons. — The time methinks doth not suffice for that which should be said. . that I ought to rebuke the sin in which I see a people entangled for who doth take upon himself to pertorm such an office*. Such an office is performed in this manner whosoever doth perform it must rebuke the hearer in respect of all those things because of which he doth consider him to be involved in sin.it is that we never speak or preach of those "!*^'^' things in regard of which a man ought to be illumined hath notMndered throughout his life! I wish to say that which you are a with his words. how of aii the evu he ^""^ evil a thine. bound to hear. I am bound to do this. Sere is treated also the well-ordered love that ought to exist between man and wife.XV. . and further reason doth represent to me.

For I must render an account to God of all that evil ful you should hear. so that he should not poison it. And likewise of all that have caused to be done. So likewise. In truth I would that there were a bench for them. do not fall hear of those sins which thou hast committed. am I not bound to hinder him? And even if it were poisoned. if my words. since that I am : : ! have not hindered it by good which I might have not taught it by my I bound what because to teach them «also that which is needful having the care of souls. and which thou hast never confessed for I have pondered thy sins. Whence hast thou that saying of Bernard Non licet tacere cui vitia incumbit deripere et eripere Ah hearken to that noble sentence. and then to rebuke those who need to be rebuked. truly. But I perceive and know now that T have lost the trot in the amble this morning. if I words. so that you be had it my power hinder hira not poisoned it ? Yea. and I do not see them. 80 that ther« were sure to he must remember that the sermon» were preached very early in the mornsome people present who vreve not yet fully a-wftke. to know how to rebuke. And how useful would it have been to them. ' The fountain of which he speaks here Quercia opposite the Palazzo Municipale. as I ought to teach it. is the famous Fonte Oaia of Jacopo del- 1ft * We ing. in order that thou mayest be on thy guard ag^ainst them. for I wished that all the priests who are in this regio q should find themselves here. and I by my words. Because to me and to other preachers and likewise to those who have the care of souls. and have determined to point them out to thee. to say in the confessions that are made to them by their people. of necessity they should know . I do not wish that should depend from me that you are not admonished. whose duty it is to admonish you. but listen to .~ there /i 82 — if man who wished within to to poison that fountain'. which I might have hindered. And asleep'. and therefore wait all to listen and hear that which it is need- thou woman there. . and may God bless thee! He who hath taken upon himself to perform this office is not permitted to keep silence. this duty doth belong. am I not bound to tell you this in order that you may not drink of it. when he doth perceive and know that which it is needful should be done.

madness doth possess thee. I ask thee now. And I say in answer to thee this that before marriage thou shouldst know that which it is needful for thee to know how to perform. And beforehand thy mother ought to tell it to 3. remedy it. thou dost thereby promise him to carry out the marriage lawI am a maid. remedy' it^ saith he. young. and thou with her and for thee it will suffice that thou dost go head up. ! example make hath a re- neither — it ? Thou dost answer. The witness thereof thou Qui ignorai ignorabitur. But if a man know hast in Paul not be shall not be known. yes. it is necessary that he know how to do so. dost thou know how to make ! wrong not himself nor others as well. Thou wilt say perchance naught of that which it doth not concern a maid to know. and to instruct thee in regard of that which is neednot so she will go to the home of the fui. not doing that which thou art bound to do. Nay. and knowest thou not how to perform these duties ? Knowest thou what I would say to thee ? Thou dost sin ever. 83 — Whosotver doth undertake to practise when thou art married that thou through ignorance hast done thy part contrary to the allowed conduct of marriage then thou sayest Oh. And if she do but she will go there head down. thee. or the magistrate. an arluisnecessary that he : know how : be done in regard of this ? Go. the worse for thee. in order If it — doth befall. and I know fully. doth not excuse the sin. maidm how '^°''^'^ *"*'''^ out the holy sacra- ment of marriage .woman. so that it is beautiful nor well fitted to the back of him who quired thee to make it for him. that once thou. So also would I say of public duties and offices. devil. Art thou one of the Priors. tell me. what must then that he thereof. tell me this.— 2. If thou hast made it ill. or hast thou another office. a maiden. and still I know it not. What I have done it as well as I am able. now garment. The if thou undertake to Oh. What . oh! I knew it not. and know how to do. and I then give it to thee to be made. I say to thee in answer That thou knowest it not. And therefore know thou this. to send thy daughters to this — : : : — That mother *"* "*"*' ''"f^ ^alTànM the '"""' . not knowing how to do so ? And in like manner would I say of every art and of every trade. For whosoever doth undertake to practise an art. hast said yes to thy spouse. Why then didst thou take it upon thyself to make it. and if it be not well made.

and should go merely because he saw others go. not understanding or knowing nor what it is. And say now. . and doth know neither the manner of it nor the words. Because it is permitted thee with all honesty to say to her Daughter. And that which thou seest to be true in respect of this matter. thee that doth ever other way say to she sin. She doth marry because she doth see others do so I say to thee that thou dost sin. tell me. since ofttimes young men permit themselves such wicked follies^ letting themselves fall into such vanity. And I say that under pain of mortal sin her mother must instruct her. so in like manner do I say of everything else which thou dost undertake to perform. if thou know not that which it is right for thee to know. since not performing it well. — : : . truly he doth. be on thy guard not to do that which is against the commandment of Grod. how far thiukest thou that he may be excused ? Truly. and not give it rightly. . in this always thou dost sin. in not teaching her before marriage how she should act. so likewise is it of the maiden Avho goes to a husband. But I any more doth the mother sin than the daughter. And sending her to him in so mad a fashion is as if thou didst send her forth in a boat without her fare. The worse for him is it that he hath done this.— : 84 ! holy sacrament with no understanding thereof? Hearken tell me this if anyone should go to receive the body of Christ. So likewise of a maiden. that is to consecrate. So I say likewise of a priest who doth undertake to perform his office. thinkest thou that he doth sin therein ? Grievously indeed doth he. . nor upon what conditions he should approach it. since not instructing her she doth bring the maiden to gether with her husband into open peril. And now as is true of these. not performing that which doth belong to him. I say to thee that those • . because he ought not to go if he go not upon the conditions prescrib ed. et cetera. and he is bound to make this good. should a lawyer at any time give his opinion. If thou dost say She hath no mother. in nowise whatsoever he doth always sin. She doth undertake to perfoi'm this oflice it is needful that she know how to perform it and performing doing it in it she should do so lawfully and honestly. doth not this man comniit a sin ? Yea.

women
other

85

who
are

ought
is

to instruct

her

nearest of kin,

or

women.
it

If

thou wouldst speak
it

of the father, I

thee that

not permitted to a
is

father to

say to speak of such

things to a maid, but that

so permitted to

women.

If

she have
therefore,

no kinswomen,

let there

be

found some one at

least to instruct her,

some venerable and pious women. And
to their
if

mothers, you perceive the very
is

that there

when thy daughters go
I

grave danger husbands withthe
fault

out that you have instructed thera.

And
is

may

be laid
the

to

you,

say that your sin

greater than that of
o/

to

maiden for she is innocent. 4. Nor is it an excuse that thou art afraid for her for there are some men and women know such things ®

My Lady

; '

"'"p**' "^ " wishing to moeic

who

do not wish to hear preaching about such matters. why dost thou wish not to hear it? Because I wish J JT1111 follow and to my own manner of doing, I shall be excused, manner. the right Hence said David Noluit not knowing intelligere ut hene ageret : She wished not even to hear, in order that she might do after her own fashion. Oh! I do not so because my intent is to do wrong. Moreover such matters ought not to be preached, therefore 1 do not wish to
say
:

I

a country fellow
^^
«<>

well

^,„

r>

J3

answered ly him
y^^^ ^j^^^^

:

shamed,

hear thera.

What

is

this'?

how

then

if it

be not lawful

admonish thee? Oh, grievously dost thou err Knowest thou what 1 have to tell I will tell thee ? Thou art my Lady Saragia *. Hearken thee that which befell upon a time at Siena, There was a certain My Lady Saragia, who was very greedy of those fine big cherries, and she had a vineyard, thou must know, here outside, near the monastery*. And the tenant coming here to Siena in May, saith My Lady Saragia to him
for thee to do them, is it not lawful to
!

!

:

are there as yet no cherries in the vineyard? Saith the ten-

ant

:

I

was waiting
:

until

that they

riper. Said she

See

to it that

should be a little on Saturday thou dost bring

me

some,

or dare

not to return hither.

He promised
filled
it it

some.

On Saturday he
and he cometh
Saragia.

took a

basket and
see

her with

cherries,

to Siena,

and doth carry
it,

to

My

Lady

When

she doth

she

maketh great

'

The Dame The once

of a kind of very largo cherry.

splendid convent of the Benedictines,

outside Poi'ta *.

Marco and

very near the

city.

^
rejoicing,

86


!

and she taketh the basket. Thou art indeed right Oh, how well thou hast done And she goeth away into her room with this basket, and doth commence to eat of these cherries by handfiils. They were fine and large, they were monstrous large, in faith, and in short she ate her fill of them. When her husband returned to the

welcome

!

house

to dinner,

the

woman

carried to
to

the table a
:

little

basket of these cheiTies, and saith

him

the tenant hath

come in to us, and hath brought us a few cherries. And when they had dined, she took up some of the cherries and commenced to eat them, the tenant being there present.

And

she took thereof and gave seven one of them, and eating them in this manner she said to the tenant: How do you eat cherries in the country outside the walls here? Said the tenant: My Lady^
eating the cherries
bites to each

we

eat

them as you were eating them a
!
!

little

while before
dost
so

by handful s Woe is me cried she — what say ? What a naughty fellow thou art Madame,
!

thou do we

eat them, in that
The horse
careless
is

manner

that I say to

5.
^jj
it

you
is

I

Is

My Lady
shc doth

Saragia here, Avho
n ?
-r„

so abashed

by

where

yotc touch it until

that

you touch
it

^bc

..IS

jj^jg ^Yuit
,

make

hcrsclf out to be a rabbit, while
^
-,

rather a

SAvme

If thou

be so made,

-ii-.. by hearing
if

there where
^*'^'^'

is

thou wilt ;imeud thysclf, and wilt become good,
of good condition
wilt say
after
:
;

thou art

but

if

thou art of evil condition,
to

thou

I

have no wish

go there

^

again, and would do

Avill. He who is wicked will do worse than but he av!-,o is good will amend himself, and will hold dear Avhat I say to him, and will make it serve him as a good example. He who is good will not murmur rather will he say he hath spoken with great modesty and hath said well in truth, and might even have said far more than that which he hath said and he will bless me, because righteousness I have taught him the straight path of according to God and to that which is ordained by the Church. But he who is a sinner, he will call down upon me many curses, because he would willingly follow his own unbridled v/ay, and would do as doth the swine, who sticketh its snout in filth. Knowest thou that which I would say to thee ? The swine aceordeth not well with roses but

my own
;

before

;

:

;

;

>

I. e., to

the preaehing.

87

if there be here any possessed of evil passions, when they have returned home, they will do worse than they have ever done so shalt thou know the good from the wicked, He and from those worst of all. The good man will say hath said well, and will perceive in my words that which is needful to him in time to come. The wicked man will complain the worst of all will do greater evil than ever before. Ah, I know thee well, thou weed Hearken, hearken, and be not scandalized do not do as doth the horse when its back is galled. The horse is careless where thou
;

:

;

!

;

dost

touch
it

it,

until

that thou

dost touch
is

it

in that

place

where
cannot

is

galled.
it.

And when he
Oh,
those

endure

touched there, then he in like manner, doth the wicked

man

!

The wicked and

who

are scandalized

by what

they hear. Oh, thou wicked rascal, hearken, without being scandalized and without complaining, that which is helpful
for

thee

;

those paths,

and see to it that and those ways

in practice

thou dost follow

that thou

shouldst follow.
thee.

Do

not wish to follow that
hast no escape,
6.

way from which
I

thou seest thou

against this

warn

what marriages are those which are made today^ with no regard for what is ordained! Of which it seemeth that in them there is no moderation, but rather you may say passion most unrestrained. 0, you mad dogs, see you not that you have put marriage into the hands of the

This sacrament
»» "«'^^«^

^^^v

^eccnmveòvu
ought
to

unit*

^»'^ °"« mother
°
*

who doth Alack Were it
devil,
!

lead thee into every sort of destroying sin?

^"

little restraint and and choose instead good customs rather than to live as do beasts, so that between you and the beasts there is no difference ? Why is it called holy matrimony? Because you, should live together holily, and first you should confess yourselves and receive communion,

not better to practise a

have a

little

fear of God,

for the holy body of Christ you should prayers on this day, before that day in which you come together. And knowest thou what would befall you so doing ? F'irst, this is most pleasing to God

and out of reverence
say

many devout

;

then thy soul will

be greatly soothed in this world, and thy body will be more sound because of it. Thou wilt know how to abstain at the prescribed times and from the right duties and conduct, at the proper times you will have every
;

if it shall be the God, who should all be holy. Look at the other side. If thou be unbridled, without fear, g-iven up to all that is dishonest and impure^ if also thou shalt have children, of what condition dost thou think they will be ? Consider this, thou

good, and finally j^ou will have children,

will of

!

From

ivhoni

counsel should

be sought in

regard of holy
'matrimony.

would teach thee, Avomau, when thou art about to enter upon holy matrimony what ways thou shouldst use; so that thou mayest never sin in respect of too
7.

I

much or too little, I wish that thou shouldst seek counsel from one who will know how to advise thee right well. Oh, but perchance I shall not be able to understand her in the right way. Thou wilt understand her if thou dost wish so to do, KnoAvest thou who she is ? She is called my Lady Discretion. She will teach thee hoAv much, and when, and how, and if thou dost follow her counsel thou wilt never sin. But if thou understand her not, I Avish that thou shouldst go to a sister of hers, whom thou Avilt understand better,, as I tliink. KnoAA'^est thou what name she hath ? She
is

called

My Lady

Conscience. If thou dost follow her coun-

sel,

again thou

Avilt

never
It

sin.

And
to

if

forsooth thou shouldst
so that at

not understand

her as well as

thou oughtest,
me...

times thou shalt say:
if I

seems

Ah!

I

cannot

tell

am
!

then

doing right Wishest thou
to a

;

perchance, yes... perchance^ no... More
to

go, prithee,

sister of hers,

know, since thou art in doubt ? Yes, whose name is My Lady
it

Charity, Avho will give thee the best counsel that
sible to give, telling thee that

is

pos-

thou shalt contrive not to be

any sin neither to thyself nor to him. Ah, do not understand her well So ? If thou dost not understand her, then I Avould have thee seek counsel from a man, who shall be discreet, and wise, and good, and who shall be instructed and if he he Avell instructed and virtuous, he will teach thee the right conduct. But if thou wish good counsel, go not to a friar from Grosseto', for such as they keep a man shut up in that ignorance of his in which he should not remain. Knowest thou to whom thou shouldst
the occasion of
I
! ;

go

?
'

Go
Tbat
;

to
is,

one Avho hath both knowledge and conscience,
one who
is
is

to

dull of wit, « di corvel grosso ».

Here there

is

a play

on words

Grosseto

the

name

of a

town near

Siena,

~

89

-

one of those who know excellently well how to discern that which ought to be done. For one of those dull wits will say to thee Oh, thou dost stand under obedience to thy husband Thou art bound to obey him, thou canst not do
:
!

otherwise,
go,

thou.

Thou

doest

not

of thine

own

wish.

Go,


I
!

thou mayest be excused. Well doth he counsel ihee,

he may

Choose one who is good, not anyone whatever be, no For sometimes thou wilt go to one who hath a carnal mind, and is not instructed, and who will say to thee it is permitted thee for the sake of pleasure to thy husband to beautify thyself and to deck thyself out with ornaments. Out upon him for he is a beast do as I say to thee go to a man of conscience and of learning, and who is good. Is there one here who hath b^rne a child? Didst 8. thou 'ever give bira to a nurse, to be suckled? What moved thee to do this ? Why ? To procure thyself more pleasure thou hast done it, et cetera, and all the rest of it ^ When thou didst give him to a nurse at once didst thou place pleasure before God, nnd thus didst thou fall into sin, and knowest thou what thou hast done ? Thou hast done worse than the she-ass, for the she-ass when she hath brought forth her foal she doth rear it and nurture it. Thou dost not so. The reason because of which thou wilt not suckle it, well dost thou know if it be a lawful reason. If it be lawful, it is not a mortal sin. But it is not lawful in that manner as thou dost think, no: if thou sh^uldst give thy child to a nurse because thou art weak in health or if thou hast not milk to suffice it, or for other such lawful reasons, thou sinnest not but if thou, do so in order better to disport thyself, I say that then thou sinnest. 9. Knowest thou what God doth permit to happen sometimes because thou hast not known how to rule thyself? Notwithstanding that it be thy child, and that thou be sage, and of good customs and habits, and discreet, et cetera, ofttimes thou wilt give it to a dirty drab, and from her perforce the child doth acquire certain of those customs
say
!

;

!

;

:

ifthougtvest
«
"^^^'^

"f ^^^'^^

^^^^^^

^.^^„„^

!

a lawful reason,
"""* sinnest.

;

ihe chua doth
'"'3'"''«

certain

of those

customs

^^^fg^ ^^^ ^^^^

who doth sucku
''*"**

An

expression Tvliich the

Saint often makes use of in his sermons,

to imply

that be will

say no more on this subject because whoever ought to

understtvnd

baa oanght his meaning quite clearly enough.

but one Hearken ! Oh. at Siena Whence manner. what meaneth this ? He saith: Knowest thou what it doth mean ? Thou hast brought the stone herC. he doth acquire the nature of : who suckleth it. When he had lost he led the other at play said . and thou wilt see that it will produce peaches that thif? ? In like will seem like distaffs. then thou sayest I know not whom thou art like thou art like to none of us and thou dost not perceive : . woman. and plant it here at Siena. and right well art thou served therein. and thou wilt see that tho»i the reason of it. And when he doth return home to thee to. so coarse cometh from this very vine. What hast won a horse from me. the Let a horse be such a thing be so. Go. In manner I say to thee. ! And see how cometh clear and here. If she who cares for him have evil customs or be of base condition. but thou hast brought none of that soil. Go then. she was created like of to of the other. apron all the way to Siena. LikeI wise do say of the vine . and how delicate. perforce he doth receive the impress of those customs because of having sucked her polluted blood. and couldst carry is it. delicate it is so clouded is the wine. go. Thou knowest hoAV clear it' is. it in thy And yet it thou wilt not see it there within. : : — • Here « it » is evidently intended to refer to the wine. and take some shoots of the vines of our black grapes into Lombard y and Ferrara. Dost thou not believe it ? Now. The other seeing this little colt said I wish such a 'horse as I have won from thee. yes^ why yes. make the proof of it. Thou sayest true. A man wager between you and me if — to his stable and gave him a colt which was only a very few days old. . go and take a glassful of it and put into it a crawfish." and take some of the wine which is produced by this very vine. Saith she me. : thou didst bring like the vine. take a stone of those handsome peaches at San Gimignano. He replied Thou here then is a horse. but soil thou didst bring no soil it hath taken the nature ot the wherein her it is nurtured.' — 90 — which she hath who doth suckle him. Why finally they wagered a horse. who givest thy child. and one of them lost. Oho. I wish you hath not the customs tell thee what befell not : long since at Verona. Better yet. why no.

and note what it will grow to be like. a goat. go. and this is only because of the manner of its suckling.— 91 - m^re wouldst thou have from me ? Finally he led away the horse. because it had taken on the nature of that goat. again. he had it suckled by a she-goat. contrari' wise.it nurtured and cared for. Knowest thou what came of this after this horse was grown? It leapt like. And I wish this to be enough for you ! . take a lamb and let it be suckled by a she-goat. In like manner. Dost thou wish to prove if this be so ? Go. and take a kid and let it be suckled by a sheep. Thou wilt see it with quite other hair than if it had been suckled by a goat. then thou wilt see it with coarser wool than other lambs. and having no other means of having.

that which thou wouldst have done for thy children and thy grandchildren. Trust her never in the house of your kinsmen. et cetera. Yea. Let her not have to do with everyone. It the possible that a rearing her children.. see to it. there trust her least. If thou dost ever go into city outside the walls^ never of If the widow have no children. widow may then govern a city confines and the a province. some garment^ when thou seest them — . XVI. and son reared l)y a good all her family. About the neighbourhood. The greater is the love. and widow turn her labour to all her grandchildren. be merciful. If thou dost wish for mercy^ widow. say I. what shall she do? Use her time in that which is good and needful for her neighbour. she should use her time for the good of her neighbour. when she is of an age to take a husband. And if the widow have neither children nor grandchildren. See that to the poor thou dost give some little cooked dish. See to it. See that she be always accompanied by thee. and at weddings think well how thou dost let her go thither. that they sleep not with their own brothers when they are arrived at such an age. nor let her never go from house to house without thee. 2. see to it. See to it that she hath never to do with pages or with servants. Let the worthy 1 — Let the widow learn to rear her is children. And see to it. yea. this do for thy neighbour. and if she go into any room whatsoever. see to it. Hoìv ivortìiy ividows should he honoured. do thou leave thy daughter at home. See that thou dost trust her scarce even to her father. that they be never alone even to speak. go then always with her there. See to it that thou accustom her so that she may not know how to be without thee^ so that even if she be accompanied by others she may be terrified. see to it.

and to use the discipline. three times a week. at Tierce seven more.. -and hindered thee.'jft abstinence and Players. now that thou art a widow. TimeB and praying. If thou do not as I say. -and among them name thy husband. good thing for thee.. much. Art thou young? See that thou dost overcome thy flesh by means of fasts. In the II thou canst not read. recite ihom at their proper limes. At Prime say seven.2^\. Thou * of Tratching . 4. but not thyself. to sleep ringing of matins at the Duomo.3". and nevthee. or see at least at night. thou art in good health. and if that thou ^ogt «?«"/«««'""•«• never sleep upon leathers. cause out of a good intention the wolf doth eat the sheep. Look to it that as thou wert good married^ so thou art perfect 3. forsake them. at the least. See that thou be a little see that open-handed with thnt which thou dost possess thou dost never trust thyself to any.— 93 — . thy husband would say to thee I do not wish that thou shouldst do so. Now that thou art free. do as I shall tell evening at Compline see that thou dost say seven Pater Nosters and seven Ave Marias. trust thy possessions. to it that notwithstanding that thou hast a g-oest good intenbe- thou not rashly about from house to house. deed. discipline be a why then. At Nones seven more. naked. -even if thou shouldst come to trust one. as thou art bound to do. jt is an evu see that thou dost rise at at the praoUee. in watches ' and by the use — The sage widoio of the discipline. At Sext seven. Thou knoAvest that when thy husband lived if thou didst wish to practise such abstinence and fast. I wish that thou shouldst learn to live like a religious. Be sincere within thy soul: Quia vere viduae sunt. And again at Vespers say twelve of them.. thou didst wish all use the discipline? But things in measure. 0. why not? I. let her follow this rule: er It thou art used to read the canonical hours. seven. — In regard of that which thou shouldst do midnight. "v\^ould not a little of the . have mercy upon them. She who is a widow in : . and for Lauds. therefore. See tion. At Matins say twenty-four of them. then marvel not if evil be said of thee. And see that thou fail not to say for the dead at the lenst. say five. not too since before to when thou hadst thy husband.

and so shall not heat thy blood. because herein there is very grave danger. I say not that thou shouldst do so if thou be weak in health. and drink much. Come now. and sleep much. Likewise I admonish thee that thou use food which shall be simple. then wilt thou sleep. it is an evil practice this one of sleeping on feathers. I wish that thou shouldst know of this. and thou wilt come to harm! 1 would teach thee to remove the occasions which may lead thee to fall into sin. Boccaccio speaks of liim in tbe seooud novel the tenth day of hia Decameron. The rogue Ghino was a sage man. naught of that which I eat is pleasing to me. in summer cool freshness. of the Purgatory. . Saith that live dissolutely: I . perform a great penance if thou sleeping on feathers. if thou art hot-blooded and hast such to thyself to maycst seem dost use this practice of not ! ! : ' — woman there who doth can not live in that manner. it is indeed most warm in winter. and Banto iuti'oduoes h'm in Canto VI.-^ 94 — Sow the rogue Ghino cured an abbot of stowach. Hast thou Understood naught of this ? I say to ^thee that in slcep thou must be clad and that thou shouldst ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ a feather bed. Eat much. I promise thee that it is the best mouthful that thou didst ever taste. Oh. How many gentlefolk there are in the world who sleep not iu bed but upon mattresses Oh. widow I promise thee that is a good thing for widows. and await the desire for sleep. ! ' Gljiiio. knowest thou what thou hast need of? Thou hast need of the medicine of the rogue Ghino ' di laco. Seek. See that thou dost keep awake to a late hour. on the very ground. Oh. I promise thee if thou sleep upon straw. Oh! if thou dost use thyself to sleep clad. because so I lose the will to eat nor this nor that doth please me. do thou sleep clad Saith she In thiswise I cannot sleep. are there to be found those who sleep on featliors. diminutivo of Mesghino (from Domenico). on the stones themselves. Goest thou to sleep? Yes. I will teach thee to do it. Would food as may heat thee. and beyond Eorae^ nor even in any place as far as fifty miles from Siena. what is it thou dost seek in sleep ? In winter thou dost seek heat. and in summer it is very fresh and cool. And that thy food should be such as shall not heat thy blood. for I promise thee that if thou dost Avatch so. Even so.

I feel as if I Saith Ghino: Do you think that you Avould have been so quickly cured at the baths? He said. with a little war.er. he would say to them all Go to Ghino. and : Kogue Ghino I will and some cold water. as he used it There came to him a fat abbot. How much would you have spent at the baths ? Saith the abbot: I should perchance have spent sixty florins. and let this suffice. as before. Saith he: I what to is am on my way to tlie baths at thy malady ? He answered a)id s. : I am going these baths because will be I eat is very helpfal to hath beeu told to me that they me. when thou didst live on the delicate meat of little birds. And whensoever he heard of any that had this malady. thou must know. Going then to Rome it was asked of this abbot how he had been cured. it is well that you are cured. Saith Rogue Ghino. In short this abbot gave him' that money which he would have spent at the baths. Saith Rogue Ghino. to get thin. So would I say to thee. And at the close of four days Rogue Ghino had given to bim a very little bread with a little water. see to it that thou dost live thy life according to rule in that which thou hast to do. nj. because nothing of that which I can digest nothing. and to all he told the manner in which Ghino had cured him. learn to use the medicin<f of Ghino.— that he for evil ! 95 — had used his intelligence for good. which did seem to him like sugar. as thou mightest say. Saith cure thee^ in the best Wiiy in the world. : ! : Do not as thou wert used to do when thou hadst a husband. . who can not eat this nor that. and he gave him each day a handful of beans pleasing to me. very fat.t.*i. in faith. widow. And so he put him into a room which was barred and bolted. Saith this rogue Ghino: Where art thou going? f. as the abbot of Paccitino. having naught else^ ate the beans and drank the water^ in order not to die of hunger. He. And he ate this bread. who was on his way to the baths at Petriuolo. finally he brought him out of this room and said to him How do you feel in respect of your stomach ? O-o-o could eat stones. Give unto me now that wliich thou wouldst have spent.iid it Petriuolo. and perchance something besides as well. And so having forced him for many days to this manner of living. The next day he had given to him a little stale bread and musty.

Saith she thinkest thou that I have nt^ed of spinning or cooking ? I need not to do this I reply to thee so Thou hast no need of it for thysplf? Do it for others. Paul Writing to. And so thou shouldst be orderly in all tha.wouldst lay thereon a white cloth. weave. manner. and oh ! every great over- sloth. Go little to the church. . Practise charity towards the Church.t. If the hsLve thcsc. see that thou dost avoid her. see that thou dost teach them good customs. reflect who nnd Every tvidow is a prattler vryinff. and confess them clearly. ugh. If thou hast children. And wheii thou dost go to make thy confession. God should come great thy board wouldst thou not do honour in him? Yes. And . ct^nfess your sins. spin and weave for his needs. ^Yìq widow. see that thou dost cook or spin for the poor he hath nop. and go not thither alone. that thou dost admonish them. make very iine corporals. Oh. it is curiosity. make for him a shirt. saith as doth follow: Viduas verboses e curiosas fuge. for you have understood from me what is needful. spin thou : ! : • tiful as tliou canst. that upon that other cloth must he come. in the manner that you know I myself have told you. cook^ see that thy hands be ever busy. — !mCT«lT overthrow. as I have thou dost return wool or linen. Avith thee at to reflect. and if thou cnnst perform other works of charity. shc is of evil condition. this And therefore. Three shis Were the occasion These were pride. For ofttimes they may be found — talking together so that they seem to be rooks : kia. When the widow doth go abroad as a tatler. Patch and mend the poor with thine own hands. for if thou do so.— Three sins were ""^ 96 — of 6. tlii'ow. AvidoAv. so likewise do I say to all of you women. nor secretly. which thou hast to do. thou wilt resist the devil and Avilt not stand idle. gluttony. return to the straight and right road of Saint Jerome.d thereof.Timothy in the ^f^h chapter. do thrse also. with joyfal and with great rejoicing. for those are if the table-cloths of to the eat Lord God. in the manner I have advised. oh! how ill doth it beseem. Thou. Another thing there is which must be blamed in 7. See that thou dost observe the seven canonical hours. ugh. go to those who are good and faithful.. widow ugh If ! thou be in this road. so that they mny be well understood. return.is I say to the widows. this see that and besides to the spinning-wheel. kia. as white and as beauinstructed thee.

! ! ' A popular saying. that I know what Bertha is spinning. if their backs are galled The good will say good of me. And how doth she deck and array herself in front Dost thou wish a husband ? Go. understand not by this those who are hypocrites. so that she doth show her cheek. She doth take thought for her beauty in all that she can or may. and be quick In every act they betray their carnal minds. saying to her: We are unwilling that thou shouldst do so great dishonour to our familly. ^ I see these widows who go about in such a way that all their manner and their bearing seem to me to proclaim their wantonness openly. which is pleated. to-day I see the widow wearing a long mantle. but are full within of carnal desires. This doth show that thou ! ! know not many given and I know so so wouldst cast on that man whom thou art awaiting there. Dost thou wish a husband ? No. and the evil "will say evil. I know everything that happens. and her mantle thrown back from her face. see that -thou dost avoid' her. so that it would be seemly that thy kinsmen should so torment her that she should never have peace.kia. who is a talker. such glances from thy eyes as thou didst cast on the other. I what say of you. and they should all set upon her. they wear slippers which are as high as those which married women wear. Never have I seen over to bad habits as I see to-day. who seem to be widows in dress. You seem not to me to be as you were used to be. with her forehead bare. wish not to have to do with her. (j^^ ^ " ''**J ^ . in the name of God. nor any further desire to go abroad in this shameless fashion. But the good ones among the widows. and take him. but all thy actions cry out that thou dost. Do to not in this manner. and everyone of thy members. thou dost note. and prying. And so every wido^y. yes. God is merciful towards them. Oh they do well to murmur against me. talk not so much. I see much. to signify.

Once more of party feeling. and the example thereof thou didst hear on the day before yesterday. if he doth show himself but little disposed. In all the rest 2. Oh is there any Jew here present? I know not whether or not there the parties of the Guelfs ! . The reason. for well? do I believe that the sermon of to-day will be more useful than that one would ever have been. to men. but I Sìùd not then to thee that which I shall say to-day. despite thee do I preach this morning. which doth show which God bestows those upon he to whom draweth near himself. Even by way of those which are shut fast there doth enter some of the Grace of God. who hindered us on the day before yesterday when thou didst cause the rain to fall. — Lay to thy heart this example. idols are adored as in and the Ghibellines in any way whatsoever. Aha Old Boy. — I said of whosoever bore devices belonging to of the world together not so many Italy. and one less. but here more and there less. even to him God would give of his Grace. according as he doth dispose himself so hath he Grace: if he doth show himself very well disposed. of every one of those of the splendour of for so And by way windows there doth enter something the sun. And to the man who doth shut himself away from it. Nevertheless. that this was naught else than adoring the devil. So is it with those Grace from God. brightness doth enter there within much for or so little is or less open. God giveth him very much of it. Of the Grace 1.XVII. then God giveth him but little Grace. the witness. Seest thou those wholly open. one open but a little way. I said then all that which I could according as each more who wish ! say. since thee how the Grace of of God cometh is windows? One them that there are certain tiny crevices therein.

both tho tight. he would make own shadow. over the breast. communes. To the partisan so difficult doth it prove to bear of a mad with the contrary party. . They are no more to be found among pagans. where are they? They are in these devices. who have had the fear of God in their hearts. made of yellow cloth. Oh. was. and the sun was behind him. they will die accursed. And Rome is in Italy. and perform not penance for this. which are to be found throughout Italy. that even if his brother or his ^^^l^'l^^th^l^ son or his father were contrary to him. which. rather . and princes of Italy. from the time of the Apostles to this present time. In every part of the world there hath always been some few. forbidden among the ('hristians by civil as well as by Among canon law. the motive these than moral or religious. but among the Christians. and he who is now dead hath died accursed. . Whom do the pagans adore? They adore one God. 3. and in these devices are adored the devils. Where is the seat of our faith ? It is in Rome.be one . it may be said. who do adore nothing less than idols. * then should I thou. Seek among the pagans. . which required being political. that I believe there are not more idols adored in all the rest of the world together than are adored in this part. But to the shame of Italy will I say that which I say. the Jews. upon what place thinkest thou they have fallen ? If they die without repentance. What prompted these laws was tho practice of usury. and if they have never done penance for this. every endeavour to kill him Hearken I wish to give thee — — — ! ! an example of this. and it cast his shadow ' Milanesi here points out that moat severe laws against the Jews were enacted for at different times by popes. to about three and a half inches high. 99 - — if know after him. carried on exclnsiveby by the Jews the laws of the Sienese Eepublio may be cited one enacted in 1439. to wear on the outer garment. There was once a mad fellow who was travelling towards the west. but the idols which they used to adore. therefore it is surrounded by these idols. And if devils have been adored by these partisans. where you are almost all Gaelfs and Ghibellines. and then after Christ was crucified^ and he sent the Holy Ghost^ not then nor even in the Old Testament did the devils ever do so much as they do now while all the world doth follow their wish. and thou perchance will lay it up in thy memory. . Eead he wore an on his breast. and he was carrying a staff in his hand. or many even. an men and women.

with stick in hand. look ye. Oh. because I think in my heart that some good may be accomplished there and I believe : commencing to preach on the you that when I was at me that I should come here. in order that there may ever be peace among you. to 100 - When he perceiveth this shadow. and I pray yuu all that you will cast off all these parties and these divisions. and those of all thy kinsme^i but impossible. And then did he rise up again and again betake himself to running that he might come up with him. as he had. what tares are sown among you.before him. I am come here upon their order. he also said the same to me: for these your divisions having grieved them they said to me that in very truth they wished me to come. concord. When this fellow saw the shadow erect. I should have well I kept without food should force them to cast Oh 1 them perceive it. straightway doth he run and fall upon him to belabour him with his stick. he came to a certain road where he was forced and the shadow now came beside him. who is noAV a cardinal. and to the same purpose. because of these parties alone and because of naught else you well. in faith. and unity. who do not off this despair. and ! . do not and do as I prithee! Ah. and was to turn cast on the slope of a little hill in such a way that it grew to be tall and erect. Brainless Madmen who because of such mad folly do break your own heads. and the shadow doth run in like manner. and when he had run a little way. How the Pope Ber- 4. fg. it doth seem be another man with a stick in his hand. that the Pope doth love you and wisheth I am come here most willingly. ! ! — ! ! ! — tell thee. he stopped for weariness. him to . being unable to come up with him. repent thyself.^g^ — You know tent Friar ^f ^^^ Assumption I said to to hnng to an end the divisions *'**''*' Ronie the Pope told wise your bishop. is the Guelf made and the Ghibelline. I know For verily if I were emperor. then he placed himself there in readiness with his stick and he grew so wroth with his shadow that he broke his own head. In like manner.' staff lack the of office Oh. And hearing the reason for this I said within myself Truly do I wish to go thither. sin. and likethat truly. finally when he had run a little way. and who die accursed.

And this suspicion of work within thy mind. and in thy heart thou sayest naught else than: To arms! To arms! To arms! This deriveth from naught else than from suspicion. For because of the anger that was inside thee. J r J J g^gfj^f jiy^ which chance looketh at him askance. you cursed fellow dost thou perceive not into what danger thou dost bring both one and the other of these. and a great made this suspicion thine doth so fly got inside there and began order to escape from out of it. through thy own wicked speech? I say it is possible. because in truth he hath not understood.o another and will say the same to him.. as befell the man who was busied in weeding a field of his. When the fellow hears this. see a motion of the hand. ! his heels along the road with his little keg. buzz straightway he betook him to to fly Buzz. about and about in buzz. but in faith I understood not that which he said. and his little keg by him empty. he thinketh: nay then^ got inside a uttie he hath said some evil of me. ' — when he seeth — .Smoaiabourer * '""^^y" one of the contrary party who by f. or a sign with the lips. he will betake himself thither to the side of some other who thinketh no evil. everything. buzz. The hate which thou didst bear him Reflect that ties. is said or done in his despite and in order to assure himself of it. as I have ofttimes said to you. : ! ! — — come to thee. that thou dost seem to thyself to be ever at strife. and not out of malice. will say: it did seem to me that he spoke of thee. if a cat make a noise. In like manner. believing that . most easily of all when there are to be found therein souls already swollen with fury. for even when thou sleepest. perchance to satisfy him. and this fellow will pay heed to him and will say that he did hear the other speak some slander. 101 — anyone who holdeth with these par.— 5. he doth believe. and will ask of him Hist Didst thou hear that which such a one said of me ? He. Hence saith Job: Ira est ignis usque ad consumationem devorans Anger is a fire which once kindled within doth burn so that it devours everything which it doth find in its way. if he keg of his. that one of these bearers of evil tales may ruin a whole city. when he spoke he spoke not of thee^ and yet thou didst believe that he was saying evil of thee. thou wilt rise up out of thy bed in terror. wert thou wroth with him. Then will he go t.

conscience. Hence then. so that ofttimes. because of his obstinacy in supporting his party he is murdered. Hence if they — luried in holy do never confess it because they make it not a matter of ground. and being without charity. that this is a rod they are without charity. Of a thousand partisans. and thy body into the ditch to the home ! of the devil with (T^ ~^^ . loveth thee.-. Saith Augustine. not one is saved.102 — was in the time of war. because to his ! ! this and he went along- house ! crying out continually ! : arms is To arms To arms all The enemy are upon us up their arms. it was a trumpet. think you. but should be buried ditch with asses. should become of notorious their souls? Evil indeed must the end be. what. Whosoever dieth in notoriotis mortal should sin. The reason thereof is that they have not the least will to do so. God — them not. crying it : To The people of the place it? seized in Who Who is it? And sum was a great fly. that he who in dieth in mortal sin should not be buried in a with which God doth chastise the wicked after this manner. What thinkest thou should become of hira ? What forsooth ? Eh these obstinate men understand not that which I say. Mt be 6. Therefore take this as a sover- eign rule. and not having good will ! holy ground. I have already told thee before that this is in truth one of the most grievous sins which can be committed.

I say that all this is naught in comparison of the understanding of Mary. chastity. who ^al^^ngf^^^ said so much that was noble. How great difference is there. ray friar' s I since ' — . and obedience. think you. 1380. pay careful heed. Further. And thou who art here to write this down. take one who is unlearned. and to-day it is the twenty-third year promised poverty. And likewise have I the name Bernardino. take fifty men of great learning. 2. and even adding thereunto Augustine. — Every one you hearken and attend with 1 care. so devout a lover of the Blessed Virgin. descended unto me from Saint Bernard. of 1. and understanding all things.ZVlli. : » He yrsA torn September 8. for to-day the twenty-third year since I put on habit. it and is also on this was born on the same day same day was I born and was oom again on the day of the Nativity. Better. again. . IndthTo/Mary To be short. and creations of God. and look at that which they comprehend of the a fly is. Of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary. thou dost understand naught in comparison of as there is ^«''^*«"' «"<^«''the understanding which Mary hath. So do I pray God that I may die either upon this same day or on the day of the Assumption. But let us show a betstanding what this understanding of take the of ter witness every learn. with which great splendour she doth illumine all the world. and put before them these three words. between ^^^^^ ^ ^ your understanding and that of Mary ? There is as great great diSerence difference as there is between understanding what thing ^«'«'«en «y the leg of a fly is. ^as^om that this day is'. Friar Bemar'^*"* am to speak of the Mother And I wish you to know that I of Christ Jesus the Blessed. in regard of them.thing the leg of 9d man. And therefore do I wish to speak this morning of her splendour.

thrones. what a height we have risen we To the same purpose. is the other blessed spirits. now we are come to Mary. virgins. In this world tose tings cannot be understood vfhieh exist or are performed in glory. and understanding the point of a apostles. how great a difference thinkest thou there is between the understanding of a blessed spirit and that of Saint Augustine or of Saint Paul in the flesh ? There is between them as great a difference as between the heaven of heavens and the point of a needle. thinkest thou. mean God wfis not created in the beginning. how much thinkest thou that they understand ? More than when they were in the flesh ? A-a-h they now understand so much more that it is a thing incredible. And how great a difference thinkest thou there is between thy understanding and that of Augustine ? Thy vision in comparison of this is as if thou shouldst see a firefly and he should see the sun. What opinion hast thou of her in comparison of the others? Wishest thou that I should tell to thee a great wonder? Uni*. confessors. — Look thou to to . . man of intelligence. archangels. cherubim. who now are blessed. j^^^ risen even the life eternal. it is you there who are selling you is I he infinite. How great a diff'erence was there. dominations. and all between her understanding alone and that which all these do understand a greater difference and more than there is between understanding the creation of all things. virtues. And now proceed. patriarchs. > To the little boys vrlio were selling their candles in the Piazza where the ler* mone were preached. But even better did Saint Augustine understand them. 3. the Apostles. and better than she thou. there needle. ^ ^ The impossibility of Comprehending God doth require that ^q have Other evidence of him in heaven than upon earth. Have these boys understood me these words? But better than they has this woman here understood me. now ! ting together the angels. powers^ principalities. prophets. and immortal he shall ever be. and better yet doth a doctor understand them.— boys ! 104 — candles. between the vision of Augustine and that of the Apostles^ after that they had received the gift of the Holy Ghost ? As great a difference as between the sun and the moon. seraphim. martyrs.

Sano di Pietro • Saint Bernardine preaoMng in tlie Piazza del Campo .

immortal he shall ever be. the Apostles. archangels. j^. and all between her understanding alone and that Avhich all these do understand a greater difference and more than thei'e is between understanding the creation of all things. But even better did Saint Augustine understand them. patriarchs. and better yet doth a doctor understand them. hoAv much thinkest thou that they underthe flesh it stand ? iioro than Avhen they were in ? A-a-h ! they noAv undersraiid so credible. there needle. and better than she thou.ivo performed in glory. cherubim. soiling tlioir cftiiilloB To tlie littlo lioys who were moDB were preaclied. AVhat Uni- opinion hast thoa of her in comparison of the others? Wishest thou I should toll to thee a great Avonder ? tlirones. seraphim. ? understood me these Avords noAv are blessed.s not created in the beginning. comprehending God doth require that Other evidence of him in heaven than upon earth. ting together the angels. \A^ho infinite. God and wn. To the same purpose. And how great a difference thinkest thou there is between tliy understanding and that of Augastine ? Thy vision in comparison of this is as if thou shouldst see a firefly and he should see the sun. Ave those things can.^^^^ not be understood iohich exist or are ctomal. principali lies. How great a difference Avas there. prophets. virtues. between tiie vision of Augustine and that of the Apostles^ after that they had received the gift of the Holy Ghost ? As great a difference as betAveen the sun and the moon. virgins.INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE — l3oys ! 104 — candles. ^ The ^y^. and understanding the point of a apostles. confessors. In this world 3.^^^^ — Look ^^^^^^^ thoii ^^^ to A\iiat a ^^^^ ^. thinkest thou. much more we that is a thing in- And that noAV proceed. man of intelligence. poAvers.. it yon there who are selling' is you is I mean '. dominations. ^. noAV are come to Mary. hoAv great a difference thinkest thou there is betAVBen the understanding of a blessed spirit and that ot Saint Augustine or of Saint Paul in the flesh ? Tliere is betAveen tliem as great a difference as betAveen the heaven of heavens and the point of a needle. now he Have these boys But better than they has this woman here understood me. is the other blessed spirits. imì)ossibility of ]. ' in the Piazza wliere tlie sei- .^^^ height Ave have risen ' . martyrs.

ii iu iliti l'iniza dei Ciinipu .I^ano di l'ietro • Saiut ]5onjimliiio i>[-oiicl!Ìu.

.

Jesus. Take this name Jemake a young sus. shall see shall him face to face. 4. and one in another. so sweet a savour. — — ing of it. and the sweetness that he knoweth now in life eternal? From this name alone he hath more sweetness than ever creature had in this world. There are many who say I know that Jesus hath another name. more sweetness yet they drew from it. And by that sight of him we ** * monnter.— 105 — Hast thou understood naught of this ? Hast thou thy husband here with thee ? If thou hast him not. the heavens do tremble. for that he hath little undej-stand. and it hath sweetness in it. and so will it be also in heaven. that shall say was a thing incredible. Now I wish to make thee understand this better by an example. Each one doth draw from it sweetness. so much sugar. woman. another less. that it he is the Saviour. and hell. and see him as he ought to be seen and comprehended without other means. More sweetness wilt thou have of that this it than had the child. and the earth. Knowest thou how I do anit. because thou is. dost feel name Jesus doth it signify to thee in thy heart that God and man. and let him not go away from thee. summon him. and not knowing : I should endeavour in vain to make thee understand it. he will have even greater sweetness of it than thou. Tell is me: how great a difference thinkest thou there Paul between the sweetness that he knew in this life. woman ? I say that this name of Jesus bringeth to each of us feelings of different sweetness. If a devout man with devotion. but in glory. Here upon the earth now we know this name by «''«««« ^<^^ "<> figure. Say it thou. to little mouth full of milk. woman. so much honey. but very little. or could be able ever to have. which is the name above every name a tiny child who hath his child in the cradle to say it. If thou shouJdst say to me how shall this name of Jesus be understood? I say to thee in answer that I know not. which doth reflect the true object for "^l^samtìie^^ thee. comprehend him. one will draw from it more sweetness. be sure. but one more than another. which when it is pronounced. for one doth understand it in one way. as in a glass. it will be otherwise for in glory we contrary of this for Saint — . : . Hast thou understood me. If Saint Augustine should say it or Saint Bernard.

Say. or read. ! ! devil ? And so do I say likewise of thee to comfort this who dost believe in such follies. accursed and most wicked of men. Thy opinion is like unto that of the Jews.— 106 — swer thee ? Thy knowledge is a chamber of ignorance and a puffing up of thy mind. and they will cause a promise to be made to them that they will never open it nor show it. Oh. that so he might do great harm. what vain fancy was this Oh. and so in like manner thou mayest say ? Say that he is a monster. thou art a heretic together with him. Jesus. is for we know that in the angel said to Mary that so she should call him. heaven the name of Jesus other than this what I this And they will persevere in thinking name may be and there have been such as say: ! . he not being a holy man. and that he cleft his thigh and put it therein and then being returned home he drew it forth. wherein there was written a name which could and surrounding this name neither be named nor known they kept many dogs who should guard that place in order that it might not be learned. he would be able to perform any marvellous this . Fria/r Semar- dine defends himself against you in regard of this holy name which I have preached of the holy ^^^^ ^f Jcsus. and I tell you that I have said to you only one part of the thousand parts which there ^' — Hence I Say to you that . and that by means of it he did all those great marvels which he performed. and they said that whosoever had it. cursed madness The belief in this was it not of the craftiness . I do Confirm. and say it with as great reverence as thou canst. saying that whosoever should speak or see it. And of such as these there have been who have written a name and given it as a brief. for they said of the miracles that Christ performed that this was because once he went into the temple. and let those who will say what they wish. know — deed. name. And they say also that they are unwilling to teach it to anyone. or written^ or taken away in any manner whatsoever. I say to thee that if thou dost hold and believe that this be so. And they said that Christ entered into that place by and that he took this aame. but notwith standing it maketh not the heavens and the earth to tremble. and they will speak it. Knowest thou what I say ofttimes of such people.

Which is more ? That which God hath given to 6. let him say it to my face. o. while he was When S«e footnote 2. saying that he should beware of the apple-tree. Hence we have given more than we have received. He gave him his -own there likeness. write it to me. p. for if so he shoald die. thou. he gave him. God made man of slime and set him in paradise. and which should be believed. women? Know you that she had so much milk only as sufficed for the little tiny mouth of Christ Jenor believe thou that there is any ofj sus. apples of the earth. and not more ^ Know ye that one drop of that milk it. and Mary gave him of her milk so pure. and have we not given him in return his son of flesh. because thou couldst fell a giant if thou shouldst come up behind him. And if there be any one who doth wish to give the lie to that which I have do not strike said to thee. 8. He made — ! . Eh Let us hear what God hath given to man. say it to me to my face that I may reply to him and if thou wish not to say it to me. hath aught to say to me. pleasant to the sight and perfect. Let us see now that given him in return. 0. he him in a place where was neither cold nor heat. where there were four rivers. that he should not eat thereof. and we shall see what I have said that is wrong. — we have given unto God more yg^^„^* ! there all were many beautiful set trees. He is beholden to us. And in like manner as God commanded Adam. more than I which human nature hath man of slime.- 107 — are to say. I am one of those who wish to hold to that which Holy Church doth hold. so left that she trained little. many delicate fruits. — to the earth me. or that which he hath received? Which is more ? Grace or Glory ? Glory. in all perfectness ? He gave to man as his food. nor ever * him. human nature. like a traitor. ! . Do you here I am He who need to make so much ado ? 0. Home again valued more than all the trees he ever gave us. in exchange for the life of this son. à most attempered place. Many. Mary greatly love this son Jesus. pure and clean without a spot. o Have you seen any milk of thei Virgin Mary. leaving him freedom of will so did many things can reckon. 0. where ! . and taught him. .

God gave clothing to Adam and Eve of the skins of sheep and Mary gave her sweet son a woven garment of purple. If God made Adam to his image and likeness. but Jesus was man and God. and more beautiful and wise and powerful than God made Adam. she taught him Go. the Lord of the whole world. 108 — : he was growing. Adam was mere man. which as he grew so it grew ever by so much. — ! . my son go thither. to such a place. so Mary bore him to his likeness. do thus or thus. as if he were a mere human creature.— . And so go quickly did she with him.

it know- wavereth not. p. and to the guilty. elsewhere tain ? ' ! who are selling your wares^ go and do so Do you not hear me. be was gifted with an incredible memory. and to the wicked. justice. and to the good. and that through it each hath rendered unto him that which is his. in a great assembly of people be could be heard with per. that is.and that which doth beiit him. C. * These NTords addressed by the Saint who were selling wares near the fountain. See Footnote 2. at some distance from the place where ho was preaching. 41) B. but is ever stable. to the good. Hast !^ Justice may be conceived constancy in the intention to be always just. to the wicked is rendered punishment. war. but among others iustice is constancy in the intention to be always just. to the just.XIX. 8. king of hurrud a Spain. whatmore wonderful. and. favour. peace. So clear and exquisite was his enunciation that his listeners never tired of his sermons tained is still was bo sure and susnever once failed him when he was preaching. his voice that it fect ease * even by those who were farthest away » (A. you there at the fountain. looking " at me. he who hath an opce must administer Love justice. * He had an ape and recalls the attention of a bear. Let him learn this morning who doth wish to have those offices in which the men of this world are iudged. you there at the founagain ! Home ' I say that justice doth consist in a co nstant and unceasin g good inten tion. How 1. — Lo! I wish to tell you an example which happened or of the o/ an ape ''^^^"h in the court of the king of France. recall what Faoio wi'ote of our author in his Be Yiris lUustribus: « Eloquent and vehement in his preaching. that as thou est. . — you that are the judges of the earth. Here ho xras distracted and waa looking their about him. . and he kept some <me who to people them bear out of for revenge. Oh. rewards. 2. terror. Justice is What is justice? " Justice consists in thou understood? Look at me of in many and varied ways.

she put fire to it and burned the bear. And seeing that she was not understood. doth send him forward in whom he hath hope and him behind whom he doth fear. This ape took some of the hay and collected it together around and about the bear. In that place where was the bear there was much hay. she turned now to one side. There are four occasions of wrongdoing which bring destruction upon any great city. and therefore doth he send forward him whom he loveth and send him behind whom he hateth.-nobis disport. that is to say. on which the Oar Father» are recited. and now to the other. . Seest thou that the beasts endeavour in every way that justice be executed. and render that which is merited according to the deed which the other hath performed. — — There are four oocaiions of ^' may jj^te. The fourth is dettru^m 'v^on ^^ipe. He who doth hope endeavoureth ever to raise aloft him from whom he may have somewhat that shall be useful to him. one day she broke her chain and went to that place wherein was the bear. about each one of those whom she saw. Wishest thou that I show thee in an example of what condition is his vision. He who doth fear doth act always out of fear when he seeth one of those whom he feareth. The first is — wrongdoing The sccond is love. «w»y great city. He who hath hate Within him turneth away those to whom he wisheth not well. man to judge wrongly. Women. Hist I would explain so that I may be understood by those women. I myself will execute it. it seemed as if she were crying out for justice. He who hath love doth advance those of his own house. It happened that the ape having young. The ape seeing what had been done. in sum. if you have a spindle. or a paternoster. not too large. The third is fear. and in this manner herself executed justice. but his vision is divided in two. he seeth not as a whole. And by this thou dost see that nature dictates it to thee. for she betook herself to well nigh all those of the household. for it seemed as if she said: since that no one doth execute justice in respect of the crime of this bear. It doth seem to him always that the thing is in size double that which in truth it is. one doth seem to him as two. * one of those These make a ! * One of the larger beads of the roeaiy. the bear killed one little ape and devoured it.

Marry Let us send ! you What manner of You have done because ""* Amisershouu lejUcud to ojffice any whatsoever. where if a word be spoken aloud. that I may see you do so for a little. but who will go then^ since we are all usurers ? And who is he who is not a usurer. And knowest thou what this doth signify ? ! your middle finger upon the upon the patersee that they will seem each one of put Oh that one is too small. for one doth seem to him two because : ! ! he hath not justice within him. Again knowest thou how he doth? Thou hast heard that when one sayetha word aloud it doth seem that this selfsame word is repeated opposite to hira? Knowest like to thou how it doth sometimes befall me by chance in my preaching ? While I am saying a word it doth rebound from over there among those palaces. and there is greater reverberation before the sun doth A's rise than afterwards. If thou shalt say Antony thou art answered. especially before sunrise. doth befall here in our Piazza. or who doth not favour usury? I know of no such man as this. ' each single word doth seem two. and it seemeth two words. * Here he is speaking of the marble pulpit which was then near the great door of the Palace. quickly. I hear you have made — it a law that no usurer shall enter any office. straightway it is repeated in answer to thee from here opposite. and from which the crier announced decrees of justice and proclaimed laws. thither the women ! Ah ! but yet there are women who in- * He addreases someone who was trying to do as he had suggested. when he hath performed one thing it doth seem to him two. So doth it seem to him. Antony It seemeth two to thee. If thou dost wish to see if I speak the truth. In manner if he speak a thing. ^ It doth signify that what is greater doth dominate the smaller because this is less powerful. 111 - spindle and your next finger to this also and you shall them two. large. . good or evil. and is one. I praise you therefor. to anyone who may be here in that pulpit of stone. Now make trial of it. One way there is.which are very noster. but who had too small a rosary. So doth it seem to him. it will not serve. but I say to thee: man shall he be that goeth to this office ? well to provide that no usurer shall go thither. have done well indeed. it doth seem him two. 4.

There was one of them who * when he knew self to of the condition of the wolf bethought him- i ! go thither. And knowest thou how he goeth thither? Thither he goeth with his banner streaming behind him. precisely as doth the wolf when he is sick from repletion. Within a little. is not fit- Marry Let us send thither the peasants who go begging. he beat his head so hard on the ground. . and now to rob that other. he hath so great a desire to enter the office that he doth seem to waste away utterly to with this great longing thereof. That river was near by these friars. Think you what then befell Out of the great fury that he ! i flew into. He said that a wolf had taken a wild boar near to a place where the friars livedj when he had killed this boar then he left it there where it lay.•-. who doth purge himself inwardly. Now cometh the point J^nowest thou how such greedy men as these do act when they are elected to an . Truly. ting that even they should go thither. and these forsooth would be good men to send thither since they go begging perforce because of their need. When the he is elected officer. 5. will abandon his shop. in order that he may better fill himself up again. that he fell dead. and with y^t more. and purged himself wholly. great evil is done. they lying full low to see what would befall.. lo! the wolf doth return there and findeth not the boar.. There are such as t^ve their eraffs to have offices.— cline to 112 — so therefore it ! usury and encourage it. and went. and in the thiswise go to pun^r country outside the walls. j. For there will be such a one who in order to have these offices of ours. and he who saw it told it to me. and the time doth seem eternity before he him an may enter therein to fleece now man i . who goeth to purge himself in a sandy place. tt officc ? They ask: How much money did such an one get from this office ? He got two hundred fiorins from it. and went to a river and filled his belly with sand. he goeth in with all speed and with banner outspread. — oftentimes because of not reflecting what he ought to do. m. And thus he goeth to the office with that wicked intent to put it into operation. . Have you paid heed to that which doth befall when a miser entereth an office? He doeth as doth the wolf. and carried off this boar. how ! — r> . ^j^ p j gj^^jj ^ ^^^^^ hundred with ease from thence. „r. I could tell thee of that which a friar once saw. Hearken.

and they go forth to rob and plunder the country here outside the walls. and the poor men. I make answer and say to thee.— his craft. If you wish to maintain the city and its confines in good estate. that it is in truth well done.^ ^^^g thee help rae by thy all vote. . I pri. ^"^ "fj^*^„°^ competent and *^°*^ '"'«''• '^"^'^ deserve . and those who deserve well. 6. they do great damage to the city through not performing their trades.and competent. of most competence for pablio affairs. in that moment she doth . thou wretched How thinkest thou this to do well abandoning thy shop. who seeketh an office. put no rascal in charge there. 8inc6 such as these go and plunder. whereas thou mightest instead have gained something by following thy trade or thy craft. whence the mouse should in await all day to take it. and during this time in which thou hast no office thou dost consume that which doth remain to thee. And therefore providing as you intend in regard of names in the urns ^ in my opinion you have disposed excellently well: and see that you put in charge only good men. . for oftentimes there be some officer who in his own esteem is proud and haughty indeed. And in thiswise he will go about beseeching them is vs it were. So doth Ihe miser. The — ^^^v ''"' cat settleth itself before a tiny hole come out^ and there will she iie and when it is come almost forth. ' Here lie expvesses liis approval of the plan by Avhioh they were to draw from U/tuoDg the names of their boat citizens. ? what then Thou art six months in the office. and therefore will he go from one friend to saying: my good sir. that thou wilt be for a year or longer without and after any office . S . — Thejirstpoison »» ^»'" '^^'> will '"^**'"**2/>"annj/. US — and trades of the abandon their crafts to and because of this the crafts city diminish. and pursuing after one and that one? And if thou shalt have the office. from friend to friend fellow ! who of the Council. when he hearetli that they are to draw for an office he doth make every endeavour to get there by means of balanother. that when the good and welfare of the republic is regarded it is better than if what were done concerned only the welfare of a particular man. lots. Saith the rascally fellow: Oh! there is no chance for me. . ' The first poison is tyranny. „ nn spring upon it. . Such men as tliese may be likened to cais. such an office is before you. but in truth is an extortioner and an 7. s^oitld be ^J^g ^^^ j-.

They are not made like our hens. and devour. you know. In like manner also see to it that their mouths curve not downwards. for thou art not a rector indeed. they are of the number of those voracious or the respect in of whom you must be on your guard. We may away that first e and put there in its place an a. from whosoever doth come within hisv clutches. Suoli birds as these The second poison of him who ruleth is simony. he doth ever extort. The exactor on every morning is yet worse. with talons like the teeth of a rake. never to send them into any office. The monthly exactor is worse. In like manner doth the exactor on every evening. but the « ractor » doth naught else than plunder. or daily. and who drink not water. But what shall we say of the hourly exactor? We may say that he doth ever exact and oppress and extort. And dost thou wish to be called « rector » ? This name fitteth thee not. and that word will be thy name. and despoil Wouldst thou pi-rceive which those are 8. and who it they are so you would do well to rid yourselves thereof? When thou seest lay ! ! 1 ' In the Italian tLrougliout I tliis paasnge there also those is a contiimal j)lay on the words « tiranni » tyrants here used to mean who draw money out of another yearly) and the verb « tirare » to draiv. officials. few eggs. or even hourly. — Hearken who deserv9 not to be rectors. If you see a beak crooked in that manner if you you may know thereby tear open the skin that they never drink watery but and suck the blood.. since every day he doth snatch and extort. take find that these are hooked as the talons of the kite goshawk. Knowest thou what « rector » means ? One who in ftiith doth lay many good eggs. as many birds whose beaks curve downwards. . The weekly exactor is even worse.— * 114 — exacting tyrant. or twice daily. Ofttimes such as these may be called yearly exactors or monthly. since every morning in which he doth perform the duties of his office. or on every morning or every evening". The daily exactor again is worse. Knowest thou the yearly exactor ? It is he who doth oppress men by exacting money from them every year. Would you know those who are not deserving of office? Go^ look at their talons. who thf^se lay many eogs. which will then be «ractor ». who doth exact it weekly. for he doth exact it monthly. have not crooked claws nor beaks. or weekly.

. of making the . Knowest thou that there are such as wish who doth prolong a case and bringeth to a conclusion. and he likewise goeth out of office. I ' Here he alludes to the custom. Is this not evident for example. and the man is never paid.. now a thing ol' the past. 9. to a new honao ou the day . Know you not how you walk stooping forward at Michaelmas. he is always given something. he seemeth to himself to have performed a worthy action. and doth ever ever come to an an appeal is made to a governor he doth first require a fee from him who ought to have the money. and po doth he fleece the poor man and likewise the rich. One official goeth out. he receiveth his fee. who. then when people move from their houses ? ^ When thou bearesi on thy back a great and heavy coffer. you know in truth that you walk thus a little stooped. and he departeth. with a song. these are not deserving of any office whatsoever. Likewise the man who ought to have the money giveth him also so much for every lira. Seest thou this prolongment? It is a devouring. what do I intend by this ? I say that he who is a rector hath a very heavy burden. and the greater the weight the more dost thou stoop forward. porters when you have a sack of wheat on your back. And in this manner justice is never done. lest thou knock it against something. Do not thou as many whom I have seen.— an official 116 — fleece each it never one of the two sides. but passeth his time in going from office to office. thou wilt see that he hath a great burden. that he who carrieth a heavy burden must walk stooped ? Is there no porter here ? Oh. I have been in such a place where there doth exist this order of affairs: the rector must have so much for every lira and so much for every florin. for every official doth act with the same tranquil indifferency. Be not puffed up! Hast thou an office? Yes. and so the amount is consumed for both parties. move the feast of Saint Michael the Archangel. repose themselves with legs outstretched not that disputes and complaints should end ? When — The third poison in pride. and this having been paid. Septemher 29 also on which the University was re-opened. If thou wilt but consider him who hath an office. He who ought to have something hath naught. another entereth office. when they are in office. hold not thy head so high. B.

let Now pay heed to this example : this also Have you never seen when the seed of the melon is planted. and nets. and hawks. bent. being unwilling' to stoop even ever so little. have done hold not thy head so high. his cap would be knocked ojff from his head. how much of all this doth belong to those who have the care of souls! For they should be ever among their folk. 11. and put a bow in his hand. And upon this order that the crows may sack they put a gourd. or. 10. in all that wherein there is need of this. and so they wait all day. Give no office to him if he know not how to fulfil it. Noli extolli Be humble. over there in the wheat. The fourth poison is negligence. to like a man' s head. threatening them. Keep them bound in dread. And the crows are cunning. and they make him arms. The fifth poison is ignorance. he statideth proudly drawn up with his cap on the very top on his head for naught would he un. The fifth is poison ignorance. it doth make ten. that they be not dissolute. thou wilt never accomplish aught. so that it seemeth he doth shoot at the crows. and let pass walking idly abroad for thy diversion. women a sack and fill it with straw. he should have to enter by a door. th«t they do not evil^ that they restrain themselves while you are with them. they will come to harm. for if thou dost suflFer them to do so. He doth merit it not^ he is cipher. lest thou knock thy head against the lintel of the door.— and 116 feet crossed. falcons and snares for birds.field they take the learn. Incline thyself not to negligence. and seeing this man they fear lest mem they may be killed. The cipher can avail naught without company. and they fly hither and thither. admonishing them. if thou place next tliis another cipher. better. and then thou it ! bend himself. or now when figs are ripe. Stay among them. If thou havi^ an ofììce and be cipher. without . take a companion. mathematician ? In itself. And lot not the sheep wander far from thee. officer! Let pass dogs and the hunt. beseeching them. when grain is sown. stoop thyself a little. that scarecrows are set up there? As thou knowest. naught. it maketh one hundred. in not come there. What is the worth of a cipher. Tf then thou have an office and be cipher. — availest somewhat. If thou place here a cipher with one before it.

At times when they haVe thus approached near there will come a puft' of wind. and they fly and perch upon his bow. they all fly away for fear. the statutes declare so and so. and again. that you must not bear arms. since he is a cipher. He will bo led to the magistrate to make him pay the penalty. and approach him nearer than they did at first. and he is not fitted for it. in that . they begin to fly and seeing that he doth not move^ and doth not shoot off the bow. for my love. and they find him in that selfsame posture as on the day before and seeing that he doth move himself not at all. — . Oh saith the rector. that you must game not for money. ! Oh 1 it is a custom to proclaim the mandate and so is it also . though fearfully however. very near. when the mandate hath been proclaimed. though afar off. . that they go even very. He doth proclaim the mandate that no one shall blaspheme God. . And thus. that you must not speak any manner of abuse one to another. . Knowest thou what I mean to say ? I mean to say that ofttimes a rector doth in like manner. Straightway some one will come to the sire^ 1 beg and pray a boon of you. but by little and little they commence to draw near to this gourd. Sometimes it doth befall that they are one bolder than another. who entereth that office to which he hath been elected. that you must not go abroad at night. and at times they approach very near to it. When they See him move in this manner. they go making a search by and ofttimes he doth day and by night. with his bailiffs find one who goeth abroad at night. You have rector: at night sucli an one. out of their great desire to peck they return thither the next morning. and one who doth blaspheme God. What! Did he not hear the proclamation ? Doth he not know our customs? Saith the other: . Btill They return thither the next day. Now cometh the point. Then seeing that he doth make no further motion. Avhich will frighten them away.117^ peeking. who was found abroad I pray you to pardon him. they even return and eat. they commence to fly down to the ground. he hath no fear whatsoever and so emboldened he percheth upon his head and doth piss on it. and seeing that he doth not move. and see him same mnnner again they wait thus until evening without daring to peck in the sown ground.

Oh.— tt 118 — He scarce custom to grant such pardons. Knowest thou what I say to thee ? Thou art a wretched cipher. look to it that thy head be not pissed upon ers of ! . and thou wilt never be honoured. for seeing of what kind thou art. and they will piss upon thy head. and so he doth stir him at liberty. they will presume so far. set knoweth how is it to deny this. And thus by little he doth permit himself judge. according to the pray» him who doth desire the pardon. So in like In the case of one who doth blaspheme. official. and co manner and of one little who doth up n quarrel. that finally in the end they will mock thee.

and what we slioiild ask of God. " these three paihs. . 2. not having his heart in anything of that which he was saying. that it may avail to the safety of souls with faith and perseverance. One of our friars was praying with his lips alone. and you must make a prayer to God in suchwise that it may be directed into — Whosoever ask' th vshould We are sp(^akin^ now ot prayer. and therefore I say that you should tell your sons and your daughters to recite five Paternosters and five Ave Marias while the ballots are being taken.XX. T o men. Let each one ask of God grace for love of Jesus. to the end that the good God shall send hither unity and concord among all the citizens. and among aii the citizens. and that he may put it into the hearts of those who have this to do. notwithstanding that thou becst a sinner. that he God se7id.this morning up there above in the Council HmU. -.. for you jj. whosoever asketh should ask *'"»' "'^•^"'^ ask that which is useand most timaly doth are preparing your it thus befall^ since this luorning you urns. thee naught. you. as well as you.pmce concord . And because we have all need of the grace of God. Hearken. This is little forsooth to recite. I would tell thee what befell one of our friars. and shall be good and useful to \ this our entire recite city. the safety of their souls. You must see to it that Mass be sung.of God and — ^^ of ^^^^^ ^^j. them in the morning while you are here besermon doth commence. women. that is to say. hence while he was praying in this fashion the might fore the — ofafriarwu prayed only with ^** ^*^*' . -I . because our prayer extendeth not to one alone but to the entire city. fill. How 1. and in this manner you will have profit of that time. it will avail 3. If thou pray only with thy lips. to do that thing which shall be above all to the glorj'. we must all ask it. brcause perchance there are some who were used before to waste it.

and being free from passion our thoughts can be lifted up to God better than during the day. screech owls. and I will show thee some reasons therefor. and other bensts. and other horlow.— 120 - head of a dog appeared to him. Because of this hath the Church ordained that Mass be said in the morning. with the amount 4. Holy Church is our witness that in tliat same hour she hath received greater grace from God than at any other time wherein she hath prayed. day that is past. shroud themselves? They are like to have more povrer at night than by day. Before three o' clock is the time in which it is good to pray. little spi'ites.f grace doth cause the soul to incline more towards God than doth night. and therein they do demons. In like manner do I say to thee who dost recite the office. if thou have not heart therein. and most of all can they be lifted up thither towards the break of day. And why dost thou believe that the temptations of the night are more in number than those of the day? Solely Ibr this reason. We have reposed through the night. The best hour to pray which mtire^dly the is mondntf. do forthwith lie full — when they see the light straightway ^hey seek darkness. because they have more power at night than by day. which doth signifiy that the sun (. which moved its mouth as he did. wolves. when thou sayest the Ave Maria or tlie Paternoster not having heart therein^ thou doest precisely as a dog that movoth its mouth. A second reason wherefore this time of the morning is a more fitting hour thnn any other of the day: seest thou not that when the san doth rise then the savage beasts. The demons . but the Hioming is better than any other hour. wherein grace is asked for the rest the whole day. foxes. And if thou shouldst wish to comprehend why that hour is the most fitting. I m^-an because of the sun of the illumination which God doth give to the soul. rid birds. or priest^ or religious whatsoever. or friar. — prescribed of the of the divine office. and of this we arc speaking. forsooth as are great owls. As thou knowest. thou availest naught. likewise many such birds ? day Why. At every time it is good to pray. Why the morning ? more than all Because in the morning the find complain we not of weariness from the mind is quiet. signifying that his prayer was no better than a dog that moved its mouth.

I confess willingly af- that I ter I grow fat thereby. as he was used to do. But the soul or the other to virtue or tu is that which doth incline one he had not satd TV^l. ing? As for me. 2.{"!' tng xs a ^"^ rare ' mouthful t^tehedfrom angel saith: and the sermon. what led him to such a habit.ZXI. Go to the bell doth ring. he waketh thee that thou mayest thou shalt hear come to Mass and to the sermon. he falleth not asleep three hours doth he wait. ! It is a pleasure in spite of the devil. it will . and of one tono the spirit to the flesh. Ofttimes when thou sleepest. That evening he doth betake himself to bed. and there is not wind. yet he cannot sleep. He had made this a custom. But one day having been busied about many things he forgot to recite compline. if the soul be hu office a» he accustom the body **** *•""* '" ^''^ to good practices. touching one who followed a good custom. He commenvice. not lacking in virtue Hence. what think you of this hour for preachanon. which he practised. . it is not cold nor hot. virtuous. one of these knowest that in the morning while thoa liest in bed or art risen and about the house. and the bell doth ring for the preaching. Peace women."'^ . is — ' Every one hath two angels is ^-fc»» tim« of good. that it is a rare mouthful snaiched from the devil. Hew we must ask of God that he may teach us to do his will. and I weigh more by a pound have preached than before. Hearken. I say that it doth please me excellently well. There he lieth an hour. however. the other c bad. And thou . it raineth not. two hours. the good 1. at watch. to say the divine office. — The flesh is ever in opposition to the spirit. There hath ever been this opposition could not fail *""*** between them. I have bethought me of an example to the point. I can not tell you.

thing" — •' that thou shouldst mend him. when thfm is it seest his hose ripped. hast thou a husband? It is seemly and fitting. So in like manner do say. Finally. then shouldst thou do this. When it is needful All to make him show willing- clean.— ceth to consider : 122 — ifthoudoest to the praise ana ^^?/f. do thou take him up. If there be need to suckle him. or even God^ or even the very force of this habit of his. when thou hast a young little child. and when thou dost put such . that he had not said compline. so that he doth cry. thou shouldst also lull hiin to sleep. for he was used when he was come to bed.. ^j^d how many young men and maidens alike are there who would have a fair dowry. and who would have her sage. Hast thou the will to do this? It to do.^'"l"^f tohieh thou dost do. straightway to fall asleep. Who then could it have been who brought it about that he should not sleep ? It may have been his angel. When he hath sleep upon him. 3. is seemly make them white and eth to I clean. and I say the same of her likewise. and he said compline and then returned to bed. it doth beseem thee to take a young woman of parentage like to thine own. he was not sooner under the sheets than he commenced to snore. he doth recall to his mind this. and beautiful. Other things there are as well which are seemly woman. a seemly thing to When shift. And this is praiseworthy and seemly. and he doth weep. these things becoming willingness. A sagc and beautiful maiden and of good parentage. with goodness and virtue in the maiden. ready willingness and to make others for him is fitting. with great parentage. And so considering he marvelled greatly. this is seemly. such wishest tliou for thy wife? Is this thy will? Knowest thou what I do say to thee ? That which is suitcd to thee is a young womau of parentage like to thine own. Straightway doth he arise up. suckle him. for it doth seem that the soul cannot be at rest if it performeth not that which it is used to do. to When give them to him as he needhe lacketh a shirt. considering and reflecting thus. and of noble birth! But if thou dost regard thyself what thou art. every deed doth profit thee. what doth this signify? This is somewhich doth rarely beffili me. his clothes are soiled. Is there need that thou shouldst unswaddle him ? See to it that so thou dost do.

I see but few who of ours. or threshing. Now it is warm. so at it. If thy intention be towards God so that thou dost that which thou doest to his praise and glory. . answer many. now in cold.. sreat inanei. and thy house. who went and among other I me snatch at this morsel. if thou intend not above the pleasing God. and did we not so. that I shall I er. in wind. and thy children. In winter. At — it ^XllmtWn one thing is and we never a know rest or repose. ^'^ **""* f'"'^"''''^ the spade. in the best way in the world. likewise now in in ' snow. now you write. and all that of which you storm. in and all the year do we toil and still we lack. If the sun be hot doth scorch us. words that he saying: he said at one time: assigning his know not who and In (. and we do to find so therein. straightway thou dost merit.ness into sin.j. liB nor dost hus- practice. then dost thou neither merit thou what then! I merit not in caring for my band and of my child. and willy nilly must we suifer it. — There was a man near a place let fall. You stay here in ease. If you wish bread. now it waxeth cold. We suflPer it. that more live so in ease and rest. the harvest could not be gathered in. Hold. the hoe reUgioiis ufe hut we go forth to work now with and now with hail. in reaping. you have it every day. who are God' s creatui'es? No. and we purchase as well with great toil the bread and wine that we consume. for we suffer woe and fatigue. now in wind. — // the ufe of labour and toil. for thou all dost merit naught. And hence thou mayest ever merit if thou thyself care for thy household. and you seek the fire. having above all intention towards God and that what thou dost may be to his honour and glory. ej^crTnof" uve so '^"^ t ease or in gathering in the harvest. o/ » country f^^}'^'"' '"'^^ very often to talk with our friars there. in snow. in heat. in saying that which life as wish if to say. in cold. much at it ! that we are like martyrs all the year. now you read. and fresh. reasons therefor. in faith. You live in delight. marvel greatly. rathIf this be so pleasgreat pleasure ant a folk you to say. and we never lay up aught. one thing maketh come not 5. so likewise wine. Say these labourers: it is we forsooth who endure 4.„j gy^J^g fare better th&n you. and you seek the shade. hold you shall have an answer to this! And is it one alone who doth speak ! '^"^^^ so? Nay I believe. then everything doth profit thee.

upon a sack full of straw. he had to be wakened many times while they were saying matins. and over it there was naught but a coarse quilt. as they sleep. stand here. He well pleased and contented. for I wish to get away from And notwithstanding that he did that good he could this not profit thereby. not II And so in one night had he more than enough of the delights of the life we lead. The Guardian gave him a pair of beads. and they pave him supper. because he did it not out of love of ! ' : ! : ! ! ! ! > « Lord. every night. Domine. thoa shalt open my lips ». be it so! Which shall we agree first to make trial of? : thine or ours ? He doth reply : Let us make then ! trial first of yours. saith the Guardian to him: Wouldsi thou endure the labour that is ours. and the Stand up. When he had said thus what he wished to say. fall not asleep the friar He doth awake. Within a little he doth sway backwards. is Come forthwith. Up! up! to Matins! arise He doth arise up and goeth into church with the others. Said the peasant: By the Gospel. while we endure that which thou must endure. «nd commenceth anew to say the beads. labia mea aperies. see how they have fallen out of thy hand Take them up In sum. and thou shalt say the beads while that we are busied in saying Matins. dazed. we will commerce this evening. He supped upon that which they gave him. brother.-' mi -= have need. all clad. and be arose up on his feet and said: Open the door for me. stand up. Then he was bmught to sleep. and so thou shalt see which hath in it more delight ? Said the country fellow. That night. evening doth he come to the order. Saith Stand up. . they come and knock at his room at the same comrade. Saith the friar upon thee Say the beads. and and make trial of it thou In the for eight days. Saith the Guardian "Well. and they had scarce finished when he said: Oh. Saith the friar: To it. Right willingly. hour with the other friars. I' 11 come here no more. saying to him: thou knowest not the office. he commenceth to sway forwards. and this perchsmce was full of fleas. do you so every night? He doth reply: This we must do always. fye beads fall from his hand. at midnight. This fellow was not used to keep awake.

'ilso this is ordained with regard . Saint Augustine. 1 1 body . That thou 6. I speak of those which have been approved by Holy Church. If thou say: the order doth require that they go barefoot. Everj'. It is true that our rule doth require that thou wear only one tunic alone. In like maimer I tell you of the rule of Saint Francis. . there are those who say it is so strict that no one can obey it. thou mayest put on as many garments as are needtul so that thou freeze not.n^ore to sujfer than it can «ndure. you put on more ot them.— God : 126 — avail to a not having regard to God naught can good * purpose. Do as with over great zeM. . If it be a cold country. they touch not money Oh. did so with the uttermost discretion. but it doth add thereto another sentence. I could not go in : — ! ! . can be observed. thou art no longer bound thereto.fore all. and when thou canst no longer endure. And every time thou dost say that it cannot be kept thou dost blaspheme God bt'. When you have not as many clothes as suffice. and thou dost blaspheme Holy Church. God without labour. can observe it. . In like manner are you yourselves accustomed to do. who hath confirmed and approved the rule. and as long as thou canst. wherein it saith: secundum tempus et loca according to tho season and the place wherein thou art.time that thou wouldst entorce thy body to suffer devout exercise in whatsoever fashion.strive not . doth require that this rule for religious orders be observed by those who it. and thou dost Sfiy evil of the Saint who made this rule. Attemper ^ -r. and thou mayest even wear also a mantle over the tunic and the habit. see that thou ^n/orcest not the 1 shall tell thee. The rule of Saint Augustine doth require that thou fast is in respect of that which possible. pray? They wear no tunic. this manner in winter. shouldst enforce thy body to more than it can endure is not the will of God. see that thou enforce it not to suflfer more than it can endure. who devised his rule in the most perfect precision. but not by all. and all their observances it is possible to keep them. fool that thou art I say to thee tlmt those who made the rales for these religious orders. — . — Thou canst not please . .. J the lute. because he doth not derannd from us more than we have power to endure. Say not that it it is impossible to observe for therein thou liest. what think you of this..

man.— to the place ticulfir 126 — and the if sefison. what need have we of money? Why should we suffer such person: — a burden? I believe. For myself I say I never ate any. seculars nor friars ever eat — when I think thereon I laugh my fill. Wilt thou have witness thereof? Not — eternal life at a single . in faith. . -. Hast thou understood me ? And hence I say to thee. and it is possible to observe them. But I ask thee. this is indeed healthful. that he who hath made the rules shaped them with discretion. For thy saying: Oh. ah this is what thou canst not understand! Oh. in. in my sleeve. and if thou shalt do thus. And I was ordered that I should keep him in the convent. any place whatsoever. it is enough for me that I have those things which are bought with money. bound and a -. as befell one man. I but this befell him for no other wish not to name him. thou shalt never need to to go to the Maciareto. who through too great have such as these found themselves crazed thereby. so that the heat doth not return anew to his body. And many i i times . leap. There have been many who have wished to enter 7. full well thou knowest that he cannot do as a young man. to sleep clad! Wilt thou have proof thereof ? Fs there any woman here who doth itch? Boys. they may riot touch money! this is true. I promise thee ! Sow Friar Bernardine was threatened hy a Baths of Petriuolo nor one of our religious that ever I have seen has ever had the itch. I have no need thereof. he fasted so much that he waxed mad. neither old nor young. reason than this of too great abstinence. If thou wouldst speak of our manner of sleeping. i . in faith. Wishest thou to be cured? Sleep fully clad. nor do I think that any of you have done so. and I kept him. Hearken I would teach you to cure yourselves of the itch. . And what need is there of money it a man may have that of which he hath need? For me. there was never any one of you who touched so much of it that he ate thereof in order Methinks that neither money. — . because through too great abstinence they have then lost their wits.may touch money. and the condition of the par- he be old. whom I think you know. and sleep without a shirt. and knowest thou what befell one time? That while 1 was standing there in . is there no one here who hath the itch ? Ofttimes to live better in respect of his food.

so that the Bible should not be wet. not arriving at any decision. This I say came from naught else panion stooped to the ground. I will I shall be thirsty determined to do. I returned to Siena and thought ! And that I would commence practise. that never had I felt greater fear. there it Avill be even better In sum. and that verily it was the greatest fear I had ever felt. I do not say like a man. and I commenced to say within myself: wilt thou do in a tempted to go into a hermitaije. bought the Bible. I went about staring up first at this hill and then at that one. that is. to make trial of the life that I wish- ed to And I went out there beyond the Porta . and I becjiuse I it happened tell to me once to feel so great fervour as this may you some- lloio Friar Bernardine was what concerning wouhl tell you of the first miracle that 1 ever performed. I will drink water. near Massa. because I had turned my back on him. — Women. my comprecisely in thiswise — — the blow arrived not to was the will of God that He came within the door. It me either. and therefore do too I say. and I permy ceived thi3 not. and may God bless you! The thought came to me that I would live on water and grass. and of leather. and when I was in the Valley of Boccheggiano. and this befell before I was a friar. and how then he overcame this temptation. There came to me the will to live like an angel. saying: Wert thou afeard? I replied and said the truth. women. Lo! Hearken now to this. and saying Avithin me: Oh. and I determined to go to look about me. dofh overfloAv. of chamois skin. here is a good place to be! Oh. — with a bar in his hand. and in order determined also and a cover to keep over I way which the eat grass when I am hungry. And when he raised the bar aloft. and when he came to himself he asked me. that I I might read. buy a Bible. companion chanced to turn his face towards him. What wood ? What is wilt thou eat ? So I replied to myself within me: that and when of holy fathers followed.127 talk with a friar. than from too great penance. that much 8. that I went to buy a piece water might not soak in at the sides of the book. which was like a corbel. And I cast about in my thoughts Avhere I might lodge. and this man was behind the door. And so I a good to live aucoi-ding to the will God to it. and I bethought me that I would go to live in a wood. it.

nor would I that God should such a wish. wherein he never once ate? He I could do should not be able to do give so. who stuytsd there for some time in 1410. est bonae voluntati trust not to every nay. I said: Oh. in that part of was torn down when th«» convent of San FranceBoo was included in the city proper at the desire of Pina II. and I said: let us commence the first time washing it and scraping it and the next time it will suffice to scrape it without cleansing it otherwise. concordabis scrlpturas. keeps the ' tho wall which name of the gate. down went one mouthful of sow-thistle I rid myself of all temptation. and at length we shall do without gathering it. and putting it Chew. and I had neither bread. how must a man weigh and consider before he follow those inclinations which sometimes result in so great evil. now I have found the way! Let us commence by taking a draught of water. able to fast so. What followed afterwards upon this was by election not through temptation. nor oil. now in a v»ry dilapidated condition. and chew. and I commenced to g'ather a salad of sow-thistle and other herbs. So likewise I soy to you of Saint knowest thou not that he walked upon the water Peter. Marry of blessed Jesus I name commenced with into sow-thistle. Oh. and yet seem so good! Hence said Bernard for in truth I — know now tiiat it : Non semper credendum good inclination. as we walk upon land? In faith I would never trust myself there! Therefore. With the water. and when we shall be more accustomed thereto we will do without washing it. And in the a mouthful of mouth. Finally I took many a draught of water to one mouthful of sow thistle. forty days. wms a temptation. I commenced to chew it. wish not to do that which thou mayest me — This gate was near the clinrch of San Giovanni in Pantaneto. thou canst not do hold Saint Frfincis! Befor I How prithee was he I. et but those saints of old as in how then did tliey do ? They reply to thee: Distingue tempora the times. An old fountain with three arches. nor salt.— ' 128 — Follonica. . not And say to thee that verily I have no wish to do so. forsooth lived on grass. it would not go down! Not being able to swallow it. and yet could I not swallow it. — I the time of the holy fathers. my ! and the sow-thistle stayed there in my mouth. Distinguish Knowest ? thou not that what the Saints did.

he was entrusted with the care of the widows. I know not how or whither.129 — reflection thou canst not do. thou wilt die thereof. to excuse himself. Lo! Great penance at a single bound is pretenIt is not tious. she will Mcoliiites and of those evil folk go forward warily and with the uttermost caution. who were Apostles. for in truth even thoagh thou hast the will to do. and know upon — — — — : 9 . A soul which is well disposed doth not willingly Ot the venture herself lightly into every depth of waters. and he thought of no other God than his wife. she was beautiful of body and was young. And she will say: I wish to recite them with more devotion. said that it was not true. quae et ego odi thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaites. and received the Holy Ghopt with the others. And therefore is it better that thou shouldst choose thy penance with discretion and not with presumption. He had a wife and she was very beautiful. Thus was it said and done. admonished him that in this manner he did ill. lest that who follow the the good inclination that she hath be a temptation. and she will recite them for three days. The other servants of God becoming aware of this. than it is able to endure. votions go. Knowest most indecent practices in the thou what God saith to spch as these? Go. and the deday. He. To tell thee more concerning this Nicolas. Second Chapter of the Apocalypse Odisti facta Nicolaitarum. I will say five hundred. And again at the end of eight days these will seem to her too many^ and she will betake herself to one hundred each oh! other duties increase in number. which I also hate. for if thou shalt act with presumption. but to recite fewer of them. and in the end she hath done naught. Knowest thou what doth come from presumption? As fitting that thou shouldst impose thou knowest from a woman to whom a good impulse shall upon the spirit come of a sudden. thou wilt not be able to do so well as thou shalt desire to do. and then this doth vex her. 10. then when thou wouldst act again with discretion. and when he had received the Holy Ghost. read it in the loorld. and to show that he spoke the truth he said that whosoever wished his wife might take her. this Nicolas was a deacon. she will say: I intend to recite every a heavier penance day a thousand Paternosters and a thousand Ave Marias. 9. And so it will go perchance for eight days. Knowest thou what such an one as this hath done ? She hath made a goose's flight! She maketh a great noise.

and they were put to death by thesp wicked people. Hearing this.— lingly. and most wiland thus she had a greater burden to bear than she should have. do I now bethink me There is even here among us a place where they follow this cursed practice which I will tell thee of: in the early hours of thenight they gather together. and this they do because they say that then it will not be possible for them to reveal any of those practices which they perform. of what an awful thing. established in the Val d'Aoata He since the thirteenth oenttiry. p. in order to inspire greater belief and trust thereby ? He commenced to say that wives should be common among men. ' and ere thU" fire inquisitors there were who went thither to rid it :i{ this curse. that at a certain time of year they will take a young little boy child and throw it from one to another among them. a doctor of the same kind as those of Grosseto said: Omnia communia praeter muglim ^ Let all be held in common. men and women in one place. and he hath related the whole unto me. 130 ~ who took her. and verily they follow the most indecent practices that I believe could ever be performed. And knowest thou how such as these are called? They fife called Polk of the Keg. And knowest thou what this Nicolas did then. Saint heightens the effect of irony by this giammatlcal error. ou! Hearken to this curse Vfhich hath thus entered and fallen upon the land. except the wife. Ou^ ou.men. And this name deriveth from this. Oh. so that it is killed thereby. they do so. And no longer can there be found any inquisitor who will consent to go thither to have to do with the mattor. We have a friar in our order. and then one falleth to another as chance will have it. women. Then being dead they pound it into powder. and then from this keg they give to drink to each one. and stir themselves round together in a broth. and lay it up in your minds if there were other young. And there are such folk as these here in Piedmont. And therefore I have somewhat to say unto you. ! : ' The • See footnote. and when it seemeth to them the moment to extinguish this. and put this powder into a keg. . who was once one of them. 88. and terrible. alludes here to the sect of the Waldeneians. and they have a light.

if you lose your chastity. and crew. but which out of regard for certain reader*. we do not publiah. how are you bereft ? Naught hath the woman more precious than this. and he should say which took advantage even of the religious sentiment of the people. even the humanity of Christ. lest somewhat should befall thee thereby. Be on your guard therefore to preserve it. bear testimony to the horrible corruptness of the time. to the fire! And stay not there in the least way. * Ah me. and in the name of this should say that he wished to see you all naked. . know you that which you must do? Cry out: To the fire with him. which [was general. ^ Thia leoommendatioD by Saint Bernardine.ever you 181 — of that ribald in may know that a to man hath been you regard of whatsoever occasion hath been or ever might be. and many more which are to be found in hia sermona.

I never do confess either man or woman. to ask of God that he teach us to do hie 1.iith iSolomon: Non sintinmulUs actus tui. How Friar Btrnardine doth confess neither man nor woman. And therefore do I endeavour to practise this one years. wMcli you would be spared. for I perceive that wishing to do many things. and I busy myself abouC naught else than sowing the word of God. occupying him self solely with the labour of preaohing. S. so thou ' must go from better to better. in preferthe good. in order that we may all become virtuous men. see that thou dost attach thyself then to Ihe better before the g'ood. I have rejoiced in this practice for many endured this labour of preaching now for many a year.XXII. attach thyself always to the best. and I hold this practice to be the best. and I have wished to leave for it every other duty. Doth still treat of liow we ought ivill. if you seized at once upon the liest and nighest. ' — I. finally to the best. caeteris paribus. . ence to be possible to thee. and I have found it always the worthiest and best of all labours that I have ever endured. that thou seek ever the most perfect manner of life^ and practices the best that thou canst find. This is what Grod doth wish that we should do. then thou dost go forward to the bet- and 2. and best. thou dost attach thyself to the ietter good.. I have alone. if one doth cost thee no more than another. because if thou dost attach thy- self to the good. e. This is the will of God. and this alone. attach thyself alwa^ s to the best. if ter. See to it that — Eveiy time that these three come before if it thee. better. I do no one of them well. being able to have them all three. See that thou busy not tliyself about many things. If thou canst not have the best. For me. by stages.

what dost thou wish that I should do in regard of it ? I am not the Governor nor the Captain. while I live in want. nor an official of the Tribunal. And ofttimes there will come to me such as' would tell me that which is in sum but a vain trifle. : the love of God. I any were with me then he would fi. and they begin the story a thousand miles back. bring : . so that think a great marvel. he doth betake himself to me. she betaketh herself to me. Well. One day a little time ago a foreigner came to me. if he be in any tribulation. Another: I am owed money by such a man. if a son be chased out of the house by his father. he doth insult me. and he seemed to me a man of but little intelligence. they betake themselves to me for offloZhZt the Tribunal. friar Bernardino. God grant you happiness. that ever I have heard in any place whatsoever. nor have I bailiffs. I am not one of the Nobles. who per- God pute between chance hath quarrelled with his wife. 133 — that 1 — Tit Oho ! Ofttimes when am alone by to myself. he said Sire. he keepeth back from me perforce that which is mine. In like manner. the hasband cometh to me. saying to me for it about for me that there may be peace between her and me. If a woman haih fled from her husband. what wouldst thou have me to do? I would that you would send after him. he hath recourse to me. he betaketh himself to me. If a man hath any infirmity. he mocketh me. if the father be ill-treated by the son. said I.— 3. to force him to come hither. it is to me he doth come. so that I may force him to pay if thou hast money owed to thee. ^iar Bemar- there overcometh me if again and again the desire my laugh ^aTthatwUch doth belong to the ^»«^<'^ <"" '<> fill. What news ? I would have thy counsel? Utter thy whole wish. and approaching me. You are right welcome.nd that if any one hath a '^« quarrel of whatsoever kind. say I. and perchance he will not wish to do aught else than as it pleaseth him. Well. and you might do well indeed bringing them into accord. Tush! This is not a matter for me. There will come another. But I have no servants. the love of I pray you that you do me a kindness: there is a dissuch an one and such another. saying to me: Hearken. though in his own esteem this was not so. and in faith I hear from you the most wonderful tales. If a wife hath been driven away by her husband.

since I must stay to listen to you. 'and shall remain abroad ofttimes two years. When thou shouldst go to the Nobles. and sic de singulis ssij I to .— He commenceth 134 — then and saith: The truth is this.. and rector. And this which you do here in regard of me. not I Let each one perform his own office If money be owed to thee. do not come to seek me.'ll of the Tribunal. Know you what I have to say to you ? You would have me pope. that we have a priest in our church. for here again I can do naught for thee. and one to another. and emperor. A raer. And verily I do believe in respect of this which he said to me that he said it in good faith. it is done likewise in every other place whither T chance to go. or with each one of you.. hence I would ask that you send to him to come to you. I I replied to this man that I am not the bishop. ot whom we understand that he is excommunicated. go there whither thou shouldst go in order to recover thy money. and when it shouldst go to the bishop.. "We turned him out. He replied and said to me: To me it doth seem that you are bishop. and that I performed all those offices which belong unto cannot do all things.. that can neither admonish him nor correct him. .-.. reasonable thing for a merchant and'his MmUy ^ /or £«r**^* "^ I wish that we should consider facts. you pardon me. I mean that you correct him of his fault. or thy husband. for I can not be of aid in this affair of thine. in doing _ . If thy wife hath left thee. fore I ask of each one of And there- you that do It is this with the best intention. and he is not pleasing to us.. and we have taken another one.. the best of those three Avhich I told thee nota 4.. Oh. everyone of you. do not come to me. i . not study. and that you admonish him. and pope. settle this matthese. go thou therefore to them. Now . And thus I say ter with the help of thy father. since I and to that end which is of. Knowest thou wherefore? Because one is fitted to one ofis needful thou fice. „ chant who doth depart from his house. I ! ! thy kinsmen or thy friends. because that you should come to seek which I might be busied is a wasting of that time in in study and in dedsing a sermon to the magnificence and and you are occasion wherefore I can the honour of God to me . and doth leave a young wife. and offtci. and doth go lorth and Icave his wife and his family. and bishop.

speak not of eight days. -— Oh. ! ^ ' TJaed here ironically to mean those who ftre austere in outward appearance only. in such a way must you — . If thou sayest: Oh. as do beguile you with their words. and you are guided by what they say^ and you are beguiled. or of two weeks. moreover. and if he be unwilling to return. no! Oh. as thou knowest. then this is indeed a bad sign. naught can come of this but bad example. see that thou endeavour to enforce thee. and you perceive it not. this is not a reasonable thing in thee. it is displeasing to God. Nay. such hypocrites. Banish. Knowest thou what I say to thee. I would tell you somewhat of such were imprisoned. thou who givest thy vote in the palace. smce moreover they are not pleas. but to stay two years.— this is 135 ~ not permitted to thee! doth he seem to thee to do well? In faith. and thou art bound ! to and this is answer therefor.posnihu to go to ing to God. of certain such thoughts as come to thee if thou reason not with thy. be not without him. and he with thee. therefore even the thought of such a thing. forsooth. such hermits as say: Such and such a thing will come to pass. Also. go thither where he is. I am not troubled therefor. Farther there are so many cursed temptations ^^^ ^"ly which lead thee finally into evil. together while that there should be life in one or in Moreover. displeasing to God. write to him. that you were to the other. Hence do I wish most heartily that thou remain with him. or three. and not being according to reason. Woman ? If thy husband be abroad. in given one order that thoy should remain both.^'°^^^ '^^° believed it was sell in regard or them. women If these men fj^^tld wAo were not here present. this is not according to reason. if thou give it in suchwise that for one who is not fitted to an office thou dost give the white ballot. . they may thereby live in fornication. this The reason is this. Ay me! how many do the ballots ruin Again it is not reasonable to put into practice 6. Thus thou showest that thou art seeking after another. For ofttimes there come such deceivers. if they remain apart. and for one who I is fitted thereto thou dost give the black one. or even of a month. him to return to sead to him messages in suchwise that thou Shalt stir up in him the wish to return.

Hearken. And when the time seemed to him come. Another woman saith: The Virgin Mary appeared to me. and they set forth on their way.^ Such things are not pleasing to God. . Saint Francis perceived the changed manner of this friar^ and going to him he friar Rufino. then he made them strip themselves all naked^ men and women. When people saw this company they commenced to say: what meaneth this? What novelty is this? What do you intend.^ ihìug. the chronicler of Fermo. This friar Enfino forsooth was a holy man^ and so well did this cursed devil know how to order the matter that his fervour for Saint Francis began to diminish. and this vision came to him very many times. 136 - and they represent one thing as another. Saith another: And to me the moon appeared. Twelve years ago perchance there was a man at Fermo who came forth out of a wood who made people believe in his tales and his foolery. Knowest thou why? Because in my opinion thou art not better than was companion of Saint Francis. and said to him In regard of this thy Francis. be assured that he is a hypocrite. drawing many people to him. because they are not accord• ig to reason. and when we shall have arrived there. Saith another: An angel appeared to ^^^^ me. and it forctold unto me that I should have '^ such and such a thing. When this tale came to the ears of Sire Lewis. 6. he had them all imprisoned. the sea will part itself and we shall enter therein and go to Jerusalem Avithout ever wetting our feet in the water. in my bedchamber. Another: the sun. and went towards Fermo. which was all illumined with it. the Lord of Fermo. to whom the devappeared in the form of one crucified. doing in this manner? They replied: We intend to go to the sea. il : ' The same story is told by Ser Antonio di Niccolò. last appearedto Friar night there camc to a beautiful vision I saw such and sujinoin crucified. Another: A star. it is that from which evil will come to thee if thou know not hoAV to guard thyself from it. How the devil — How many women me there are who say ! : Oh. saying that one day they should go to the Holy Sepulchre by hind. Knowest thou what I say to thee? This is all madness which hath crazed thy brain^ or if be in truth somewhat. and so do they deceive many.do. the foì'ìn of one .

to tell him. since h'i hath not so great humility that he can endure to suffer any ! ! — ! — insult whatsoever. Saint Fnmcis knowing within believe it himself what this had been said to him. . In the end he told him that he had had a most glorious vision. And instructing this friar he said: Knowest thou how thou must do the next time that he comes again ? Know then that humility is most hateful to him. and finally he said to him Hast thou never had a vision? He not wishing. Saint Francis asking. and when one viuion or another Cometh to thee. but if he be the devil. The friar did in this manner : once a- gain he appeared to him forsooth in that selfsame form. Marry! When he had performed this act. in faith the devil can take upon himself the form of a crucifix. he asked him very many times. All that thing had he done solely to trick that friar. If he be the devil. Aye. thou having done this with right intention. since it is the devil. he said that the crucifix had spoken to him. Alas not. for it will bring thee into evil. straightway Friar Rufino spat in his lace. that other departed forthwith. and he will hold it for a good act. prove them before you that believe Here ! ' it is Saint Bernardine who speaks. again «nd again. See to it that when he doth appear to thee again thou dost spit in his face. Therefore do I say to you: Consider well which thou dost do. he will flee forthwith. and left behind him there so terrible a stench that no one could endure to stay there. ^ Oh. believe not with over-great readiness that which these visions reveal to thee. he never departed from above the cross in the time of Christ he was not however upon the cross of Christ himself. he will flee.— 137 — i asked him the reason thereof.what this had been. and if he be God he will be glad thereof.

as recordeth the forty-fourth psalm. was accompanied with twelve virgins. tvhom the Virgin Mary had round about Mary had with her twelve damsels when the 1. though she had the charge of the door. say must needs be virgins. what must be your behaviour before you marry. saith that she doth lead all * them with her because she the chief of virgins. and learn this morning. The first damsel whom Mary had with her Avas 2. Then we must consider 'the behaviour of the virgins. brought after her. She bore Mary so much love that she would never be parted from her. And before all we must. consider how Mary a pure virgin without The first damsel whom Mary had with her was My Lady Seclusion. My Lady Seclusion. — > « After her ahall virgins lie brought ». speaks of her as he seeth her. — David speaking first of the glorious Virgin yet Mary. since that they stood never idle. Of the tivelve damsels her. those are that they This Many more virgins shall be morning we must consider who I who should be present with the Virgin Mary. Mary had agreed with her and had said to her: knowest thou how thou must do if any one whatsoever stain of sin. Now would I tell you the name of each of all these. not as espoused. whose abode had been always with her. Angel saluted her. Psalm XLIV. and let us see the behaviour of Mary. And David and he is seeth that she w^as followed of many damsels. how Mary conducted herself when she heard the Virgins^ salutation of the angel. they were always busied in the service of Mary. and that which belonged unto them to do.XXIII. and Mary performed naught which these virgins knew not of. . virgins in her company.

And when they perceive and comprehend that which! indeed it is. in order that her face might not be seen. and he seemeth to me to be an angel. or even with women. and not to have to do with men. when they to see a thing that U""^!? ^*'^ them a longing for it. — — : : ! — intimacy of '»«"' in is the things at of the world. duct yourselves at home. once there cometli ' ZeverhavTin aught of good. And therefore said the Evangelist: Et ingressus AngeAve gratia plena : Dominus tecum And lus ad earn dixit being come in said unto her: Hail full of Grace: Angel the maidens! learn how you must conthe Lord is with thee. . he knocked. that when the Angel Gabriel arrived.— 139 — shall ever knock at the door ? See that thou goest never to open unto him without that thou dost first tell me it. And that it was fact you may know from this. for she had a little window like this one — of the Signoria here ^ or that of the Governor. and would know that which he wished. you know not how strong and overwhelming are the desires of youth There is naught better than to keep within doors. and My Lady Seclusion ran in haste to the window. and see that thou dost ask first who is there. Then said Mary: Go. lu some old pictures there is a vrindoir in tlie flrat floor of the Palazzo Puhfrom -wUch one might look out without beiug seen. open not the door. ask what she would have. and open unto him. and seeing him asked: Who is there ? And straightway drawing in her head she hastened to Mary and said: Some one hath knocked at the door. it 1 blico. to the end that we be not beguiled. hearken how thou must do then: take thy stand here at the window. thou descend. be-j cause all their feelings are stirred up with the desire thereof. and would always see first who wished to enter there. And this rule she always kept in regard of whosoever came thither. Maidens. and how you must be upon your guard in respect of him who doth entpr therein. for thou seest that the Virgin Mary stayed shut within her house. straightway she bowed her head. And when it had been opened unto him. If it be a man. open the wicket in thiswise. Why are maidens unstable? Not being experienced 3. To-day no trace of this remains. so that she and even if might see others without being herself seen.' new. \i it be somewhat belonging to the world. if it be a woman.

and you an example from you might do with him solely from intimacy as you pleased. and make intimate there. — who when she heareth a horse. as it was accustomed to do in the wood. be on thy guard. Betake thyself not to the windows by day or by night. Show him acorns and go towards him. maiden? Oh. and every day she was used to say to her: Let not thyself be seen by the men. if she follow after she never will be good. This My Lady Seclusion had a sister whose name was My Lady Bashfulness. And those this cumeth seeth with people whom he every day. evil dost thou do. Mark me. and because of such intimacy with people. I see there a wild pig. it is yet worse. for I say that which is true. I would tell nature. be assured that very easily she may fall into dishonour. Giro. go not thither at . to permit that herself she should visit in the houses of others. and go not to listen to the sound of music when they do at ball. forthwith will he flee from thee. he would permit him to touch him and to scratch him. — and wear short jerkins reaching only to the middle. who would see all and know everything. for because of such intimacy thou shalt find her therefore big and monstrous great. Speak thou to no one. for it is needful that thou shouldst do so. Wouldst thou do as I tell thee. Call him. then that thou dost guard thyself from My Lady Doit. betake thyself not to the window to look at those who play who dwell therein. mesticity.somewhat. There where thou dost think that she is intimate. and enter thou not into the bedchamber of another. thou mother. To the same purpose: A maiden who looketh not to her behaviour as she should do. which hath been brought hither into the city.140 straightway she goeth in pursuit of it. Hearken. ciro I Thou mayest well sing. of those Now go thou to the wood. for he will never wait for thee. stay not to listen when the young men (jlimb up to the roof and throw up pebbles that they may talk with thee. and becoming used to see so many people it fleeth not away. Better far hadst thou done to bring her to the preaching. if a man should go to offer him. doth straightway run to the window. play or sing beneath thy window at daybreak. and coax thither one when he shall see thee.. let no one enter into thy bedchamber. see to it.

when thou hearest the young men who sing or make and music. which are good and holy. thou manner. and will converse Avith thee. for if thou shalt remain in great and open because the mind of a maid doth waver. virginS. thou dost hear them. far otherwise. and then it doth befall that et cetera. and stay not to listen. * and she went thither straightway to know what he wished. Three persons are there whom thou shouldst stay to hearkfirst Q-od. look at that which the Evangelist hath said: Quae cum audisset Who having heard.— 141 — any time. alone without other prayers. that Seolnsion had seen the Angel. And there were always such words as these beBashfulness and Domesticity. who^ when Seclusion had seen this angel. Knowest thou what this doth — The second of '^« damaeu of j^'^^ Tudimce. tween these two sisters Hast thou taken my meaning ? Thou wilt understand me even better anon.-md when thou sayest the Pater Noster. that when thou dost Mary. then en to. and help- not so To such things as these thou shouldst open thine ears. and next thy mother. 4. salute the Virgin — . Oh. Think not that she is one of those unmannerly women of whom many are to be found. forthwith she will respond to thee. sa'id that this was so.fiil. When thou sayest the Ave Maria Mary. she doth forthwith salute thee. knowest thou what thou shouldst do? Fiee away. who have not husbands thy father. and Mary knew it forthwith. it remaineth not firm. for they would willingly bring thee to shame dishonour. The second of the damsels of Mary was My Lady Audience. . ^ I. e. dost speak with in like Knowest thou. teach thee? It doth teach thee. wilt thou be so unmannerly that thou dost salute not her? If thou shalt salute her. with whom the dost thou think thou speakest ? Thou dost speak with Virgin . Let us commune with tliou Shalt stay there peril. that thou shouldst stay to listen to those things . And to be assured that this was so. he as well will respond to thee and will converse the good Lord God.. When — : God. Likewise speaking aloft to God. and the Angel told it to her. she is all pleasant: she doth s-ilute thee every evening when thou hearest the Ave Maria ring up there in the Duomo.

Do that which Guard thyself. — Hearken. from those wicked thine ears to that which I say to women who endeavour thee to do thou shouldst hear. and this when she doth teach and train thee. and will observe too all thy person. And not experienced in there present. regard of God as of the thou shouldst hearken is thy mother. and this is their manner: Avhen she cometh thither she will sit down with thee. thee. how thou art unkempt! Thou dost clothe thyself indeed ill. stay not to listen to the words of any man: Oh. thou seemest in truth a wild beast. see. Guard to thyself from those wicked women when they when is thy not come the seek thee at home. and thou shouldst obey him. she ^ doth dictate to thee. maiden who is the things of the for world. and maiden. purity lay not thy so mind to aught else than to purity. And their habit is to say: Oh. and see that and hear. and they carry on one arm a little basket. is mother verse with thee who endeavour always to conwhen thy mother is not there present. and methinks that thou dost pay little heed to thy appearance. for he will never tell thee aught than that which will result in honour for thee. my daughter! do that which I say what I say. noble a thing. this is their custom. stay not to look at those who are so unseemly in their manner of playing at ball. pure and innocent. — Mark me. and she inquire th of thee in respect of thy mother. wherein they have certain little vials for anointing and for painting the face. Pay heed converse with to that in which doth consist the safety of thy soul. daughter. and thy tresses are in great disorder. Thou shouldst stay to hearken to thy father. and without guilej Wouldst thou that I teach thee to know them ? Be upon thy guard when anyone whatsoever cometh to theeat home. 5. knoweth not these she women as they are in truth.— 142 — with thee. and pay heed to this which I shall say to thee. and believe to you. The third person to whom and is idle songs. . saying to thee: Betake not thyself to the window. and incline Hear that which which thou shouldst see. and where she is. go Parity. Then she will set herself to gaze at thy face. Go to. stand not there to hear the singing of vain and which is useful as much in world. Second.\ Commonly it is their custom to go when the mother is absent.

And then doth she commence to say to the maid I have brought thee good tidings. to Trhat I Bay to yon. or flour. lips. And they always have this « true love » on their. there is one who doth wish well to thee more than any other in the world. maiden see that thou dost hearken and attend: * Stay not to listen to such as these.— 143 - that thou mayest to! See that thou be clad as beseemeth. Think you ! : that I know not these practices? Yea. appear that which thou indeed art. in faith. Stay not ever to listen. she doth praise. with this bunch of straw. I \Tke woman then doth arise up.. then she doth commence to repeat messages. and she saith to her would clothe and deck thee with mine own hands. with broken bits of silver. and so was it done. nor even to listen to any young man such as those who say ofttimes I would say a word to thee. and put it within the door. and they burned her house for her. And when they have spoken together in : for a little. or oil. . I know what » I. and thou art neglected and disorderly like a sheep. when one of them had talked to her. Thou art the most beautiful maid in this neighbourhood. and doth instruct her how to anoint herself and what the maiden doth of this. thou art beautiful! Thou dost seem to me the most beautiful maid whom [ have ever. There was another who. to thy profit. out of true love. or bread. doth reply as she best can. Never will they depart if they have not somewhat to carry awayj they endeavour always to rob. and first she doth demand that she be paid. and she doth assist her. her well with many blows. set herself to talk in who she when such a one this manner. or wine. Know thou what thou shouldst do in regard of this manner sation they : such as buffeted thetie? In like manner as did a certain maid. And she gave them a bunch of straw. seen! And she maketh her to dance with joy^ for commonly maidens desire to be praised for their beauty. the maiden summoned a whole troop of children and said to them: Go to the house of such a one. e. And the maiden. Oh. Oh. who doth jjpidge by these words alone. and it is somewhat which thou hast need to hear. so that by meajis of their converhave grown intimate. or with salt meat.

and hundreds of maidens have been dishonoured by these means. and all thy parentage. The fourth of the damsels of Mary was called My ^adv Prudcuce. not I. Whenso^^^^ gj^g heard a man speak. called to considcr: Cogitdbat quails esset ista salutatio She thought: of salutation is what manner ' this? As thou knowest he said She was troubled by his saying. Notwithstanding that he was an Angel. finally to the ihe third of the damsels of — Mary was called My Lady Modesty. to thy father. manner of it I will not tell you. ' -^ * : : take thee not through her. I have found myself ere this there where there have heea such men as have said: If I can but speak with her. and thy mother. Dishonour and shame to in to thy mother. forthwith she was troubled. .that thy father or thy mother be not present. and was all troubled within for modesty. how thou shouldst act. Likewise did Mary. Oh. And the first word they say is this I would speak with thee for the the : the true love doth consist in this: dishonouring thee. I shall prevail. And I know that these speak truth. and husband who shall be given to thee! Therefore be wise. to all thy family. ^hc third of the damsels of Mary was called My ^Lady Modcsty. how sage " was she I After that she had " Understood the word 9 of the angel she commenced forthwith — Mary was My Lady Prudence. thee. she said within herself: Ì have spoken ofttimes with angels. so that she will consent. And hence said the Gospel.-144Bertha spun. — but not to everyone. Take example by this. And thou. thus blindfolding thine eyes so that thou darest never show thyself abroad. for I wish not that you should learn it from me. but never heard I that one spoke to me in a human voice. The fourth of the damsels of 7. see that thou dost regard the honour of thy daughter: see to it that dishonour over- true love I bear thee. When she heard the Angel speak. then in modesty she became ^ red as fire. Never speak to a man if . for there are such as would practise it if they knew how. if I can but touch her hand. and thy ftither. She was ever close beside Mary. hearken and attend. when the Angel had spoken to her in the form of a man et turbata est in sermone eius. man. Pay heed to this when a man is confused he doth blush. thou maiden. because she heard a voice as of a man.


to her:

145


:

Àve^ratia plena : Dominus tecum

henedicta tu

in

mulierihusS'Wh&ii this damsel had heard

these

spoke with Mary, saying: reply not yet to this, needs consider this, for it is a thing of very great import. If thou dost promise, then thou must needs keep thy word. And so she reflected. If she had replied at once, she would not have done well to consent. Nor would she have done well to drive away the Angel, when she knew him to be such^ so that she chose the best part, reflecting thereupon. Do not you as many do who will not bring their daughters to the sermon; saying that they wish not that they should hear many of those things which are said here in order that they may know how to guard themselves from sin, saying: they know not what is a sin Ay me for thou knowest not that which thou say est; Wouldst thou rather she should fall into sin and commit it than know how to guard herself from it? Do not thus, I say; see to it that she shall know that from which she should guard herself, and it will not then be possible that thou shouldst err.i If thou wilt not do so, great evil will befall thee therefrom. Go now, and keep her in pickle like the olive, or like walnuts, which are to be preserved; which the more often the water be changed, the sweeter doth it come off from them, and so the bitter departeth; and meseemeth that thou wouldst do contrariwise. If thou shalt do in this way, bitter water will always come off from her, because she will fall into sin and vice, not perceiving it. Thinkest thou however, that these are not sins for her because she doth know them not? It standeth not so'). I say to thee that if thou doth frequent the sermon, thou shalt become sage and prudent and shalt know to keep thyself from sinTAnd so also I say to thee: thou wilt make thyself like to the dove and wilt not know how to do evil, because thou wilt keep thyself from it. How many admonitions dost thou learn if thou stay to hear the preaching Thou wilt learn to speak sagely and to speak low, to speak little and to say what is good. When she doth marry teach her not to be a chatterer for ofttimes doth it befall many women that their husbands love them not because of their too great chattering. Pay heed to this that if the woman speak little, and live modestly, her

words she thou must

!

!

!

;

10

~
husband
to live

146


!

will always love her. Oh it is so useful a thing temperately in regard of customs and actions, and
it is

of virtue"?, that

like something holy.
officials,

Ah,
for

this is to

seen in practice in respect of the

be one can not

have speech with them

When

after any careless fashion whatsoever. thou dost enter there, then dost thou pass to one after another until that thou dost finally have speech with him. * Likewise is this true of the holy father: whensoever

one doth wish

to

speak with the holy

father,

he

is

shut

within, so that before

you may arrive where he is thou must speak to many. Thou dost arrive at the first door, and dost make it known, * and thou shalt wait a while ere that thou dost pass to the second; and thus doth the will to see him grow stronger within thee: and then when thou dost pass on to the second the will to pass beyond this dofh grow yet stronger; finally thou dost arrive at the third, and in this manner through the will which groweth ever stronger within thee, thou dost enter in to the holy father, and arrived
there, thou hast far greater reverence for hira than thou wouldst have had hadst thou gone thither without having felt any longing whatsoever, and had found all the doors open. In this manner he is esteemed. So do I say of the Rulers. Thou seest that here are doors, and when thou hast entered here thou goest up higher, and thou must wait before another door, and in this manner are they esteemed. if the Eulers should stand up there by the Tell me this: Fountain ' where stand the labourers who wait to be hired, or as the porters stand there, in what esteem should we

hold them?
The fifth damsel was

^
fifth is

My

Iiddy Timidity.

Timidity. She did ^q many shameless bold ones; when they hear a word spoken outside, they run stra,]ghtway to the wiodow to see who speaketh\ Not so did she do; rather when she
8.

The

called

My Lady
,

^q|-

g^

.^^

,

saw the Angel, who had the face of a man, forthwith timidity overcame her with fear, that not alone she wished not to speak to him, but moreover she could not look at him in the face; and seeing this the Angel straightway said to her:
'

The

oflBcial

whom you were
1, p.

seeking.

> I. e.,

make known

the request for an andienos.

See footnote

82.

-- 147

~

Ne Hmeas, Maria. Fear
to reflect that
!

not;

she should have feared,

Mary. Oh, what a thing" it is who had lived ever

This is a witness that we oiig-ht to in the service of God have the fear of God within us and outside. maiden, every time that ihou shalt have the fear of God within thee, thou wilt tremble with fear when thou shalt see a man, because she who hath turned her thoug-hts to God, wishing- to preserve her holy virginity, will tremble every time that she shall see a man, notwithstanding that her thought be stablpA, 9. The sixth damsel who was with Mary was called My Lady Purity. Whosoever had beheld her and had remarked her gaze, and the manner of her movements and of her speech, her demeanour in all things, would have seen her so pure in every way that it was a marvellous thing. Thinkest thou perchance that she decked herself out as you do? No. As God had made her, so she was. Dost thou recall to thy mind how Esther did, who did never endeavour to seem more beautiful to King Assuerus than in truth she was ? She did not as you do, all you women, who can not be

^jhe sixth

damsel who was
^**^ ^'^^^ ^"*
called

My

Lady

Purity.

you are dishonest. And mark you do grow still worse in four years or six than you have become in two years since I last came hither, you will not do so to the close of ten years. Do you know why ? Because you will not be able, for I fear, I fear, I fear, lest it befall you as it hath ofttiraes befallen many and as I said to you the other day in regard of large sleeves, so do I now say to you of the tabards, since that wearing these not only do you not seem to me decent women, but you seem like female soldiers. And knowest thou what will come of this? That of one of your tabards they * will be able to make two, and they will serve very well; from the middle upwards it will serve for a page, and it will not need to be altered in anywise, and from the middle downwards it will serve the master, and there will be need only to fit it to him a little. I shall not remain always with you, for I shall have departed, and I shall be
called with truth honest, since
,

me,

if

*

;

shall
'

Because you have passed.
J. 0.,

will be overtaken

by some dreadful judgment before ten years
will be sent as

Soldiers of the enemy,

who

a judgment.

148

Th$ seventh
damsel,
corri'

panion of the Virgin Mary, was My Lady
Diligence.

away, and I shall say: I foretold it clearly to my men and women, and I was not believed. Thou seeing that it hath indeed overtaken thee, thou wilt be here and wilt say: Friar Bernardine told me of it, and we did not wish to believe him, and it hath befallen in very truth as he foretold to us, and even worse. 10. The seventh damsel, companion of the Virgin Mary, was My Lady Diligence. She kept all the home in order, and that service which she performed she did perform with so much love, and so much orderliness that when she ate she ate in the appointed order, and so it was even to her sleeping; everything she did at the time ordained. Learn, maiden, to do that which thou hast to do, according to order, and with love. If thou hast to spin, or to cook; or all that to sweep, or to clean the household belongings, which thou hast to do, do it with diligence. \Wouldst thou that I should teach thee how to know who is fitted to do well, and hath some little grain of good sense ? Hearken, by three things thou shalt know her; first by laughter, in showing her teeth; when thou seest a man or a woman whose custom it is to laugh riotously with wide, gaping mouth, and showing all her teeth, be assured that she is mad. Moreover thou shalt know them by their manner of walking, because they go with head up, in faith, as thou goest, at random. Also the manner of their dress doth reveal it to thee. If thou dost see a man or a woman decked in such crazy fashion, or with such extravagant fooleries as we see, reflect that in like manner is her head crazed and foolish, as they show outwardly in their bearing. And as thou dost perceive foolery in their outward garments,
far

Sienese,

reflect therefore that their hearts within are all full of vain

and empty clucking. Hast thou never seen such of these women as wear a monstrous head-dress ? As thou seest the
head of good precisely at this time to allure the redbreasts, which are snared in this season.. In like manner do these women who wear a monstrous head, like an owl; they allure the young men Thou knowest that when thou dost set the screechowl upon the hedge, all the birds range themselves round
screech-owl,
tbe owl.
so are these, their heads are like the
is

For what

the

screech-owl

good?

It

is

!


about
to

Ud
it


at

look

at

it,

and

looketh.

them,

and they

perceive not that they are unared and limed. So likewise in
precisely this

same manner do these young men; they go round and round these young women who have so monstrous a head. They go round and round, and finally they are
snared in the lime of their own wantonness. 11. The eighth damsel who was with

Mary was My TheUgiuh She was ever with Mary. If Mary walked J,X^7'^Vr' about, then Virginity walked with her; if she read, then uy Lady did Virginity likewise so, with her. In whatsoever Mary Tirgìnìty. did Virginity was with her; and because she used not to be with others, therefore she said those words to the Angel: Quoniam virum non cognosco. How shall this be done which thou sayest, because I know not man, and I am not disposed ever to know one. For should I give birth even to the Son of God through knowing man, yet should I not be disposed to consent thereto in order not to lose my Virginity. I have given it for ever to God, and I will preserve it ever for him, for I wish not ever to give birth, nor to be a mother in. anywise whatsoever. How well did they converse together virgins, know you this, that while the Angel and Mary you retain your Virginity you are ever accompanied with Angels. Not so is it with her who is married, and is joined in matrimony. Knowest thou not that the merit of the Virgin the merit of the married it is said is one hundred, and woman thirty, and of the widow sixty ? Seest thou by how much the Virgin doth exceed the other estates? Virgins be wise to maintain yourselves as you are flee the sight
Lady
Virginity.
! ;

of

man

!

12. — The ninth of the other companions of the Virgin Mary was My Lady Obedience. She having understood the

Tiie
'^"'

idnth of

eompanions

words

of the Angel, since it seemed to her that these ij^«a7^y accorded with that which she wished should be, that is Lady obedience. to say, that the virginity of Mary should still be preserved, said to Mary: determine to be contented since God hath sent thee this Angel; reply to him forthwith, and say unto

him

that so thou art contented,

and well disposed

to

the

will of

maiden, when thy father or thy mother doth command thee, or thy graadmother, or even thine
God.

Make her to tend the children. keep thou thy daughter like a little drudge. even when there is no need thereof for thee thyself. Keep her not in ease. she will become a great heap of fleshly thoughts. Knowest thou what thou shalt make thus of her ? It will come about that she will do for thee all that of which there is need in the house. she will not be giddy-pated. labour is useful! ! ! — . to wash the swaddling bands. Not having aught to — give him. and mother. Oh. I say. This may be. And Mary commenced My Lady Sumility. In like manner I say that thou shouldst do. And then she wherefore regarded the turned to the Angel with her intention towards U-od: Ecce anelila Domini Behold the handmaid of the good Lord God. Oh. Yes ? Make her to sweep it.150 — The tenth damsel with aunt. won the love of. Oh. Is the house to be swept ? Yes. how much would there be to say concerning this part of it ThoU' father. make her to do so. all generations will call will they call me blessed. and all else if thou practice her not in all such work. but there is the maid servant. me blessed ? Because he hath humility of his handmaid. within the house. The eleventh damsel is called My Lady Longing. but make her to work. she will not wait at the windows. God for Mary. 13. ancillae suae . Be desirous of work. not because there is need thereof. ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes\ Behold. The tenth damsel with whom Mary was accom- — whom Mary was accompanied was called panied. with now one thing and now somewhat new in her head. and when thou canst. and devotion and humility Quia respexit humilitatem. If thou Shalt keep her busied. Always with very gre: it longing and desire did she perform every work which she had to do to the glory and honour of God. see to it in regard of what-soever be commanded unto thee that this thou dost willingly perform. do so much at least. and this it was which to . if I consent sing with great jovousness thereto. that when . Is the washing to be done? Make her to do it. Are the bowls and the platters to be washed? Make her to wash them Are the clothes to be sought out for the washing. Make her to seek them out. be desirous also to give somewhat in alms to the poor and needy. was called My Lady Humility. 14. The eleventh damsel is called My Lady Longing. but to keep her busied.

and be contented with that which he doth command unto thee. love of God take thought for these women. and I consent in no other manner. — : . poor the unfortunate prisoners. maiden. and in the name of God I recommend them to your charity. poor creatures. Mary^was^My^ Omnia opera eius in fide: All her works were done in faith. She had so great .— 151 — : thou dost see a poor boggar in rags thou dost mend him and make them garments. if thou hast somewhat of thine. I am well content with the manner thou hast told me of. this Take thought is for the prisoners. and obey him always.faith companion. The twelfth and last companion of the glorious ne laat Virgin Mary was My Lady Faith. Have be to desire things which may the to do willingly honour and glory all those of for for God. have at least the desire to give willingly. And so follow this example thou.of the that she believed all things were possible which God wished. if thou hast naught. give unto them. And therefore she said to the Angel Secundum verbum tuum. 15. one of the seven works of mercy. and believe in thy father. Lady Faith.

as Adam was before he sinned. fire. Likewise he would have received such grace from God that never . — which Messed Peter the the Comb Merchant Comb- Merchant. He saw two angels with two torches in their hands. and he used to go there lo listen. and go thou to see. Then after these to came saints of old^ and they likewise put their feet into these footprints. who placed his feet precisely where Christ had placed his. placing their feet there where the footprints of Christ were. Hast thou never heard that which blessed Peter said? If thou knowest it not. the plants. the and in like manner every created thing. And wherefore Saint Francis — they s. Then behind endeavoured them all he saw little poor Francis. every bird. would have obeyed him. Of a vision Of Saint Francis. barefoot. and entering inside he saw no other than Christ at the altar. Waiting a little he saw people come on foot. air. and in the open space he saw tracks as if in ashes.XXIV. so that hardly could the prints of his be seen. every beast. and all the elements. and this was here at Siena. and by reason of the many footprints of those who passed there. And this was solely because he be so close a follower of God that there could be found no one who had followed in the footprints showed himself of Christ so 2. to much as he. I would tell it thee. was so possessed of purity that and maintain that to him was granted the first innocence. water. the first footprints were well nigh effaced. who were 1. fishes. there at his tomb. How may it be known? It is said that if Adam had not sinned. earth. the fruits. let us see the reason. He was used at that time to go to matins at the Duomo.iy was a wonderful this is to be believed. Saint Francis was so possessed it of purity that thing.

Sano di Pietro - Saint Bernardine preaching in the Piazza di San Francesco .

who passed there. who were a little he saw people come on placing their feet there where the footprints of Christ were. I would tell it thee. air. and in like manner every created thing. barefoot. them he saw little poor Francis. reason of the the first all many footprints of those footprints were well nigh effaced. He was used at that time to go to matins at the Duomo.^^ S. so that hardly could the prints of his be seen. let And Avherefore '' was a wonderful thing. every bird. which blessed Peter it not. Then behind who placed his feet solely precisely Avhere Christ had placed his. and the the elements. to l)e so close a follower of God that there could be found no one Avho had folloAved in the footprints much as he. Waiting foot. and entering inside he saw no other than Christ at the altar. Avould have him. as ^^jj. it be knoAvn? It said that Adam had obeyed not every all beast. Of a vision Of Saint Francis. — Hast thou never heard tliat ivhich hlesscd the Comb jM. him was granted of purity that Adam is v/as before he sinned. and go thou to sec. He saw two angels with two torches in their hands. the fruits. lire. and by 1. there at his tomb. if How may sinned. us see the reason. Then after tliese came saints of old^ and they likewise endeavoured to put their feet into these footprints. and he used to go there lo listen. And this Avas because he sliowod himself of Christ so 2. Likewise he Avould have received such grace from God that never . earth.INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE XXIV.nd in the open space he saAV tracks as if in ashes.erch. and this was here at Siena. fishes.aiit said? If thou knoAvest Peter the Oomh- Merchant. ^^ ^^^ believed.iint Francis was so to possessed of purity the that first Saint Francis was so possessed it they say and maintain that innoconcO. — ^.. the plants. a. Avater.

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and if Adam had returned to that former state. nor to fevers. Freezing cold water was put around him. at one time having a very great thirst upon him. As thou seest.would he have been subject 153 - to headache. and it was revealed to him. and then he could not have drowned. and He. and it did not seem to him freezing. «. he being in prayer. over fire. Herein mayest thoa see how great power he had over the water. he threw himself to the ground off from the little ass on which he was riding. Moreover we have it that m Apulia he went up into a boat. while he was in Fermo. Likewise had he power over fire. Saint had these graces. being either hot or cold. nor to a stitch into the side.. that he should go to a stone which there was near by. wine. Likewise. all all the fishes. it could not have roasted him. nor to any of those maladies which we suffer every day. and he had water in abundance. every thing rebelled against him and he became subject to all these fall upon a man it ills. now if a stone doth doth injure him. for Francis. and over water. and this miracle was done openly before many of his friars. The air could not have hurt him. he had so great power that he caused a very great brightness beyond belief. to speak further of water. it would not have hurt him. all the elements would have been obedient to him. and went to preach in another place. nor to the gravel. he may drown. all the birds. in that former state. the beasts. Also we have it. going upon water. water. And because he sinned. In like manner if a mountain had fallen atop of him. which then* would not have hurt him. In like manner. grass. hence we may suppose that he had that same innocence which Adam had before he sinned. He had power over air. whereas now it would smother him. he had such power over water that he made it become wine: Vìnum non Jiàbent. * I. before the sin of Adam. . all the animals. by means of the power given him by God. the same graces would have been granted again to him. and now it would burn him utterly. all things. So if anyone then had entered fire. over land. and the little boat returned wholly of itself. We have it that at one time in Lombardy passing by along the road the air being very dark like night.

wishing thus to show to Saint Francis of the life that he was leading that this was very pleasing to him. and after that they had passed on he let go away. Further. . and it pained him not. and so likewise the birds. At another time we have it weak. for love of him. — Let us see the way were given to Saint Francis. for since he had within himself Christ crucified. and moreover a mountain ilppeared. and he its that his sight being ordered that they be quiet. We have it that down there towards Eome. sweetest words in the world. go. Moreover we have it that once a hare fleeing before the dogs. Of the way in which the wounds were given to Saint I^ands. beasts OS the Francis performed. there was laid on his brow redhot iron.154 heat could not — harm him. if he will consider him. from He knew how to this we see find the his that wisdom was not human. which formed his name. among his miracles Further. But whosoever doth read of his deeds. we have it that when he spoke they stayed to listen. Thou seest that it is made like a cross. miraeles that Saint 'Ò. When Francis reflected on the deeds of Christ. concerning the fishes. He made this look tor this ! my garment as you make a large cope. and so they obeyed and stayed to listen to him. at Todi. I recall one to mind. in which the wounds of Christ and the reason: Christ appeared to him at this time with six wings. the noise of the swallows was troublesome to htm. Well might Saint Francis have said: I am a man wise indeed. but divine.signifying the two wings that he had towards God two other wings encircling him himself and two others 4. so therefore he wished to wear the cross as his habit. . Two wings he had extending aloft. sought safety in the bosom of it Saint Francis. When he put on this habit for the love of Christ. he fixed his thoughts so upon this Christ that he had naught else in his mind. while he was preaching. which was all burning. Thou hast it that once as he walked he was seen like to a glowing furnace. he will say that he was the most win- — ning of all men we read of. he saw a palace with five windows. And hereby thou seest that the elements and the and the birds obeyed him. that before he renounced the world. he wished to have it worn with some sign that should show the love that he bore him.

and that which it doth reveal to thee. and mouth. He drew him in such a loqui. signifying the love that he bore his neighbour. Oh. ever admonishing. and thinking upon this he was so transformed^that he was almost united to God in a unifying transformation. rather may than speak aught of it. and praying that he ought to guard himself from sin and follow the will of God. at his — crucified. Deemest thou that they spoke together ? Hast thou seen him there at home * in the Chapter House ? I know not who painted him there. Two other wings had he in the middle. verily he did reflect excellently well before that he painted him. ever instructing him.— 155 — he extending" towards his neighbour. His thought of God was all of his passion. his thought of himself was of his own salvation. which showed that he had always intention towards God. It is not permitted to it you prove way all that he doth seem in truth to be out of himself. in God. at Look him for a little. for verily herein is shown how he believed in the love of God. Those two above. saying. Qaae non licet Uomini man to speak thereof. In the friary of « The OBservanza ' ». how pleasing do I find that aspect of his. these he fluttered continuously. with these six wings was so pleasing to God that he glowed wholly with charity and with love. and by means of these six wings he was transformed into Christ trasformed. Latum mandatum tuum nimis. . but he who painted him. of his neighbour he thought to instruct him that they should give praise to God. Great and bountiful is thy commandment. giving always glory and honour to him.

zzv. but thy conversion delighteth him. lest that another time he send upon you the lightnings and the thunder together. and knowest thou the name of that preacher? He is called Friar Cudgel. say to you. and in order that ye may be able to help yourselves and willing. Ofttimes they come with the noise of bombardes. [ for God hath you Friar Cudgel sent lightnings which should enlighten yon: since that come not preach. for I promise you that there is need of prayer. — felloTV-citizens. to perceive the truth. for if thou wilt help thyself in that wherein thoa canst. thou dreamest and dost talk at random. 80 fearful am I he is a great preacher in those parts because of your deeds. And I would have you to know that there is a place in Italy where there are gathered together at a sermon thirty or forty thousand people at one time. who come not with lightnings apart from thunder. I will show you to! ! morrow people. that I tremble with fear lest it may go ill with you. it will go seek your safety betimes. Alas this my sermon in which I show you wherein lieth safety. thou shalt thee. say that I dream. be saved. Pray that How I. In very truth you may say to me: Friar Bernardine. and God will help Know that God desireth not thy ruin. for if the lightning and the thunder come together. Help thyself. Know ye wherefore ? Because I see you in evident and open peril. beware. Other preachers there who come to a people. Hearken to ill with you. Oh. that you are in greater peril than was ever any And if I fail to make thee believe. beware. and perchance there may . for the love of God: pray God for safety. Return then to God. Ay me are also ! be upon your guard. God is to he feared. but rather together with the thunder. open your eyes.

and out of the fear I have for you and the love I bear you. '"'*^j^ f* tenderness and so much in love that seeing so great f»*'^* ° within into *' five sins. from my fear lest evil overtake you. hath 80 great proiit of his sermons. I grieve so in regard of which she wunn — ^™* "•''. And when I shall depart. that here at Siena it can scarce be believed. I shall depart from you. Wherefore Saint Bernardino derives Mazica perhaps from Mazza « Club ». I must not remain here. who ttouM sack the city. for it. reason I will tell thee. by what means hast thou acquired it ? Knowest thou how to reply to me ? The chief Saith this man : there . and to spare our and our fields. and I see that you lack the wisdom to maintain your liberty.— 157 ~ be one who will say so. you. I shall carry away with me. . 2. you must needs believe this. In like manner the farms being tilled have yielded you corn in abundance and other grain. vineyards are fertile. To whom do I speak. ! indeed one of you. women? To whom do I peace for so long speak? Ay me! I speak to my Sienese. and we till our farms excellently well. Alas let us speak thereof for a little. I ask of thee again. woe is is me ! for of this I have so great fear. as earlier he has several times referred to Frate Bastone. a bosom all filled with sorrow and with sighs. and when I shall leave I shall go singing like as the Germans weep. For how long a time have you enjoyed this liberty in Siena? for so long: Good. so that you may reply according to reason. We have cattle. because I ! am truthbe punished. what he great following He among those inclined as ^ and hath a and he you are . we keep them. It is clear that here he alludes to the sudden deaoent upon them of some band of Adventurers. I shall have my ears ever pricked up when I hear news of Siena. Alas woe is me. because of the fear that I feel for you. Solely because of the peace that hath prevailed are thy vineyards tilled and hast thou wine in abundance. because of this. I speak to you out of great abundance. Know you wherefore ? Because I fear lest another preacher may come to you is ! Alas. — is abundance. that I am wholly called ? troubled within myself! Knowest thou called Friar Mazica. and because of this peace that prevaileth. and I shall say that it is yon rather who do dream. another time: The wealth that thou hast. and because of could you but see within my heart. And what hath this liberty produced ? And reflect first before you reply to me.

of oats. that is to say. already hast thou let fall the fly of suspicion into thy food. thou dost use it and possess it in sin and in disorder. hatred. Seest thou that man who doth hold office? And I. of corn. to thii oAae.. and thou hast not been able to have it. for thou dost perceive that thou * canst not help thyself to this. for And when thou hast arrived at of it as he and thou dost note him who hath that office which thou didst desire. and peace alone. worse sin. thou dost ! — and from gluttony thou wilt pass to through this excess thou dost next fall into vanities and wantonness. why am I not deserving of this as much as he? In faith I fill up thy throat. O Siena. sending their money down their throats. as Thou seest that man exalted much as thou thyself. when that which he hath given unto thee. or more. what hath been the cause of this? Peace. And of thee was said : Quorum Deus venter est Their God is their belly. . Knowest thou not that war is the cause wherefore these things are scattered and wasted ? And who hath granted this peace to thee? God. Thou hast abundance of goods and thou dost employ it all in vanities and in sinfulness. for they think they do naught but what is good.-issyou have have so multiplied for you. For first the sin are they tilled ? Solely because of the peace that enjoyed. forthwith thou dost fall into the sin of pride. it is an evil sign when a man is ungrateful for the benefits he hath received But there is that which is still worse. thy prosperity thou thyself hast commenced to endanger Stop to consider thy practices.e. I say that God having given thee riches and having granted thee peace. and when thou hast gathered together much wealth. so and thou dost bear him that willingly thou wouldst beat him. Eeflect. and thou Shalt see that I speak truly. of meat. and into > I. of wine. then forthwith thou dost fall into the fifth vice am as fain ! this point. Who hath given so great wealth into thy hands ? So great an abundance of oil. into anger. . The cattle that ! — of gluttony doth reveal itself in magnificent and disorderly feasting. and of all good things ? Knowest thou not it is from him ? Oh. in order that thou shouldst use it better than thou dost use it to-day.

Then indeed is the boiling broth-pot skimmed! Ah me! these vanities which you have. and make them in abundance. What think you doth become of these things when there is war ? They are sold. without speaking of many other such vanities.I never prove Pay heed to this — ! promise thee that they shall serve excellently well to make tabards for the soldiers! Woe is me. to that which it doth permit. your silvern gewgaws. prithee. thrown away. do we not I fear. acorns of silver. for. that theyj are. ill or well. thou shalt be taxed. Seest thou a land which hath lived for long in peace. again: if thou shouldst lift the scum. and thy prosperity shall fail and shall diminish for thee. had for them. For if he send thee his scourge. and thou shalt be obliged to sell and to pledge. having prosperity. and are given for that which can be had. lest they may cost you dear see that evil fortune must overtake you? Is there any woman who doth not wish to wear on her head a rose garland with acorns in it. tell lifted the broth-pot doth boil that is and bubble. puffs which drag the wings of your pendant sleeves to the ground. bat only thinking thereon I am consumed with grief. and put see it into the part seething. I fear. as it were. and now thou shalt use them no longer. thou shalt be forced to give them up. when men. stripes of many colours. for they shall be taken from thee. Thou payest not heed to the justice of God. which I would tell you. and so little is to be. your slippers. this. and should put this then upon the fire. trailing gowns. garlands. I say not that this sin alone shall be punished but as many as . Hast thou made ill use of thy goods ? Yes. and tabards. Worse. Would God that and foulest you may and may never have the will to do so. But wait yet a little! me: if yoa should put the scum which you have from the broth-pot into another pot. and these taxes thou shalt be obliged to pay them. and then cometh war ? how many things might be shown to be the occasion"^ of it ? Lappets. think you that this water would be pure and good? It will be the foulest mess that you did ever see. with silver and with other vain gewgaws? Make them. thou wouldst the vilest mess that thou didst ever see. and if thou have goods.— 159 — this thou hast fallen through not knowing how to use well wothy goods.

Woe is Dost thou think that the sin of wantonness in every ! dishonest manner ? in which thou hast committed I ! it. shall Be afraid lest to great be laid a lurden upon thee that thou Shalt be made to pine away in want. If thou hadst a lizard. well do I know what jj jg jj^^ ^j^^ j^^^ ^^j^q l^gg^l. Siena. God will punish all sins that are committed. and so have other preachers said even the apostles themselves. and I shall say it. Alas In church do you not reflect how displeasing this must be to God? Do you not reflect tbat when you despise so the good Lord God. . yet doth not die. ! . Oh. therefor. Alas 1 pay heed my Tke Duomo. speak not of the manner in which thou dost bear thyselt in church. Woe is me for everything that you do so in your vanity. which it it is can is not move.me thou hast committed of these all shall be expiated. ! not be punished j shouldst put a heavy weight atop of it it. and shouldst make so great that it to stay under that weight. I ! and out of the great sorrow that I feel do otherwise than warn you of it. for which. Timete Deum. and so great abundance and fertility. you do it in despite of God and of the Virgin Mary. already hath evil overtaken thee.hC did this to kill her. What penalty will this be? Oh. thou hast fallen into five sins. and you are guilty of this ribaldry Timete Deum. verily. if not. it doth seem you trouble yourselves little in regard of him ? This one doth laugh. and of all the saints who are in the realm of glory! You know that that * is called the house of the Virgin Mary so then. I have said to thee. And therefore have I said to thee. Knowest thou how any can die a daily death ? I would show thee an example of this. that I am utterly possessed with fear. and another doth sing. I fear so much lest you may can not to die such a death. . she doth receive you into her house. another doth make a sign. but doth live so long in this manner until that ! doth pine away. await that thou shalt assuredly be punished. I say it. and Yea. this then a daily death I tear so much. ^' ~ ^^^ there is another penalty to be here spoken of. another doth say some mockery.j^jg -^^jf^ ^j^j^ g^ Sack. Knowest thou what is meant thereby? It is meant that he will wish that you die a daily death. that by reason of so long peace.

iy say: he who will do in this manner or in that. Thewiokedvini '"'**'^ one '" ^**' ""^ ** f^^^ l^^^^ it. doth well merit this evil fortune. they band themselves together.— words. note. thou shalt see despoiled it even of him: that is to say that sometimes the bailiffs seize the head of the house in order to force him and not to pay that which hath been imposed upon him being able to pay it. which perforce will be had from you : and they despoil the house of all its cloth. and worst of all lest the devils carry it away thither where is the beginning and the middle and the end of all evil. and often times those are utterly plundered who have denied themselves always more and more to gain those great . and of all that they find there. — And when these things shall befall. for they have sacked it even to the door. and the other sums that must be paid. that doth no know save God alone: to him alone is it permitted to know it. in the third chapter Exactores eius expoliaverunt eum Those who were sent have despoiled him. even to the rafters have they burned and destroyed it with fire. and there doth he pine away. If thou be not ware now when thou canst. for some one m. If thou wishest that the time should approach presently^ see that thou dost injure none of thy garments: woman. be laid upon thee that thou mayest be made to pine away. he is cast into prison. who have entered into their houses. it will befall thee as saith Isaiah. If thou read expollaverunt eum And they have further. and that finally even thy soul may come to harm. Knowest thou who are these? They are the messengers who were sent to the houses to collect the taxes. lest thy body come to harm. and have carried off their possessions so that they have left you naught. finding no one who shall defend those goods. for the time must needs come forsooth. and he wisheth not that any other should know 4. may happen also to thee. : : . doing as thou dost do. because he will wish them for those that he will . because you hi) ve not had patience one with another lest thy name suffer thereby. of the beds. Moreover the soldiers also have plundered him. Ah me note^ note. lest so be afraid a burden lest this - possessions. ! 161 — and. See that Friar Cudgel doth find them all clean and 11 orderly. lest thy possessions may be wasted. Worse.

by these will that suffering be diminished which they would have endured in the other world. and death will fly them. These things that I have told you of. And they recalling. or death. and once having these. so that they will desire death. or sorrow. woe is me for then shalt thou find thyself in truth in hunger. and w^hen thou Shalt have the desire to eat. little to — ! . despair. or hunger. we should not have fallen so upon evil days. for they will say: if we had but believed that which was said to us. and then afterwards in the other. Oh. . and finally they will be taken and will be cast into prison and will be delivered into the hands of those who will cause them to pine and waste away. as to-day there are for themselves many who desire death and for others. in like manner shalt thou see thine own wife torn from thee and violated and defiled. and who will endeavour by little and will have their possessions. ofttimes discord doth arise between brothers here among you.— lead with him.to their The very worst will perceive that they are in great want. likewise shalt thou see thy little sons taken by the feet. and it will behoove thee to be silent. 162 — how many wickod. how many punished in worse wnys. thou shalt not have whereof to eat. woe! when thou shalt see thy young children fall there upon the ground dead from hunger thou shalt see thy young daughters torn from thee and violated before thy eyes. ! . and one will kill the other. And if some good men shall endure such pain and woe. and their heads dashed against the wall thou shalt see thy mother seized and disembowelled in thy sight. And why were they never done in any place? Ye-ee-s done ? Wholly out of the justice of God^ in order that Avhosoever hath committed a sin may be punished therefor in this world. because of not having. and will pray for death.considered what may happen to them. and will how many malcontents will there be. thej'' will pray for death. minds this time now present. — when those who shall remain shall see these things. Oh. so too. thay prey also upon the body which shall be almost wasted were they away. so too of thy brothers. and thou shalt not be able to speak a word.

I have allured thee by sweet promises in order that thou shouldst turn to me: now shalt thou stand in greater peril than thou hast ever be^n. and the soldiers will possess it. of another the beams of one ceiling will have fallen to the ground. Knowest thou not that after the vintage there doth remain only the phantom of the vine ? So will it be with thy vines they will become like unto phantoms. •^ — Would God might not "^ befall that a sin. it 1. Siena. since because of the wars till the vineyards. and it shall not have been possible to though they shall be tilled. how then shall she be called when she shall be so deHast vastated ? She shall be called a phantom. Ì fearful for I BecauM oftht »"* "/ &^««i''^«'»J/ iudffment should overtake you because of your J *= know Qod will send his well that you have blasphemed and that daily you scourges to Siena. and the daughter of Sion will be like unto an empty shadow. for now shalt thou become like unto the phantom of a vine. yet will they be plundered of their fruit. The soldiers will leave your houses without floors or windows or doors. and your country will fall under the rule of the enemy and will be sacked of all the good things that shall be found then will it be desolate of those who dwelt and abandoned by those who were used to till it. like unto the vins therein there. here will lie a house half in ruins. God will say Until now used oil. : is stripped of its fruit. of yet another the beams of every ceiling. Your land will be laid waste and fire will light upon this your city. Mark me thou seen that when they build the little hut tor the man when have it : I . do blaspeme God and the saints.Of the SGOiirges of God. . * ! ' Sisna.

have you not eyes ? If you have them. ! ! ! I — '' . in regard of charms and of divinations. now the wild beasts inhabit it. Knowest thou that which thou hast done? Thou hast caused men to renounce God.— who guards the melons. Ay me. and thou hast caused the devil to be adored. Once q^^j many times doth send his scourges "^ before I know well that I spoke of this. ay me The Lord of Heaven and '^invih haxh been debased. another with charms. another with briefs. beware right well thou mayest beware. Here is one who doth measure by a span with the palm. . Enough I would have this suffice now in regard of the sin of blasphemy. Ah. How is this sermon called. Another sin which derives from pride is the sin 2. sooth I find that the truth hath been told to me. and because of this into cities. give heed to him who hath seen such things with his own e^'-es! I have happened upon a place in the world which because of the wars waged there had been abandoned. . And forthis man saith: I know not how the matter may be. 164 — ihejirttto ftevjht etroket oftheseourgee of ùod will he thoit who havt truited in charms ^hm°^°^* always in truth a habitable but when these are gone. hast thou never heard these words: Hasten thou with water to thine own ? ray fellow citizens. another with sorceries. so that there were left but three or four friars and there dwell the wild beasts as if there had always been a forest there: the place which before was inhabited by so many men of high estate. When the house of thy neighbour is afire. for I spoke so plainly and clearly thereof that I believe there remained naught to be said in regard of it. woe is me City of Siena. so that thou mayest not become like a hovel or like a phantom. ! . then doth it stand there like a hovel. Alas. women ? This is called the sermon in regard of the truth. citizen. and I said so much thereof that he who heard and he who comprehended must needs have been possessed with fear. and amend thyself now so far as thou art able. another with divinations and there are such as have betaken themselves to the enchanter and to the diviner if they shall have been robbed of five pence. open them then a little city of Siena. And I say to thee in reply that thou perceivest not how thou hast it is shelter while that there are melons. open thine eyes. and to think that the devil is adored through so great iniquity.

When such as these say that they wish to cure anyone. let us offer a little incense here at Siena to the Lord God. so that thereby he made them to fall. to the not what there was done at fire! Rome would that I might bring it while I preached there ? about that here too this might come to pass Come. and that one thing hath been presented to thee for another. doth know as well. have you never comprehended his snai'es and deceits.seek in the beginning of Genesis. thou who hast recourse to lots. be assured. work charme. .— 1 165 — been deceived. and this he made plain and clear. if you shall eat thereof. and followed thovii. how great evil dost thou do! thou who * hast recourse to the and to him or to her who doth say that she is bewitched. scientes bonum et malum You shall be as gods. he said: Eritis sicut Dbi. and who maketh thee to believe that she is so. how to work one. take heed for the first to feel the strokes from the scourges of God will be those who have trusted in these enchantments. Hast thou never noted in the Old Testament how God condemned this? Solely because it was displeasing to God.to all these I say. and hath exerted himself so to do ? Go. know ye what ye should do? Naught charm of the misshapen cripple^ to thee^ ! better is there ! to Woe is me know ye do than to cry: to the fire. Alas you who are so blinded. when he commenced to tempt and to deceive Eve and Adam. Know thou that she or he who doth say that she hath power to break a charm. I wish ! to relate that which befell at Eome. « A reference to the different -ways In whloh they pretended to . how he hath always deceived us. how persuading them to break the commandment of God. and how many there are of those who have trusted in them and followed them! How well they teach thee the truth! And have they never told thee aught because of which thou mayest perceive that they do lie ? Nor yet evenjDecause of this hast thou thou who been willing to forsake them?? Woe unto thee! hast recourse to the charm of the three good friars. how great evil doest thou. and you shall know good and evil. and next will vengeance overtake those who have not brought them to justice.

and had made a powder of him. there came to me the guardian. what is this? A great number of men and women have been accused. which she gave people to eat in these practices of hers. * Finali}'". he took counsel with that the the Pope. Finally it came into my mind to say liiat Avhatsoever person knowing a man or a woman who he knew did any such things as tiiese. so it was shown to be nor more nor less than as she said. and since the day and the hour and the manner in which this liad come to pass all agreed. without being put to torture. And because of the very great number of those accused. and she said that every time she let one free she of must a limb to the devil. who at such a time began then died? Finally. they wished to prove whether this was indeed true. that is to say those who had done worst. it seemed to them as if I dreamed all this ot which I spoke. seeing how it the matter stood. and little son. And going thither they sought the proof from the father of those children who had been killed. saying that she had killed her own little son. And after I had preached.— Of a witch at 166 — Rome who had killed thirty children or thereabouts by tuaJeing their blood. 3. and was determined most important of these women should be taken into custody. since he replied that this AA^as so. that she had killed thirty children or thereabouts. there was accused a multitude of witches and enchanters. And she told how she used ' Of the monastery. And because it seemed beyond belief that any creature could have done so many Avicked things. and con- she used to offer the limb of an animal. and whose children they Avere^ and in what way. by sucking them go their blood. and said to me: Know you not that one and all are going to the flames? I a^'k him: What then? What is this. and when she had killed them. And there was taken among others one who told and confessed. She told who these were. Hadst thou ever a to pine away. . and she sacrifice said also that she had let sixty go free. Finally it was asked of her whom she had killed. And yet more she confessed. if be did not accuse tiiem would himself be guilty of the selfsame sin. and she had tinued for a long time doing in thiswise. — I having preached of these charms and of witches and of sorceries.

and it was not so. there she had certain jars of unguents and which John.is burned. There was also another one taken who confessed 4. every sorcerer. they stank with so foul a stench that they seemed in truth to be of the devil. having been able to prevent so great an evil. as they were. every for she was nor. that she had done like deeds. The unguents. so that nothing of her remained but her ashes. and the fire was put upon the while she was alive.to 167 made of herbs go before dawn up into the Piazza of Saint Peter's. wizard. that if any man or woman shall be accused of such things and if any person shall go then for it ' not called upon which answer I tell thee in order that thou be * ' Here he addresses a witch. but it seemed to them that they did. e. and whosoever may knoAV of one. and w. thou dost comprehend me ? Art thou here present ? Are there here perchance as well even some of those cursed ones who are in league with the devil? ' Finally these ' came into my hands. every jwizard. or know her. or worker of charms * : place whatsoever within Wnd spells. and on the feast knowest this. And as and naught ^ was done with them so should the same be done wherever one of them is found. in any pyre. and she as well was con demned to be burned. strangled before she was kindled there more was seen of her but her ashes. and I warn you that wheresoever one may be. accuse her. within the city.. Again I say to you another thing. And therefore I would give you this caution. or outside. which might have been prevented if thou hadst accused her. every *"'"''*'*'' *"* soreereit. Do that to on the day of judgment. every witch. . or sorceress. The most wicked of the witohea. and she died in another manner were gathered on the of the Ascension. At length she was condemned to be burned at the stake. and when I put them to ray nose. * I. for their bodies did not change into another form. And they said that with these they anointed themselves^ and when they were anointed in thiswise they seemed to be cats. straightway accuse her before the Inquisitor whether in the city or in the confines without the walls. feast of Saint * Thou — Accuse thou ttraigUvmy ^^^°'^^ '^* : ' Inquisitor every witch.

unless she hath these things. and to you women. my brothers and sisters. I speak. and now stretch open your ears and your eyes. to deny God. that they have worked any charms or spells whatsoever.h fiity' all other gewgaws. may God bless you. except for for and no use you might live in . and to all of you together. and those most bedecked and the beautified of any pince in world.— to the aid of 168 -- his house. and afterwards also in his soul. I wish to point out to you that this city is adorned by the most beautiful women and the most bedecked jind beautified of any place that I know. full of vanity. old and young. had killed one thy little how feel- then would the matter seem to thee? ings take thought for another. And ofttimes this doth derive from evil customs. there will never be peace all between them. men. that they have not in their houses as nnicb as they have spent in dress. the curse of God will light upon and he will be touched by it in his goods. Such a one will bring home his newly married wife. with so much adornment of dress as she show that thy life is is to-day ? Such an exterior doth carnal. and the other because is of tljese vanities? The coffers are full. made of all this. with precious stones. I know of men -who so deck and array their wives. with silken garlands. such a one. Hearken. evil. men and women. and if she can not go forth to him decked in trailing garments. and in so great riches. and of women who so array — — their daughters. remember well lect. with silver. and the ears of the what I say. fact: From thine own Think of another and greater dost thou not reflect that such enchanters. I mean the eyes of the intelbody. eh ? 5. Fye answer iiie: doth it indeed seem to you that one who in her day ! in such a fashion as that hath killed twenly or thirty at little children. with pearls. every time The city of Siena has us ornament the inost beautiful women. hatb done so well that when length thither it they are to iiccused before the Rulers aid and should beg thee that she mercy you should go for them? If of their had befallen children. And do you not perceive that you are laying waste both one house and tlie other? One because of the great dowry. Have you not heard that Siena has never been" immersed in so great luxury and in so great vice. with acorns. by so doing have denied God? How great a sin doth this seem to thee. and in his body. and wir.

of twice as much. severity than one into a city. . and there they lie useless. that a woman is new fashion. unless it be perchance for her daughters.riches if wise. and doth alter these as well according to the fashion. and who hath ten. who doth introduce a Who is the occasion thereof we and ish of very grievous injury to a city because of the harm- ful fashion that he doth bring in there. of how great a loss may this be the cause to one who hath a single garment? It may be the cause of so much. and naught is done with them. him as an example to all. draw thou thy conclusion therefrom. Seest thou not that the garments be made are worth almost naught in comparison of what they have cost thee ? And what dost thou then with all this? After thou hast brought home thy wife. and she doth carry her garment thither. then she doth put them away in a chest. when that she hath arrayed herself in them twice or thrice. and often meanwhile she will you were to thou causest have need of somewhat else. for the want of which she will often suffer. altered according to the new straightway these who ' be worth less by forty or hath been the occasion of fifty florins.great to yourselves ? Tell me. If it can not be made over anew. Seest thou not this ? I say that we should This WBB the method of punishiag traitors and aasaseins. what should be done to those who follow it? Sor. because she empty-headed she doth straightway betake herself to tho tailor and saith to him: I wish such and such a style. hath two. This may always be as soon as she hath perceived a ibis and we should puiimight be re- seen.-!e tailor perchance hath been the cause of a very gravH sin. Such as those we should treat with greater harmful fashion should fix in the ground head down. so that membered forever. and doth alter — moment she v/ill Would you see how . and if perchance there may be a — person will who at one time shall have seven or eight garments fashion. then doth she cut it again. who hath come into thy house with those garments. * Do you not consider how great a sin it is to introduce a harmful fashion ? And once being known. and in a have made worth harm you do it less by a third. and to her who it according to the new fashion.

and I am measuring that which you do. and perchance she will not be «ble. I say. when you will be found to have so rich a supply in your houses so that you yourselves will grieve that you do possess many goods. I know not whether [ am beside myself women. Ah. 1 see so is many excesses. A few such beatings will serve to^ make thee straighten thyself. me. or any preacher. or medicine which shall expel his choler. and she will wish to make new ones. need of the medicine of Friar for the sakc of ^^^^. Knowest thou what medicine thou hast need of^ Siena ? Thou hast need of the rod. for Friar Club or Friur Cudgel will have greater force than had Christ or the Saints. In Siena it there 6. fall well that others as well have and also 1 spoken thereof. Christ himself. she will herself fall into fifty wicked evils. that there will will force you to ! You do not yet know yourselves. I say to you. and in order to make her garments in this manner. And know have spoken so much regard ! what who come hither among you one change your ways. in the end you will find that I tell you of this. Even Christ. and all the saints have not been able to make you amend yourAlluring words have not availed. I I come upon so much in that dissolute in you. and cause her husband as well so to do. Friar Cudgel will compel you to do Jthat which Friar Bernardine hath never been able to enforced Knowest thou what medicine is suited to him who is full of humours? For his cure flushing is needful. Lay it up in your minds. Women. and I see so many ! — sins.fix 170 — done! do them in the ground. have you' never that take thought for anything whatsoever? Wouldst thou I should point out to thee somewhat even worse than this? Perchance there may be a woman who will not have such garments as it will be possible to alter according to the new fashion. your tabards will bring you to amend yourselves. for the time will come. and it is near at hand. But. is true. am I out of my head? Think you that I am mad? Know you what I think of you ? I think you are all mad. and injections. nor prayers. nor selves have supplications availed so that you have ever wished But believe to betake yourselves to the right way of life. . and remember. believe me. woe is me I am ever weighing these matters your living in the right way.

and the goods will vanish away.iois the upon an evu doer on oood ^''^^"-v- know well whereof I speak. Khig Le. who on the same day that this is. 7. of pride. and as he ordered. and to loose it from that bond by which it is bound full fast in the hands of its enemy. whom you have in prison. and that he was very wise. because I would see how this matter should stand. and commenced to read: Beatus vir qiU custodji iudicium. He answered and said You are welcome I will not reply to you as yet. for the more you have the be the first more you shall pay for. And therefore see to it I pray. and doth justice at verse. I have heard that King Lewis was indeed a man of God. Believe me. And he had his breviary brought to him. so was it done. believe me. . When they were come to him. would tell you of something which perchance to you may seem a great matter. there were certain men Avho wished to ask a boon of him. or by ulcers. willed to die for the salvation of mankind. 1 in Oppose yourselves as much as you of justice «'>'8«"''<'* ^v hold dear your own greatness: cast her not out dead.— you you will look 171 ~ since before your eyes they will be taken from you. And this will wherefore God will send his judgment upon you. will be despoiled. And when he had seen this : : he ordered that he of whom they spake should be led forth from prison. at once. Aild there they made to him a long and pleasing discourse. that you gather to- gether possessions in plenty. and opened it where it fell by chance. cause because — -I Woe is me. and on and will not be able to help yourselves. that one among them who had been chosen to speak. fellow citizens i ! never . or by boils. we ask of you a boon for the love of our Lord. et facit iustitlam in omni tempore Blessed is he who keepeth judgment. they wished to ask him to set free a man who was in prison. for I I among . -. to the right course of astice. and they determined to go and to ask this of him on Good Friday. the judgment of God is at hand It is needfal that you be purged in your repletion^ either by physic. and they did so. and the viciousness of your lives. et cetera. Hearken. some outlet you must ! have. In sum. when they had come to an end. straightway all times. they said: Deliver to us such a one. and that justice should be executed on him. said: Your Sacred Majesty. on Good Fri- .

thou dost depart fi'om this faith thou art a heretic.1 ! say to thee that it execute justice. I tell you of the matter only as it stands.day. The Saint here alludes to some recent de- In Siena in the blaolb: Common Council a law the custom. among which thou seest this one: Non furaberis Thou shalt not steal? Lending at usury. was passed by white ballots and defeated by ones. it is the ruiri of your city. I say that he employed both justice and uxercy in executing. It he to give damsels or for in marriage. If you have participated in this so that through you or by your aid a Jew doth practice usury here in Siena. and second. nor out ot ill will towards anyone -^i^. this is still . And well at all times to uphold to See that thou coment 7wt to ever favour usury. or theft. God hath commanded that not practise usury. and I «say it not to anyone by name. Oh! why hath he forbidden it? Because ho hath seen that it i^s well not to lend at usury. and with this upon thee thou canst not — ! be saved. for he had regard only to tiiat which was right. why is it the ruin of thy city? I ask thee dost thou believe in the law of that if God? thou Yes. Two disasters will come of it: first. Seest thou not that he hath given m^ny negative commandments. other pious works to the glory of God And I say to thee instead that in as much thou dost consent to usury. this not out of hate. * Jews might not come to Piena to practise usury there without the consent and approval of the Council of the Ropablio. there is the excommunication of the Pope. Hast thou understood me ? Yes Now I would have thee know what will come of suffering a Jew to remain in your city. he who hath assented thereto by means of his vote * hath incurred major excommunication.it upon that day. shalt Next I say to thee. cision in regard to this. And moreover I wish to add this for thee: I say/' 8.^tgo^ver. Saith one man: when I come to die I will leave it to be given to the poor. First: before all else. 0-0-0 I ! 172 this O-o-o I ^ On Good Friday is was well done an. what thinkest thou that is ? It is this had not given this commandment perchance I should have spoken otherwise of lending than I now speak. or to build churches as or ! hospitals. straightway hast thou done contrary to ' Thus lie imitates the horrified exclamation of those who are shocked by this fact. and worse besides.

and if thou hast — : : — . or if in any way whatsoever thi» matter doth depend from thee. . and perchance this thoa hast never known. Alas! do not so. and manner whatsoever mayest thou practise usury. and consent not that any one should lend. damnum dedisse videtur Whoev^^r is the occasion of who money hath bound to make thou if wrong the to anyone. lest he may ever lend money through thy the of God.*. to whom he hath commanded that thou shalt not lend. wrong make restitution to him who and who doth suffer it. do not lend. or aid. i!i:nd thou sayest I can not do otherwise. Qui occasionem damni dai. must hath ' suffered injury. but this is for thè good of the poor. I say give not thy consent thereto with thy vote. and who would starve if there were not someone who might lend them money. or deeds. . if ever thou dost find thyself called upon for ir. If commandment thou sho^ldst say. Knowest thou why? Because sin is always forbidden to thee. This is as if thou saidst: God hath commanded unto me that which I am not able to do. consented thereto. * there is no other way than this ojie. Quia non sunt faclenda mala. who hath ordained everything in the world for the help of man. — been lent because of that vote. e.173 — God hath forbidden this. and that thou must not help him who doth so. or the cause that hath been done to him. thou art in the clutches of the devil. or words. Suffer not thyself to be blinded by the words of any one. And I. whether by Jew or Christian. see that thou dost never give thy consent nor lend thy nid that anyone should practise usury. Ay.. thou art restitution. ut inde veniant alia bona Consent never that evil should be done in order that good may come of it. If it were said to thee: Ay. And therefore consent not ever that usury be practised. by lending them money. didst cast thy vote in favour of lending. And further I would add for thee a codicil. but there must be someone who can come to the aid Knowof the poor. therefore I say to thee that in no counsel. do it not. it is helpful to many who are in need. est thou that which thou dost it thou sayest there is no other way ? Thou dost oppose the Lord God. whether thou art one of the Ruler's.

On the other hand.— devil. be wise. they 9.ò[ prisoners You have here in prison three who go barefoot. At one time a chaplain was there. and do not act contrary to the. If ever tbey return to you again. and he who is the occasion thereof. . and then absolve them. they have no help. in company with him confessors. be sure first \hat thou therefore thou seest that they go — : ! — seest they wish to do it in fact and deed. And the money that they gain thereby ? It cometh to ruin through the judgment of God. and then mock God and the saints? Absolve them no more. Alack.|^ « — Of th« J^-ws. who confessed them. and to hiiu I thee. will (^f God. 174 — both to the home of the he who doth lend. Haoe mercy upon the who doth lend and to Do not absolve them. usurer. confessor. And therefore I * say to thee: Do not lend. and used to say Mass lor them. and I will amend in the future. Now they lack every benefit and privilege: they receive no alms. If thou dost confess them. And to you who have been the cause that such a sin hath been committed. thou who hast lent and robbed for so long a time and hast drained the blood of the poor. ^q benefits of God or of this world. and comforted them in their tribulations. to thy fine friar who may absolve thee. . how great evil hast thou done and how grievous a sin against the commandment of God! Dost thou not perceive that thou art thrust deep down and sunken in the pains of hell ? Thou sayest perchance I will confess it. forsake not their sin as they are able. and they say to thee: I will restore the money. thou wilt go there nevertheless. if they and make not satisfaction for it so far say : poor j„-. for all that thou goest to the confessor. see that you amend. poor wretch. and gave them communion. how many of you are there who have been deceived by numbers of those who have promised to make restitution. be assured that if he shall absolve thee.^yi(. that you too may be absolved as well. do you not consider that this dcth mean tlie destruction of your city and of your commune? Do you not perceive how much money doth fall into their hands? Love the common weal. See to it at least that your soul be not lost together with theirs.

with Are everything must be brought in to them from without. contributions Buffer:ng8 . and brought to its completion in the middle of tho fifteen r. of which you make no use whatsoever. do you never reflect that they ' can do naught whatsoever to help themselves If they need bread. and meanwhile they are in very great need of tiiom. they know no comfort of any kind. A made by those who had brought about their condemnation. so that when they shall have been tortured they may have some little place in which at least they may lie down to rest. Worst of all. the public fountains are supplied. AVoe is me. women. bojinn in Mio thirteenth century. And therefore. a privilege granted. called bottini in Siena. them bedsteads and mattresses. to another one thing and to another somewhat else. But you have performed a noble work. As is generally known the state at this time did not provide for the support of the prisoners. besides the wells of many private houses. Be not cruel in regard of thera for if they have done any wrong. it seeins. Sometimes then send them a little dish you have cooked for them. otherwise they were dependent upon the alms given out of chaiity by the chance passer-by. I hear that even water has been cut off from them. some shirts. it must be brought to them. Hence their were bo great as to arouse compasaion in the hearts of all who were hmmane and meroifal. but instead they themselves must provide their own food if they were able. you h.li. Moi-eover I hear that certain of them are there for a irifling cause: 1 would recommend these to your mercy. I jecommend them to you that that you may send you have some mercy upon them. which collect the rain water. Thoae conduits. since you have given it to but consider the condition of your city! the prostitutes.ive a groat store of them in your houses. This is one of the seven works of mercy. for I know that you are well provided with these. a tew pairs of drawers. By mciins of such conduits. so with wine. which they may not have at will. or even upon heart-rending allusion to the sufferings from torture. constitute a marvellous piece of woi'k.- 176 - have no instruction in the matter of right living. they are suflt'ering * ! — — ' It rauat be understood that tho govomnioiit Imd denied tlio prisoners the priv- ilege of being supplied — with water by meaiia of conduits from tho public fouutiiiiis. and nowhere to sleep. to the neighbouring houses of prostitutoa. therefore have mercy and take pity upon them. ' ' The prisoners. so with water. ' Likewise I pray that you send them some bits of cloth. in truth they have been so abandoned that they even have no bread to eat. to one a little wine.

those imprisoned for debt.. and we are bound to have compassion for them and mercy. let us be merciful. some clothes to cover them. If yQU have pity on them. Let them awaken mercy and compassion in you.— 176 — the penalty of it and are punished full well by being imprisoned as they are. e. you must remember that they are there only because of their poverty. . ' 1 I. And because that we all have need of the mercy of God. you will send them some bit of cloth.

merchant? Wear thou a dress of such a kind as is suited to thee. and it is vanity is not suited to thee. — of T"^** done.hat wliich in truth thou art art. the feet. — The first is vanity. is of the most grievous Wouldst thou see how evil a this? Listen then. everything. or at the feet? Not at the head. Hast thou never heard that the head of the cat is very difficult to skin ? "We will commence with bodily garments.about thee is vanity. and feet. and of mortal sin. and manly one. As we off to thee ten offences against rt anyone ojf should strip "**' garment ^jio^ « ^^ „o^ suited. all occasioned by dress. for thou a naughty pilferer.How 1. he a would soldier strip it were a suited to because it is him. to and these feet: commence to enter thereon commence at thy head. should merchant. wouldst thou seem to be a every Order do. Which thing vanity.thou dost follow a wronff road. And in this manner^ say I. head. Take the first. thou dost vanity. everything that doth belong to this world is vanity. Thou mayest perchance wish to wear the tabard would the friars of Saint in order to appear r. thee. I wish to point out are signs God. '" ""*" — so Dominic do in regard of one who should don their habit. and learn.the thou art full of vanity. not to from thee. Saint Francis. head. that an offence God. Take them by five and five. If there doth wear a here. Evetvpartoit "**" """^ is filled — thou *=• who ' dost pursue after vanities. . and in like manner would the friars of Saint Augustine do.towards one who should don the habit we should strip it off from him. middle. which The wear that merchant dost is against tabard. and therefore thou goest garbed 13 . when thou 2. and women with continue down thy somewhat wearisome. back. since that would be through vanities.. this should behave . Where ^^^ ^i^^^^sau shall we commence to speak ? Shall we commence at the the whou body.

whether he is black. or grey. or women. thou little fool? Hast thou no self-respect? thou. that thou dost appear be a harlot: I say ' He represents the Sieneae as saying this in reply to to faia vrArning. but How hast thou the hardihood to wear them. By the exterior may the interior be known. but to a soldier. I will not say it. And how are friars known? Forsooth by outward signs. but of harlots ? I woman. So do we know the shop of each merchant by its sign. To this same purpose: I would say. So is the shop of that merchant of wool known by its sign. or white ? * By their sign. How is a woman known to be good ? By her bearing. which order he belongs. thou dost appear to be a pilferer and a robber here at home. . I have even seen one garment with sixteen yards of cloth cut up in lappets.— 178 — like a soldier. 'I. who dost wear to such garments. That which thou dost squander. How dost thou know the monk. Thou wearest lappets and tailors. is know not what manner of conscience cloth as yours. I tell thee that dress is not suited to thee. talis fìlius. eh? By their signs. by the signs marked upon dost the outside of them. The outside 'doth show that which there is within. and so make an end of it for him. when you must cloth. The time will come mill. But using so much thou not reflect I how great a sin to thee? thou committest? Knowest tdou what would say Thou commence already to squander thy possessions. but go. _. I flaps. To me it sure. mothers. go^ lay thy hand upon his head. it that you should waste you do. will never confession. So are the contents of bales known. and if thou dost wear it. maiden. and make thy and thou. — seeraeth that thou art a thou dost understand me well.. that the woman who doth wear meretricious garments. e. With truth may be said: Qualis pater. Mother or Father. to be be taken from thee. how cometh it that thou But dost permit her or make her to wear them ? Knowest thou not that this is not the dress of would say to thee. By what means are shops known. friar. dost arrive at the trifles mouth of ^ the Tush ! I give no thought to such as this. eh ! fathers. but from the outside I seem to detect evil signs. yes. I know not how she may be within.

and with a band encircling thy thigh. When thou goest " drawn tight. thy cap. fine young man! I wish to commence with 3. oh. point the finger at them as if they were harlots. Fye pay heed to good example and follow it. and thy parti-coloured stocking woven in varied designs. why do you not follow Christian teaching? Perchance you wish to seem. this doth mean that thou art a beast to all outward seeming. fine young man. like a green sauce. seeing thee dressed like a beast. etcetera. and thy doublet reaching only to thy middle. whereby there them everything shameful and. young men. but not to be. like a sack carried ! ! ! not that thou art a harlot. And in like manner the tabard.seem to 179 - such thou dost be in thy dishonest bearing. and sisters-in-law. is brought before and from this ofttimes worse doth result. Hast thou never considered how the tabard is made ? It is made like the housing of a horse. among sisters. know this. and wear your garments in all honesty. or sprinkled with designs in colour. it may be concluded that withi. and with reason. but I say that — The garment ""*' ""* '^^^ *' . for that name will fit them right well. and laughur that showeth aii the Ihat'-wtiehaman is. with lappets at the side and around the bottom so that thou wearest thy garments in the fashion of a beast. and permit not either in act or in deed that of you may be said aught else than all that is good. wear. sticking up high in air. since that they wish to appear such. how pleased thou art with like the point of a sack. Thou goest about it thyself seeking to be called less than good. it is not pleasing to God that thou shouldst wear thy hose as thou dost wear it. in very truth by siich bearing thou dost show thyself to be that which thou art In this guise when thou returnest home thou dost draw off thy tabard. in broken stripes. and kinswomen. Moreover. with so many lappets and cut in so many patterns. Are you not Christians ? Oh if you are Christians. The cap high up in air. thou who takest thought for tliyself naught. which show that thy heart is divided by many affections.ribald. thy leg adorned with stripes which are broken here and there in such a manner as to entice.i thou must be like to a beast also. when thou seest such as these. wearing it so. abroad with thy hose you for a little. Fye tell me. ! — ! . and with thy doublet so short.

Such things proclaimest that thou hast but 4. in faith. ! — . hast thou never. who once dressed herself in the feathers" of every kind of bird ? Oh. who and tabards as well. and thy thin little arms stick dost woman. in short. and -that thou dost burden thy soul with a very great responsibility? Hearken. in Knowthose est thou what meant by variety It consists ealled variety. proclaim sinful vanities. garments embroidered and flowered and with stripes of different colours: thou dost understand me well and such things as these dost thou wear with only too great willingness. should return thither whence it. To the same purpose^ dost wear so many things that are not thine own. heard of a crow. and so was she left. thou wouldst not then have so many parti-coloured garments and so many in checks. And knowest thou what this doth show in thee? It showeth that thy mind is variable and irresolute. thou who her plumage. if the wool that thou hast upon thy back should return to the sheep. as is thy body. and if the hair that thou wearest should return to those to whom it once belonged. as thou goest about grinning and showing thy teeth. as these all — all cut in patterns. and daubed and streaked with many out of them. thou dost wear them in order to give pleasure to others. Well then. and thou thyself good sense. with sleeves which trail on the ground. 180 signify what else doth this than pride? Likewise thou. wear so full a garment and ample that many a time it maketh thee to sweat. Dost thou perceive that thou art the occasion of most grievous sin. and the horsehair that thou dost use should return to the horses. Wouldst thou be assured that I speak the truth? Why dost thou wear them ? Dost thou wear them to give pleasure to thyself? No. she was so beautiful She was all made of changeable colours. everything that thou hast taken from others for thy oh! adornment. came. colours. little The second sign of sin is ~ The second is sign of sin is called ? variety. all . plucked of all woman. and if the silk should return to the worms that made it. Knowest thou what came of it ? All the other birds ranged themselves about her. and each one took its own feather. who are dead. thou wouldst be left plucked of thy plumage.— aloft. if.

measure yourselves but a little. Note this now. Oh. on the part of those who demand cosily garments of gauze or silken stuffs. "Woman yet have again I admonish thee. This sin is generally to be perceived. but dress not thyself with so great distinction that thou dost go beyond bounds. consider whether this fashion of dress doth befit thee. I have heard that when you Of your garments. I say that the rich man should dress himself in more distinguished fashion than the craftsman. third sign of sin ! — The The third lign of nnts called pearance. doth commit a mortal sin. wear thou silk no more. can no longer wear them * the men have them altered for themselves. sins as Ihou dost thou hast. What think He hath struck your fine is now about? garments a sorry blow. how blameworthy Lately in a certain house I estimated that three is this ! gowns which the mistress had hanging of greater at the window. it is take men wear Woe me You noM'' the I heard that ! ' — ! ! not thought for you the devil many things as you should. were value than all the other things together which were in the house. is 6. Oh there is to be found many a one who will bring a dowry of but twenty-five lire to her husband. and to fit these to their backs they waste and Woe is me throw away much cloth and silk.. and this is becom! ! — The fourth sign of sin whi>}h displeaseth Gid is called costliness in dress. save thyself thou beeanBe they are ont of fashion. Knowest thou what I say to thee above all? I say that he who doth array himself in that which doth not belong to him. eh ? Wouldst thou see how thou must do I. you will find that the peasants too will demand scarlet cloth. called costliness. ing. and thou wouldst not commit now commit. What need hast thou of so many if silken garments. Doth this seem to thee praiseworthy. The fourth sign of sin which displeaseth God. is regard for appearance. Wouldst thou be assured of this ? women. and a rich garland. e. This hath been told to me. Alack Measure yourselves.181 - gewgaws so as now many 5. but yet will demand a rich garland. because there is no one who does not seek to have the most costly clothes that may be had. eh? There is no woman of ever so little importance who does not demand scarlet cloth and violet. Siena. of so many embroidered to ones. .

great cruelty this. would see . nor her father. 169. or by those outside ? I believe not that thou dost put on these garmejits for those of thine own household: nay. for they wished to mock father stands well and is rich. is Woe is me ! Do you never think how for thee. and of ihe marrow of wards and orphans. and of the sweat of it is made up of robbery. Thou hast it that Christ was dressed in a purple garment. they would have considered it their duty to think of this before all else whence come these possessions. ! * ' See footnote. p. nor her doth consider whence come her possessions mother whereas if they were wise. for thou seest that thou art always in mortal sin while thou dost wear these garments.— dost 182 — Jerome. shouldst dress thyself in garments that this man thou hath gained that who perisheth with cold? And thou sayest : my he hath given me a very great dowry. of if God thou displeasure of injumice. when thou returnest there. Thou wilt give thy daughter to a man as his wife. and neither '• he who taketh her in marriage. nisi thine own house. . and sign of Ood is the injustice: . ^'^1-^* look well into this sin^ thou wilt see that of ten which thou dost commit. so that he should be held in derision. |g — . . . Is it not as I say ? — The fifth sin 7. things would go far better than they go now. nine are comprised in this one. Vainglory is a mortal sin: verily. and most times. with his head dowD of a woman of this kind were to do that which he should do. dost thou put them on in order that thou mayest be admired in to wear them? Hearken Nemo pretiosis vestibus induitur. . thou dost even get thyself out of them. The fifth sin and sign of the displeasure and here we will pause a little.. Wouldst thou be assured of the truth of this ? When thou dost put on such garments as these. for . whence come these garments. And doth it not seem clear to thee that he If the husband stands well ? Yea.. the brow of peasants. : issue therefrom the blood of human beings.. and of the blood of widows. of what is her dowry made up ? For many times. of usury. "Who would take one of those petticoats and squeeze it and wring it. who saith thereof: ad inanem gloriam No one doth deck himself in costly gnrments except out of vainglory.

because that she hath not even so much clothing as she hath need of.. now take thu other five. and he had one only and no more. What thinkest thou that her shivering doth if thou shouldst hear cry out to God in respect of thee ? Of the ten oflenoes against God. Every time that thou dost wear violet. and shake them well. * I. ^"« when God gave the garment to him out of decency. . And therefore. since that such a garment is the most precious one that can be found in this life. e. them.— 183 -- him. — The first of the other reflect that five is called superfluity: The <'<^«'" first of the whereas you must of skin to to protect Adam. and ^"^*'yw" «^fl"*» forsooth. and give of this an account of said Saint tle : this in ttie other life. And because James in the fifth chapter of his Canonical Epis- Vestimenta tua a tineis contesta sunt Your garments they are not consumed by material moths. Kaowest thou what are spiritual moths ? They are cursed avaare moth-eaten. * 8. if thou dost wear it when it hath been ill-gained. weary * and the thyself all year. and yet it was suited to him. And you have five of them. so that it might be fitted to his needs. see to it that thou dost put them out in the morning sun to air. these garme:(^ts whioh are laid away. which hath in it the colour of vermilion. And now weary thyself in such work as much as thou wilt. shaking them and hanging them up on poles. a loss. thou who hast so many of them. that they be not moth-eaten. so that he deserved it well. this morning learn this. and look to them often. by woman. see to it. he gave it him from the heat and the cold. that thou dost thyself with so dost much work all the year never wear them? Thou dost weary for these. yet they will be consumed by spiritual ones. if and rice. Tell me. then. and a poor woman standeth yonder and doth freeze with cold. yet shalt thou not be able to hinder but that moths shall consume since that the ed. is always Go. since that there was never a creature more precious than Christ. spoil- garment which and that which is spoiled is is not worn. the example of Christ. thou dost wear it in mockery of Christ. S^e Paragraph ' 1. and keepest them in a chest. whence cometh ir. and in this all the holy Doctors agree.

have you sent down here to those unfortunate prisoners. coffer cry out. Far. Sdrmou XXVI. I hear forsooth that about two shirts. and ofttimes dost thou sit by a fire. forsooth. and having brought the iass to the village. 164 I ! hear this cry Revenge revenge So in thou shouldst hear the cry of thy coffer. he unties the ass and lets it graze: and you know that in the pasture-land about a mill there groweth but little grass. he leadeth the ' ass back to the place where See p. Lombardy. Do you know wherefore I say that I hold you excused for a certain thou why ? reason? Oh. he taketh the meal. so that they break down under the weight. women. and leadeth it home with this load. 175. tell you this. and the devil will carry you away. and two pairs of drawers. Thou dost not hear any sound of est takest no heed therecries. and having put a good load of corn on its back he leads it to the mill. which should the three boroughs ? It befell in do the work of carrying the grain of these three boroughs happened that a man of one of the three boroughs went for this ass. When the corn was ground.it. 9. 0. and thou hast many garments upon thy back. and putteth the load upon the ass. and thou of. have been sent. in the end you will die in the midst of your goods. These three is a little hut a mile boroughs agreed to keep an ass in this hut. It was unloaded. . And how many shirts. thou dost fill thy belly with good food. But believe what I say. when they are heavily laden. and one pair of old stockings with holes in them.. Thou takest thought for naught else: with a full belly thou art comforted in thy soul. . In like manner doth thy into it. On a road there perhaps from a mill. and while the corn is being ground. — Have you never heard '' the story "^ of the ass of the three bor- oughs. eh ? * But I hold you excused for a certain reason. which doth cry out to God: Miseremlni mei^ miseremihi thou -w^oiildst : like manner if mei! So likewise do thy poles cry out. I will ^^ Of the ass of . when thou poor dost cram them And thou lookest on at the man who doth perish with cold. Know- Because thou sufferest not from the cold. so often do people come thither. thou dost drink thy fill. and when it to the mill.

in the hat. At length. he led the ass back to the hut. since people have faith in that which Friar Bernardine doth say. so that it can not be in great need of food: and so he left it. and layeth it on to the ass and belaboureth it with many beatings. that the ass did not come out of it with a whole skin. Marry the fellow commenceth to use his stick. It befalleth that on the next morndoth belong. The third day Cometh another to the hut for the ass^ and bringeth it ing aught to eat. another this ass. scarce move on the way. and he hath recommended them to our . and so he left it. ! this ass leadeth the ass to the mill with his load. thinking within himself. and the ass must be strong It ! commune. man of another borough came for and he too wished to put a load Of corn upon it. and did not travel very quickly. Oh. : home with him. without giving it aught. driving it before him. without giving tìaying within himself: the man who Used ing following. he put upon it a load of corn even heavier than the it first one. finally with a great effort carried the load to his house. When was leading back the ass to the hut. 1 He beat it so that he led it it with difficulty nor even there did he give Would you hear more ? The end was. The ass however was weak by this time. yesterday must have fed it well. And here are two days in which the ass hath eaten naught. and when the corn was ground and the meal carried home. And when he had brought it home. And then I have somewhat else to do at present. without doing aught for it. it is worth naught to the hut. So in like manner do these. thinking that he who had used it on the day before must have fed it well. but on the fourth day was dead. when the corn is ground.— it 185 it it aught to eat. saying: See what an ass the commune keeps for three then he boroughs. then. aught. neither by him any more than by the others. and so he cometh about that likewise it is given to eat naught. he putteth the load back upon the ass and setteth out. and belongeth to the putteth upon it it a heavier load than it hath ever carried. and without givhe led it to the mill. and he beat it continually. it could. They say: these prisoners can not be in want. women talk^ who are deceived by avarice and by the idea of their own poverty.

when he was brought back into prison. and that they ' may be provided for in some way. As to you.. In like manner women see that in every contrada would I say to you. the only resting-place he had was the ground. On the other side ! lacking. In St. some woman shall come forward. First. is — The second sign or and which displeaseth God and sin called the desire to attract notice. do not each ono regara what another gives. 2. is The desire to attract which displeaseth 6od is called the notice within the man woman who to-day wears gar- desire to attract notice. 8. rice. this is an evil sign which sin I see in you! Home again The second sign * I 10. tor the love of is God see ! I grant you that justice a holy thing. Alas. all gorgeous ' * That i8. as to your saying that all have faith in me. poor wretches how you deceive yourselves. See to it that some one doth come forward and put himself at the head. and you have so many goods that you know not what to do with them.- 186 ! mercy. What thinkest thou these garments of ribbed cloth proclaim. I say. I say to you. See footnote . and the poor unforlook not at one ^antunates pine away and perish. You see in how great need you have so many goods that you know not what to do with them. » * The prisoners. ! For shame ! Officials. that my preaching doth accomplish naught. of divers colours. Bernardine's time Francesoo Marchi. ments of ribbed cloth. but is it ! must not I however be exercised with cruelty. that I fear lest the vengeance ot God -jnay overtake you because of it. Alas! recognise the benefits that are yours and be moved to pity for these. ^: For I heard that after that poor wretch who was hanged had been tortured. look to this. hence he must indeed have had much given to him. Oh. and are deceived by ava- Bach of you holdeth fast. had charge of the alms contribated for the relief of prisonera. Where charity and pity are are these poor unfortunates. and trustworthy. called «The Shepherd». that each one of you holdeth fast. and you would rather let them rot than give them to these poor needy ones. and see to it that she is a good woman. Woe me in you so great cruelty. p. Ah other's hands. and everyone hath faith in him. and here let The Shepherd * have care of the money.

saith she who taketh no account of this^ he maketh us so fearful that if we should believe him. from whom this depends. much so might be that such great sleeves and might not be made garments. for ' when there Ihe fourth is ealled enticement ' I. e. wings with 12. — The third tin is ealled fashion that only so much silver and yet it would be in vain * that only cloth might be used in worn. enforce the exeoation of the ìkw. I shall wish to measure the garments of Fi'iar Cudgel with mine own. If you did but know how great evil will result trom these garments of yours. is. scourge of the angels of God thou canst not escape it. and straightway I told the people there that if they did not see to it. await the of God. irresolution. send me word thereof. perchance yoTi would destroy them. I told them. as we perceive the dangers within them. would say to thee ? -Observe this that when there is a great mist. — — The fourth is called enticement. that God may save her from the destruction which I see awaiting you. once when we look down into such matters. Oh. spread oat before him. And therefore if any woman destroy naught. and although they did not believe me. and you see naught I see plainly and clearly that thou art in a place ! ! the dangers that are to overwhelm you it ! I say that when a city doth put on such a garb.and with division. we I should destroy all our possessions. may expect the judgment city garbed in a foreign dress. at thou not Ere this have I been garments. * ' Everything as it frere. Friar Cudgel would do so. as if it were a sea. if the Scriptures lie not. and who might perchance find a remedy ' ordering 11. ' To the same purpose: we who are apart from the Knowest thou what world. which will to them. one who is upon a height and looketh down therefrom doth see everything. ! The third sin is called fashion. By passing a sumptuary law. for I will pray for her. This is good for those to hear who form the councils. Ay me You are clouded it happened as with mist. Seest immersed where I saw in this mist ? like these. await.. make thee fly to hell. it * Because vonld be too diffioalt to . of instability. stripes ? * 18t — They proclaim naught else than signs ot Seldom shalt thou see such signs as these that facts follow not upon them.

. How many goods bave you lying useless in your house. Wish not to have a head like 14. or married woman.ew fashion. to gain thereby. and how many are there of you who. but far more the tailor. and continually doth usury gnaw thy bones. who doth wear modern dress ? No sooner do they see those garments than straightway they have their own ripped apart. . to alter them according to the new fashion. and do good to the city and to yourthere. straightway be adopted. Is tLcre here present any maiden of marry. and then the mother who doth consent thereto. and afterwards the tailor who maketh them. and thou wilt keep thy chests full of garments. thou hast pledges oh.- 188 . of which thou dost make no use.Damaging loss is the last. 13. and she who doth cause them to be worn.-- Cometh here a new manner of dress. doth sin mortally each and every time. as when there cometh a prostitute dressed after a French fashion. Knowest thou what should be done? First the woman who doth so array herself should be burned. moreover. how much gold. much couldst thou lessen the cost of these if thou didst but know how to keep thyself within bounds Thou hast pledges with the Jew.. "When I regard thy will this an age to ' : . e. who doth bring in such a fashion: for with this sharpening of his wits he is the occasion of much evil: and this they do. forsooth. how with the Jew. for all that they have very many. selves as well. how many pearls. buy yet more of them ? Better far would it be for thee to spend that money in merchandise for thy shop than let it lie useless as thou dost. and she who doth wear them. ^ In very truth if I might prevail he should make no new fashions! for do you not perceive that this is the destructhat tion of your city ? I would add for you this as well he who doth make them. Tell me. lost is the last. which cost so much monthly. the gaimeitts in the v. — ! children. — And here hast thou seen ten kinds of sin and a cat't. how many embroidered garments thou dost make them to wear All these things do you keep lying ! and you might fill your shops and your warehouses with merchandise. forsooth. > I. how much silver.

You do not perceive that you are ruining yourselves and that you are making yourselves hateful to the men. I came here whatsoever of that which you have gained by dishonest means. and that you proceed in such a way that you may not be displeasing to God nor to your husbands. but be decent and clean in order that you may be pleasing to them '. thine is the fault. one doth daub herself with one thing.^ How many there are who have destroyed their teeth by them with but too much And in faith. because of this evil custom of hers. Be not amazed if thy husband can not endure to see thee. Let us speak now of the head. which is difficult to skin. that it doth seem to me Vanities is here nsed alBO -vrith the meaning foolish ornamenti. ^ and all sinful. them overmuch ! thee? Remember that this is the ! on the contrary I approve this in thee. therefore I use this similitude for thee. and one with another.. and have the soul of both one and the other of you. Do not laugh.. one doth bleach her hair. bodies your decking" suffice for your bodies. women. which doth signify. it will prove more difficult for her to rid herself of them there than from any other part of her body.occasions of loss and 189 — damage to your city because of your And I would have this overmuch. thou man And in like manner do I say to thee also. .ei\ besmearing it with scents. First. Tush I say not that thou shouldst not be neat and dainty. Wish not to have a head like a cat's.in very made ! truth that thou hast embellished of the goods of others. above all I admonish you that you follow the path of decency. Because that the head of a cat is so difficult to skin. for this doth belong to the subject. Let us speak a little of you. I seem to see so — many ornaments upon your ' heads. to your hasbands. * 1. The mouth of one of you doth stink from h. many vanities. away with so much silly foolery on your caps and with over many pleats and puffs. for you have yet to weep. I know not that since anyone hath made restitution of any money polishing to Knowest thou what I would saywork of the devil in order that he may break thy neck and his. The this a habit to carry inside woman who hath her head or upon her head. •.

And on the other hand I admonish thee that if thou dost deck thy- And home ofttimes abroad thou ' Hearken ! Beware. lest > The famone lorre del Mangia « Mangia Tover *. and next you would do your utmost so that your standard might return up there. She selleth the better wine her. When gl^g goeth to church she goeth there all covered with ornaments. of the Falatzo FubWw of Siena. and then you would be as hostile to him as possible. and should be more neat and nice in her room with her husband other ? And the better he doth always give to such as this come there ofteu. ^^. Precisely in manner in than at the Duo- mo and among people. and some have crossbows so as to strike others and in like manner to be struck. all trig and fine. 190 ~ The woman s/iouZd loojr better one hath a head-dress in the one like a citadel. silly thou be the occasion of bringing him into sin. while at thou art a tame. wearing garlands of acorns. whereas other she doth she goeth about the home looking like to a drab. and that one is better than the manner of battlements. as well as for the many people who see you abroad.indeed a horrible sight . and thyself as well. and here there is battle unceasingly. dost appear a lion. and you should look better and should be more neat and nice in your room with your husband. * Here he addiesBes the htuband. . What should you think if any other standard than your own were raised above the walls of your countries.~~ ^^^^ *^o^ ®"^®^ heard that the host doth sell two wines at the Same time. as if it were one of your countries which was being fought with. %n the ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ woman. than at the Duomo and in the Piazza there sheep. and the worse he gives to such as are simpletons. one like towers projecting out as doth this tower ^ I see battlements upon which are raised aloft the standards of the devil. ov to such as are his friends. Verily you should have respect for yourselves. among all the people. And this I say in regard of the vanities on the heads of the women. so that she doth seem to be my Lady Siniraldina. for that thou art not neat and nice as thou shouldst be with him. and your own were taken thence ? I believe that first above all you would endeavour to discover who it had been. the Fiazta there all the Piazza of the Duomo sell to to those who stare at and the her simpleton of a husband.

pay heed made a God for thyself of . or such like foolery. I warn thee: Per quae peccavit homo per ea torquetur By what member hast thou sinnest in that thou shalt be tormented * in the other world. thou hast no thought but of this. Away with them. and they will ache at the least touch of cold. 191 - thou Shalt look to it that he doth not perceive in thee which is far other than wholly good and modest: see that he doth never see in thee aught else than purity and decency.— self. You perceive it not as we perceive it. another with one like a pancake. and thy breath. within a little thy mouth will stink for thee. so many fashions. mother. ' believe me. setting aside the First thou dost injure thy head because of so great heat. For in truth you have wandered farther astray than I could ever have believed possible. who care not how to "^ . . of the head of thy daughter. There are some ""'"**"• '*"^° ^° men and women has learned "^ *' for each one of you Seest sin ? tlioU ^^' more heads than (ft<. one woman. and so dost thou likewise. p\io be toimented. ! — * ^ That they might know ÌB that by what things a man siuneth. The devil hath seven. in the name of God for in thiswise you would enter the road to destruction. to my words! Thou thy head. and ofttimes it is full of nits. and in the way of modesty. For in these last fifteen years I recall so many kinds of headdress. aeviu not the harm that thou dost. by the same 17. then thou mayest be more simple and at ease in the manner of thy that dress. to it but if he careth not. that I stand agape. Great wickedness and sin carry so great a load on your heads — is it. » Wisdom XI. thou dost ruin thy teeth. . and doth not regard the manner of thy dress. This I say in respect of many women who at home are hideous. If thou seest that thy husband doth truly care for thee.« they appear. but all with discretion. and yet another with one like a trencher. this I do not approve. aye. 16. in faith would I have you dainty and finedrest. Some women there are as well who have as many heads as the devil every day they put on a new head. to carry a bale. and there are women here who have even more. thou wouldst do ill not to see that thou appear well dressed before him. I see a certain woman with a head like tripe. and as black as those bakeresses at the oven.

and more than eighteen as well. and even more than sixty? Oh. * p. eh ? Come now. Now. See had passed over? Herein lieth thy And would God that I were lying in I 8. There are such as would have her a big beast. Oh. How many gowns hath thy wife ? She hath ten. and thou art another. One and another. Oh I would tell you that of which perchance you have never thought. . 72. into the train. and between you then you will form many great beasts. but I ! : cloth goeth into a gown when tell height. Sermon XIV. since that there where it is nearer to the ground the wider is the gown. I say Thus do I say to you. so with them. ITTbeast! Euough I would havc this the head. how much do they cost perchance? They cost fitty florins each. ilnd to long-eared owls.doth dress it 192 — many ! up high aloft. What may a pair of slippers be worth perchance ? What are they worth ? Perchance they may be worth a half a florin. and wise. follow this reasoning. etc. tell me this how much that thou wouldst take her in marriage. 17. down with all these vanities for if you could but see yourselves. ! — suffice in regard of the — I and this is say not that thou * shouldst ever measure the woman with a yard-stick when would have you measure her to see whether she be good. — those with the highest heels. and industrious. Wouldst thou have me prove to thee that they cost thoe more than six. a good housewife. To wear a tail dragging on the "^''^ and to screech owls. busied about things. Par. a span in me. discreet. you are like ! fashions as these are indeed evil signs Down ! to little owls. a span of the gown about the feet doth contain more in its width than four times this in the upper part. have you never considered the slippers are this? Thinkest thou that there goeth into it cloth to the value of fifty or sixty florins as I have told you ? Dost thou wish to see it more clearly? The widest part of the gown is about the slippers. And the cloth that goeth which likeness to a beast. those handsome painted ones may be worth perchance a florin. Let US como now to the feet. how can this be ? and are the florins perchance inside them? Not so fast! Wouldst thou have me prove it to thee? Now. women. ^^^* °^ ^^^' *° ^^® teetl young man. another low down.

so that women to a beast — they can neither one nor the other beasts than in this respect. let us consider that in winter your gown doth befoul itself in the mud about your feet. how many curses doth she call down upon her. engers of of such whereas you will find instead that I do speak that the trains which you wear are messwars/ Hearken! I would show you the refinement — as wear these trains. Now. 159. quia factus est homo et mulier a Deo sine cauda God made man and Avomen without tails. and this is called incense to the devil. p. reviling her mistress.servant. to man he hath affixed the sword. doth breathe in the incense that it doth send up. The devil it is who hath made them with tails. and he who doth walk behind it in summer. for.— my throat. 193 — the truth. answer me doth the woman's train when she walketh abroad in mer? It maketh a great dust. and in the winter it doth befoul itself in the mud. and to woman hath he affixed the garments' trailing behind. Par. la . B"'irst it is the act of wear a tail dragging behind. my Lady Sow! .« what sum- See Sermon XXV. be better likened : to O women. and then it causeth you to lose a whole day in cleaning it. And if the woman giveth it to be cleaned by the maid. 2. because it doth wallow in the mud like a pig.

that is. and from that time on the treasurer was always a layman.friars in charge there ? If yon are putting them there. of the Commune had been held from the earliest times by a religious. Frisr John of the order of the Servitoa. I say. no exercise ! therar^f Hear&en now. 1428. and ttuj/ic. ' The : ' . even concerning the most delicate matters of government. answxi™mè7'leTró'\F citizens you are preparing. is hot permitted to any friar or priest. Soìv Hewhoisapriesi or a religious is not permitted barter to l)usin('ss ought abovG to he carried on. that neithaLi_ta. "ìsTòr "sliouTd" yo|u "wE give offices '"'tT'"^ì^gTòus""f lior~*'moreover shouM^_^i..fr[arjQO^ do t^hat which belqn^cth to secular iQ.en_ to do. and he so nrgod the institution of the lay treasurership. In 1452 there was a retitrn to the old system. engaged therein. since that doth not belonpf to my art t hat art belongeth to secular men.. and for this reason perchance you would have them friars.elijglou3 either accept "thémT" or' seek shouìd'lì"T^TTgìoirs'"eTrtaT{p^^ them. in public offices. it . I would say. but this lasted for only seven y<\ar3. The priest and the friar should attend to the offices oi the church and to TliTsàlvàtion of soufs'. TAo Offlou ot Treasurer of General Customs underwent the same change. This important innovation shows how greut regard his fellowcitizong had for Saint Bornardine' s advice.XXVIII. . And so. ' The office of camarlengo.ess. For '^"'" '^ example^ unde rstand me: it is not lawt'al for me who. Nor himserfi ri secular business. Saint Bernardino franltly opposed the introduction of religions into public busir. You set yourselves to believe that your secular chamberlains of the Commune have stolon the money of the Commune. chamberlain. very often by a member of the Camaldoleso Order. When the Saint delivered those SQrmons the Treasurw of the Commune was a religious. e. put me there as well. three months after these sermons wsre preached. sny that a business doth bec ome 1. And thus.. that in the beginning of January. • I. a layman was elected Treasui'or of tho Commune. — First all I -^xnlnvfM With relation to the person ...your urns are you placing. am a friar7 to~hang a man.

made keeper 1 am assured that this you of the Castle of Montalcino but tell me. that you do suspect one another? I have told is you. I say to thee that this is an evil sign. Tim. 1427 these Were made without doubt at the suggestion of the Saiut. that I know a mortal certainly he hath committed a very grievous sin. nor ever will be and I say that whosoever was the occasion thereof.- 195 - friars perhaps wil not steal ? Oh. next I would be. sin since that he hath done that which was not permitted to him. ». Know you that which I " " would say to yoa. consider the P^rnomvho carry on the — business. 4 « No man bbing a soldier to God entangletli himself with aeculai' bnsinesses here referred 'Although Saint Beruardine did not «Qcept the office of captain of the uvns to. Oh. who was de J liYérin'2 ilieee sermons in that very mouth. nor is not. tvhether he be semiar or '*^'^*°"*' ! — . will it be fitting then that so set yourselves against him. is bound to make restitution of all that money in respect of which the Commune hath suffered loss. and that they have doublets which reach only to their middle And thou mayest rest assured in regard of whoever doth bring it about or hath brought it about. in faith. forsooth not cozen me. as may be seen by the proYÌsions made in regard to this on September 9. a fine idea this. and 1 say it to you because of the words of Paul * entangle not religious with these businesses. that any religious should hold office. ought I not wished to do out of good will. it is an evil sign when what a blessingbecause of this you demand friars this. . You can not perform that which is acceptable to God. II. wear caps tossed back. Oh is it becoming that the executioner be paid by one who is at one and the same time priest and chamberlain of the Commune ? Doth this belong to his office ? Pray. fye Oh. : ! — ! ! ! ! « II. 2. while you do ! : : — The first thing <^„j y^^^ ^^^ doth and against those who established the body of Church. that they wished to place me in charge of the urns! * Oh. yet he had a great influence upon' the manner of conducting the elections. Doth it not suffice that you go to the home of the devil out of your desire for these offices without that you should endeavour to drag us thither as well ? They have no other words in their mouths than these We trust them not. since you wish that they should hold that they office ? See then that they wear secular dress. with so great ease. to know that this is not permitted to me ? Fye Thou dost I should have been a great simpleton.

-««————>.»_. I tremble with fear You have made a fine friendship with the friars in faith. ! ! both seculars and religious as well. and he doth count without ceasing. The second point to 3. This mist then is now cleared — me he is .. and would have the friars entangle themselves in yours. believe one to be handled with caution and I say there is great danger in having to do with him. ! : the clergy a tradesman. do not so. Let them perform their offices. what intention he doth carry it — say that — —. Do not confound the lance with the axe.— : 196 - he go afterwards to say Mass? But let us speak of this matter at length What think you a religious doth when you have made him chamberlain? All the night doth he dream that he is counting money.. six. away. e. n. ! . - who doth carry on business is otu of Carry ^-^qq it oiTritord''ITiee"or It yesterday I 5 to-day to ^. I will tell again. ' the lauco aa the woapoii carried by noble kuiglits of the exoouUouer. and that. Reddite quae sunt Qaesaris Caesari. . and in his sleep he saith continually four. "Woe me for when I think of the sin that you are committing.! him what motive he doth .. dotir"c1ulT"l)n" '*^""~— business if -"- is. chapter gloriosum. Do not so. . he doth this provide for his the ase as the weapon on. In regard of myself I do believe that if I were in : that done of is I should steal more than the others steiU. Have Manage your own businesses give them not occasion sin^ but let them do what belongeth to them to do. you will fall into mortal sin Hearken to a saying to the house of fire with you both Clericum negotiatorem of Jerome. from a poor maii he doth come into any riches whatsoever. who doth entangle himself in many now in that.... . matters^ now in this.^ . and if you din in this sin..egiard__of be considered %n regard of him ^y|^o. for I predict to you that if you do entangle yourselves in the business of one another.. I say unto you that you should render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's and to Grod the things that are God' s.. 1. Tlie second poiutJo. and you do yours. Where thou seest any of et ignoibilem inopem. ^ Do not thrust so that yourselves into their affairs. et quae sunt Dei Deo. ft'om „ . eight.J[3e considered^nQjLj. And therefore I say that the first thing to be done is this. you would meddle in their businesses. whether he be secular or religious.. that you must consider the person who doth carry on the business. office. in the ZXVIII.-. "'~~~~r~L.

doth this^ doth that. the more he hath. What hast thou done with them ? Oh. here they are. or in ord er to free himself from de bt.then I Iè7 — marry it family. Hast thou them? Yes. or it to hospitals. ^ A covetous man shall not be satisfied with money. avarice! Thou seest that with all this wearing himself by day and by night. One of my partners hath repaid me one hundred florins which I lent him I have spent it for cattle I had need of fifty florins to set in order a house I have need of yet more. that unlea^q hi^ rl ntb . ! . and likewise this property doth stand between two that I oAvn it I might but have it. or in pious plain and be seen that he doth gain and hoard out of avarice. it is an evil beast. Now then. . Shall we see whether I say the truth Now put it to the proof. or to say is permitted to"hnTu "But shall we say of him who hath no need thereof^ who doth so spend himself. and doth never cease ? what m ortally. How then. there would then be no one who could do any that . there own house one ^ is by the side of my would suit me well indeed. Next. Seest thou that already his greed hath increased ? Now then.sin o f avarice See then whether I say not the truth to thee If he hath not need. 9. ! to distribute it to the poor. And therefore is said in Ecclesiastes in the V. doth busy himself there. or his brothers.— his "^Tàu^KèrsT-. at the least. miser what dost thou wish ? I wish ten thousand flurins had I but ten thousand florins I should feel that I was well off. . since that such . yet never hath he satisfied any wish of his. and his people will have this. And if he doth use otherwise. chapter: Avarus non satiabitur pecunia. and doth hoard only for himself and for himself alone.Hast thou thought of ihis ? Yes. what thinkest thou this is ? Naught else than avarice.I. tin's the poor he doth sin ff:r oarding h as this is_called„the_. fifteen thousand. doth busy himself here. . Oh. How much dost thou wish? I would have at the least. or those who will never give further thought to him. his kinsmen or his nephews. I have spent them I want more. he ought Sav^. » Eccleaiastee V. If he himself hath no need thereof. or cousins. « « Avarus non implebitur peotinia. the more he desireth. Here. it is clear to — ! ! . Now then. . What wilt thou do with them? works. take them.

where there was no mist. and even doth exert himself to procure yet more. I say naught to thee of those who keep in a place which was damp that mer- — . they or would this. 0/ four other manTiers of sinmng in selling of merchandise. my houses. he if he were to sell this could not sell it. for what hast thou need of so much? Oh. If there were mist at one gate. all be side by side And straightway in or in that. e. The third occasion of sin is found in him whn doth afìU ttjL-JOifìaauxfì who will so stretch and pull the cloth that ofttimes he doth well nigh tear it asunder.. that if he should have hundreds of moreover I should like as well to : thousands. how much dost thou wish ? I would have at the least. it to sell because in order to have it longer he doth stretch it so that he doth almost tear it.. av fir st JS the Conccalin fy of tbft trnth.if. or Hca.ft. Hast thou never paid heed to him who doth sell by weight that he doth give a shove downwards with that which he putteth into the scale for thee ? Each time is he bound to make restitution. Stretch with all thy force when thou hast And likewise doth he who maketh the garment.e^^. The ^ — — he who he wisheth to make known this defect. to me . doth he spend it all. ! twenty-five thousand. 1 would have more money. from head to foot. what would I do ? certain place which would suit There is a fortress in a me exceeding well.-dbcfì3:flp.Hnres. and own the property outside each of its gates. He would have fine garments in new fashions which is to say. doth possess a horse which hath a defect. and if through that defect he should bi'ing an harm to anyone. and sometimes it doth split down the middle. Now let US look at four manners of sinning that ^^ make the trade unlawful which some men practise. and . I should go to another. . he who selleth it is held and bound to make restitution. if I had but a little more I feel assured that I should not seek to add more to it.TiP. I say that if he doth sell it. Once more. in sum. 4.^s. he would not be content. and doth not make known that defect. Mist is hateful to me. ! — » I.— — — 198 — ^ damage whatsoever together. aa fnnni^ta. what wouldst thou do with with it so much? Oh. b^anees. The second is found in thoRR^whn nae. TveightR-flnd m.

and hath it put into an oven which was there near by. as if it were the finest in the world. Afterwards cometh the other merchant. and he who wished to buy having arrived at the shop of the one who had it to sell. what doth thy sin consist ? First. So it went from bad to worse. seal it up. tl-ZT^^''^ who to rid thyself of thy goods doth many a time give something bad to him who doth pay for it. and the other* put it into the oven. and then follows after in order to the man who was : carrying- it. One made it damp so that its weight be greater than it was. and I will weigh it. and leave can not wait now to weigh it^ it here for a time. it is a sin against good na^rohandise. so that it might weigh more. And in thiswise he who thought that he would cheat was himself cheated. — — . and when it is dry he hath it replaced there where the other had left it. and he said to. the one who was selling it to him See that it is sent to my house. he said: I will give I wish as much saffron as I can find. said he I they were arrived at the house to buy it do rae this favour.uiàawfvXy once there is between one kind of merchandise and another. One merchant went to buy saffron from another. at once the other hath the saffron taken up. luas himself <'''««'"^- dry. The fellow sends it straightway. When who is of the other. — Hearken ! I wish to tell to you '^ of that a merchant keep his merchandise in a place which was damp. How great differ. so that may weigh which befell «V amereiiant ^*''*''^"* more ! 5. so that it may not : : who was used ^".t wished */ to cheat. 6. for perchance it dried more than it should have done. at once he who was to buy it perceived that it was damp.— chandise which they sell 199 — it by weight. and doth depart in God' s name in all peace. and will give thee the money. Tha^]rd_tìt]ngwhich doth make merchandise The turd thing unlawful. He doth so. And having showed it to him. ! . and second against . apothecary. and I Avill return. Marry When he is out of the house. That time it went from bad to worse. and they weigh this saffron and he took his money and went about his own business. when a man doth both in regard of worth and of harmfulness. harmful. in. is when a man doth sell something harmful "and which doth make mercJiandiie this may be understood in many ways. Said he thee mine. so that it might weigh less than it should. weigh it.

Finally the apothecary was taken into custody. unless forsooth the apothecary had done as he himself wished. Therefore trust never to thyself. for the sake of caution. physician said that this could not have happened so. and was condemned to death^ and lost his life. and at night.— just weight. and . who doth know from practice and from learning. and dissolve it in such and such water. And to the Signoria. for I compounded it of other things than the physician told me of. And having left the sick man. A man falling ill at once sent for the physician. This man's brother goeth straightway The to the physician. The . : : not according to the directions of the physician. apothecary. Then said he We are witnesses to that which he hath said. and how had died. doth carry it home with him. ? And how wrought : the medicine with him And he of it replied Excellently well. but rely upon that which the physician saith to thee. he went to the apothecary and said take thy book. he giveth it to the sick it had been given to him in thiswise. believe that he will be cured. And straightway by means : he went his brother and related this matter. one warm for one and the same medicine may do harm to one and good to another. who the this follow a certain practice theirs. conditions of body of each of us are not the same this man is cold. of many do. When saith the apothecary: Great thanks then are due to me. and write for such a one Take half a dram of such a thing and two of each another. See that it doth not happen to thee as once befell another . . he replied. In the evening cometh the brother of the sick man to the apothecary for the medicine which the physician had ordered. was come for it. m— Do not thou as and fair measure. And having prepared it in thiswise. Thereupon this man went to the apothecary with two witnesses. he said that he must needs take a certain medicine he was told that he should order it. and when he had seen the sick man. it wroaght with him so that he died from it. after his own fashion. and the apothecary giveth him a medicine which he had prepared after his own fashion. and told him what had befallen. And when How I doth thy brother ? Well. at once he asked: The other when the hour man. When the apothecary seeth him. see that it be given to this sick man. etcetera.

. so miT^h ^"'' --viiv oj ^y^'^at th at is infecte d. nineteen. fourteen. and there: one. pleasing to is God? No. it who sold his comrade's it. and there is the chance that may kill VI. In what condition ? endanger of the life think you. and twenty. verily. eight. Saith she: no. and she returneth to him who gave her the money. coin by coin. and she can help herself in nowise. and doth begin to count it. Do not count too is that of the man w ho doth count so as to"""cKeàt'fTor money in great haste so as with counting in so great haste he doth contHve to bewilder to deceive the man the man or the woman who doth receive the money. Such men as this will reply You will see that you have made a mistake in counting it. and doth it the money as and home she goeth. This man did not do as another did. give it to me. he was giving too full measure.s murder. This is theft. and I have counted it again I find that I lack three pence. Covet not Thinkest thou that this thy neighbour's goods. and there. that you take this from her. And many by in- times they are themselves the cause of it *. of the hifootion. and the other saith: Thou shalt not steal. you have given me too little. poor that little it is woman. : there. and this through his counting in haste it. seven. in order to rid himself of as much as possible. e. a man who is himself infected with disease He it hath fected that animal. must an animal be which hath been inflated him who doth eat thereof. Then beware of this. and findeth herself cheated of three pence. Saith he Oh look whether you have not dropped it. as for instance 8. : : 1 poor creature hath the worst of is it. thirteen. believeth as thou sayest. and or the woman who doth receive there. 7. Anrvthfir jxia^ugr oi sin j. Do you understand me? Yes. wares at a cheap price in order to squander and to better the sale — All other yice_in regard of business lies in counting. this Noti furdberis one ot the commandments. two^ old three> five. for the love of God. of his own. since thereby thou dost "•"Ti ntifr. sometimes_when^a^_atc^ — Thou shouldat never sell infected wares. and saith Ay me I went home with the money you gave me. ten. and others paid the cost thereof. who hath not much receive to her . And the wit.. hath not your purse perchance a hole in it ? And so the thou givest : ! .— this 201 — his was because he was giving wares without regard to measure. sixteen.

those things which a Commune can not dispense with are three the Guild of Wool-weavers is one. From naught doth the Commune so profit as from the utility of the Guilds. it is but little appreciated ' Auimals. Likewise the Guild of Shoemaking.rv on the 4*^. the snipping of cloth '. The fashion of it was as follows that he used to go among the Christians. ^Dist. Distiactiou in the Commentary of Dana Scotus on Peter Lombard's «Books of Sentences «. and had been converted * The 15 th. men make you known far and ioide. which still waits to have its history worthily written. rather than sell such infected wares.a. many of them died in a brief time. thou shouldst endure this labour. yT r dates its origin \ from the middle of the thirteenth century. Par. 2. Whensoever a property doth sustain damage. the Bepnblio summoned thither distinguished men in . thou shouldst do that which doth belong to thy trade so far as it is possible. There are many who say that they animal in order that they may skin it more easily. this can not be for the common good. Book of Sentences. Now in like manner as these two are necessar y^ so also is the University " necessary. in the That is. Seldom are Guilds licensed which are inflate the : * : : — Siena. the which things were eaten by the Christians: and by this means. one of those Christians « of the Cord » '. snipping of cloth does naught for the common good. and from merchandise which is bought and sold. « See p. In its wisdom. saying to him I rid us of more Christians by killing them in a certain fashion than do all your followers with sword in hand. and sold meat and fish and other things which were tainted and infected. since therein fitted to harmful.^02 Bo not permit that the Vniversity ever depart shall from are whosoever doth eat of it. — such as is one. that is. i : — the greatest utility doth result thereof to the common good. Saith S ootua * n hìH r!nmmpint. 178. Do not :lo as did a renegade Christian. Sermon XXVII. and out of its solicitude for learning. who have wool àud leather brought hither. those Christians who lived by Saint Thomas. Moreover the Guild of poisons does naught for the common good. It is said that once he told the Sultan this. 9. » The University of Siena. but I say to thee that even if it be more difficult to skin. 15: that. Moreover I would say in reply to those who tell me this What is tlie reason wherefor at Eome they never infilate the meat? And yet there they slaughter them ? Cast it away. or human beings. Such Guilds are maintained by merchants. * Holy Land.

and they still maintain it. Jhe merchants and throu ghout the Republic. Italians and foreigners. who applied themselves to the study of jurisprudence. You may perceive even now that already there cometh forth f rom out of it a b and of you r citizens fitted for the. I the citizens. faithful to these traditions. and theology. 80 will it befall you if y ou shal l be able to maintain it.i sacrifloe in dignity and prosperity. — even at . Si nce that you have the Sapienza here. whi ch is Pleasing to God. Sienese. so do. medicine. e. ' The University. so as to promote the foundation of the famous Oasa di Sapienza here up to our own century there flocked many young men. . a thing it added and papal bulla. doctor's degree. becaus e agLl. for you can not compreh end the pr ofit and the honour which will accrue to y ou therefrom a g]T2j't. t^'^Q ^''^'^ "^•'^'. . extend its pri vi lege_ to. The greatest beuefnotor of the University among the popes was Gregory XIII he assigned to it the imtii mony of the Hospital of the Misericordia. for therein are Tuen fitted to bring you into renown everywhere. and upheld tlie reputation and dignity of the "University.]ms:fì^tQÌ3ZxfiIl*-iÌ^ neces sary and pro fitable to th e comm on go od. all And _as I you who study: It ' say to s ee to is^. are devoted to their TTniversity. ages. and is most pleasin g to the Good Lord Grod.C onsider Bologna \ the tame thereof. to which it by procuring privileges from emperors for . or learning. The University of Bologna.. The Sienese of to-day. that say likewise to it y ou become not such great simpletons.— by tha§e„who have never 2Ó3 — studied aught. yever suffer it t o depa rt from Siena. and the utility and the honour. — « I.

Likewise with thy wine thou hast been willing that it should spoil. and thou hast stolen that which would have been given to many poor. and To those who shall not have to whom alms ! should ie given. . and there are likewise many widows. And what thinkest thou as well that he will say to these women who have seen a poor creature half naked. 1 A. . what will God say to these? He w^ill say not only : Thou it to didst see : me hungry and it gavest to me not to eat. Thou hast been Thou nie. likewise also there are many who have robbed the hospitals which give alms to the poor by lodging pilgrims. if they had aught to give. rot in thy poor. and many married women who are compassionate^ whose possessions have been seized by force. the bread having been snatched from their hand. and who thou from him can not give it willing rather that the grain should granary than that thou shouldst give it to the hast been more ready to give it to the dogs than to the poor. while that other juight have given in alms that which he hath taken from him. visage.XXIX. since there are many who would give it in the name of God. 1. will show a grim not to be deprived of so great good and loraihjul Woe is me when I consider him who hath robbed another. let us exercise them for the sake of our salvation aud in order been merciful God let us not stand idle. aud perform other good works. Of alms. so that they will bide themselves in order not to meet him face to face. and their blood having been sucked. and they can not stretch out their hand to the po>)r.s is promised Lereafter. — Ay me while that we may ' exercise virtues. and then thou hast thrown it away rather than give it to a poor man who was dying of thirst. but also thou hast stolen who would have given me. who thus have riot had it. .

205

freezing with cold, while they have gaj-ments so ample that they spread over the ground, so long- are they? Likewise

of those

who have

sleeves so wide that they

might clothe

poor people Avith them ? Oh, how great a curse God will send upon thee for this He will show himself unto

many

!

them
ready

in wrath, with an awful visage, saying:

Ye cursed women who
to

are

of the

devil,

Away, away! who have been

than to

sweep up the highway with your garments rather give any of these to the poor. So likewise do I

consider in regard of

him who hath many beds

in his

house,

so that he might lodge a poor man, but hath instead been willing to leave him by the roadside rather than receive

him

into his house.

Likewise

I

consider what he

will

say

who are rich in the goods of this world, who seeing a man who is sick, have not aided him, nor visited him, nor had compassion upon him. Ay me, how terrible
to those

a curse will light

upon you

too, as I believe!

Again

I reflect

how many cruel men there are, who being owed five pence by some poor creature, have had him thrown into prison, and have let him waste away there, and would have his life rather than set him free alive And alas, there is also wickedness even greater than theirs What will the Lord say to him who hath taken from another all he doth possess,
I
!

and then having had him seized and thrown into prison hath brought his wife to starvation and his children, having taken from them everything, and having thrown the poor wretch into prison and let him die there ? Ay me, how great a curse will God send upon thee As thou ha3t not shown mercy, so thou shalt not iind it. Think not, however, that his judgment will not be full of mercy and justice, as fair and just as may be said. Doth it not seem fair to thee that the good man should be rewarded and the wicked man punished ? Thou wilt judge thyself, be assured, when thou shalt see thy own works, all that which thou hast ever done. Seeing that which God commanded thee that thou shouldst do, and thou didst it not, what wilt thou say within
!

thyself ?

Thou

wilt say, perchance:

He commanded me

that

which I was not able to do. Now consider for a little that which God doth command us. A very little thing doth he comtuand us. He doth not command that thou shouldst give


more than thou canst
give.

206 -r

He

doth

not wish
saith:

that

thou

shouldst leave thyself with naught.

He

Wouldst thou

give an alms ? Then give it. Canst thou not give a loaf? No ? Then give a part of one. Canst thou not give wine ? Then give some water which hath been poured over the

thou canst not give even such wine, then give some vinegar mixed with water. Canst thou not clothe a poor
lees. If

man ?

No. Give him at the

least,

as perchance thou

canst,

a pair of drawers, or a shirt. Canst thou not aid

the
:

sick

See that thou hast at least pity upon him have compassion on him, comfort him with words. Canst thou not deliver him from prison? No. Visit him, send him sometimes a
for him. If thou be well for thee And therefore do I say that God will judge with perfect justice. 2. rich man how grateful shouldst thou be to God, who hath given thee of these earthly goods in abundance. If thou dost livc in ingratitude, not giving of these goods ^^ j^.^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ thereof, thou Wilt be punished therefor. xlittle

man ?

soup,

and have compassion
it

dost take thought for this,

will

!

God doth
thee that

give

part

which thou dost
elect

»,,,-,
»

in thine oion
either life

way
heiL

everlasting or

How
Now
I

easy a thing

it

is to

attain to life everlasting.

God

hath

imposed upon us his commandments, which are so easy of fulfilment that it is a joy to him who would observe them.
consider this for a
to
little
:

if

God should say
thee
;

to

thee,

wish
I

give thee eternal

life,

so I give

this

straw

wish that thou shouldst give it to that man if thou it to him, I will send thee to hell. If thou shouldst not be willing to give it to him^ what thinkest thou he * will do unto thee ? Knowest thou what he will do? He will send thee to hell. And is his the fault forsooth ? He giveth unto thee that part which thou dost choose in thine own way, or life everlasting, or hell. Dost thoii choose hell?

and

dost not give

Take thou
for thee.
ij

the penalty thereof. Either to paradise or to hell
;

thou must go
Qodhath
-^

if

thou didst not wish paradise,

the

worse

given to thee more than to that other man who is poor,
be grateful a,nd

unto

Mm

*'*''*

Avith "^ great wide sleeves, if God should havc done with these great wide sleeves, if " ,„ and if thou shouldst nevernot, I will Send thee to hell thclcss yet wish to wear them, shouldst thou not deserve
'

_

Q woman
:

gay

to thcc

-,

:

someivhat of this, for the love of
'

Goti.


hell ?

207


!

Since thou wilt wear them. I would at were not purchased with ill gotten gains rich, miser, why hast thou no compassion for the poor, why art thou so cruel to him that the hen showeth herself more charitable than thou art ? The hen, when solely four little kernels of corn are thrown to her, doth call the other
is
!

Woe

me

least that they

hens, so that they as well

may

eat thereof. So likewise the

mother hen, when she hath aught to eat, she calleth all the tiny chickens, most of all when there hath been given her a little meal. If uo other argument doth move thee, this ought to move thee It is God who giveth unto us all good things in this world and in the next. If he hath given unto thee so much bread that thou dost live in abundance, and if then he doth send to thy door a poor man who is dying of hunger, and if he doth let this man beg of thee for love
:

of him,

how

art thou so ungrateful

that

thou
that

givest

him

not thereof for the love of

God

?

He

hath given thee
so

much

wine

;

now he doth send
little

that other,

give a

unto him.

How

canst thou send

thou mayest him away and

not give him thereof? Likewise, he hafchgiv^en thee

money

im abundance, now he sendeth thee a poor man, and doth let him beg for love of him that thou shouldst give him

How comes it that thou art so unfeeling as to send him away empty ? That money belongeth to God. 4. — Thou art bound to give to him who hath need thereof, and who is in want arid distress, tliat wliich thou
some.
excess. But when thou hast determined to live according to the spirit of God, see that thoa dost not say: 1 would keep what is necessary for myself if I should

Thouanbound
'V*"^ '," ''""L 'Who hath need
thereof, that

hast in

which tkouJmt
in excess of thine
o^'J>l

:

needs.

grow old, I could no longer earn, I need this for myself. 0,- what if' I were to live two or three hundred years ? 0, if I were to fall sick ? I wish to keep enougli for my own needs,. Noli cogitare de crastino Be not solicitous for to-morroAv. Saith Saint Matthew tliat you should not be
live to

regard of such things but if to-day thou seest something good, go thou and do it, — do not hold back from it and if thou canst manage so as not to live in so great splendour, do this as well. Do not as he doth who hath a capon before Mm, and sailh 1
solicitous in
;

that thou canst do

;

:

would

eat

it

all

to-day so that

I shall

not have to say that

there
is
,

208

;

some of
that

it left

say

to thee

if

thereof to hira
saith
:

who
I

for to-morrow. I say not so I thou hast goods in abundance, give is needy and in want. And that other

0,

if I

should give of

my

goods

to

whosoever doth

cross

should very soon scatter everything to the winds, and I myself should fall into such poverty as to be
in

my path,

want and need.
thiswise,
in the

I

say not

to thee that
;

thou shótildst do

name of God I say to thee' that thou shouldst give to him who is in want that which thou hast in excess of thine own needs and moreover I do not say that thou shouldst give to all those who come to thee to beg but to him who is needy, yes, and to him who is in
in
; ;

want and
When
givest

in distress.

thou

5.

When
always
it

thou givest an alms, give
that"

it

with cheerfulfor the love of

an alms,
chet.rfuUy.

^ggg^ jj^

which thou dost do

give

it

God, that

may

resound with cheerfulness, nor ever in a

Knowest thou why ? Because it is said that spiritus tristis dessicat ossa, ^ Knowest thou the meaning of this ? It meaneth that when the poor man coraeth tu thy door, and thou dost give him an alms with reluctance, in
churlish spirit.

a churlish

spirit,

unwillingly, ere that thou

art arrived at

the door all the merit of that alms hath perished. Secondly,

thou must do it cheerfully, in heart, in words, and in act, —- first with inward willingness, secondly in thy words. When the poor man arriveth at thy door, and asketh alms

What ? Yea, most willingly, be thou God, welcome. And this thou must show in giving cheerfully, from thy heart, with kind words, with a cheerful face and with promptness. Thou must show that thou dost give it Willingly and cheerfully do not weary him with waiting an hour before thou dost give it to him, since when that thou dost make him await it, the poor man doth alniost repent that he hath asked thee for it. And therefore every time that it cometh in thy way to give, give promptly and cheerfully. And to the poor man is more welcome a glass of water given cheerfully and promptly, than a measure of wine, given with surliness and, after, long delay. Knowest thou how many women act ? The poor man or the friar
for the love of
;
'

ProveAs XVII.

22 «

A

sorrowful spirit drieth

up

the bones. »

~

209

wait there.

aeketh an alms^ and she saith

:

And he

will

wait sometimes for half an hour, and finally

when

she hath

she will then throw him a and sometimes she will hit on the head with it. This in truth I .can say from having had proof thereof: for when I was going about begging, a woman having thrown a loaf to me in that fashion, it lighted on my finger, and hurt me right grievously; she perchance
loaf from the

made him weary with waiting
window,

did not give
to thy house.

it

to

me

willingly.

thee that thou shouldst give willingly,

Because

this is

And therefore I say to when a beggar cometh commanded thee for the love

of God,
6.

— ,,,,, already death hath

and

see that thou dost bestir thyself with promptness.

miserly

man, icovetous old man, behold! , , clutches, and yet thou takest thee m
old

.. its

,,
?

-^

,

whieh
aimt.

miraeu befell a

generoue giver of

not thought for thy salvation. Seest thou not that thou hast

thou await except death ? Hearken, poor creature, see that thy path be lighted before thee, expect not; that the light shall fall upon it from behind thee. "When do most people give alms? Knuwest thou when? When they find their heads upon the pillow, and then they can no longer live, and can not carry their possessions with them. These may be likened to the money-box from which one may never have
else dost
is within it, until that it is broken. So also they be likened to a little child when he hath a pear, and doth bite it, and then doth give it to the mother but « Té, té » before he was not willing to give it up and said Alack, wretched one, wait no longer If thou seest a poor man, aid him, help him thou expect not that another shall do a kindness for thee, since that thou thyself dost none.

already one foot in the grave

And what

the

money which

may

;

:

!

!

;

would relate to thee an example of what befell a woman who was used to give alms. Once when she was in church, a poor man, half naked, asketh alms of her and while the poor man was beseeching her, the priest was saying
I
;
:

She thinketh within herself What shall I do ? Shall I make him to wait, or shall I miss the Gospel ? If I make him to wait, he will die of cold. When she had decided she went into a corner of the church, and took off the lining of her mantle and gave it to this She returueth to the poor man. Hearken to the miracle
Sequentia sancii Evangelii.
;

!

13

.

I see you grow strong in evil and weak in well-doing. As you know. should come to the notice of God. had recently been made Bishop of Siena he had been appointed by Pope Martin V. and of the utility and the fruit which he ivho giveth them doth derive therefrom. liikewise of alms. . — For the instruction fruit. « Rector » of tlae Hospital. and 1 can put my finger upon it in many ways. on the twenty soventh he managed of September. Of humble origin he made himself known early in his life by his noble qualities of . need of this to than many others. let of him who would have his ^^^ ^^Bht eye him give it secretly. H27. to the end that he may alms yield way whereby m and in the other world. Messev Carlo Bartoli. who is now Rector of the Hospital and since you have so provided for the bishopric. Messer Carlo hath of late been made your bishop. j The Court of Eome and was sent in the same capacity to other Italian principalities. 1. ! Nay^ - think not that I say little to make you fearful It availeth arouse fear where there is no need thereof. you must now provide for the Hospital one in his stead *. and beg him to be merciful unto you the many reasons because of which you should pray to God you should pray above all because of this that follows. you are in greater receive the reward thereof in this But I may it . that you should pray to God because of and among this. since this is one ^^^^mTana such an alms will be as a prayer to God for u/t is the thee. and out of many reasons. I say to you^ and I believe. say with truth. and left behind him there a high reputation. Pay heed to this which I would say to thee. For it you should find such a there .XXX. He was several times employed by the government of the Eepublio as « oratore» at ' . Bartoli was both a pious priest and a fine citizen the Hospital of Siena for seventeen years. that one man hath greater need thereof than another and believe me. Every one hath need that the good which he doth -2osp"a2.

and the city is said to be of the Virgin Mary. and "whb buried the Daorao. how well do they appear there side by side. The nomination of Beotor of the Hospital was in the same manner then and for many years to our down own as candidates. you will pay the penalty therefor. heart. . you will suffer because of this. and would be even more so if that which doth rightfully belong to it. To understand the Saint's meaning here necessary to existence know that in accordance with a very old privilege which remained in time. that it is one of the eyes of your city. And as I say well of the Hospital so also do I say of the Duomo.and therefore be mindful of it out of regard for her glory. Thou mayest see how fellow citizens.— 212 — one who will perform works that shall yield fragrance to God. But know ye what I would repeat to you? I repeat to you that if therein that is not still done which was used to be done. and the other eye is the Duomo. e. and who will give the alms that should be distributed there in suchwise that the savour thereof may be sweet and so shall he maintain that House in all things which are to the honour and glory of God. for if that its alms diminish. and the left is the Hospital the nose is the piazza. In respect of the House of the Hospital the alms which are given out from there . the citizens provided for the bishopric by presenting through the Council of the People. and it doth seem to me a thing devout. and by his sucoeas in in the stadies he elected to pursue . * I. and inaintisining guards in the surrounding . The right eye is the Duomo. he -was it is considered one of the most distinguished citizens of his age. had not been taken from it '. And if that I judge rightly. If you are not willing to provide therefor. reference here is to the fnct that strtiiigliolda ilie • The Ite. And would God that this your Hospital had still that fame which it had in the past. And since I travel hither and thither I hear that which is said forsooth. these Houses both belong to the Virgin Mary. those good works. : : . both within and without. look to that long it is.. * . like to a nose Hospital See to it that alms be given there unceasingly see to it that this shall never fall off. ! mind and 1444. — — first afterwards in the hands of the civic authorities. woe to you all and believe that I speak the truth The House is beautiful. one of whom was appointed bishop. He died September 11. and later through chat of the Commune.mblic obliged the Hospital to share the expense of repairing «ottntry. three ecclesiastics. I say unto you again. which doth lie between them.

Now pay heed to that which I will say to you. in thiswise. those who are charitable towards neighbour tor the love of God. with what eye dost thou look? Thou lookest at them with the eye of the heart. with a scowl. Every one who giveth an alms is not sealed. God seeth us all. who give it from that which is their own. all these are sealed. . With quite other love dost thou regard thy child than that of thy neighbour thou regardest him with pleasant mien.. But tell me this If thou lookest at the son of one to whom thou wishest not well. bear his seal. not with pomp and vainglory. for God hath sealed all those .— are most helpf al . — if thomom gtve 5^"^'„<« o/ewry ui. wouldst thou every day afflict thee ? A)id thou. or pain in thy side. Hast thou children? When thou dost look at them. so that God can never lose sight of them. that Ood can set «'»»« ^««'- «"«' 69 ««"«»" ' ^°^' «*<''^* **"' . I pray you. et dedit will never permit — ^'Aow who give ' « upon them. because God doth not seal them. guide. ^13 — and therefore. but in quite other ffishion doth he look upon those who have his grace within them than as he looketh upon those who have it not. : ! intuitus cordibus nostris his. I. 1 pray you. with what an eye dost thou look at him ? Ugh. This is because thou wishest not so well to him as to thine own. 8. He doth seal only those sheep of his own flock. Those who have his grace within them. for I believe that this may be one of the causes wherefor God will appease his wrath towards you. however. Wouldst thou escape the death of the body. e. have I not told them that this is a virtue which is above all and he doth eye upon them. that you them to diminish. who are within them he hath sent his grace never abandon them. In this same wise I mean doth God. or those infirmities which woman. «ack aa proolaim their almsgiving. who are full of humility. — God ever hath his Thinkpst thou that he who giveth alms beareth a seal? Yes. 2. or the plague. And such as these ^ are known to God. Signavit nos Dominus. for it scemeth ever that thou dost smile upon him. and those doth he other virtues? All their . ugh thou lookest at him with a stern eye. but those only who give with a kind manner. who give it to the poor who give it out of pure and good intention.

also suited to you. — gardener. she prayed to God that he would make her sound. thil/lrT Another example. and have recourse to almsgiving. afflicted as she was. thou wilt be cured of every ill. . finally beginning 5. is of a who had made it a devout custom to give fur lovc of God that which he had in excess of this owji needs. chapter from death morte liberai Alms delivered thee from death. yet she v/ould have been cured. He seeing her so well disposed took a little spittle. and being now helpless in regard of what was past. . I and she did so. and put it upon her eyes. 0/ a gardener desisted from " ' 'pwnxshe2\im. the XII. : — '^ And B. What ? What this: for if thou shalt be compassionate and wilt give alms. I would teach thee how to be cured of all the sickness that thou hast. Solely because she felt sorrow in good and holy faith. Not having more to spend she was moved by God. I believe that almsgiving is the surest remedy that may 4. be used. and the thought came to her to go to Saint Hilarion. she said have spent that which I had in order that I might have spent that she : the light of my eyes. I say. Thereupon recognizing and seeing and believing that which he had said. — all Hearken. I Avish to tell ^q ^^q point. though she could do naught else than repent because she had not done that which she would have done willingly.— 214 — be delivered from pestilence^ wouldst thou be cured of the evil which thou hast ? Yes. Wouldst thou have the proof that almsgiving will save thee from Elemosyna a death ? Turn to Tobias. When she had come to him. We read of a woman who was you an example which is blind and had 0/ her «^**- had that she might see the light. and at once she was delivered from blindness. for she was vcry rich. Go then. I have given everything to physicians and for medicines^ Then he doth point out to her how she might have done better than she had done that if she had given to the poor of God that which she had given to physicians and for medicines. or that couid ever come upon thee. for I promise thee that if thou shalt take the medicine which I tell thee of. was she made whole and received this grace from God. Having done in thiswise for a long time.ow a iiind woman became received^agàin the light thou wilt find that thou wilt escape the death of the body. Do not make a mock of of the body.

215 within himself: he commenced to grow avaricious. since that thou wilt no longer give it in alms. and so thou dost abandon the poor in order to hoard thy money. my foot must needs be cut He could not find peace. and so much did he spend by little and little that he found himself without money. what should I do ? And it came into his mind to give no more. but still with the ailment. I promise thee that thou shalt spend it with great pain. who said So then. it seemeth that it was displeasing to God. and have all your instruments prepared and in readiness. and didst begin to hoard and to lose faith in God^ deeming that he would abandon thee. "and I await the physician. Worse yet : for the physician coming to him said to him knowest thou what must needs be done if thou wouldst live ? Thy foot must be cut off. who will come to-morrow morning to cut it off. Then grieving because of the ill that he had and because of the ill that he foresaw in losing his foot. thou hast lost faith in me. and he. And because this was displeasing to God he hath sent thee this ailment and for this hast thou suffered so great bodily pains. he said meanwhile: Woe is me! to be cured I have spent that which 1 had. And the matter standing thus. since thou deemest that I will not supply thy needs.morrow morning when you will. Finally he replied to the off tor the sake of living I am content to live as I physician to grow old. my foot must needs be cut off. and afterwards hast thou spent that : . : : ! : may. And thereupon he doth send him a most grievous ailment in his foot. so that I shall not have to suffer too much. saying I perceive in truth that now I am growing if I give that which I have in excess. Come to. and then I should fall into need. . and now if I would live. not being able longer to earn money. saying to him: such a one^ how dost thou ? He replied Oh. Thereupon the Angel revealed to him why this ailment had come upon him. for if I'wish to be cured. The man out of the wish to be cured doth commence to spend his money for physicians and medicines. commenced to hoard for himself. how do I? Very ill. old. What befell? The following night the Angel of the Lord appeared to him. saying to him: God doth send thee this ailment because thou didst abandon the almsgiving Avhich thou hadst entered upon.

and provided for himself for a long time. I have emptied my purse and I am cured. I returned there again after six years. Thereupon the Angel made the sign of the cross upon his foot. a to "(ler^lTainM whom God gave great protperity.k not of him who doth despoil himself of the world in order to serve God. The ailment endured only so long as I had money to spend I have no more to spend. as I knew him very well. and that he had a fine family. when I went to be shaved of him. he replied that he fared very well. wherein he dwelt. as I have heard. and straightway he was made sound. that . instead I speak of one who wisheth to live honourably in the world following good customs. saying to him Come. and as much more as should be possible to him. ^^ien may you say that I am in the wrong. If you can tell me even of one. . promiàìng that he would return again to doing that good which he had done. reflecting upon the good which he used to perform at first. let us be about it! Said he: Know you not that God hath regarded me? The ailment hath endured only so long as my money. How thinkest thou that I know this ? Because when I had gone away from that city where this man was used to do as I tell thee. and asking him how he fared. I think you havc never found anyone who was ^^^^ ^^ &'"^® ^^^^ "^^° ^'^^^ ^®^^ i"*° poverty bccause of the alms wliich he had given. and that he held much property and he said to me that he was most happy and that he had a very beautiful house. For way Avhich thou hadst undertaken. and so he did. The physician who arrived in the morning to cut off his foot came to him. tbou who dost hoard thy money ? Do you understand it ? 6. give to the poor the tenth part of which he earned out of every ten pennies to give one.the 'àie ^ if which thou hadst amassed. For I remember a barber who took counsel with his own heart and decided befallen thee thus. I spea. Do you understand this. : . with repentance and weeping commenced to pray to God most devoutly that he would make hira whole. Eind his possessions continued to maltiplj'-. — for the love of God to . Then the man. God doth temper the wind to him whose garments suffice not. thou hadst persevered in it would not have ^ qf a barber. and I have the ailment no longer. and the evil which he had dono in not continuing it.

Thinkest thou that it hath never happened so to any one ? Perchance. . If thou wishest that thy riches should multiply. Think upon this for a little to see whether I promise thee that I have one come not into thy mind given thee somewhat to reflect upon. Scatter it never upon rich ground. and thou wilt have no good of it. thou who hast great riches. Go. Because that saying is always verified . A mystery ? Nay this is most plain and clear. and that he gave in alms as ho had used to do. if thou find not that in a brief time his goods shall have diminished. thou who hast heaps of wheat. that they have been avaricious in regard of the riches which God hath given unto them in order that they should give them to the poor — seiouisuted richea ever^' tnorease. the tenth telling me moreover that he had part of what he earned more than he needed. . and he knew not how it was that things were so prosperous as God allowed them to be. . Knowest thou why ? Because it is heaped up if thou shouldst spread it out find scatter it. if the wheat shall grow up. and it shall be given unto you. never will they yield fruit. then say that I am sadly in the wrong. among those who are poor and needy. since that that he was going ever forward from good to better whatsoever he touched it seemed as if it turned into gold for him. Date et dabitur vobis Give. Knowest thou how to thou who dost amass and hoard as perform this almsgiving. thou dost the very dung outside the gate ? Be assured that in this dung there will never come up wheat. and sow it out and scatter seed therein. never will the amount of it increase. and thou wilt see what fruit it will yield to thee.- 211 — and which was well furnished with all that was needful. and dost keep these all heaped up. never shalt thou find the amount increased. it will droop when it shall be grown. And why thinkest thou that this was so ? I tell . thou wilt find that it will yield thee much fruit. this would not be so. . . for if thou shalt scatter it there. make it a practice to give alms. It hath befallen because of this alone. "Wouldst thou know the contrary of this ? Then consider the rich man who is avaricious . If thou shalt scatter it. thee for no other reason than because of his almsgiving. 7. and spread it over ground that is poor. if thou scatter it not upon that poor ground. yes.

thou art a good little boy oh. give it to me. — Many are there. If the' to her. : give to to it me.. as : II thou dost give it him. the more they Others there are whom : <Iij"X not\est for thee. or ^^' through ray house. now thou art mine own little son If he doth not give it to her. then God saith Oh. she saith knoweth that it will be harmful to She doth not give it to him so that nay but to pacify him and when he is to him My baby son. or into my money-chest. God doth this out of his wise judgment. If they had been givers of alms this would not have befallen them. then she saith Nay then.]^[q give. I will no longer be thy child giveth Mamma it ! me. him rich. doth give to him man ? He doth as doth the who when he wishes a thing she when he cries she will put the fig into his hand. may it — my pacified. if . — he doth ofttimes do to the rich woman to her it little boy. God hath withdrawn his hand and hath taken these from them. for the fig. saying Away thou art not my son doth the mother. ! : away with thee for thou shalt not be my little sou. thou give then givest it not to me. to thee ! : ! ! „ . it. and saith he I gjve away a florin. 8. who the thee either God should give money more they \. doth she say Oh. or to marry his daughters or whatsover other need it may be ? Always doth he provide for him. away.— 218 — and not having wished to give thereof. . but doth begin to cry instead. I do not find . And. my : sweeting. I will be thy father If thou dost not give it to him. for she him he if he shall eat eat it. give me this fig. thou art mine own good son. that of Cometh the poor man. and doth make . . ^q^]^ befall instead^ for it is scen to happen. and doth go to him for which he hath need. as I have said find. away with thee Now in thiswise doth God to him who is poor and who doth ask of God the goods of this world in ! ! order to give them to the poor for love of him straightway God doth give him thereof in abundance. then doth he drive depart from me. and who doth ask God for riches in order to give thereof to the poor for love either when he is in need of something. and one another saith that he hath proved it. . for thee away from him. and when I look into my purse. . what thinkest thou of him. to thee. little tiny child. . that is to say. Knowest thou how God doth in regard of the man who giveth alms.

Every time that thou dost well Grod doth reward thee. us and if not. and that which he might have had. 9. Wouldst thou have me answer thee ? Knowest thou why thou findest not ten of them. so do I say of the others. poor that and humble as he was. Or. >So then every time that thou dost ask him for aught. What said he to him ? I Will restore it to thee an hundred-fold. What hath he little : Now restored to him ? Tell me what is the cost of San Pietro it cost Ovile or of San Pietro in Castelvecchio ? Eh^ forsooth far more than the net and the little boat. . because thou dost not understand.— therein either ten. for thou. nor a hundred. perchance two. Desire not that he should give : thee either money or aught else if this is not best for thee. Now see what God gave him. things which he And as [ say of Saint Peter. which he had. he will not give it — But let now let consider that which Jesus said to of ^^^'' that ^'!''^ ivhìch '" Saint Peter. if it shall be best. as or a hundred^ thou dost tell me I shall. nor a thousand ? Because this doth rest with thee_. us hear what thou thinkest the boat? I believe that it cost less than us say that it cose twenty. to thee to thee. mightest ask him for hell. ten florins let net cost. Trust to him. Consider how much doth it seem to : ' These are two of the very oldest cliurcUes iu Siena. Let us consider Saint Francis. better what * ! : is the cost of Saint Peter's at it thereof. He might perchance have had a wife. who left everything. If thou dost ask of God that he will give thee so much for every one of those that thou givest^ he seeth. it is not to be laid to God forsooth. and doth that which is most profitable to thee he doth endeavour to bring thee to paradise. or a thousand. who hath : given a pair of linen sheets to the prisoners she saith I do not find myself with ten of them. he might have had three or four children^ he might perchance have had two or three houses. or with a hundred. who had left and abandoned everything out of love for him. or will reward thee therefor. reckon the cost cost more than a thousand times left ? Rome? as much as thofje. and the . 219 — or a thousand. In like manner saith she . perchance three or four. say if it is best he will give it : . Dost thou think Go.

Likewise how many daughters thinkest thv)U he hath ? He hath many thousands. there are some even among the Saracens. thinkest thou? O-o-o h They are so many that they are to be found in every part of the world. of the they are lords of the world Long live the Lord World Since those think themselves blessed who can send him his horses whenas he walketh in the way. Thou seest then that he hath forsaken little and gained much. He calleth himself blessed who can have him in his house to dine.— that 22Ó — it not seem to thee he hath restored unto him everything? How many are the sons of Saint Francis. . and are lords ? who then the much ! that they of everything in world. And forsooth how many are those who to-day leave that which they have in the world thee that he hath restored to hira ? Doth ! and follow fhe receive so life of Jesus for love of him. who hath promised them finally life everlasting. Thinkest thou not that such as these are lords of the world? They have trampled underfoot everything for love of Jesus. and he who goeth into life everlasting hath received more than a thousand-fold. The number of them is so great that it is a marvel. How many are the houses of his sons ? On every side have they dwellings.

thou wilt see that from everything he was used to draw fragrance and savour. which tormented him and was ever against him. . And if thou lookest well into this which I have said to thee in brief. David was one of tlie men most given ^ to contemplation that the Church of God hath had. which draweth me down to the things^ of the world. in order to comprehend things invisible. "When he was in those most sweet and solacing meditations ofttimes did he taste of life everlasting because for all that he was in mortal life he soared so high aloft in thought that he heard and saw the glories of eternity although all the while he was at war with the flesh. If thou wilt weigh and consider his deeds. and the most solacing which I — think ^earchuxg ^'""f Ml the things of this luoria. ^^^^ happiness '*«''«'"• . he commenced to weigh and to consider these temporal things in order to comprehend thereby things that change not these visible things. He was ever pondering upon all the things of the world. ^^'^ prophet found 1. which are vain. in each one singly. if thou hast ever so little good sense thou wilt see therein things the noblest and sweetest. between the flesh and the spirit. thou hast ever seen in this life. : ! ! . searching for peace in not thcat this world. which draAveth me upwards to things divine ? Could I but forsake these visible things. Thou shalt see in truth whither we shall arrive. it David.ZXZI. and follow my spirit. H^^^Jc^'T^ace %n thm. ^""^ in the '*"' /<"*"* there was not ^^i^^ jj„^ . which are stable And not perceiving the means nor the way thereto. and go to see those invisible ones. he said in thought Alas shall I never depart from this body. Whenever I consider him I am amazed. his ways. to see whether in any one he might find peace and repose so that his spirit might be at rest. Hence because of the warfare that he had within him.

see hell. in which he desired. — Now : ! so that if thou dost get them. how sorry thou suflferest ever grievous vexation. now and . that they might be brought were always at war together. that thou mayest not fall into evil. thou dost get them with much s\yeat. I see therein ofttimes many cares and many sorrows I know that who doth heap up riches is hungry. he found in no one of these happiness which David Bouglit was not to he found. it is never content. if thou dost possess them. and having considered Th t many things. . everywhere^ and in regard of all that in which thou hast been solicitous. and with vexation. Never dost thou find thyself satisfied now thou dost dispose this in one manner and that in another manner. which ceaseth not. Ay me a thing is it to find instead of rest only vexation. thinking to go to paradise. in order that it should not be stolen from him. across the land. them. if thou leavest them. and thou never hast repose. oh ! When I but think how great toil I see in the heaping ! up and the gathering together of these possessions therein great toil I see with much sweat : ! I see therein waking he and watching. and snow. oh.222 — and likewise his into accord. and was old. Ah! rather take David as thy guide. that he thirst doth suffer and cold. hither now thither thou dost pass now over the sea. for they body as well. as Dante took Virgil to be his guide out of his desire to that true happiness — because he saw therein great toil in amassing them and no rest whatsoever. wind. I see therein vexation of mind. : IVhen thou hast got thyself helongings. thou art abroad in rain. If then in the end thou leavest them. and dost never feel thyself satisfied. of thy vineyards. ! . and stay awake. thou there who sleepest \ learn this morning. grievous vexation and sorrow and distress 3. thou who dost amass riches and dost hoard 2. first. Thou goest now . who sought to go in search of paradise. thou stayest never at home in thine own house in regard of thy possessions. And one man who had much money. and perchance thou wilt go to helL Oh. if add together these three things thou dost get them. and heat beyond measure. in every way shalt thou have vexation and sorrow. and all this doth befall because thy greed can not be satisfied'. did who was napping during < Here lie addresses someone the sermon. thou dost possess them in fear and dread. and would never say enough! it coveteth ever more and more. and sorrov/.

he who is there doth find himself amid continual delights. oh. . know how I can part from thee ! 4. woman who hath taken — art thou here present. Or to if thou shouldst it lose thou mightest hope some day I shall not find it again. times that in the end he could not it. : money me. and you too. it will gather more together! standeth not thus . and to thee — too I speak. because he was fearful lest he might not find it but when at the point of death he leaveth it. Look closer yet into them. now among the beans and he had moved it here or there so many day there . Is a . . the next 223 — — he hid it. ere that are hidden fan Mm. When death the question the matter when thou I leavest well mayest see thou say again. now in the wheat. \ ^^ *''°" ^°^^ s — into the country for thy disport. when thou goest to feasts endure ere that they j where they dance and sing. Now take heed that under these delights there sharp thorns Now consider them. If thou dost consider him who pursueth after the delights of this world. but only for a very little do they endure.-. leave it. oat of shame. thou gayest how great is his know when thou seest him close sorrow Thou must needs ! tight his fists. I look not ever to not thee Ay my . remember where he had and he went about searching for it and weeping. now he put it in the meal. 1 T 1 who believe that you can exist forever amid the delights \purmeth after at the world. \ many ! they diminish for him. without that he doth perceive it.. therewith as doth the cat with her kittens. t consider him who '. pat .. n madwomen. of mine. it will be given back to me. It is not as if it had been stolen from thee. and out of sorrow as great as if it had been taken from him. thou who art husband of late. . newly wed? Yes. — — crazed-héaded madmen. And wherefore weepest thou ? And he was unwilling to tell. . money.. young man who hath married a wife of late. in suchwise that thou mayest give ino further thought to that money of thine. .— day here. when thou goest to those gatherings where they do never aught else than dance and feast. thou knowest when thou hast so great delight 'thedeUghtgojthù when thou goest forid^^iu/ora that thou art out of thyself for joy. . . one now he buried it in the stall. Or I if indeed be able for then to have is in anywise. at least then perchance thou mightest think: At some time it. to see Avhether this be true.

. and flowers are scattered all along the road. soon doth her happiness torsake her. I would say no more to thee thereof thou knowest ! ! . . is frantic and mad with love of her. and thus she entereth straightway upon sorrow and vexation. she hath a head-dress of linen . . And they are ofttimes so knowing as to perceive that she wisheth them not well. And at the end of eight days doth she celebrate the repetition of the feast see that this Cometh as soon as may be During all this time it is usual for the feasting to endure. and so do they shoAV that thou art a beast. She is set high upon a horse in so great triumph that never hath the like thereof been seen. it doth seem. house of her husband she goeth set upon a horse. she doth grow jealous of him. . so that within a little time. if he is a at the — rejoicing. consider the the house of her husto any who is awaiting. If she is beautiful^ at once doth her husband grow jealous of her in like manner. all decked out. Oh. youth. and she hath no love for them. and they would not have her eat anything. Thou wilt see when she goeth to when she goeth . But even for such as these but a brief within a very little their joy doth diminish. More than this: if she findeth there stepchildren. the woman for a little band. And at the end of three days her husband. is put upon her head.there here 224 Hearken. oh Then doth she arrive ! ! - she is received with great house of her husband. silver acorns on her head. ! — . — her fingers are with silvern stripes and with gewgaws covered with rings she is painted and anointed her hair is all adorned and well combed she weareth garlands of . Go forward.a wife? Yes. and in great triumph she doth bear herself proudly as she passeth by the way. oh. she can scarce bear that they should have aught to eat. a very little time forsooth. If she findeth a daughter-in-law there already. the matter standeth in such wise that naught of that which she doth put into her moath seemeth good to her. handsome. Often spelt — . with much music. and on every side doth she glitter with gold. there will be soon an end of peace and concord. time doth it endure however she may be. or if one come there after her advent. oh if the mother-in-law is there. She is dressed up with many ornaments. how high dost thou not seem to thyself to have mounted Oh.

coming from some poor little village. e. then the man is ensraged in some lowly occupation. Let us say that they are both beautiful. and he would far rather be of poor condition and have a little wealth. but he may not be able to have children and he would rather have fewer possessions and have children instead. and oft out of her suspicion she doth scatter ashes there to see whether anyone entereth thereat. and he doth grudge them to him that for all that thou seest him who hath the dish of good macaroni before him. Again. she doth arise and doth search the whole house diligently. is of humble birth. and he hath children but his wife is so contentious that he find eth no peace with her. in order to take his place in the world. young. .it full well of thyself. If they happen by chance to be rich. little noise in the house. and he may be a handsome youth lineage. ! . she wisheth not well to him. : . and looketh to see whether the door be locked. . beautiful. another man may have each and all of these things he may have a beautiful he may be rich wife. so that he might be held in esteem. Another may be of high parentage. and of high parentage. and he will not own so much in the world as the cost of a good pair of trousers. the fly hath fallen therein the fly hath fallen therein Another may oe rich. Such a woman out of her jealousy even sealeth the door. and may himself he handsome. hearing the least though it may be the cat. this man is jealous because his wife is a beautiful young woman and in like manner. he is not acceptable to anyone. Thou seest that neither in one estate nor in the other is he content. : . ! . they are in need. An end I to peace ! All too brief was thy if moment of happiness What next? Let us say . even straightway doth suspicion enter her mind and if he is in bed. and may have a beautiful wife. and he doth fret and distress himself because he seeth a poor man who hath many beautiful children. 14 . Another may be rich and of high that she is ugly. they lack worldly possessions. and of poor condition ^ he is disregarded. but that neither one doth wish the other well they are not rich. now her husband wisheth her not well and he is ugly. Oh. nevertheless thou wilt not eat it so tranquilly. she. . • I.

one another in every estate qt condition in which thou findest thyself thou wilt find the fly in the macaroni. and thou canst not eat it without some discomfort. because thou canst never find true happiness in them. displease God. quarrelsome and in every way doth fade away as doth doth vanish the foam on a glass of wine.— 226 — . woman» what is left to thee of that beauty which thou didst appear to have when thou didst paint thyself in so many ways. Bo iwt love the say that all these things deceive thee. And therefore thou seest then in nowise can any one be content here one doth lack one thing. Consider these youths and maidens. is left to is left to what thee of thy What thee of all thy wantonness of all contrarjT. and of high parentage. and how they lose their and that all energy. or as by little and the shadow is removed from before the sun. Tell me. a wife who of him but is good. thy love of eating sumptuously ? And likewise of drinking so delicious wines? Knowest thou what is left to thee of all this? Naught is left to thee but the sin thereof. and thou wilt see that I speak the truth that which thou hadst in those days now is naught else than smoke. and drinking so many delicate and enjoyment doth forsake them and doth leave them full of cares and distress. And therefore because of this do : . their strength and prowess : .to the commandment of God ? What is left to thee of thy greediness. he may have children. 5. I — youth? Naught! which thou wast guilty? What is left to thee of that beauty of thine which was so great? What is left to thee of that strength which thou hadst so that thou foundest never anyone who could overcome thee ? What is left to thee of thy pride because of which thou hadst so gre. esteem. All their strength little smoke. since when the earth so dost thou take thou takest man from away the . or as doth the shadow when that which doth cast displeasing. and who is not jealous not any olfice. ye old men who were once young.'lt pleasure in being decked out with ornaments and richly dressed? And thou. and young. Search out thy conscience diligently. and this will he doth hold high so grieve him that he will envy all those who hold offices of state. ugly. and take note that time doth flee them.

and also other like messages. and it endureth for thee until thy thirtieth year. full of grace. and by that doth say. So say thou art old.! -In all the time that thou art in this life. He arriveth at his seventieth or at his eightieth and he commenceth to shake. And wilt thou never do any good? Again doth he reply to thee with a nod in like manner. No. If he hath been Wilt thou never be good ? wicked there is said to him And he doth shake his head and doth answer. No. Pass thy thirtieth year. ask him whatsoever thou wilt. and he doth commence to grow shrunken and stooped his eyes run with humour. : . and doth in thiswise ^ And there is said to him Hast thou never done aught that is good? And he shaketh his head in thiswise. and to nod his head. and that age is called the flower of thy life. ( ' '. If thou hast lived an evil life thou canst well amend thyself by turning back from off the road of ill-doing but in regard of thy age thou canst never turn back. . He passeth forty and doth arrive at his sixtieth year. which is at the age of forty. ! ' . and then doth commence the approach of evening. : : : ^ The Saint here imitates the tremulous shaking of begd ar>d limbs of a rerj o}d man. In sum. If he hath lived a good life and there is said Hast thou given bad example by thy actions ? he to him doth reply in that same manner. and saith. he seeth but ill the light of day he groweth . . No.227 -• • shadow which he did cast. Wouldst thou do any evil ? Again he saith. . fresh. . gay. No.' . jocund. which hang down and droop over he walketh with head bent downward towards the ground be groweth deaf. as once thou wast.'. and they are scarlet about the rims. then art thou strong. : never return again to be woman never wilt thou return again to be a young girl. strong. back if a young man. no age is fairer and more jocund than that one and therefore doth David call it the flower. youths and maidens. thou wilt I to you. When thou reachest the age of eighteen. toothless. he doth reply that he will year. and there come to' him many of its ambassadors Messer Hoaryhead. to be beautiful. you poswhich the aged no longer have so say I to you. old and young alike you know that you can never turn sess that .

I can not depart from you^ and this will be a sermon concerning the Angels. and thus his soul finds its way . Thou dost ask him one thing and he doth reply to thee concerning another and so doth he arrive at his end.— good 228 never do good and will never be good. because of his tremulousness he doth all besmear his. home of the accursed. let « In tlie other -world. and he putteth the bread into his mouth. ! . so that our sermon may not be disturbed. * And if he hath been slack and negligent. Do not lose it even for money. and his hand doth tremble. then woe to him And if now he be ill-treated here^ he will suffer even worse treatment there. wicked and dissolute. and hath not feared God. so in like manner doth he die. . * See footnote. This is the season in which thrushes are lurcd by the call and are snared with lime. — to the Friar 6. A glass of wine is given to him. neither kinsmen nor to no one is the sight of him welcome. and after that he hath put it to his lips. he is friends hateful to all alike. p. place. I go further I must needs speak a little of somewhat else. and the slaver doth drip therein. and he doth spill half of it before he can put it to his lips. Bemardine recommends his discipu Friar Albert to the Hienese. And in thiswise shalt thou die. It seemeth to me as if these women had caught me in the snare. a most sweet and pleasant subject and on Saturday I must preach at home. So in like manner when he hath his pottage. 165. When thou speakest to him. and thereby doth it befall that he forfeiteth all the happiness which might have been his if he had lived a good life. So in the same manner will it happen to him in the life beyond: neither God nor the saints will have compassion on him. since for I must preach to-morrow. And remember that to-morrow you must not will preach in this selfsame blessed Jesus. — I — Before — . Hast thou lived a life ? No. and like as he hath lived. so then you will come here on Sunday. . no one then wisheth to have aught to do with him. all is well but if he have lived an evil life. If he have lived a good life. he commenceth to drink.mouth and his chin. ' a sermon about Saint Francis. he being deaf is like one dazed. Now with the help of no one move. and he taketh it.

the devil will carry . said to him My son. Now lay this up in your mind. yet I wish it to be as * See if naught of this had ever been said to it that you have Friar Albert whom you say I have not even menThis tioned. p. luce a roughness which doth irritate the mouth painted up there in your Palace dismal to see In in truth you have her it ^ suchwise that is a pleasant thing to see Peace painted there. this peace It is so sweet see that thou be. Although I have been prayed very earnestly that I should preach here during this Lent.. because this is commanded by Holy Church shall . if thou wouldst have me give thee permission to go to acquire learning. painting of Peace by Ambrogio Lorenzetti.' father. do not believe him. Do not be ever willingly the occasion of war nor of hate^ nor of enmity. And likewise it is War painted on that other side. . of love. * » * » In enumerating his favourite See footnote. and I warn you shall that whosoever gather in grapes to-morrow him away.. for 1 know well that which Bertha spun. and having a father he said to him: Hearken. disciples. ! — peace. for if any one shall come hither and shall say I am a disciple of Friar Bernardine. p. 97. On another wall of the hall Lorenzetti is spealting He painted War- . even the very doth impart a sweetness to the lips . at its contrary. as said Christ. and whosoever pour out the wine from the jars. Home again ! * ! — It is so useful a thing. — that it ""^ "-^ ^^"^^ wAo seek peace.. called after-wards Sala della Face from a wonderful. sheep. if you know not with certainty that 1 wrife it to you with my own hand. See footnote. here of the Sala dei Nove.. — say : War ! It is so harsh a thing as ! to pro. Dost thou remember that youth who wished to go to the University. and of concord. word . he is the most affable son that I have I say.. «"«'" a thing.work.TT Look itself. 8. I pray that you will give me permission to go to acquire learning and virtue. .. .. And the father knowing that : enmity and hatred were the worst of all things. I would have thee make me a promise Lest another might he offended hearing that ho had been invited after Saint * Bernardine. the devil will dwell in the house wherein he dwelleth. but be rather the occasion of peace. ! : I know my 7. * Oh. ^ for the vintage. which makes this great hall one of the most beautiful in the world..

may if be harmful to thy soul arousing hatred therein for thou Shalt go in search thereof. father mine. * Keep no angry word on the tip of thy tongue. . wish it not thou. And therefore every time thou dost go in search thereof. and discords if thou shouldst see clearly that it will come about through another man. if thou shaft seek hatred. If thou wouldst go about seeking enmity and hatred. I promise I that I will never in a quarrel which No. of evil doth find will send it it perforce . Live together peaceably. Who goeth in search . fellow-citizen seek not . towards worse. Thou sayest to me that thou wilt never have a quarrel with anyone which ariseth through thy fault and I would not have thee take part in one whether it doth arise from thee or from another. If forsooth there be one who wisheth war. tho inonlt. See to it that every thought of with Godspeed . yet see that thou dost not take it up.. . swallow it all. thou wilt go always from bad to worse. 0. why art thou not willing that I should go thither? Knowest thou why? replied the father. and worst of all and make it possible for thyself to have to do with all alike. And solely beeause of this reply he did not allow him to go to study. because thou art not fitted for it. no ! my fault. ! » I. . Said the father thou shouldst go thither. When thou seest a thing which displeaseth thee go thy way. Saith the son Oh. Flee it See that thou be always one of those who seek peace.never to quarrel with thy neighbour. Swallow it. peace within thine own soul. Know how to carry thyself towards good and bad. See that thou have the long throat of the goose. and peace with God. as went it? What did he? See that thou dost turn thy back upon it. But rather shouldst thou close thy eyes than wish to see that which quarrels. but all of you love one another. God to thee. and wish not to ruin one another. do not so. I say. and thy Trrath. The son engage replied: >Mj : father. thou wilt find greater evil than thou wouldst wish to find. Thus do I say to thee. — peace with men. Away put back the horse in the stable. ! : how Give no further thought to it. Thou wouldst not obey me in that shall ! have arisen through not willing that am : which 1 have commanded thee. .

Wouldst thou have me say peace. that all thy time is spent. Woe to . and should be considered as rebels. he never sought else than peace ! He seeketh ever to pardon the sinner. which thou wilt have [then to render an account ? In what condition wilt thou go before the Supreme Judge? poor Wilt thou go there with hatred in thy heart? wretch. thirie. thy every act. Alas hast thou never thought of that which God did ? Was God then cowardly? Was it cowardice in him when he pardoned those who had offended him ? Oh. thy every deed. — very sooth great need that thou For carrying yourselves as you now do you can not avoid war. you are not in accord with one another. if thou hast no fear of that which will befall thee. And this will come to pass solely because there is not peace and unity among you. And in thiswise should be done in regard of those who are so hostile to things peace- able that they sufier not peace many who ! eject poisonous to be made.--. I am not guilty therefor of this that I did not warn you thereof. pray to God for your city that it may be ever at peace and in unity. what thinkest thou that thou art doing now? Alas! dost thou never take thought for thy soul.2B1-— '. seeing that they are unwilling to return into the right of the way it commandments of God. if thou pardon not. saying that a man doth debase himself if he make peace with one who hath injured him. should be banished out of the city. and hast never wished to make peace. as a man can not escape hunger if he doth not eat. all be directed towards : Hence saith David. thou who hast been already forty years amid 8. not reflect that thou art of now old. which hath been all this time in a state of mortal sin ? Dost thou that I think there is in shouldst pray therefor ? . for thy instruction Rogate quae ad pacem sunt. Knowest thou what should be done to such as these ? A law should be made whereby all those who should not be willing to make peace. I promise thee that thou shalt go to find him who hath done thee the injury. • — ihouwho «««*««' ""^ p^^"' ' gJej/in'^ ttTej/et o/infidéu. I say that this is a thing whereby you do provoke God to wrath. I shall go away and shall grieve if this and worse come upon you. Thou hearest venom. nay. war and enmity. I speak now for the benefit of thy city. tell ine. for I have left naught unsaid.

if I were to allow myself to groAT angry. 9. Oh thou hast so many examples of those who have chosen to be obdurate. that when an injury had been done to them they would say: Thou wouldst not be able * to endure my anger and no one was able to do them an injury so great that it could rouse hatred in them.seest thou not. This church ia mentioned in records of the sixth century. and command thee in the name of God that thou show forgiveness. you will set yourselves in peace with one another. this (Jo it now time when you . who doih command thee pardon him. Pins II.. I. and in thine own conscience each and all cry out to thee Peace and therefore I pray thee. all who can enter therein. wait not his vengeance pardon thine lis if I . > That is. e. . It belonged first to it in the Canons Eegular of the Laterau. : ! ! ! enemy to Friar Bernardine for the love of the Lord. And then when you find yourselves together there with those towards whom you have borne hatred. It il. pass across the Piazza as a sign that you offer and will accept peace. that you ought to tremble with fear. And If you can not all enter therein. Thou. . thou art reprehensible in the sight of Christ. and see that you that : ~ Womcu. and see that naught more remain to be done in respect of this. calls Martìrio timrchoy^san and to the Duomo. therefore I will restrain my anger. ^ and let this going into the church be to show that you are at peace with every one and present this peace " and ofier it up in the church. was rebuilt in 1357 according to the plan ot Giovambattista Peloro. what art thou about. ot the Church. thinkest thou ? therefore. that I . which you did not do the last time. lest God should send his judgment upon you. then to the Leccetani. Thou art reprehensible in the eyes of the infidels. and warn thee. Christian. and have not been willing to forgive. ^^^^f the Porrioue. art a Christian. if thotl he should not pardon us God doth command that thou shalt love thy enemy and pray for him. Ay me. leave the sermon and go go into entering thus by SCO that you San Martino. to God. and do good to him ? How much better should we do than the pagans As I told thee at another time the pagans were once so firmly resolved not willingly to hate anyone. To- day » is a parish church. * The ancient name of the street which leads trom the Piazza to the ohnroh of San Martino. consecrated 1460.

And then when you together with those to shall find yourselves there bear hatred. where these pilgrims disembarked. to the Virgin Mary in the Duomo. within danger of injury. where all must make their confession before they go to see those holy places.— take thought for your 233 — . she still remained obdurate. in order that she may preserve you in peace. In 1419 there went to the Holy Sepulchre in 10. I did it not with evil intent . own safety if there are women among you who are with child. and oflFer up peace Likewise do I say to you. Now see to it that naught may remain to 'be done in respect of this. whosoever hath been in a galley hurt her foot will understand how. as he was passing through the galley it chanced that he touched this woman' s foot and hurt her a little. he was told that he must return to her and mast ask pardon of her before he received Communion. and he could not prevail upon her to pardon him for all that he did and said. straightway they receive communion. She was sitting thus. I pray you. this young boy asked pardon of her again and again. Unable therefore to obtain her pardon he yourselves in peace with ^ whom you — . it was done through ! mischance. and that he had asked pardon of her again and again. when he came to her. He having confessed all his sins. go. do not bring yourselves or the infants you have conceived. and when they have made their confession. and having told how by ill chance and unwittingly he had hurt this woman. men. for the love of . he said to her: Mother. for the love of Our Lord Jesus — Christ. who ^"youawhTnad was seated there within. you will set one another. or an accursed Jerusalem a galley. not being willing to pardon him. Ah I pray you that you pardon me the injury that I did to you. with her legs w"«'»""*£''2'stretched out and a young boy who also was a pilgrim. went as is usual to the dwelling-place of the friars. And doing so. since she would pardon him in no manner. who willed to be crucified for the love of all sinners who have offended him. and that she had been unwilling to pardon him. one of those accursed haughty ones. Finally when they were arrived in Jafia. and may protect you from those dangers which threaten you while that you have hatred in your hearts. wherein among the rest there was a °^^ woman who little old woman.

thou shouldst on thy part go and receive communion.— tèi — ' "' ''' " God I ask thee pardon for it. that is. of same moment cistern in the centre the church. The boy returned the second time to the confessor. . and considering where she was. considering how slight was the injury which had been done to her. and having asked pardon of hei' for the love of Our Lord Jesus Christ. and told him how she had driven him away as she had done the first time. he returned to his confessor. then straightway they ordered hooks to be brought. Having returned to her. and receive of most holy body Christ. they found it and drew it forth and they thought that in truth the devil had thrown her in there. Again the confessor wished that he should return to her a second time. and perform thy acts of devotion. and tried wh-ether they could find her and having hooks of such a kind as to find that body. in a holy and devout place. what a horrible thing there befell judgment of Great what came of this ? When this youth was at the God altar. and seeing with how great humility the boy had asked pardon of her. saying to him I will not pardon thee. Wherefore when he returned for the last time to the friar and told him how the matter stood. and ! . and told him how he had not had a gentle answer. And when they saw that she was missing. again she drove him away. where the Lord the devil entered into her. he having besought her vehemently. saying that she would never pardon him. The friar wished that he should go back to her again a third time. and as she could not be found. In the end. but a great noise was heard. . Ooooh! Oh. as he received the body of Christ. the friar said to him Go. saying that she wished to hear naught ever again concerning pardon. it was most clear and plain to be seen that she had niade that noise. she not being willing to listen to him drove him away. and that it had been done unwittingly. and should ask pardon : And he did so. straightway at the of her. ! ! There was a little therein was she cast alive by devils. Finally not being able to have a kind word from her. : . so small was it No one saw her thrown into it. seeing that thou hast done the all that which. As she had done before so she did the third time. and scarce could anyone pass through into it even with difficulty.

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— Semardine in this sermon closes the mouth of the ""'*• that I shall preach to you. verily thou dost therefore I say that turning to God. I wish to preach a sermon to you this morningwhich shtill close the bag for you.xxxil. when it hath fallen once in a spot. for fearing h^rm when he is doth guard itself from falling again into those sins. and we will fasten tight the mouth of the sack ^ which sermon will comprehend not only all that which I have preached to you now at this time but also moreover all that I have ever preached to you in my life and perchance this will be the last one . - for perchance we may never more Of the first find ourselves together. Sow we ought to love God. you know thou dost acquire much prudence. ^°^' hated or opposed. but thou. either when he is in prosperity or in adversity. it payeth better heed to where it doth place its foot. with such love as this little boys. ^*"'" 1. Beest thou ever fixed in sin. The first springeth up m which doth Spring up in him who hath been the sinner when good thing 2. As doth the ass. never it ! ! ' That is. or thou great coxcomb who doth remain even into others. . having perceived his fault. vre will flnisli what we have to aay to one auother. when you are learning to write well. U thou unhappy wretch not that the ass doth teach how to save thy soul ? The ass And falleth not a second time. Four benefits spring up in a great sinner when Tctum to God. or despised^ is prudence. never wouldst thou learn if first thou didst not write poor Latin. so likewise do I say of one who would learn to ride. and how he took farewell of the people. benefit — which j^g ^q^-j^ he doth return to a sinner. Nor thou who art learning grammar. what scrawls you do make at first.

old man.-. soul which hath lived sinfully. both in regard of observing the feasts. Hast thou returned to God? Yes. And so having known them he believes in them. and knowest thou why? art into sin. 3. The aged man. hadst thou not had experience thereof. * «I have thought on thy Pealms OLXVIII. having transgressed and broken the commandments of God. and in length of days prudence » Job XII. 59. and doth then perceive that it hath set at naught his admonitions. Hast thou fallen ofttimes and again? Yes.is hiimility / evil obedience. 12. he heareth Mass and Vespers. he hath always the Our Father on his lips and in his heart and all in order that he may do that which the Church commandeth him. In anUquis est prudential I In the aged is prudence. old woman. commenceth to return into itself. again Beieause they have had experience. and would learn them and follow them. * Trays . And not only doth he wish not to fall short. thinking that it is not possible for him to fall but prays ever that God will aid him to withstand that he may not fall as he hath fallen in the past. so that he wisheth never to fall short in aught. 237 — sometimes fall. The second gaiiy'is humility with obedience. The ^'A* second . and thank God moreover that they did not die in their sins. andsaith.. * « In the ancient is wisdom. find themselves in that age which for pray God — gain with m : . thou here present ? Yes. Never wouldst thou have known what sin is. and set myself to keep thy commandments. He believeth that which the holy Church doth hold. mercy. fallen many times and then walk more steadily. and then doth find itself estate. no more in his own strength. and he' confides. and thou. and of keeping the fasts which are prescribed. wilt thou learn to ride if thou dost not So would I say to these aged ones. and turned my feet unto thy teetimoniee >^ . but he wisheth even to add thereto! for he would fast on Friday out of reverence for the passion of Christ. they take greater heed where they place their feet and most of all when they they is nearing death. Cogitavi vias meas et convertì pedes meas in as David said testimonia tua ' I thought upon my ways and turned me back from the path which was leading me into wrong. and that they have had time tu return to him. and have .

and thinketh also upon the counsel of holy men. he prayed him He left it so for Peter. : * The repoutant Mnnerf . thou who hast denied me. it to Peter.^ : - 238 - and also on Saturday as well. Thou hast it that when the Lord was approaching his passion. that there is no peace to be had Avith them! "Whereas. Oh. I have prayed to my father that thy faith may never fail.eading wicJced lives. — by the way The third ! beneiat is ^-^^ returneth to God. who was to deny him. and without stain. there was that he denied Christ ? Why thinkest thou that he left it to because he was fitted to have compassion on those who should fall into sin. Knowest thou not that of the Holy Church to Joha. which doth spring up in a sinner compassion for those who as he ^ sees. this. Know thou in what manner a soul doeth which is well disposed ? It doeth as doth one of your citizens who is zealous in regard of your commune. So doth this man when ho heareth the bail ring for the sermon. speaking ill of whosoever he cometh passeth The third benent IS compassion for others who as he sees are . but comfort him. The bell is the trumpet of the soul. are leading evil lives. but who. Avitbout sin it God did not leave the faith who was spotless and pure. and he said: Peter. Almost Peter. the bell ring. He doth endeavour to ascend higher than the Church doth command he obeyeth the commandment. so straightway . which doth proclaim a thing as you are used to do in your councils. seeth another who hath fallen therein. and who . lay up in thy mind this which I would say to thee now at 4. because so he doth provide in the best way for tho counsel of his soul. "Oh! when a man or a woman ^^ho hath ncvcr fallen into any very grievous sin. as soon as he heareth to the council. among other sins ? was his will to leave that he committed. He was never used to go to a sermon. likewise straightway he goeth thither. and now he doth never lose one. they make so much of it. ' once. out of reverence for his mother Mary. see as if he should say that thou Shalt never drive him ^ away. Do not thou as he doth who is not disposed to do aught else than to go to the tavern ip the morning early. and to sit there on the benches. and even surpasseth both the commandment and the counsel of holy men.

as well. that when the Jews came to take him* he drew his knife to defend his master. 20.. Ubi. pure and white.' my Father hath pardoned thee. but his legs did not avail and therefore the Lord more willingly left the faith to him than te John. . and cut off the ear of one of them. Where sins abounded there doth the grace of God more abound. Thou hast the example of Mary Magdalen. ! « up "^ *" the converted dinner. . and it is said that since that he had denied God. they are of such a kind as thou knowest well.. \ ' : -239 - - ' •'[ ' . he wept unceasingly. because he fell into the sin of denying God. He thouglit he could save himself and all his companions. Christ. > Romj^ns V. nor yet do they do any great good. Hearken how good that sin was. In the sinner converted to God there doth spring Great fervour «^""«'«'^ hahundat delictum superhdbundat gratia *. remember that thou thyself also didst fall therein.. — . compassion on those who should fall into sin. return to God as did Mary Magdiilen. even if we had no other proof you might be assured of it by this. in like manner willingly will he pardon him. or to any one of the others.in women. you will abound in greater grace than before you «inned. he would have said ugh. '. And therefore I say that he who doth not fall can not have compassion for him who hath fallen. when he doth turn to repentance. Peter was merciful. and he always carried a kerchief wherewith to dry his tears. And : ! this is the third. who was a spotless ermine. away And he would have been the cause that well nigh all the sinners would be driven away. for 1 promise you if you will return into the right way of life. ugh. as . If he had left it to John. And because of this he left the faith to Peter. so that he might have because. ye va. that many go their way so calmly and serenely that they never do any great evil. . How much greater good doth he who hath committed a sin than he who hath not committed one I choose this as an example. how much good came of it. Peter was most zealous. who hast denied me. without the least stain. neither good nor also great fervour. 5. ugh! Away with thee. as if he would have said: Peter. if a sinner entangled in sin had come to him. . when thou seest a sinner fallen intp sin.

There are certain of you who are of sweet nature. and if merely by chance enmity doth arise within them. who do not bear mortal hatreds. and to ask pardon of him. and as quickly to do good. God hath two arms. yet after brief speech with them they become gentle lambs. and the other is that of fear.^^ beloved children. manner are they do good. very good. First of that one which beiongeth to God. I never saw a greater happening than I saw it there. so swift to in' like turn back and to amend and to — >i i >i . Three things there are which I would bring before 6. so that The first thing that Friar Bernaydine would bring before his Sienese beiongethtoQod. Likewise that evil which maketh thee is to return to God. who so God and who do would I much good that it is a joyful say that there are many cities which are disposed suddenly to do evil. And there were many of those who went wearing the penitent's cord about their necks. Laeva etus sub capite meo as they are swift to do evil. thou wilt be able in one way or another to preach to them to some purpose. so quickly do they return good. and this they do with groat fervour. But beyond this. but of the very wicked.being in so half- 240 it bad. One arm is that of love. So would I say to thee.I hold and consider you as j^y / ^ Children. and with each arm he embraceth the sinner who doth wish to return to him. . way a state it seems that they do never go Many have been found among the worst. that in these harsh cruel men more aboundeth the grace of God than is perceived at once. and the left is fear. and as say they to are quickly disposed to evil. becMUse I elected myself as your father when "^W you wished me as your bishop. The right is love. If they were very. Let no one go away. that is. y. return to the performance of good as thou hast attained to the performance of evil. Blessed be thing. Sienese people. And I believe that very few c peaces » were made in which the man who had sufiFered the injury did not go to seek out him who had injured him. Some there are who are cruel. and who bear mortal hatred. Whence Cometh this ? It cometh from this. They made as there so many « peaces » there that to see was a great marvel that there could have been so many enmities had been. speak not of return to . I the wicked. would be well. And I that one such as these the city of Perugia.

and he will give you all prosperity and if you shall fear et . or head. that you can help that man to save his soul. and holy days. Amend yourself of your faults. and his right hand shall embrace me ». of Cant. he will guard you from all persecution. the son : he that hath not reverence for God. Look to it also to render an account of this to God. she will defend God. to one and both see that you make an outward sign of reverence from your heart. 15 . On feast da^s. as she is your advocate. Christ or Jesus. &ave it be to the honour and glory of God. you will suffer for it. that if you hold her in reverence and pray to her humbly. him. in all your adversity. If you would be loved of him. from wars. ! Holy Church. that you are bound to see that these feasts are observed. which are one and the same. when thou hearest of with knee. which are official is commanded by the not given his post solely to but also he is given it in order that he may bring about the performance of good. and would have yoa look to it that you do not work then. from tempests. or cap. you from sorrows and tribulations. and you do well indeed and you will find. * Hi 6. seest thou not to whom thou kneelest? Thou dost kneel to God. since these come upon you only because of your sins. Sundays. Do you not perceive. But answer me on thy knees. you will be loved. And if you do not bring the performance of good^ when you have the power to do for you will have this. who would otherwise lose it ? Doth he work ' ? Now pay heed evil. from pestilence.241 dextera illius amplexdbitur me *. Cant. you and aid you from it. and deliver you Moreover I would have you mindful of the feast days. the devotion springing always this if thou shouldst fall this name. from hail. Moreover be mindful of the name of Jesus. love him. and from every and he will free evil. Moreover I Would have yoa remember. The punish him who doth ' « His left hand ia under my head. officials. Before this I have told you how you should reverence this name when you hear it spoken in Mass. and if you shall love. Who is To me that Hail . eh? Mary which you recite every evening bringeth great consolation.

your body. Look to it that out of reverence for God. and other virtuous exercises. Alas my fellow. 16. and by decrees of Feb. the sermons. 1428. and pass by the evil. to thy welfare and that of thy family. Monna Bartolomea ^. The Pope. to frequent the churches. who' then would be not. me speruit*. Donna "SevA dì Biado Arredati da Massa. how often used she to utter these goods words: Take the good. Qui vos speruit. I and others as well. 1 would also bring to your minds matters ecclesiastical. Moreover I wish to bring before your ' minds the excommunications. and not the evil. of mine. 1427 (by the laws concerning eoolesiaatioal immunity were modified. * St.— ! 242 — to this *. And this it is I have wished to say to you in regard of that which doth belong to God to fear God and to love him. .for each according to his rank^ the higher his rank the more honour shouldst thou do him. all 27. and not say he is wicked Do thou thy duty and if he be wicked he will have to render an account thereof. Lake X.citizens timete Deum. timete Deum. and to this I urge you. and it would not be a great wonder if the devil were to carry away your soul. for I say to you that you are in the clutches of the devil. The Saint' s advice wa8 listened to. as his biographers sappose. * Here it Tfould seem that Saint Beruardine refers to his mother. As on the other days thou dost all for the sake of the body. Do away with those laws that you have made in regard of the churches *. fear God have I not told you. Take the good. the friars. but not that mother to thee. . bat a Madonna Bartolomea. thou hast reverence for the priests. the Sienese reckoning^ and of April 18. and your goods. ! : ! : * * » * Here lie adresses the Of the Sienese. and those who have sacred orders. so such days as these give them to thy soul. to the glory and honour of God. that the Pope is our God on earth? What is the reason wherefore you fear him not ? Fear him ». for thou hast to render an account to God of the good which thou mightest have done. public. since you have the demon upon you. Mass and Vespers. take the good. perhaps of the same family. and not of the evil which another doth perform.

I have done this for you as if you were indeed my own children and I tell you further that if I might get you by the hair I would set you in peace. You must reinember that I have been busied in regard of my sermons. and for the good of your souls and for your salvation. move not God to wrath and this is the second thing which I say to against you you. that you have pity upon your prisoners. on all Saints' Day. that thus I believe that you ! ! ! . ' Because lie has not been able to give himself up to bringing these jibout. I pray the Lord. ! . : . each and all. Hoc est praeceptum meum ut diligatis invicem. . Alas my children. Love one another. and .. As I have said to you. or others^ that they may bring it to pass for the that there may remain no peace to be made. this have I done with all that zeal which I would have given to my soul. . see that you love one another with perfect love. But in regard of that which doth belong to thy neighbour I would say that there remain yet many « peaces » ^^j/Jr"^" to be made 1 pray that you will hold me excused *. for if you shall leave it to him to do you will have your hair well pulled for it. on the Feasts of the Resurrection and of the Nativity. . see that four times a year you take a little thought for them at Pentecost. valiant women. my children. and the honour and glory of God. In regard of that which I have done to lead you to make peace with one another and that you should be as brothers together. Alas do you not see if love of God love one another. Moreover I must speak to you of this other thing. I may not forget it. Ay me you delight in the ruin of one another that which will come upon you because of this? Do you not perceive that of yourselves you ruin yourselves? Oh amend for the love of God wait not until that God shall raise his hand against us with his scourge. and there should be no one who would think that I set myself to do anything whatsoever at the request of any person the petition of God alone doth impel me. Let him love God who would be of the children of God. And as I say of this so likewise do I say of the other matters that belong to the commune I have done it all tor the honour and ^lory of God. This is my commandment.the second doth 7. I am guided by that which God saith. and you. — will accept my excuse.

and a thing to wish not lick it up. you think upon this a little. . if 'you would consider how it company Death. time the provision so that at these times week before make you may be so well provided that some aid may be given them. * 'J'he Company of the Virgin Mary referred to by Saint Bemardine. to be used for the construction of a building Avhere those eondemnod by the law might bo executed. because it will be a thing most pleasing in the sight ot God. : .-^44 At all four of these times. and moreover the commune would do well to take it in hand. Moreover I would say that ab antico I know that there was a house where they did many good works. I say that you have commenced it. made an appeal for the Company Coinpauy applied to the General Conucil on February 27th 1425. I would recommend it to you that you never let it fall off. See to it that they are put in order. never saw I any one of them which did so much as the Company of the Virgin Mary *. And while in other places there are men who do such things as that which I have seen. unroofed and in ruin. maintain it. This is one of these seven works in regard of which it shall be asked of us by Christ on the last day.you should be encouraged to continue this good work. is the well * lu otliei'3 of his aoi'uious ulso the Saiut. and Santo Basilio up there at Camollia. for an appropriation ef fifty lire annually. when we shall be examined by him. each. and so that the dogs may you do well indeed: I hear that . See to it that this be done. and there were many good men there. may not be spilt. of salutary a thing is for the souls of those who are executed by commune. JFVìar 8. you will hear that you are building here outside the gate a beautiful chapel so that the blood of those who are beheaded. of Death. I myself once long ago was one of them. and they should be set in order for it is a shameful thing for your city that they should stand as they now stand. I have ordered in Lombardy that there be founded a house there wherein such rules and methods are observed as is done in it is not this one I say that it is a devout and holy thing see that you therefore to abandon. You have Santo Luca down there. it If I say that is true. — Bemardine reconrnunds the the Company the Moreover I would say to you that you revive of Death ^ Oh.had of this The luombers known Company of tlie DiacipUnati which still exists.

Christ : Non enim vos qui loquimini. that in regard of that which I "^l^^^aZl have preached. And if anyone should come after me who should wish to tell you the contrary of that which I have told you. did »*» . but I am well aware of them. You may not have perceived my faults. but be ever steadfast and stable. and give you all this consolation. having always your intention directed towards God. arid therefore everything good cometh from him. Moreover. for I assure thee and I do affirm it and confirm it. Quia omnes homo mendax Every man is wicked. Know thou that you hear nothing from me myself. your city. If you would say: we have heard it from thee. but as one sent to you. I reply as. qui misit me The <a««» doctrine which I have preached. I thank the magnanimous Rulers for the charity which they have shown towards me and . when I preach. So do I . It is sed Spiritus Sanctus the but it is say of myself: it is not I who speak to you. but all cometh from God and if I speak as myself you never have aught and one can not but speak something of himself. founded upon what is stable. Doctrina mea non. so far as doth regard him in himself. for I never do aught that in doing it I do not commit many of them. that I have not said it as coming from me. I have not said it of myself. But that which I have said to thee in regard of the salvation of thy soul. for his teaching will all be contrary to the doctrines of Christ. you may know that the devil is in him. but it is the Holy Ghost who maketh me to speak. Now to my part. I have said to you that which God commanded me that I should say to you. except by the Grace of God. First I call to your mind as I 'The third thing have said at other times. believe it not. est mea: scilicet Dei. and that which I have said to you. But I have indeed faith in you that you will not let yourselves be moved with ease. so that you have it not as coming from me. Of himself he can not accomplish aught of good. and in regard of the right manner of life in qui loquitur in vobis speak. for even if auy should say the contrary. recommends to Mmseif. accept this as certain and true. and perchance he will lead you into evil if you shall believe him. not you who Holy Ghost who speaketh in you. and if you will look into it this is a more safe way of living than that which you have followed in the past.— 245- 9.

And that he may give me grace to do his will. I think that I must go away to-morrow. so that to the glory of God I may instruct people. and I will pray for you. where we may dwell with him and with the glorious ! Oh — — . and direct them to the way of the commandments of God. tQat you pray God lor me. for I intend to go into distant lands.246 likewise every citizen. if ever I shall return to see you again. or if I shall meet you. saints in saecula saeculorum. and pray to God for me. and that I may persevere in this art. And I leave you this charge. that you will say an Our Father and a Hail Mary for me every day and I will pray God that he may so illumine us by his grace that when we come to depart from this life we may render up our souls to him so pure and spotless that he will lead us all to his blessed glory. so : having given his blessing he said I leave with you the peace of the good Lord God. And . Amen. or if any of you shall ever meet me. and I know not whether we shall evermore find ourselves together again. lor the love which I have borne you. and do still bear you. and when one goeth far away he doth return only after a long time. Also I would ask that you remember my soul. and I thank you all that you have borne with my words and have shown more love for me than I deserve. I pray you that you may pray to God for me.

^V. manner the wife her husband 70 t-/ Here is treated also the well ordered love that ought to exist 81'^ between man and wife ~~-'v Tly How worthy widows should be honoured 92 FII.> TS. fll. Here is said how you 10 . . ... — — — — Of the marvellous care which God exerts over human nature and how God watches over us with His Angels Treats of the preacher and the listener. . ) — — .INDEX I- — H. 5 . '— How and what we should ask of God 119 How we must ask of God that he may teach us to do his will 121 XI. Of divisions and factional feelings. IV. the Virgin Mary had round ^ 138 152 Of Saint Francis . and of the part that belongeth to each . — How he who hath an of&ce must administer justice 109 IX. .^ — — — should forsake evil and do good Backbiters are treated of with moat beautiful examples Here the evil tongue and remedies against backbiters treated of again . V. us to~do his will Of the twelve damsels about her . 3^r> — — — ^>. and of the destruction 42 50 54 sent by God X. . y — — — . and in like 58-^ 65 .. U i - ... m. Doth still treat of how we ought to ask of God that he teach ni. . .. . Once more of party feeling 98 m... 132 whom' .1 .. HI. . 19 . 25 2P in. — yi* JT'" -'"'-N^^ — — — Of those who doth begin to do good and then turn back Of the anger and pride of sinners Of the love of one's neighbour Of governments and how we should govern with justice How we should love our neighbour How the husband should love his wife. . .... VI. .. — Of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary 103 IX. . How a man should bridle his tongue Why God hath given us a tongue . — IV..

so And having given his blessing he said : I leave to with for you the peace of the good Lord God. so that to the glory of God I may instruct people. and do still bear you. that you will say an Our Father and I will pray God arid a Hail Mary for me every day that he may so illumine us by his grace that when we come to depart ftom this life we may render up our souls to him so pure and spotless that he will lead us all to his blessed glory. I think that I must go away to-morrow. Also I would ask that you remember my soul. for I intend to go into distant lands. tnat you pray God lor me. and I know not whether we shall evermore find ourselves together again. and I thank you all that you have borne with my words and have shown more love for me than I deserve. saints i in saecula saeculorum. God . lor the love which I have borne you. and when one goeth far away he doth return only after a long time. Oh 1 if ever I shall return to see you again. or if I shall meet you. or if any of you shall ever meet me. Amen. . where we may dwell with him and with the glorious — — . and I will pray for you. and that I may persevere in this art. I pray you that you may pray to God for me. and pray me.' st^fJT likewise every citizen. And I leave you this charge. And that he may give me grace to do his will. and direct thorn to the way of the commandments of God.

. . 132 . . . S[n. 98 103 109 tl9 .. . . . . TI. /X[I>v.. .. Of Saint Francis . . IV.. 'X'^- should forsake evil and do good Backbiters are treated of with most beautiful examples .^ . and of the destruction sent by God Of those who doth begin to do good and then turn back Of the anger and pride of sinners . . . 25 2D . . Here is said how you 10 ÌA 19. Of divisions and factional feelings.. . :^- . . 70!^" . . .. . .. . in. and of the part that belongeth to each .YII.. 121 . . How a man should bridle his tongue Why God hath given us a tongue . . IX. . X. XT. 8r 92. -XTF. n. . . 5 . X Of the twelve damsels whom the Virgin Mary had round about her . . 138 152 . . V..INDEX I. Here the evil tongue and remedies against backbiters are treated of again . Of the love of one's neighbour Of governments and how we should govern with justice How we should love our neighbour How the husband should love his wife. 42 50 54 68 65 v/ . . . . - Of the marvellous care which God exerts over human nature and how God watches over us with His Angels Treats of the preacher and the listener... and in like manner the wife her husband Here is treated also the well ordered love that ought to exist between man and wife How worthy widows should be honoured Once more of party feeling Of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary How he who hath an office must administer justice How and what we should ask of God How we must ask ot God that he may teach us to do his will Doth still treat of how we ought to ask of God that he teach us to^o his will ..

. and' to whom alms should be given Likewise of alms. found . Of alms. .v w^P -^. the people 236 . . searching it for peace in this world. . XXXII. . . be feared of Goil that doth belong to tills — . 177 : business ought to be carried on .. • — . How God is to — How — — XXXI. .ppi»5|pp?'. . . and of the utility and fruit which he . . .*^ 7^^^^^F^i\f ai^s=?^/^. . . giveth them doth derive therefrom . not . and hoV he took farewell of . — Of the Scourges — How everything 163 world' ia vanity. ' ^ ^. .tji^^?. 194 v/ . . — How we ought to love God. 204 ^ •211 who .221 . The prophet David. .