War in the Pacific

 After Pearl Harbor
 US too weak to attack immediately  Japan conquered Thailand, Burma, Hong Kong, Singapore, Guam, Wake Island.  Attack of Philippines
 American General Douglas MacArthur  Surrendered to the Japanese  Marched 63 miles up the Bataan Peninsula to prison camps  600 Americans and 10,000 Filipinos died
 Bataan Death March

Code Talkers
 Feared that the next Japanese moves would be on India, Australia and even the US mainland.  Chester Nimitz
 Led US Pacific Fleet  Crack secret Japanese codes

Code Talkers
 Code Talkers
 Americans could break Japanese code  Japanese could not break the Navajo code

 Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)
 No one won, but Japanese attack stopped.

 Battle of Midway (June 1942)
 American dive bombers destroyed Japan’s aircraft carriers.

Island Hopping
 Allied forces took only the most strategically important islands, instead of each Japanese-held island

 Battle of Leyte Gulf
 Largest naval battle in history.  Allies defeated Japan, and depleted the Japanese naval power  By 1945, Philippines under Allies control

Final Battles
 March 1945
 Tokyo set on fire  1 million people homeless, factories destroyed and food supply low

 Iwo Jima
 20,000 Japanese defenders
 1,000 taken prisoner  Rest killed/wounded

 6,800 Americans died

Final Battles
 Okinawa
 Kamikaze
 Purposely crashing piloted planes into enemy ships  More than 2,500 kamikaze missions flown
 4,000 Allied sailors killed

 3 month battle
    12,000 Allied dead 36,000 Allied wounded 110,000 Japanese troops killed 80,000 Japanese civilians killed

 Plan for main island Japan

Germany Surrenders
 In desperation, Hitler drafter every able-bodied German man aged 16-60 for one last attack.  Battle of the Bulge
 Germans pushed back Allied lines 65 miles  70,000-81,000 American troops killed  German losses greater

Hitler
 As Allied forces surround Berlin, Hitler retreated to an underground bunker.  As Soviet troops entered Berlin, April 30 Hitler committed suicide.

 Germans surrendered one week later.
 May 8, 1945
 V-E Day (Victory in Europe)

 President Roosevelt died of a stroke month before.  President Truman in charge of winning the war in the Pacific.

Holocaust
 Allied forces uncovered evidence of horrifying Nazi crimes against humanity  Holocaust
 Mass murder and extermination of the entire Jewish population  Read “The Final solution” and “Death Camps”

Victory in the Pacific
 Manhattan Project
 Goal was to develop an atomic bomb, a weapon that produces tremendous power by splitting atoms.

 Atomic bomb
 Tested in NM  Japanese refused to surrender
 President Truman gave the order to use the atomic bomb

Atomic Bomb
 August 6, 1945: Bomb dropped above the city of Hiroshima
 Almost 80,000 killed instantly  Thousands more died later from burns and radiation poisoning  Japan refused to surrender

 August 9, 1945: 2nd atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
 1/3 city destroyed  22,000 died instantly

 August 15, 1945: Japan surrenders

Results
 After 6 years
 50,000,000 killed
 More than half civilians

 National economies in Europe and Asia devastated  Millions left without food, water and shelter  As the strongest power left in the world, much of the responsibility for postwar rebuilding fell to the US.