Data Communication and Networks

Data Communication and Networks

Introduction
In this lesson we will discuss different methods of signal modulation, data encoding, transmission media, transmission impairment and physical layer interfacing

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Data Communication and Networks

Objectives
► Describe ► Describe

the different types of signals how digital data can be transmitted using analog transmission facilities ► Map a binary pattern into a signal encoded using different encoding schemes ► Select a suitable transmission medium/media for the implementation of a communication network ► Understand the constrains related to the practical usage of transmission media ► Know the pin configuration of the interface and make a nullnull-modem cable
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Data Communication and Networks

Basic Modulation
►Modulation

is the technique that modifies the form of an electrical signal, so that the signal can be used to carry information on a communication medium medium. .

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Data Communication and Networks

What is the need of Modulation?
► When

you want to send a message over a long distance, you must solve two problems
 First how to express the message (encoding or modulation)  Second which method to use to transport the message (carrier)

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Data Communication and Networks

Amplitude Modulation
► Some

times amplitude modulation is called as amplitude shift keying or ASK ► Here we are using two amplitudes to request “1” & “0”
 Higher level of amplitude to represent “1”  Lower level amplitude to represent “0”

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Data Communication and Networks

Frequency Modulation
► Some

times frequency modulation is called frequency shift keying or FSK ► Instead of changing amplitude we can use different frequencies to represent “1” and “0”
 Higher frequency to represent “1”  Lower level frequency to represent “0”
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Data Communication and Networks

Phase Modulation
► Some

PSK ► Here we are changing the phase, not touching the other two properties, amplitude and frequency. ► We can use two different phase to represent “1” and “0”. ► 180 phase difference compared to the other signal. ► Remember phase is a relative measure.
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times this is called as phase shift keying or

Data Communication and Networks

Data Encoding
► Encoding

is changing the appearance or behavior of anything from its natural form to another form ► In the other end only those who know the decoder would be able to see the real meaning ► Some times it not possible to send a message in its original form in a different medium ► Because of that we need to change the appearance of the signal purposely ► This is called encoding (of course decoding too) and it must be able to understand by the both side. side .
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Data Communication and Networks

Data Encoding
► Let's

contd.

try to decode the message given below

 R szev wlmv rg  Remember spaces are also characters

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Data Communication and Networks

Data Encoding
► ► ►

contd.

Here the technique we used is reverse the alphabet Those who only know this decoding could see the meaning. meaning . In connection with the data communication, data coming out from the computer is not suitable for long distance traveling So we need to change its original form of energy to suit to travel long distance (encoding), while keeping the message unchanged From the other end, it needs to convert back to the same form of energy that can accept by the computer (decoding)
Encoding
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Data Communication and Networks

Data Encoding
►A

contd.

revolutionary encoding method in communication is mores code which uses dot and dash ►But in modern days we use more efficient encoding techniques
 An electrical pulse on a wire  A light signal on an optical fiber  Electromagnetic waves into free space

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Data Communication and Networks

Data Encoding
► Inside

contd.

a computer it uses its own energy form to represent “1”s and “0”s ► All previous methods need a converter to transform “1”s and “0”s into valid form of energy which can be transmitted over the relevant medium over a long distance ► Transforming of energy into another type is called encoding and it needs a relevant encoder ► In the other end it needs relevant decoder to pass it back to the computer in the form it can accept
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Data Communication and Networks

Data Encoding
► ►

contd.


► ► ► ► ► ►

For example when we are calling someone, we talk in the form of voice. Then it transforms into form of waves (microphone(microphone-encoder) This is encoding Then it can travels over the cupper lines (Cu) in the wave from (modulation) No human ear is capable of understanding the electromagnetic wave (signal) Then we need a device to convert it back to voice which is human ear friendly (speaker(speaker-decoder) This is decoding - So we can hear At the end, two persons are talking to each other even though they are physically far away form each other If it is possible to understand these waves directly, we may never need a Radio and Television
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Data Communication and Networks

Binary Encoding
► In

the computer world we live with binaries. i.e. “1”s and “0”s ► These binaries have their own form of energy that, only a computer can understands ► But when we want to send then over a long distance, compared to the distances inside the computer, we need to change it to suit to the communication link or we say line friendly form of energy ► So encoding does the job for us by converting binary data in to a form that can travel on a physical communication link

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Data Communication and Networks

Binary Encoding
► There

contd.

are several encoding methods that uses in different environments
 NRZ - non return to zero encoding  RZ - return to zero encoding

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Data Communication and Networks

Non Return to Zero Encoding
► In

non return to zero encoding we use low voltage level to represent “0” and high voltage level to represent “1” ► But we have some problem with this method ► For example consider long string of “0” s or “1” are to be transmitted, it will not make any changes in the communication link for long time, making it impossible to detect the boundaries of the received bit at the receiver's end
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Data Communication and Networks

Return to Zero Encoding
► In

non return to zero encoding we use

 Low level voltage to represent “1”  High level voltage to represent “0”

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Data Communication and Networks

Manchester Encoding
► ► ► ► ►

802.3 Ethernet uses Manchester encoding method as its line coding method In this encoding system, identifying of each bit boundary is achieved by making a transition in the middle of the bit This will eliminate the problem of long strings of “1”s and “0”s in NRZ 1”s representation is given as level change at the middle of the bit from negative ((-) to positive (+) voltage 0”s representation is given as level change at the middle of the bit from positive (+) to negative ((-) voltage

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Data Communication and Networks

Draw the NRZ, RZ and Manchester encoding for these bit patterns 10010111 01010010 11000101

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Data Communication and Networks

Transmission Media
► Like

a well constructed house a network must be built on a solid foundation ► In this part we are going to discuss the different types of networking media used ► Network media comes under the physical layer of the OSI reference model

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Data Communication and Networks

Transmission Media
►Let’s

contd.

see what kind of LAN media used to connect computers or other peripherals
 Twisted pair
►Shielded

twisted pair ►Unshielded twisted pair

► Coaxial

cables ► Fiber Optics ► Free space

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Data Communication and Networks

Twisted Pair Cables
► Twisting

of two wires made the name “twisted pair cables” ► The advantage of the twisting is, it will cancel out the magnetic fields generated in each wire resulting less effect on the communication medium

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Data Communication and Networks

Shielded Twisted Pair Cables
► Using

twisting we can reduce the electrical noises (cross talk) generated inside the cable ► But we cannot prevent the electro magnetic interferences and radio frequency interferences out side the cable simply by twisting the cable ► To reduce those two interferences it uses metallic shield ► Because of this shielding it has a grater protection from external interferences interferences. . But the biggest disadvantage is it is not easy to handle and more expensive
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Data Communication and Networks

Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables
► This

also has 4 pair of wires but with out any kind of shielding ► Cross talk is reduced due to the twisting of wires ► But susceptible to the electro magnetic waves and radio frequency interferences

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Data Communication and Networks

Twisted Pair Cables
► There

contd.

are two UTP categories, which are important to computer networks
 Category 3 Cables (Cat 3)  Category 5 Cables (Cat 5)

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Data Communication and Networks

Twisted Pair Cables
► Category

contd.

3 Cables (Cat 3)

 consists of two insulated wires lightly twisted together and there are 4 pairs grouped together in a plastic cover

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Data Communication and Networks

Twisted Pair Cables
► Category

contd.

5 Cables (Cat 5)

 This is similar to category 3 but with more twists per centimeter  This will reduce the cross talk better than cat 3, hence better quality signals over a long distance

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Data Communication and Networks

Coaxial Cables
Coaxial cables consist of a hollow outer cylindrical conductor and it is surrounded by a single inner wire conductor ► These two conductors are separated by a plastic insulation ► In the center of the cable there is a single copper wire surrounded by a flexible insulation ► Over this insulation material a woven copper braid or metallic foil acts as the second wire of the cable ► It also acts as a shield for the inner conductor ► This second layer helps to reduce the amount of outside interference ► Outer jacket is covering all these as the out most cover 29

Data Communication and Networks

Coaxial Cables
inner wire conductor

plastic insulation

outer jacket

woven copper braid
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Data Communication and Networks

Coaxial Cables
► For

LANs coaxial cables have several advantages ► It can run for longer distance between network nodes than either STP or UTP cables ► It is less expensive than fiber optics ► Coaxial cables come in a variety of sizes ► Thick coaxial cables and thing coaxial cables ► The more difficult the network media is to install, the more expensive it is to install ► Installation of Coaxial cables are more expensive than twisted pair cables

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Data Communication and Networks

Coaxial Cables and Connectors

Thin Coaxial Cable

Thick Coaxial Cable

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Data Communication and Networks

Fiber Optic Cables
► ►


► ► ► ► ► ►

Fiber optic cable is a networking medium capable of conducting modulated light transmission It is more expensive than other networking media It is not susceptible to electro magnetic or radio frequency interference Capable of higher data rates than the other types of network media The light guiding parts of an optical fiber are called the core and the cladding The core is usually pure glass with a high index of refraction Cladding is a layer of glass or plastic with a low index of refraction surrounds the core glass So that light can be trapped in the fiber core This process is called total internal reflection, and it allows the optical fiber to act like a light pipe, guiding for tremendous distance, even around the world
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Data Communication and Networks

Fiber Optic Cables and Connectors

Multimode

Singlemode

Connectors

Connectors

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Data Communication and Networks

Wireless Media
► ► ►

► ► ► ►

For the mobile users, twisted pair coaxial and fiber are no use For these uses wireless communication is the answer Wireless signals are electromagnetic waves that can travel through the vacuum or outer space and through media, such as the air in our atmosphere Therefore no cable medium is necessary for wireless signals Wireless LANs transmit data through the air using radio or infrared transmission rather than coaxial, twisted pair or fiber optic cables Many vendors sell wireless hubs that can be connected directly into existing Ethernet LANs Although the protocols are slightly different between the wired Ethernet portion and the wireless portion, they are similar enough so that the hub can easily translate between the two

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Data Communication and Networks

Transmission Impairment
► Signals

are form of electro magnetic energy, it will diminish with the distance it travel or we say it will change its original shape due to so many external environmental factors ► These factors or causes making changes to the original shape of the signals are known as transmission impairments ► Due to this reason sending binary pattern will be different than the received binary pattern, introducing transmission errors
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Data Communication and Networks

Transmission Impairment
► Lets

contd.

identify those reasons changing the original signal pattern
    Attenuation Limited band with of the channel Delay distortion Noise

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Data Communication and Networks

Attenuation
► ►

► ► ► ►

Strength of the signal reduces over the distance Let’s say bit “1” is represented by high voltage, when signal is traveling along the way it loses its energy, so that it will not recognize as “1” any longer by the receiver These loses are unavoidable when electrical resistance is present Attenuation happens not only in cupper wire, but also in fiber optics and wireless communication The optical fiber absorbs some of the light energy as the light pulse traveling alone the fiber optics Radio waves and microwaves are absorbed and scattered by the atmosphere
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Data Communication and Networks

Limited Band Width of a Channel
► Number

of frequencies that passes through the channel will be depending on the bandwidth of the channel ► In other words, when the number of Fourier component passes through the channel is limited, then the making of the original shape of the bit pattern using the received sine waves is difficult ► If the available bandwidth of the channel is low then the number of errors that can occur is high
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Data Communication and Networks

Delay Distortion
► Different

Fourier components belong to the same digital signal, are traveling at different speeds ► This speed difference leads to distortion of the signal received at the other end. The amount of distortion increases as the bit rate of the transmitted data increases ► As the bit rate increases some of the frequency components associated with each bit transition are delayed and start to interfere with the frequency components associated with a later bit
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Data Communication and Networks

Noise
► Noise

is external factors that are disturbing the original state ► For example when some one is talking and there is nothing but silence then you can hear very clearly ► But if people start talking in small groups on an arguable point from the speaker then due to the noise generated, you cannot hear the sound clearly ► Some time people are wondering - what is the noise in a picture -, its nothing but some foreign light patches that are totally alien to the picture
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Data Communication and Networks

Noise
► So

contd.

we know now noise in data communication is external disturbance that are changing the signal pattern leading an errors in communication ► Major sources of noise are
 Crosstalk  Impulse noise  Thermal noise
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Data Communication and Networks

Crosstalk
► When

you are calling someone and hear a voice that is totally not a part of you conversation is a good example for crosstalk ► This is happening because of unwanted electrical coupling between adjacent lines ► This coupling results in a signal that is being transmitted in one line being picked up by adjacent lines as a small but finite signal
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Data Communication and Networks

Impulse Noise
► When

we are watching television most of us observe that lightning is disturbing the scene on the screen ► Some times starting of an electrical motor is also doing the same thing on the screen of the television ► These disturbances on the screen are due to the electro magnetic impulses generated in the external environment ► In data communication it also making noises due to the impulses generated by external electro magnetic interferences

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Data Communication and Networks

Thermal Noise
► Both

crosstalk and impulse noise are caused by electrical activities that are external to the transmission line or channel ► But thermal noise is generated internally inside the conductor or channel ► At all temperature above absolute zero all transmission media experience thermal noise due to the thermal agitation of electron associated with each atom in the conductor ► This thermal noise will interfere with the signal that is being transmitted leading an error in the transmission

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Data Communication and Networks

Nyquist Equation
► The

bandwidth of the channel always limits the maximum data rate that can be obtained ► A formula derived by Nyquist for determining the maximum information transfer rate of a noiseless channel, C is given by the expression C = 2W log2 M
► Where

W is the bandwidth of the channel in Hz and M is the number of the levels per signal element
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Data Communication and Networks

Physical Layer Interfaces
► Physical

layer interfacing deals with the setting up of a communication environment between hosts using wire lines ► How one host should communicate with other host and how should the wires must connect is concerned in physical layer interfacing
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Data Communication and Networks

RS/EIA 232 Interface
► RS

232 interface is the standard interface for communicating data terminal equipment to data circuit terminating equipment ► This will enable manufacturers of different types of equipments to use the transmission facilities of the switched telephone network

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Data Communication and Networks

X.21 Interface
► X.21

interface cable is used in synchronous transmission ► X.21 is international standard to provide an interface with X.25 packet switching networks ► The X.21 interface has been defined for interfacing DTE to the DCE of a public data network ► The X.21 interface is also used as the termination interface for digital leased circuit of n X 64 kbps
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Data Communication and Networks

End

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