BENDING STIFFNESS OF PAPER AND PAPERBOARD Introduction A force applied parallel to the axis of a paper strip is called a tensile

force; it elongates the strip. A force applied perpendicular to the plane of the strip is called a bending force; it bends the strip, see Figure 1. the material to such a bending force. The bending stiffness of paper and paperboard characterizes the resistance of Accordingly, to measure bending "n Figure 1, the ill ha!e large stiffness one typically subjects a strip of the material to a kno n bending force and obser!es the resulting bending deformation. $ith a gi!en bending force, a paper of lo applied bending force produces a displacement δ of the strip#s upper edge. bending stiffness δ , and a paper of high bending stiffness a small δ . The paper strip in Figure % bends under its o n eight, an alternati!e arrangement that can also be used to estimate the bending stiffness. &any different instruments ha!e been de!ised to measure the bending stiffness of paper and paperboard. $e ill encounter t o additional schemes for measuring bending stiffness further belo .

5 − 11

but also in the actual )uantity measured.. *etails follo farther belo Significance (ong ago. of a paper strip. gi!en by idth .breadth.. They differ not only ill see. / is 0oung1s modulus of the paper. A closely related )uantity is the specific flexural 5 − 1% . here b is the rigidity. scientists ha!e disco!ered that the best measure of bending stiffness of a material is a )uantity generally called +flexural rigidity. these t o instruments e!aluate bending stiffness in completely ith respect to the measurement scheme employed.The t o instruments probably most idely used in determining the e bending stiffness of paper and paperboard are introduced here' the Taber bending stiffness tester and the (homargy bending stiffness tester. As different ays. and t is the caliper. "t has a sound physical basis and is related to more fundamental )uantities as follo s' under +Tests.

4apers of the same thickness are stiffer beaten stock than hen made from highly hen made from lightly beaten stock. typing papers."t is the flexural rigidity per unit sample. makes for stiffer paper. "t is this increase in / that according to e)uations -1. A certain amount of 5 − 13 Fillers and loading materials. As e shall see belo . "ncreased moisture content also lo ers bending stiffness because it lo ers /. Although E generally drops. the addition of starch. The addition of ground ood to a chemical pulp is !ery effecti!e in raising the bending stiffness of papers of a gi!en basis eight. and playing here the paper must stand upright during use. *oubling the caliper means an eightfold increase in bending stiffness. and -%. 4ulps high in hemicellulose content make stiffer paper because they ha!e higher /. and other dry5strength agents increases bending stiffness. 6tiffness is the most important property in folding box boards since the utility of the box depends upon its resistance to bulging cards. tending to lo er the bending stiffness. generally decrease bending stiffness . This is the main reason paperboard is so much stiffer than paper. on the other hand. sodium silicate. the (homargy bending stiffness tester directly measures the specific flexural rigidity of a 2otice that caliper has a !ery strong effect on bending stiffness. hen filled. entering both e)uations -1. and -%. For the same reason. idth. this effect is o!ercompensated by an increase in bulk and therefore thickness. as t 3. This property is also important in index bristols. because they lo er /. This is because hy thick paper from highly beaten stock has higher density and therefore greater 0oung#s modulus /.

This load causes a bending moment that !aries along the paper strip. to eling. 6tiffness is undesirable in some papers such as tissues. 4lasticizers are added to glassine to lo er the stiffness papers are often pebbled or embossed to reduce the stiffness. This bending moment is measured under an arbitrary 5 − 18 . here it is a factor in the handle or feel 6tiffness is one of the most significant properties of liner board. fixed to the pendulum of the instrument and rotatable here the paper exits the clamp. e focus To see clearly "t is attention on the paper specimen and ignore most of the mechanical parts of the apparatus. The roller clamp straight line connecting the t o clamps. grips the specimen "n a test. hat is being measured by the instrument. and the greater the resistance of the container to loading or crushing forces. The top clamp.stiffness is desirable in bond papers of the paper. and labels. particularly useful ith paperboard. sample is forced to bend by rotating the upper clamp 17 o 3. The higher the stiffness the more rigid is the container made from the board. The )uantity actually measured in the test is the bending moment at the center of rotation of the upper clamp. this is sho n on the right of Figure ill exert an unkno n load 4 on the sample. the The bottom clamp consists of t o rollers that must not grip the ith respect to the sample but be left slightly open to permit free slippage. hile other Tests First Method: Taber Stiffness Test The Taber instrument allo s one to determine only an empirical measure of bending stiffness. it does not measure flexural rigidity. At the left of Figure 3 is sho n ho around the point firmly. the sample is clamped.

parallel to.. precisely.3. The rotatable dri%ing dis# is concentrically mounted in front of the 5 − 17 . and t o identical scales. ith the circular sca$e of stiffness The zero point of the scale is at the top.7 in long. The 1.set of conditions and in this sense represents an empirical measure of bending stiffness. &ethod of Test' ! 1. *escription of the Taber instrument and definition of terms The instrument rests on three stand rods of adjustable length. range up to 1::.7 in idth is critical and should be cut the machine direction.%..7: in ide by %. 1. one to the left and one to the right. -"t is possible although fairly difficult to calculate the specific flexural rigidity from the measured Taber stiffness and !ice !ersa. the length is not critical. Test 6pecimens' 9ut at least fi!e test specimens free from scores or blemishes 1. and at right angles to.1. 2otice the large stationar" dis# units! 1.

. $hen you push the operating s itch to the left side.7. The &endu$u( is mounted in front of the dri!ing disk. $hen you no turn the roller unit upside do n. the dri!ing disk 2otice that the dri!ing disk stops mo!ing immediately you release the operating s itch. turn the adjustment knob fully clock ise.=. 1. a fine line etched into the upper end of the Testing under standard conditions means that the roller unit 5 − 1< . bottom gauge be bent out of the ill indeed >nder no circumstances should the sliding ay of the roller by brute force? ith ill notice that they are different in that only one of the t o bears the s$iding Also notice the &endu$u( (ar#. a roller unit to ards you. The o&erating s'itch is the long.. This pin fits into the hole belo the large studs on the dri!ing disk. pendulum. the dri!ing disk rotates counterclock ise..7o. and the u&&er s&eci(en c$a(&) all fixed to the pendulum. the $o'er stud. marks at the top of the dri!ing disk.@. "n addition.stationary disk. each of the roller units has a projecting pin at the rear.8. The pendulum rotates on a lo 5friction bearing that is located in the center of the dri!ing disk. corresponding to :o. 1. The ro$$er c$a(& is mounted on the dri!ing disk and functions as the $o'er s&eci(en c$a(&. 1. 2otice the +degree deflection.<. "f you pull is held by a stud on the dri!ing disk. and 17o deflection. . rotates clock ise. To enable the sliding bottom gauge to slide freely up and do n past the roller. $hen you pull both ro$$er units off the dri!ing disk. 2otice the u&&er stud. the sliding bottom gauge slide past the roller. 1. 1. black plastic s itch located belo the t o disks and pointing do n ard. you botto( gauge. and you can obser!e that it units that can be independently pulled off the dri!ing disk. hen you push the operating s itch to the right side. it The roller clamp consists of t o ro$$er ill slide out. 1.

attached to the lo er stud on the pendulum to extend the range of the instrument so that relati!ely stiff paper and board can be tested... respecti!ely. depending on its Taber stiffness. there are a total of eight testing conditions. The ten5 unit compensator is used only for sensiti!e conditions -see ith the roller units mounted up ard 1. 1. +3::: units.7 o or 17o. the effecti!e sample length bet een clamps is then 7 cm. Ai!en that the roller units can be either up or do n.1:. that one of the fi!e a!ailable range eights can be used or none at all. the range of Taber stiffness !alues appropriate ith each of the eight testing conditions is listed in column % of Table 1. these are listed in Table 1.1%.. +1::: units.1:. the rollers must be mounted do n ard for standard testing conditions -see 1.11. . 6econd. the 'eights inscribed +7:: units. there is a series of range These range eights are ith the sliding bottom gauge is mounted on the left . First. the small grey box contains the ten*unit co(&ensator . deflection angle can be either . 1.ro$$ers do'n... 1.. +%::: units.ro$$ers u&. 5 − 1. Accordingly.. and that the For each sample. $hen using these range eights.. it is attached to the upper stud on the pendulum to extend the range of the instrument so that relati!ely limp paper can be tested.. 1.. Find the small grey container usually kept near the instrument.@. and +7::: units. contains t o types of special "t eights..13. one of these testing conditions is optimal.the sliding bot5tom gauge is mounted on the right .. 2e!er use the ten5unit eight is hen a range compensator under standard conditions or being used. Testing under sensiti%e conditions means that the roller unit effecti!e sample length bet een clamps is then 1 cm.

&ake sure the line along aligned hich ja s meet is perfectly ith the central mark scribed on the pendulum. !alues The /ach eight orks test conditions a!ailable ith the Taber ell o!er the limited range of Taber stiffness gi!en in column %. 9lose the ja s of the upper clamp on the pendulum by adjusting the clamp scre s.:: 17.:: 17. cm : 5 1: 1: 5 1:: 7: 5 7:: 1:: 5 1::: %:: 5 %::: 3:: 5 3::: 7:: 5 7::: 1::: 5 1:. %. Dy pushing the operating s itch.:: 17.:: 17.1 1 7 1: %: 3: 7: 1:: 9 "# ti% ie! 1 Test Condition No. That is to say.1.%.TAB+E : instrument. %.8. gf×cm 3 Test . 1 % 3 8 7 < .3. line up the zero mark on the dri!ing disk the scale on the stationary disk.7: :.::: 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 >p *o n *o n *o n *o n *o n *o n *o n 1B × 1B 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C : : 7:: 1::: %::: 3::: 7::: 7::: >se : : : : : : : 4 Ro e!s ed 5 $%ecimen $i&e.! %. (e!el the instrument by adjusting the tips of the t o front stand rods 5 − 1= . ith the zero mark of %. set the dri!ing disk to zero.:: . 4reparing the instrument for testing &ake sure the tip of the rear stand rod is scre ed on tight. = Length "o#nt- 'eigh Com%en- .. inch 6 Range t 7 1( )nit sato! 8 *ng e of +ef ection 17.:: 17.:: 17. 2 Test Range.

. 3. listed in ro 3. En the head of each of the adjustment knobs is scribed a black line. 4reliminary test of a ne First sample e decide ith the zero mark on the in perfect balance. ith the specimen resting lightly on the ith the central sliding bottom gauge.%. The sliding bottom gauge must al ays be belo . This procedure ensures not only constant clearance in all tests but also enough clearance so the specimen can slide bet een the rollers. 4ush the operating s itch. &o!e the left hand ithout roller to ard the specimen until the roller contacts it contact deflecting the pendulum.3.7. condition is not satisfied.. 2ext. 3. As you center the specimen in the upper clamp by adjusting the clamp scre s. using Table 1. 9ut a specimen to size 1B in × %C in. 3. "nsert your test strip bet een the ja s of the upper clamp and the rollers of the roller clamp. your measurements are meaningless. The and should be cut precisely. This first &re$i(inar" test is done under standard conditions. idth of 1B in is critical sample.1. of your specimen. not abo!e. center the specimen bet een the rollers. This sets the dri!ing disk in counterclock ise rotation. 3. and the specimen is 5 − 1@ "f this . "f you ish to test stiffness in the machine direction -&*. see 1. &ount the rollers do n for standard conditions. the rollers.8. to the left side.<. then &* must be parallel to the length direction -%C in. for only then can conditions for this sample.8. The pendulum is no -! 3.so that the pendulum mark is directly in line dri!ing disk. e must obtain a rough estimate of the Taber stiffness of our hat are the optimum test % of Table 1. Ebser!e the position of this line on the right hand adjustment knob and then back off F turn.@. see 1. make sure it lines up mark on the pendulum. Then bring the right hand roller into light ith the specimen.

2otice . "f the result of your preliminary test falls in the range : to 1: gf×cm. be up and for the ten unit compensator to be attached to the upper 2otice that your ne these sensiti!e conditions must be multiplied by :. Enly t o more aspects re)uire comment. Take the a!erage of your left hand and your right hand readings. These conditions are gi!en in the second ro that the multiplier is 1 in this case. 8. and you can accept this result as final.deflected. This calls for the rollers to result obtained under conditions gi!en in the first ro stud on the pendulum. The first is that the ranges in the second column of Table 1 o!erlap to some 5 − %: 3 of Table 1 do the final test ith the 7:: unit eight attached to the lo er stud on the pendulum. Gepeat this procedure on the right hand side.! 8.1.3. 3. The end point is indicated 1. i. see These t'o ith the 17o mark on the dri!ing disk.7. "f the result of your preliminary test falls in the range 7: to 7:: g f×cm. "n this case the of Table 1. the (u$ti&$ier gi!en in the eighth and last column of Table 1. Final test 9onsult Table 1. and the remainder of Table 1 is self5explanatory. is the Taber stiffness of your sample in units of gf×cm. (ar#s) for(ing one $ine) &oint to "our reading on the sca$e . is aligned hen the pendulum mark.. the of Table 1. This. then according to ro multiplier is 7. 8.1. the final result of your pre5liminary test. obtaining your right hand reading. do the final test under sensiti!e conditions. then by lucky coincidence the standard conditions employed in your preliminary test are optimal. .. 8.8.%. 6imilar remarks apply to other ranges. "f the result of your preliminary test falls in the range 1: to 1:: gf×cm.e.. This is your left hand reading.

7 o. bending stiffness $e sa earlier that this is the only measure of ith a sound physical basis... hen deflected 17 o. is 5 − %1 . Geport' Geport the a!erage Taber bending stiffness !alues in g f×cm for your paper and paperboard samples in the machine direction and the cross direction. use the more sensiti!e conditions. form 4T5%. "n ithin the range 7: to 7:: g f×cm -third ro such a case..7 degrees re)uires a multiplier t ice as great as that at 17o. this falls and also ithin the range 1: to 1:: -second ro . for example. The free length of strip projecting abo!e the clamp undergo forced !ibration. of Table 1. be certain to indicate clearly the test conditions used. Geference TA44" T 8=@ Second Method: +ho(arg" Bending Stiffness Tester As has already been pointed out. in this case the conditions associated )uestion is or checks ith the range 1: to 1:: g f×cm. this instrument measures the specific flexural rigidity.. "n your +Gecord of Test *ata.extent. This may be necessary a deflection angle of . that your preliminary test ga!e a Taber stiffness of <: gf×cm. 6uppose. Also report @7H confidence inter!als. a condition !isually recognizable as maximum !ibrational amplitude of the strip#s free end. The second hen to change from the standard deflection angle of 17 o ith relati!ely thick board that cracks of Table 1. As indicated in the last ro to . called resonance length. ill A strip of paper or paperboard is held !ertically in a clamp !ibrating at a fixed fre)uency. This free length is adjusted for resonance. The free length at resonance.

7 (. The specific flexural rigidity is calculated from this resonance length and the kno n basis eight. a se)uence of !ibrational patterns ill be obser!ed. $hereas the Taber instrument is limited in application to fairly stiff paper and paperboard. do n 4atterns of Jibration' (et l be the free length of strip projecting abo!e the !ibrating clamp and ( the resonance length. and a fe typical ith patterns are sho n in Figure 8. ith tissue paper.determined. The !ibration l _ %. the (homargy stiffness tester can co!er a much ider range of stiffness !alues and is effecti!e e!en to basis eights of about %7 gIm %. hen l is either lo ered or !ibration that should be utilized. As l is !aried in relation to (. starting the amplitude of !ibration decreases sharply raised. a!oid the irrele!ant o!ertone !ibration 5 − %% . Figure 8 also indicates that. ith l K ( is the fundamental ith the fundamental l K (.

it is important that the ends of the strip are cut cleanly and at a right angle to their length. Enly extremely stiff board $hereas the specimen length is not critical. the upper !ibrating clamp and the lo er Lpulling clampL. of course. &ethod of Test' Figure 7 is a schematic representation of the hich the test strip is held by the instrument and indicates the manner in Mold the strip !ibrating clamp t o clamps. Actually. direction and cross5machine direction.Test 6pecimens' depend on sample 9ut 7 test strips 17 mm ide for both machine idth be uniform. the test results do not idth but it is essential that the The strip length re)uired for a measurement depends on the specific flexural rigidity of the specimen and must. "nsert the strip. making sure it is as nearly !ertical as possible. Also. exceed the resonance length. ith one hand and open the spring5loaded ja s of the ith the other hand. A length of %: cm should be ade)uate for most grades. ill ha!e a resonance length greater than %: cm. the strip 5 − %3 .

Figure 7' 6chematic dra ing of the (homargy tester ith sample. .

(. and t o inner bright lines due to the stroboscopic light. *etermine the resonance length of fi!e specimens and find the a!erage in mm. and the basis . merge As you carefully shorten the length of the ill mo!e out ard and suddenly ay to pinpoint !ibrating strip. Turn on the instrument unit. To determine the >se the resonance length more precisely. Gead the resonance length from the scale in mm. Ebtain an estimate of the resonance length at the point of maximum amplitude in the fundamental mode. &ake the free strip length slightly longer than the estimated resonance length. 9alculation of the 6pecific Flexural Gigidity' 9alculate the specific eight. ith the back plate of the clamp. Ebser!e the !ibrating strip edge5on from the front and notice the different !ibrational patterns discussed earlier. $ m. flexural rigidity from the resonance length. 6lo ly pull the strip do n ard. This is the most precise resonance. Epen the ja s of the pulling clamp. Epen the !ibrating clamp and raise the strip by means of the knurled knob. thereby continuously shortening the strip#s free end. 9lose the !ibrating clamp.should be as far back in the clamp as possible. lo er the strip until it is exactly le!el scale. 9arefully adjust the zero of the !ernier scale to the zero of the stationary ith the t o outer lines. proceed as follo s. horizontally mounted lens to focus the stroboscopic light coming from the top of the instrument onto the top edge of the !ibrating paper strip and use the second lens for obser!ation. the t o bright inner lines ith the toggle s itch at the bottom of the ith the top surface of the !ibrating clamp. and tighten the clamp. 0ou should see four lines' t o outer lines corresponding to the extreme points of !ibration. making contact of the strip. insert the lo er end $ith the knurled knob at the right side of the apparatus.

suppose you found that (K8.37 cm and $K7: gIm %. the con!ersion factor % ×1:5 @ -units omitted. specific flexural rigidity K %×1: 5 @ × 83. (.37= m2×m 2otice that ( Geport' as inserted not in cm as gi!en but in mm as re)uired.. For example.according to the e)uation "n e)uation -3. $ m.. is inserted in mm and the basis eight. assures that the specific flexural rigidity is obtained in m2×m pro!ided the resonance length. confidence inter!als. Geport the mean specific flexural rigidity in m2 ×m for the Also report @7H machine direction and the cross5machine direction. in gIm %. Geference TA44" T 737 -2ote' "n TA44" 6tandard T 737. Then.78 × 7: m2×m K :. the area moment of inertia is incorrectly referred to as Langular impulseL. .