# BENDING STIFFNESS OF PAPER AND PAPERBOARD Introduction A force applied parallel to the axis of a paper strip is called a tensile

force; it elongates the strip. A force applied perpendicular to the plane of the strip is called a bending force; it bends the strip, see Figure 1. the material to such a bending force. The bending stiffness of paper and paperboard characterizes the resistance of Accordingly, to measure bending "n Figure 1, the ill ha!e large stiffness one typically subjects a strip of the material to a kno n bending force and obser!es the resulting bending deformation. \$ith a gi!en bending force, a paper of lo applied bending force produces a displacement δ of the strip#s upper edge. bending stiffness δ , and a paper of high bending stiffness a small δ . The paper strip in Figure % bends under its o n eight, an alternati!e arrangement that can also be used to estimate the bending stiffness. &any different instruments ha!e been de!ised to measure the bending stiffness of paper and paperboard. \$e ill encounter t o additional schemes for measuring bending stiffness further belo .

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but also in the actual )uantity measured.. *etails follo farther belo Significance (ong ago. of a paper strip. gi!en by idth .breadth.. They differ not only ill see. / is 0oung1s modulus of the paper. A closely related )uantity is the specific flexural 5 − 1% . here b is the rigidity. scientists ha!e disco!ered that the best measure of bending stiffness of a material is a )uantity generally called +flexural rigidity. these t o instruments e!aluate bending stiffness in completely ith respect to the measurement scheme employed.The t o instruments probably most idely used in determining the e bending stiffness of paper and paperboard are introduced here' the Taber bending stiffness tester and the (homargy bending stiffness tester. As different ays. and t is the caliper. "t has a sound physical basis and is related to more fundamental )uantities as follo s' under +Tests.

4apers of the same thickness are stiffer beaten stock than hen made from highly hen made from lightly beaten stock. typing papers."t is the flexural rigidity per unit sample. makes for stiffer paper. "t is this increase in / that according to e)uations -1. A certain amount of 5 − 13 Fillers and loading materials. As e shall see belo . "ncreased moisture content also lo ers bending stiffness because it lo ers /. Although E generally drops. the addition of starch. The addition of ground ood to a chemical pulp is !ery effecti!e in raising the bending stiffness of papers of a gi!en basis eight. and playing here the paper must stand upright during use. *oubling the caliper means an eightfold increase in bending stiffness. and -%. 4ulps high in hemicellulose content make stiffer paper because they ha!e higher /. and other dry5strength agents increases bending stiffness. 6tiffness is the most important property in folding box boards since the utility of the box depends upon its resistance to bulging cards. tending to lo er the bending stiffness. generally decrease bending stiffness . This is the main reason paperboard is so much stiffer than paper. on the other hand. sodium silicate. the (homargy bending stiffness tester directly measures the specific flexural rigidity of a 2otice that caliper has a !ery strong effect on bending stiffness. hen filled. entering both e)uations -1. and -%. For the same reason. idth. this effect is o!ercompensated by an increase in bulk and therefore thickness. as t 3. This property is also important in index bristols. because they lo er /. This is because hy thick paper from highly beaten stock has higher density and therefore greater 0oung#s modulus /.

This load causes a bending moment that !aries along the paper strip. to eling. 6tiffness is undesirable in some papers such as tissues. 4lasticizers are added to glassine to lo er the stiffness papers are often pebbled or embossed to reduce the stiffness. This bending moment is measured under an arbitrary 5 − 18 . here it is a factor in the handle or feel 6tiffness is one of the most significant properties of liner board. fixed to the pendulum of the instrument and rotatable here the paper exits the clamp. e focus To see clearly "t is attention on the paper specimen and ignore most of the mechanical parts of the apparatus. The roller clamp straight line connecting the t o clamps. grips the specimen "n a test. hat is being measured by the instrument. and the greater the resistance of the container to loading or crushing forces. The top clamp.stiffness is desirable in bond papers of the paper. and labels. particularly useful ith paperboard. sample is forced to bend by rotating the upper clamp 17 o 3. The higher the stiffness the more rigid is the container made from the board. The )uantity actually measured in the test is the bending moment at the center of rotation of the upper clamp. this is sho n on the right of Figure ill exert an unkno n load 4 on the sample. the The bottom clamp consists of t o rollers that must not grip the ith respect to the sample but be left slightly open to permit free slippage. hile other Tests First Method: Taber Stiffness Test The Taber instrument allo s one to determine only an empirical measure of bending stiffness. it does not measure flexural rigidity. At the left of Figure 3 is sho n ho around the point firmly. the sample is clamped.

parallel to.. precisely.3. The rotatable dri%ing dis# is concentrically mounted in front of the 5 − 17 . and t o identical scales. ith the circular sca\$e of stiffness The zero point of the scale is at the top.7 in long. The 1.set of conditions and in this sense represents an empirical measure of bending stiffness. &ethod of Test' ! 1. *escription of the Taber instrument and definition of terms The instrument rests on three stand rods of adjustable length. range up to 1::.7 in idth is critical and should be cut the machine direction.%..7: in ide by %. 1. one to the left and one to the right. -"t is possible although fairly difficult to calculate the specific flexural rigidity from the measured Taber stiffness and !ice !ersa. the length is not critical. Test 6pecimens' 9ut at least fi!e test specimens free from scores or blemishes 1. and at right angles to.1. 2otice the large stationar" dis# units! 1.

. \$hen you push the operating s itch to the left side.7. The &endu\$u( is mounted in front of the dri!ing disk. \$hen you no turn the roller unit upside do n. the dri!ing disk 2otice that the dri!ing disk stops mo!ing immediately you release the operating s itch. turn the adjustment knob fully clock ise.=. 1. a fine line etched into the upper end of the Testing under standard conditions means that the roller unit 5 − 1< . bottom gauge be bent out of the ill indeed >nder no circumstances should the sliding ay of the roller by brute force? ith ill notice that they are different in that only one of the t o bears the s\$iding Also notice the &endu\$u( (ar#. a roller unit to ards you. The o&erating s'itch is the long.. This pin fits into the hole belo the large studs on the dri!ing disk. pendulum. the dri!ing disk rotates counterclock ise..7o. and the u&&er s&eci(en c\$a(&) all fixed to the pendulum. the \$o'er stud. marks at the top of the dri!ing disk.@. "n addition.stationary disk. each of the roller units has a projecting pin at the rear.8. The pendulum rotates on a lo 5friction bearing that is located in the center of the dri!ing disk. corresponding to :o. 1. The ro\$\$er c\$a(& is mounted on the dri!ing disk and functions as the \$o'er s&eci(en c\$a(&. 1. 2otice the +degree deflection.<. "f you pull is held by a stud on the dri!ing disk. and 17o deflection. . rotates clock ise. To enable the sliding bottom gauge to slide freely up and do n past the roller. \$hen you pull both ro\$\$er units off the dri!ing disk. 2otice the u&&er stud. the sliding bottom gauge slide past the roller. 1. 1. black plastic s itch located belo the t o disks and pointing do n ard. you botto( gauge. and you can obser!e that it units that can be independently pulled off the dri!ing disk. hen you push the operating s itch to the right side. it The roller clamp consists of t o ro\$\$er ill slide out. 1.

attached to the lo er stud on the pendulum to extend the range of the instrument so that relati!ely stiff paper and board can be tested... respecti!ely. depending on its Taber stiffness. there are a total of eight testing conditions. The ten5 unit compensator is used only for sensiti!e conditions -see ith the roller units mounted up ard 1. 1. +3::: units.7 o or 17o. the effecti!e sample length bet een clamps is then 7 cm. Ai!en that the roller units can be either up or do n.1:. that one of the fi!e a!ailable range eights can be used or none at all. the range of Taber stiffness !alues appropriate ith each of the eight testing conditions is listed in column % of Table 1. these are listed in Table 1.1%.. +1::: units.1:. the rollers must be mounted do n ard for standard testing conditions -see 1.11. . 6econd. the 'eights inscribed +7:: units. there is a series of range These range eights are ith the sliding bottom gauge is mounted on the left . First. the small grey box contains the ten*unit co(&ensator . deflection angle can be either . 1.ro\$\$ers do'n... 1.. +%::: units.ro\$\$ers u&. 5 − 1. Accordingly.. and that the For each sample. \$hen using these range eights.. it is attached to the upper stud on the pendulum to extend the range of the instrument so that relati!ely limp paper can be tested.. 1.. Find the small grey container usually kept near the instrument.@. and +7::: units. contains t o types of special "t eights..13. one of these testing conditions is optimal.the sliding bot5tom gauge is mounted on the right .. 2e!er use the ten5unit eight is hen a range compensator under standard conditions or being used. Testing under sensiti%e conditions means that the roller unit effecti!e sample length bet een clamps is then 1 cm.

&ake sure the line along aligned hich ja s meet is perfectly ith the central mark scribed on the pendulum. !alues The /ach eight orks test conditions a!ailable ith the Taber ell o!er the limited range of Taber stiffness gi!en in column %. 9lose the ja s of the upper clamp on the pendulum by adjusting the clamp scre s.:: 17.:: 17. cm : 5 1: 1: 5 1:: 7: 5 7:: 1:: 5 1::: %:: 5 %::: 3:: 5 3::: 7:: 5 7::: 1::: 5 1:. %. Dy pushing the operating s itch.:: 17.:: 17.1 1 7 1: %: 3: 7: 1:: 9 "# ti% ie! 1 Test Condition No. That is to say.1.%.TAB+E : instrument. %.8. gf×cm 3 Test . 1 % 3 8 7 < .3. line up the zero mark on the dri!ing disk the scale on the stationary disk.7: :.::: 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 >p *o n *o n *o n *o n *o n *o n *o n 1B × 1B 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C 1B × %C : : 7:: 1::: %::: 3::: 7::: 7::: >se : : : : : : : 4 Ro e!s ed 5 \$%ecimen \$i&e.! %. (e!el the instrument by adjusting the tips of the t o front stand rods 5 − 1= . ith the zero mark of %. set the dri!ing disk to zero.:: . 4reparing the instrument for testing &ake sure the tip of the rear stand rod is scre ed on tight. = Length "o#nt- 'eigh Com%en- .. inch 6 Range t 7 1( )nit sato! 8 *ng e of +ef ection 17.:: 17.:: 17. 2 Test Range.

. 3. listed in ro 3. En the head of each of the adjustment knobs is scribed a black line. 4reliminary test of a ne First sample e decide ith the zero mark on the in perfect balance. ith the specimen resting lightly on the ith the central sliding bottom gauge.%. The sliding bottom gauge must al ays be belo . This procedure ensures not only constant clearance in all tests but also enough clearance so the specimen can slide bet een the rollers. 4ush the operating s itch. &o!e the left hand ithout roller to ard the specimen until the roller contacts it contact deflecting the pendulum.3.7. condition is not satisfied.. 2ext. 3. As you center the specimen in the upper clamp by adjusting the clamp scre s. using Table 1. 9ut a specimen to size 1B in × %C in. 3. "nsert your test strip bet een the ja s of the upper clamp and the rollers of the roller clamp. your measurements are meaningless. The and should be cut precisely. This first &re\$i(inar" test is done under standard conditions. idth of 1B in is critical sample.1. of your specimen. not abo!e. center the specimen bet een the rollers. This sets the dri!ing disk in counterclock ise rotation. 3. and the specimen is 5 − 1@ "f this . "f you ish to test stiffness in the machine direction -&*. see 1. &ount the rollers do n for standard conditions. the rollers.8. to the left side.<. then &* must be parallel to the length direction -%C in. for only then can conditions for this sample.8. The pendulum is no -! 3.so that the pendulum mark is directly in line dri!ing disk. e must obtain a rough estimate of the Taber stiffness of our hat are the optimum test % of Table 1. Ebser!e the position of this line on the right hand adjustment knob and then back off F turn.@. see 1. make sure it lines up mark on the pendulum. Then bring the right hand roller into light ith the specimen.