Student Manual

Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving

Lesson 7

BEGIN PILE DRIVING

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Version 1.0- 06/2012

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Student Manual

Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving

Learning Outcomes
• Monitor and verify proper marking of the piles per contract documents and standards • Verify & document contractor compliance with applicable tolerances • Monitor, verify and document pile driving operations • Identify applicable 455 specifications
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Version 1.0- 06/2012

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Student Manual

Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving

Inspector’s Role

• Verify Contractor Compliance with Project Plans and Specifications • Monitor and Maintain Record of Driving • Determine When to Stop Driving

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As discussed earlier, the Inspector has numerous responsibilities throughout the pile driving operations. During this phase of pile driving, the Inspector needs to verify compliance with the project Plans and Specifications for pile plan location, axial alignment and record the driving event. During the driving of the pile, there are specific duties, such as hammer and pile cushion inspection, together with the recording of the operation, blows, stroke height/pressure, etc.

Version 1.0- 06/2012

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Version 1.0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Inspector’s Checklist 7-4 A full size checklist is at the end of this lesson and in the Appendices.06/2012 7-4 .

submit calculations signed and sealed by a Specialty Engineer to the Engineer that verify the amount of dead load deflection prior to moving any piles.06/2012 7-5 . The Contractor may move battered piles laterally to overcome the dead load deflections caused by the pile’s weight. do not move the piles laterally to force them to be within the specified tolerances. 7-5 Version 1.15. When this is necessary.1 General: Meet the tolerances described in this Subarticle to the piles that are free standing without lateral restraint (after the template is removed).Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. After the piles are driven.0.15 Allowable Driving Tolerances 455-5.

455-5. 7-6 Version 1.2 Position: Ensure that the final position of the pile head at cut-off elevation is no more than 3 inches laterally in the X or Y coordinate from the plan position indicated in the plans.15.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.15 Allowable Driving Tolerances 455-5.0.06/2012 7-6 .3 Axial Alignment: Ensure that the axial alignment of the driven piles does not deviate by more than 1/4 in/ft from the vertical or batter line indicated in the plans.15.

the elevation shown in the plans.15.15 Allowable Driving Tolerances 455-5. or more than 4 inches below.0. 7-7 Version 1.06/2012 7-7 .0”/-2. Do not embed the pile less than 6 inches below the elevation shown in the plans unless a minimum cap or footing embedment is shown.4 Elevation: Ensure that the final elevation of the pile head is no more than 1 1/2 inches above. cut off piles at the elevation shown on the plans to a tolerance of +0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. For fender piles.0” using sawing or other means as approved by the Engineer to provide a smooth level cut.

0.2 Plan Maximum Allowable Tolerance 3” In Any One Direction As Built Pile Location Plan Pile Location Maximum Allowable Tolerance 3” In Any One Direction 7-8 Version 1.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.15.06/2012 7-8 .

0’ 7-9 Version 1.06/2012 7-9 .0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.3 Axial Alignment ¼” 1.15.

0.06/2012 7-10 . Builders Square positioned level on reference Reference 4’ 1” 7-10 Version 1.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Checking Axial Alignment Pile 4 ft.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.0.4 Elevation No more than 1 ½” above Cutoff Elevation Cutoff Elevation No more than 4” below Cutoff Elevation 7-11 Version 1.15.06/2012 7-11 .

Version 1.1.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: 12 inch square piles 15 to 17 inches 14 inch square piles 18 to 20 inches 18 inch square piles 22 to 26 inches 20 inch square piles 24 to 29 inches 24 inch square piles 30 to 34 inches 30 inch square piles 36 to 43 inches The Contractor is not paid for Predrilled Holes. contact the PA and document the depth of hole predrilled. However.06/2012 7-12 . this is not permitted. if 6 foot predrilled holes were used in the Test pile program and the Contractor wants to do 20 foot predrilled holes during production.0..Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. 7-12 455-5. These are up to 10 ft or 20 % of the pile length (whichever is greater) starter holes. new or existing.1.1 Site Preparation 455-5.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: Predrilled pile holes are either starter holes to the depth described in this section or holes drilled through embankment/fill material down to the natural ground surface. The Inspector should inform the Contractor it is not permitted. Therefore. When using concrete or other high displacement piles. drill pile holes through fill. Use the range of drill diameters listed below for square concrete piles…. When using low displacement steel piling such as structural shapes. to at least the elevation of the natural ground surface. it is important that the Inspector recognize that whatever depth of predrilled hole was used in the Test Pile program is the depth used in production piles. drive them through the compacted fill without the necessity of drilling holes through the fill except when the requirements for predrilling are shown in the plans.

. to at least the elevation of the natural ground surface….When using concrete or other high displacement piles. the Contractor may initially predrill holes to a depth up to 10 feet or 20% of the pile length whichever is greater.0. new or existing.06/2012 7-13 . … In the setting of permanent and test piling.1. except that. predrill the holes to the elevation of the natural ground surface… Version 1. drill pile holes through fill.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Predrilling through Fill Natural Ground is defined as “ the ground surface prior to any roadway construction” Predrilled Hole Existing Embankment Natural Ground Surface 7-13 455-5. where installing piles in compacted fill.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: Predrilled pile holes are either starter holes to the depth described in this section or holes drilled through embankment/fill material down to the natural ground surface. …..

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. Accurately drill the pile holes with the hole centered over the plan location of the piling.0.1 Site Preparation 455-5. Maintain the location and vertical alignment within the tolerances allowed for the piling. 7-14 Version 1.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: (Continued) …For other pile sizes.1. use the diameter of the drills shown in the plans or approved by the Engineer.06/2012 7-14 .

debris.1 with clean A-3 sand or sand meeting the requirements of 902-3. predrill hole diameters approximately 2 inches larger than the largest dimension across the pile cross-section.3….06/2012 7-15 .) materials that may damage the pile during installation.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: (Continued) ….9.1. For predrilled holes required through rock or other hard (i. 7-15 Version 1.1 Site Preparation 455-5.0. Fill the annular space around the piles as described in 455-5. obstructions.e. etc.

06/2012 7-16 . the Contractor may predrill holes to greater depths to minimize the effects of vibrations on existing structures adjacent to the work and/or for other reasons the Contractor proposes….1. the bottom of a Pre-drilled hole is NOT the bottom of an “Excavation Version 1. predrill the holes to the elevation of the natural ground surface.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.. where installing piles in compacted fill. In the setting of permanent and test piling.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: (Continued) …. except that.0. With prior written authorization from the Engineer.1 Site Preparation 455-5. the Contractor may initially predrill holes to a depth up to 10 feet or 20% of the pile length whichever is greater. 7-16 Remember.

Perform such work the Engineer allows but does not require at no expense to the Department.1 Site Preparation 455-5. 7-17 Version 1.0. the Department will pay for such work as Preformed Pile Holes as described in 455-5.1 Predrilling of Pile Holes: (Continued) ….9.06/2012 7-17 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. When the Engineer requires such work.1.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. or when authorized by the Engineer to minimize the effects of vibrations on adjacent existing structures…. is the depth or length of Preformed Hole drilled by the Contractor. Remember. when determined necessary by the Engineer.9.06/2012 7-18 . for recording purposes. Version 1. 7-18 The Contractor is paid for Preformed Holes if they are shown in the Project plans.0. Therefore.1 Description: Preformed Pile Holes serve as a penetration aid when all other pile installation methods fail to produce the desired penetration and when authorized by the Engineer to minimize the effects of vibrations on adjacent structures.9 Preformed Pile Holes 455-5. Preforming depths are typically shown in the Pile Data Table and are given as an Elevation. the Inspector needs to verify that the preformed Hole was drilled to the elevation specified and then record that length for pay purposes. Preformed Hole Depth. Preformed Pile Holes are necessary when the presence of rock or strong strata of soils will not permit the installation of piles to the desired penetration by driving or a combination of jetting and driving.

7-19 Remember. For preformed holes which are required through material that caves during driving to the extent that the preformed hole does not serve its intended purpose. Drive all piles installed in Preformed Pile Holes to determine that the bearing requirements have been met. Determine bearing of the pile after removing the casing unless shown otherwise in the plans….0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. the bottom of a Preformed hole is NOT the bottom of an “Excavation”.9 Preformed Pile Holes 455-5.06/2012 7-19 .9. Version 1. After installing the pile to the bottom of the casing.1 Description: (Continued) …. case the hole from the surface through caving material. The Engineer may require preformed holes for any type of pile. remove the casings unless shown otherwise in the plans.

1 Description: (Continued) ….06/2012 7-20 . If pile driving is interrupted during sand placement. drive the pile at least 20 additional blows after filling all of the voids between the pile and soil with sand at no additional compensation.3.9.0. after the pile has achieved the required minimum tip elevation.Fill all voids between the pile and soil remaining after driving through preformed holes with clean A-3 sand or sand meeting the requirements of 902-3. unless grouting of preformed pile holes is shown in the plans.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. 7-20 Version 1.

(d) To obtain penetration into a stratum in which it is desired to found the structure.3 Conditions Under Which Payment Will Be Made: a) Inability to drive piles to the required penetration with driving and jetting equipment. (b) To penetrate a hard layer or layers of rock or strong stratum that the Engineer considers not sufficiently thick to support the structure.2 Provisions for Use of Preformed Pile Holes: The Department generally anticipates the necessity for Preformed Pile Holes and includes directions in the Contract Documents. The Department will pay for Preformed Piles Holes when the Contractor establishes that the required results cannot be obtained when driving the load bearing piles with specified driving equipment.9.0. (c) To obtain greater penetration into dense (strong) material and into dense material containing holes. (g) To minimize the effects of ground heave on adjacent piles. (e) To minimize the effects of vibrations or heave on adjacent existing structures. while jetting the piles and then driving or while jetting the piles during driving.9 Preformed Pile Holes 455-5.06/2012 7-21 . (f) To obtain a penetration up to 20 feet except where the Contract Documents show a required pile penetration in excess of 20 feet. 7-21 455-5.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. cavities or unstable soft layers. Version 1.9. or if jetting is allowed.

0. or driving and withdrawing a suitable punch or chisel at the locations of the piles.06/2012 7-22 .9. Carefully form the preformed hole by using a drill or punch guided by a template or other suitable device.4 Construction Methods: Construct Preformed Pile Holes by drilling. Construct a hole that is equal to or slightly greater than the largest pile dimension for the entire length of the hole and of sufficient depth to obtain the required penetration.9 Preformed Pile Holes 455-5. 7-22 Version 1. and do not exceed the minimum dimensions necessary to achieve the required penetration of the pile….Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.

Construct the holes at the plan position of the pile and the tolerances in location.06/2012 7-23 .4 Construction Methods: (Continued) …. When the plans call for grouting the Preformed Pile Holes.9 Preformed Pile Holes 455-5. and ensure the hole is straight and that the batter is the same as specified for the pile.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.3 are satisfied. provide the minimum dimension of the pile hole that is 2 inches larger than the largest pile dimension.0.9. 7-23 Version 1. Loose material may remain in the preformed pile hole if the conditions in 455-5.9.

Use grout that has a minimum compressive strength of 3. Pump the grout through three or more grout pipes initially placed at the bottom of the preformed hole. when the plans require grouting after driving.0. The Contractor may raise the grout pipes when necessary to prevent clogging and to complete the grouting operations. and fill them with cement grout as shown in the plans.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.9 Preformed Pile Holes 455-5. Clean the Preformed Pile Holes.9.5 Grouting of Pile Holes: Grout Preformed Pile Holes for bearing piles.000 psi at 28 days or as specified. 7-24 Version 1.06/2012 7-24 .

06/2012 7-25 . is the Contractor Paid for accomplishing? The tolerance for plan position is ______. Predrilling or Preforming. D. C.0. 3 inches 4 inches 5 inches 6 inches 7-25 Version 1. A. B.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Learning Outcome Which.

Predrill or Preform. B. D. 1 inch/ft.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Learning Outcome Which holes.0. The tolerance for axial alignment for driven piles is ______. ½ inch/ft. are to have hole diameters approximately 2 inches larger than the largest dimension across the pile cross-section. A. C.06/2012 7-26 . ¼ inch/ft. 7-26 Version 1. 2 inches/ft.

0. Version 1.06/2012 7-27 . therefore the pile should be marked in 1 foot intervals. projects designed in English units will specify blows per foot.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Verify Marking of the Piles English mark in 1 ft. intervals 7-27 Generally.

06/2012 7-28 .0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Verify Marking of the Piles 7-28 Version 1.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-6 Timber Piles 455-6. Withdraw and replace broken. 7-29 Version 1.5 Cutting Off: Saw off the tops of all timber piles at the elevation indicated in the plans. split.06/2012 7-29 . Extract piles driven below plan elevation and drive a longer pile. 455-6.6 Build-ups: The Engineer will not permit splices or build-ups for timber piles. or misplaced piles .0. Saw off piles which support timber caps to the exact plane of the superimposed structure so that they exactly fit it.

provide minimal splices. Include the cost of the splices in the cost of the pile. When piles are transported by truck and the pile length exceeds 120 feet but is less than the maximum length for a three point pick-up according to Index 20600. Provide piles full length without splices when transported by barge or the pile length is less than or equal to 120 feet. 7-30 Version 1.0. cured. and driven in accordance with the requirements of the Contract Documents. and splicing is desired.1 General: Provide prestressed concrete piles that are manufactured.06/2012 7-30 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling: 455-7.

The Contractor may cut the length of dowels which becomes exposed to a length of 48 inches from the plane of pile-splice 7-31 Version 1.8. after driving.06/2012 7-31 .0.7. The Contractor may construct build-ups less than 2 feet in length in accordance with 455-11.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling 455-7.1 General:Where splices and build-ups for concrete piles are necessary. When splicing a prestressed precast section onto the original pile and. remove the pile concrete to the cut-off elevation and leave the dowels in place to be incorporated into the cap as directed by the Engineer. construct such splices and build-ups in accordance with Standard Index 20601. the length of spliced section below cut-off elevation is 4 feet or less.7 Extensions and Build-ups Used to Increase Production Lengths: 455-7.

Version 1. Fill the space between the abutting sections completely with the adhesive. water. (e) Mix the adhesive components in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions. (i) After curing is completed. Use adhesives meeting the requirements of Section 926 for Type B Epoxy Compounds. (d) Place forms around joints between the pile sections. remove alignment braces and forms and clean and dress the spliced area to match the pile dimensions.0. (f) After ensuring that all concrete surfaces are dry.7.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling 455-7. (h) Secure the spliced sections in alignment until the adhesive is cured in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions for the time appropriate with the prevailing ambient temperatures. Do not utilize the crane to secure the pile extension during the adhesive cure time. (b) Drill dowel holes using an approved steel template that will position and align the drill bit during drilling. Eliminate any oil. Drill holes a minimum of 2 inches deeper than the length of the dowel to be inserted.06/2012 7-32 . and other deleterious materials from the holes and the concrete surfaces to be joined. Utilize alignment braces to maintain the proper pile alignment during the epoxy cure time. dust. sequences. (c) Clean the drilled dowel holes by inserting a high pressure air hose to the bottom of the hole and blowing the hole clean from the bottom upward. The Contractor may use small steel spacers of the required thickness provided they have 3 inches or more of cover after completing the splice. and procedures outlined below: 7-32 (a) Cast a splice section in accordance with Section 450 with the dowel steel in the correct position and alignment. Do not mix sand or any other filler material with the epoxy components unless it is prepackaged by the manufacturer for this specific purpose. (g) Insert the dowels of the spliced section into the adhesive filled holes of the bottom section and position the spliced section so that the axes of the two sections are in concentric alignment and the ends of the abutting sections are spaced 1/2 inch apart.2 Extensions to be Driven or Those 21 feet or Longer: Construct extensions to be driven or extensions 21 feet or longer in length in accordance with the details shown in the plans and in a manner including the requirements. fill the dowel holes with the adhesive material.

Use concrete of the same mix as used in the prestressed pile and dimension the cross-section the same as piling being built up.0.7. Install build-ups as specified in 455-7.2(b) through 455-7. and Section 400.2(i). Provide the same material for the form surfaces for precast build-ups as was used to form the prestressed piles.7. 7-33 Version 1.06/2012 7-33 . Section 346.7.3 Precast Reinforced Build-ups: Construct Precast Reinforced Buildups in accordance with the requirements of this Subarticle.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling 455-7.

8 Pre-Planned Splices: Splices shall be made by the doweled splice method contained in the Standard Indexes or may be made using proprietary splices which are listed on the Department’s QPL.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling 455-7. Splice test piles in the same manner as the production piles. 7-34 Version 1. the chosen method of splicing and the approximate locations of the splice….06/2012 7-34 . Include in the pile installation plan.0.

…. 7-35 Version 1. Stagger the splice location between adjacent piles by a minimum of 10 feet.8 Pre-Planned Splices (continued) Generally. Construct piles which are to be spliced using the doweled splice with preformed dowel holes in the bottom section and embedded dowels in the upper section. place the splice at approximately the midpoint between the estimated pile tip and the ground surface.0. considering scour if applicable.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-7 Prestressed Concrete Piling 455-7.06/2012 7-35 . Obtain the Engineer’s approval prior to constructing any pile sections.

0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Constructing Splice.06/2012 7-36 .Concrete Piling 7-36 Version 1.

(d) Place forms around joints between the pile sections. (h) Secure the spliced sections in alignment until the adhesive is cured in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions for the time appropriate with the prevailing ambient temperatures. Eliminate any oil. dust. Version 1. water. and other deleterious materials from the holes and the concrete surfaces to be joined. fill the dowel holes with the adhesive material. Utilize alignment braces to maintain the proper pile alignment during the epoxy cure time. The Contractor may use small steel spacers of the required thickness provided they have 3 inches or more of cover after completing the splice. (e) Mix the adhesive components in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions. Use adhesives meeting the requirements of Section 926 for Type B Epoxy Compounds. Fill the space between the abutting sections completely with the adhesive. Drill holes a minimum of 2 inches deeper than the length of the dowel to be inserted. (i) After curing is completed.0. (f) After ensuring that all concrete surfaces are dry. remove alignment braces and forms and clean and dress the spliced area to match the pile dimensions.Concrete Piling 7-37 (a) Cast a splice section in accordance with Section 450 with the dowel steel in the correct position and alignment. Do not mix sand or any other filler material with the epoxy components unless it is prepackaged by the manufacturer for this specific purpose.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Constructing Splice. (c) Clean the drilled dowel holes by inserting a high pressure air hose to the bottom of the hole and blowing the hole clean from the bottom upward. Do not utilize the crane to secure the pile extension during the adhesive cure time. (g) Insert the dowels of the spliced section into the adhesive filled holes of the bottom section and position the spliced section so that the axes of the two sections are in concentric alignment and the ends of the abutting sections are spaced 1/2 inch apart. (b) Drill dowel holes using an approved steel template that will position and align the drill bit during drilling.06/2012 7-37 .

When it is not practicable to provide authorized pile lengths longer than 40 feet in a single length.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-8 Steel Piling 455-8.0. Locate all splices in the authorized pile length in portions of the pile expected to be at least 15 feet below the final ground surface after driving.06/2012 7-38 .3 Pile Splices: Order and use the full authorized pile length where practicable. use no more than one field splice per additional 40 feet of authorized pile length. One shorter segment of pile may be used to achieve the authorized pile length when needed 7-38 Version 1. Shop splices may be used to join single lengths of pile which are at least 20 feet in length. Do not splice to obtain authorized lengths less than 40 feet except when shown in the plans.

Use clean concrete sands and concrete meeting the requirements of Section 346. fill pipe piles with the specified materials.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-8 Steel Piling 455-8.0. Place concrete in pipes containing water using methods in accordance with 455-15. 7-39 Version 1.9 Filling Pipe Piles: When required by the plans. Concrete may be placed directly into pipes which are dry.06/2012 7-39 .9 with modified tremie and pump line sizes.

06/2012 7 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Constructing Splice.0.Steel Pile 7-40 Version 1.

06/2012 7-41 . scour elevation shown in the plans.0.The bottom of predrilled or preformed holes does not count as the bottom of an excavation. drive the tip of the pile to this minimum elevation or this minimum penetration depth.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. the Engineer will accept the bearing of a pile only if the Contractor achieves the required bearing when the tip of the pile is at or below the specified minimum tip elevation or depth of penetration and below the bottom of the preformed or predrilled pile hole…. In all such cases. NOTE.8 Penetration 455-5. When the Contract Documents show a minimum pile tip elevation or a minimum depth of penetration. whichever is lower.8 Penetration Requirements: Measure the penetration of piles from the elevation of natural ground. Version 1. 7-41 Penetration is measured as the difference between the lowest of these three elevations and the tip of the pile. or the bottom of excavation.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.… 7-42 Version 1. scour elevation.8 Penetration 455-5.0. ensure that the required penetration is at least 10 feet into firm bearing material or at least 20 feet into soft material unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer.06/2012 7-42 . When the plans do not show a minimum depth of penetration. achieve these penetrations below the scour elevation.8 Penetration Requirements: (Continued) …. If a scour elevation is shown in the plans. The Engineer may accept a penetration between 15 and 20 feet when there is an accumulation of five consecutive feet or more of firm bearing material. or minimum tip elevation.

and the area within the outside perimeter for pipe piles and voided concrete piles….11.8 Penetration 455-5.06/2012 7-43 .2). the product of the width and depth for H piles. Soft material is any material offering less than these resistances. The gross pile area is the actual pile tip crosssectional area for solid concrete piles. 7-43 Version 1.0. Firm bearing material is any material offering a driving resistance greater than or equal to 30 tons/ft2 of gross pile area as determined by the Wave Equation (455-5.8 Penetration Requirements: (Continued) ….Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.

11. Firm bearing material is any material offering a driving resistance greater than or equal to 30 tons/ft2 of gross pile area as determined by the Dynamic Load Testing (455-5.8 Penetration Requirements: (Continued) …. and the area within the outside perimeter for pipe piles and voided concrete piles…. Soft material is any material offering less than these resistances. The gross pile area is the actual pile tip crosssectional area for solid concrete piles.06/2012 7-44 .4).8 Penetration 455-5.0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. the product of the width and depth for H piles. 7-44 Version 1.

when piles cannot be driven to the required penetration without reaching practical refusal.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. 7-45 Version 1. provide penetration aids. Do not drive piles beyond practical refusal (20 blows per inch). To meet the requirements in this Subarticle.8 Penetration 455-5.06/2012 7-45 .8 Penetration Requirements: (Continued) ….0. such as jetting or preformed pile holes.

the Engineer may also accept a driven pile when the minimum penetration is achieved and driving has reached practical refusal in firm material. because an increased stroke height equates to more energy being imparted to the pile.1 General: ….10 Bearing Requirements 455-5. less blows are required. with an increased stroke height. Typically. 7-46 Prior to starting the Project.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.06/2012 7-46 . At his discretion. as you will see in Driving Criteria Letters for Blow Count vs Stroke Height criteria. handled.10. the blow count is generally increasing and the minimum required bearing capacity obtained for 24 inches of consecutive driving.0. Version 1. The Engineer may accept a driven pile when the pile has achieved minimum penetration. the Inspector should ask the PA how they want a decrease in blow counts.

06/2012 7-47 .0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Data Recording The Pile Driving Record. which includes: • Hammer blows for each interval • Stroke Height or bounce chamber pressure for each interval • Making appropriate notes concerning driving operations 7-47 Version 1.

Version 1. Remember to document all fuel settings and changes. fuel setting or pressure.0. especially if easy or soft driving initially is anticipated. This is quite common when dealing with concrete piles. Recommended stroke height of 5 to 6 ft (approx.06/2012 7-48 . fuel pressure of 150 psi) 7-48 The Driving criteria Letter may provide a start of driving stroke height. Soft or little resistance at the tip and a big stroke height can result in excess tension in a concrete pile and damage the tip.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Hammer Settings Check Driving Criteria Letter for driving requirements.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Fuel Settings. the higher the fuel setting the higher the stroke. Fuel setting #1 is the lowest. A lanyard is connected to the pump and adjustments made by someone on the ground pulling the lanyard.06/2012 7-49 . Typically.0. Version 1. hence the lowest stroke height. and thereby produces the least combustion. Generally open end diesel hammers are equipped with 4 fuel settings that enable the operator to control the stroke height.OED 4-setting fuel pump for Open-end Diesel hammer (lanyards) 7-49 Shown above is a fixed four step fuel pump on a Delmag hammer.

Closed end diesel.OED Adjustable pressure pump for changing fuel setting 7-50 Shown above is an adjustable pressure pump for fuel setting on an ICE hammer. Controls such as these are used to adjust the pressure being delivered to the hammer.06/2012 7-50 . Version 1.0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Fuel Settings. air/steam and hydraulic hammers are pressure operated and allow for a more precise setting of the hammer energy delivered than the open end diesel or drop hammer.

Open end diesel stroke height is a function of the fuel setting and resistance to driving.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Stroke Height Setting Slide Bar2 Stroke Height Settings for Air Hammer 7-51 The various types of hammers have various ways to control the stroke. so in a sense is not really “set”. On air/steam the slide bar (shown above) provides for the setting of a constant stroke height. With drop hammers the stroke height is controlled by the operator lifting the weight.0. Version 1.06/2012 7-51 . which is usually no less than 2 ft. Generally there are two settings allowing for a full stroke and a short stroke.

06/2012 7-52 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Auxiliary Equipment Display Total Blow Count Incremental Blow Count Display Selector Knob Incremental Blow Count Reset 7-52 Version 1.0.

BOUNCE CHAMBER PRESSURE .000 Version 1. for approx. and records the average pressure being displayed during that time.000 24.000 26. 0f Ho se Up t 10 f to 1 .000 22. With these systems.FT. during each increment. Don’t forget to measure the hose. 0f o5 Ho se MODEL 520 DIESEL PILE HAMMER BOUNCE CHAMBER PRESSURE vs.g.0. typically with their foot. LINK-BELT SPEEDER 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 16. 10 seconds.i.06/2012 7-53 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Auxiliary Equipment Bounce Chamber Pressure Gauge. EQUIVALENT WH ENERGY SEA LEVEL TO 2000’ ELEVATION Up Up 8 to t.LBS 20. Ho se EQUIVALENT WH ENERGY . the Inspector depresses the panel button.000 t t.Closed-end Diesel 7-53 For closed end diesel hammers.p. the pressure is displayed on the Bounce Chamber pressure gauge.000 18.s. .

06/2012 7-54 .OED Common Problems Water in fuel Fuel lines clogged Fuel pump malfunctioning Fuel injectors malfunctioning Oil low Oil pump malfunctioning Water in combustion chamber Piston rings worn Tripping device broken Over heating Indicators Hollow sound. little gray smoke or black smoke Blows per minute rate is lower than specified Blows per minute rate is lower than specified Hollow sound. little gray smoke or black smoke Inconsistent ram strokes.0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Common Problems. white smoke Low strokes Pawl does not engage piston Pawl engages but doesn't lift piston Paint and oil on cooling fins start to burn/sound changes 7-54 Version 1. white smoke No smoke or little gray smoke Inconsistent ram strokes.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Common Problems.0. little gray smoke or black smoke Inconsistent ram strokes.06/2012 7-55 . white smoke Low strokes Pawl does not engage piston Pawl engages but doesn't lift piston Paint and oil on cooling fins start to burn/sound changes Not visible from exterior 7-55 Version 1.Closed-end Diesel Common Problems Water in fuel Fuel lines clogged Fuel pump malfunctioning Fuel injectors malfunctioning Oil low Oil pump malfunctioning Water in combustion chamber Piston rings worn Tripping device broken Over heating Oil build up in bounce chamber Indicators Hollow sound. little gray smoke or black smoke Blows per minute rate is lower than specified Blows per minute rate is lower than specified Hollow sound. white smoke No smoke or little gray smoke Inconsistent ram strokes.

06/2012 7-56 .blows/minute rate slower than specified by manufacturer.air leaking around piston shaft & air chest visually evident Ram columns insufficiently greased visually evident 7-56 Version 1.0. boom.Air/Steam Common Problems Indicators Air trip mechanism or hammer erratic operation rates or air valve sticking open or closed malfunctioning Cushion stack height incorrect (affects timing of trip mechanism air erratic operation rates valve) Compressor not supplying correct blows per minute rate is varying either faster or slower pressure & volume of air to hammer than the manufacturer specified Air supply lines either kinked or tangled in leads.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Common Problems. or other Moisture in air ices up hammer Lack of lubricant in air supply lines Packing around air chest worn allowing air blow by Nylon slide bar worn visually evident ice crystals exiting exhaust ports of hammer erratic operation rates ram raises slowly.

06/2012 7-57 .0.Hydraulic Common Problems Hoses getting caught in leads Fittings leaking Electrical connections Sensors visually evident Indicators hydraulic fluid leaking erratic performance erratic performance 7-57 Version 1.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Common Problems.

melted. 7-58 Version 1. in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Maintain capblocks in good condition. or otherwise significantly deteriorated.3. and change them when charred. before permitting further driving. The Engineer will inspect the capblock before driving begins and weekly or at appropriate intervals determined by the Engineer based on field trial.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.3 Cushions & Pile Helmet 455-5.1 Capblock: …. Replace or repair any hammer cushion which loses more than 25% of its original thickness.0.06/2012 7-58 .

06/2012 7-59 . or appropriate intervals and maintained in accordance with 455-5. if they replaced the micarta with say hamortex and aluminum plates.3. However.1.5 inches of aluminum and 2 inches of blue nylon. Hammer cushions should be inspected on weekly. this would be a change needing the Engineer’s approval.0. Note that the bottom highlighted area states no changes without the Engineer’s approval. single-acting. Version 1. 7-59 The Inspector should check the Driving Criteria Letter as it may specify a different inspection schedule than the standard specifications. notify the Engineer so new driving criteria can be determined. If there is a change in the driving system for the piles or the preforming depth and/or techniques. diesel hammer with a hammer cushion comprised of 0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Hammer Cushions The Driving Criteria Letter may specify a different inspection schedule. The above pile driving criteria are based on a hammer driving system consisting of an ICE Model 60-S. that’s OK. For example: If the Contractor replaced a micarta cushion with the same type and thickness. Preforming for the production piles should be conducted in the same manner as the test pile program.

06/2012 7-60 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Hammer Cushions 7-60 Good ____ or Bad____ Version 1.0.

and keep them dry.3 Cushions & Pile Helmet 455-5.0. splintered.2 Pile Cushion: …. Replace the pile cushion if. Protect cushions from the weather.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5. or otherwise deteriorated to the point it will not protect the pile against overstressing in tension and/or compression. 7-61 Version 1. the cushion is either compressed more than one-half the original thickness or begins to burn…. Maintain pile cushions in good condition and change when charred. Do not soak the cushions in any liquid. during the driving of any pile. excessively compressed.06/2012 7-61 .3.

Provide a new cushion for each pile unless approved otherwise by the Engineer after satisfactory field trial.2 Pile Cushion: (Continued) ….3 Cushions & Pile Helmet 455-5. Use the same cushion to perform the set-check or redrive as was used during the initial driving. 7-62 Version 1.3. Reuse pile cushions in good condition to perform all set-checks and redrives. in which case use a similar cushion.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.06/2012 7-62 .0. unless this cushion is unacceptable due to deterioration.

7-63 Version 1.0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Pile Cushion The Driving Criteria Letter may specify a different inspection schedule.06/2012 7-63 .

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Check Pile Cushion 7-64 The 455 specifications require a new pile cushion be used for each pile. the Engineer may want the have a certain number of hammer blows put on the new cushion prior to getting back on the pile and commencing driving Version 1. A Note should be made in the Pile Driving Record when changing pile cushions as generally the blow count will increase as the new cushion compresses giving a false sense of increased bearing capacity.0. If the pile is getting close to “taking up” (achieving bearing) and the pile cushion has to be changed.06/2012 7-64 .

0.06/2012 7-65 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Replace Charred or Burning Cushion 7-65 Version 1.

06/2012 7-66 .0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Burning Cushion 7-66 Version 1.

Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Pile Damage During Driving 7-67 Remember.06/2012 7-67 .0. steel piles are more susceptible to damage from compressive stresses than from tension. Version 1.

06/2012 7-68 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Steel Piles Typical causes of damage • Transporting • Steel Strength • Lifting • Driving (Compression) • Welding • Splices 7-68 Possible indicators during driving Types of damage • Pile moving out of position • Bending during driving • Buckling • Abrupt blow count change • Accordion • Splitting Version 1.0.

06/2012 7-69 .0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Pile Damage During Driving 7-69 Version 1.

slabing • Microcracks • Transverse cracks • Longitudinal cracks • Casting/stressing • Cushions burning or compressed • Concrete Strength • Concrete Curing • Puffs of concrete dust coming out of side of pile • Transporting • Pile walking out of position • Lifting • Driving (major cause) • Post driving Construction • Hammer pile alignment bad • Combination cracks • Abrupt blow count change • Tip damage 7-70 Version 1.06/2012 7-70 .0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Concrete Piles Typical causes of damage Possible indicators during driving Types of damage • Spalling.

take elevation measurements to determine the magnitude of the movement of piles and the ground surface resulting from the driving process…. Drive the piles in an approved sequence to minimize the effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground. Monitor piles previously driven in a pile group for possible heave during the driving of the remaining piles.10.06/2012 7-71 .5 Pile Heave: Pile heave is the upward movement of a pile from its originally driven elevation.0. When required by the Engineer. 7-71 Version 1.10.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.5 Pile Heave 455-5.

Redrive all piles that have heaved 1/4 inch or more unless the Engineer determines that the heave is not detrimental to pile capacity.5 Pile Heave 455-5.0.Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving 455-5.10. 7-72 Version 1. The Department will pay for all work in conjunction with redriving piles due to pile heave under the Pile Redrive Item.5 Pile Heave: (Continued) ….06/2012 7-72 .10.

Student Manual

Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving

Learning Outcome
Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, used pile cushions may be utilized to drive up to how many additional piles? A. None
B. 1 C. 2 D. No limit

Pile “Heave” refers to ___________. A. The unloading of piles from the transport vehicle.
B. The downward movement of a previously driven pile. C. The upward movement of a previously driven pile. D. The act of loading the pile into fixed leads.
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Version 1.0- 06/2012

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Student Manual

Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving

Learning Outcome
Hammer cushions should be inspected before driving begins and at approx. _____ intervals during driving. A. daily
B. hourly C. weekly D. monthly

True or False: Pile cushions are to be replaced when they are Compressed more than 25% of their original thickness? A. True
B. False
7-74

Version 1.0- 06/2012

7-74

Student Manual

Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving

Learning Outcomes
• Monitor and verify proper marking of the piles per contract documents and standards • Verify & document contractor compliance with applicable tolerances • Monitor, verify and document pile driving operations • Identify applicable 455 specifications
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Version 1.0- 06/2012

7-75

0.06/2012 7-76 .Student Manual Lesson 7 – Begin Pile Driving Questions? ANY QUESTIONS ? 7-76 Version 1.

2.3) . Have you indicated this is a Test Pile in the Pile Technician Program and/or Pile Driving Record? 30.Does the hammer have at least three fuel settings for the rebound stroke? (455-5.1.1) 16.Does the hammer have at least three fuel settings for the rebound stroke? (455-5.3.1) 15.7) 22. Cofferdams? 13. Have you made the Initial Pile Data entries and Standard Notes entries in the program? 7. Does the Contractor have the hammer equipment indicated in the Pile Installation Plan on-site? a.2.Does the Contractor have a Bounce Chamber Pressure Gauge? (455-5.2. EARLY REQUIREMENTS 1. 4. Has the Contractor marked the pile in the applicable increments? 27.4? 24.2.Has the Bounce Chamber been calibrated within the last 30 days and a Chart provided? (455-5.2. Does the pile meet the axial alignment of 455. Has the Contractor furnished elevations per 455-5. Is the test pile located per the plans and meet the requirements of 455-5.3. or specific approval has been given otherwise. Has the site preparation been completed for footings/excavations/abutments in accordance with 455-1.Has the Contractor provided an approved device automatically determine and display ram stroke? (455-5. 2. If a Cofferdam is required.2) . Have the requirements of 455-1.3.6? 20. does the drill meet the requirements of 455-5.Have you been provided a means to determine hammer energy? (455-5.1 and 455-5. and length of pile and applicable pile documentation been provided? 25.6? 21. Has the Contractor met the requirements of 455-1.Does the air plant have gauges that are easy to read? (455-5. have you indicated the pile has EDCs installed in the Pile Technician Program and/or Pile Driving Record? 31.2.2.4.)? (455-5. Vibrations of Freshly Placed Concrete been met? 11. HYDRAULIC HAMMER . Is the cap-block (hammer cushion) in good condition? (455-5. Has the proper type.1. Does the pile helmet meet the requirements of 455-5.2 & 455-1.2) . specifications.3? 29. 3.2) b. size. Have you inspected the pile for defects and if observed document and modify the PA? 26.Does the hammer have a slide bar capable of a minimum of two stroke height settings? (455-5. If Predrilling or Preforming to be done. If underwater diving is required.3.2) 18. are the divers equipped with voice communications.1) 14.2) .3.2? 28.0-06/12 .Has the Contractor provided the hammer manufacturer’s chart equating stroke and blows per minute? (455-5.Does the hammer have at least three settings for reduced stroke height? (455-5. Does the pile cushion match the Contractor’s submittal (type. Is the pile cushion new? (455-5.2.15. CLOSED END DIESEL HAMMER . thickness. ready for use and of the proper size? (455-5. Protection of Existing Structures? 9.1? 10.2) c.PILE INSPECTOR’S CHECKLIST The following is a general checklist to follow when driving a Pile.1) . The answer to each of these. CONSULT WITH THE RESPONSIBLE PROJECT ADMINISTRATOR FOR YOUR SPECIFIC PROJECT RESPONSIBILITIES.3) .2) . OPEN END DIESEL HAMMER . size.3. If required.2. If applicable.Has pressure measuring equipment been calibrated? (455-5. Have you setup Structure Files and Bent/Pier Models in the program? 6. is the PDA Engineer coordinated with? Have you downloaded and installed the current version of the FDOT Pile Technician Program on your field computer? 5.3? 19. should “yes” unless plans. does the template meet the requirements of 455-5.3.15. thickness)? (455 -5.5. Cofferdams? 12. Have you recorded the driving event in the Pile Technician Program and/or Pile Driving Record? Version 1.2.3. Does the cap-block (hammer cushion) match the Contractor’s submittal (type. Do you have a copy of the Plans including latest revisions & located relevant items? (ex: Pile Date Table) Do you have and reviewed the accepted Pile Installation Plan? Are Dynamic Load Tests required and if so. etc. Have you scheduled or attended a Pre-Driving meeting with the PA/Geotechnical Engineer? Yes No 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 D1 D2 D3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 8 9 10 11 12 13 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 D1 D2 D3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NA TEST PILE PROGRAM 8.2. AIR/STEAM HAMMER .2) 17.9? 23. Is a jet pump at the site. does the Contractor have a qualified diver and safety diver for inspections in accordance with 455-1. if applicable .1) d. per 455-1. Do the leads match the Contractor’s submittal and meet the requirements of 455 -5. size.

Has the Contractor initiated a plan to protect driven piles from fill placement operations? (455-10) 57. Auger motor and flighting f.PILE INSPECTOR’S CHECKLIST. Templates -Does the template match the Contractor’s submittal? -Has a reference been provide to enable determining pile penetration? -Can the pile be driven to the cutoff elevation without requiring movement of the template? Has the Contractor provided an elevation on the template for your use? If Predrilling or Preforming. has this been completed per 455-5. has the pile met the Penetration requirements of 455-5.8. striker plates -variable energy settings -hydraulic control indicator. Penetration? Has the pile met the driving criteria specified in the Driving Criteria Letter? Has the pile reached Practical Refusal? (455-5. 37. Do you have the Driving Criteria Letter? If concrete piles. type. Cofferdams. Has the Contractor met the tolerances required? (455-5. 52. 51. 47.5? Has the Contractor marked the piles in the correct increments? Have you recorded the blows. 42.9. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 43. 36. 48. do you have the authorized Production Pile Lengths Letter? Do you have the Accepted Pile Installation Plan? Has the Contractor met the requirements for Protection of Existing Structures? (455-1.15. Have you verified that the two piles meet the tolerances of section 455-5. has the Contractor met the plan requirements and you documented the same? If grouting of Preformed Pile Holes is required. 34. 53. have the requirements of 455-1. Leads e. inserts. fuel pump setting indicator -Saximeter -Pile cushion type. 40. 45. 35. document same and notified the PA? (455-6.10. 54.5) If so. Vibrations of Freshly Placed Concrete been met? If a cofferdam is required. serial number -capblock cushion type. POST INSTALLATION 55.0-06/12 . and applicable notes in the record or program? Did splicing of piles meet the requirements of 455-7. 46.3 for steel? If specified. were they redriven? Yes 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 No 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 NA 41. thickness -capblock dimensions.PAGE 2 PRODUCTION PILE DRIVING 32. 39. 49. cranes b. 44.7 for concrete and 455-8. were they documented? Have any of the piles “heaved”? (455-5.1? Have the requirements of 455-1. and if observed.7.4. hammer system. Punches h. Jets and pump i.3) Do you have a “Setcheck” Criteria? If “Setchecks” or “Redrives” are performed.2.15? Version 1. including: -model. Auger leads g. thickness -follower d.10. 33. 38. barges c. stroke height/pressure. Allowable Tolerances) 56.3. 50. has the pile met any Minimum Tip Elevation requirements? If no Minimum Tip is specified.9) Does the Contractor’s equipment match the accepted Pile Installation Plan or revised Plan from the Test Pile Program? a.1) Has the site preparation been completed for footings/excavations/abutments in accordance with 455-1.2 & 455-1. Have you been provided the final post-driving elevations and entered them in the Pile Technician Program and/or Pile Driving Record? 58. been met? Have you inspected the piles of damage.8.