Networking

Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Lesson Introduction
In this section we will discuss the available Network architectures in details and there advantages and disadvantages. disadvantages . And also Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model and functionality of each layer in details
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Lesson Objectives

Description of Immergence and the evolution of computer networks

Discuss the selection of suitable geometric layout for a network based on the standard topologies
Outline the features of the different types of computer networks Describe the advantages of a layered architecture Illustrate the roles of each layer in the OSI model
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► ►

Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Introduction to computer networks
► understand

“what is a network”? ► Network is an interconnected system of things or people (or anything)
 Cities and villages in a country is a network  Electricity distribution and water supply systems are also networks  Network of Lakes and canals in Sri Lanka is famous from the ancient days to modern days  most complicated yet most useful network of water distribution mechanism for agricultural purposes, 4 specially paddy fields in Sri Lanka

Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Why is this important?
►If

we use a network of any system it can be used to share the resources, saving money, time and effort

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Types of Networks
► Data

Networks Networks

 As the name implies data network is used to share data between resources.
► Computer

 As the name implies computer network is used to share resources between computers or other peripherals.  It can be
►Hardware

resources ►Software resources
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Example networks
► ARPANET

 Earliest stage of networking
► The

Internet Networks

 Largest public Network
► Privet

 Owned by a company for their needs

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

ARPANET

United States Department of Defense (DoD) wanted a command and control network that could survive a nuclear war because public telephone system was considered vulnerable. vulnerable . Then they established the ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency) gency). . ARPA came up with the idea of building a packet switched network & later it became the ARPANET ARPANET. . An experimental network went on the air in December 1969 with four nodes at UCLA, UCSB, SRI and University of Utah. Utah .

ARPANET grew rapidly
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

The Internet
► The

number of networks connected to the ARPANET is increased with the introduction of TCP/IP. Commercialization of the internetworking created the Internet. Adding a computer to the Internet is done by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and became very easy
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

The Internet
►Initially the Internet  E-Mail  News  Remote Login  File Transfer

was used for

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

The Internet
► Till

the introduction of WWW (World Wide Web) by Tim Burners Lee the Internet was used by academic government and industrial researchers ► He introduced the scripting language HTML which made the information exchange very easy and attractive over the Internet ► ISPs offering individual users at home to connect to the Internet by using a modem popularized the Internet
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Privet Networks
► ► ► ► ► ►

When a big company has many branches around the world, needs to share their information among the branches they use a leased line form a telephone company and maintain their own network These privet networks are very secure But the biggest issue is spending fortune of money on maintaining a leased line But still some companies use privet networks because of the security risk Only way to break in to the system is wiretap the lines which is not an easy task The counter measure for spending money on leased line is use of a virtual privet network over the public network while keeping the security of data being transmitted

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Network Topologies
► Let’s

try to understand what is meant by a topology ► Below are some of the general definitions
 Topology - Topographic study of a given place  Topography - Precise detailed study of the surface of a region
► When

it comes to Network topology it explains the configuration of a communication network
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Network Topologies
► In

this lesson we will discuss the -Bus topology Start topology Ring topology Hybrid topology Tree topology Complete (mesh) topology Irregular topology
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      

Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Bus Topology
► ►

In bus topology it uses common shared communication medium called bus To understand this concept lets take a real road and a bus
 If you want to go from one place to another, you use a common road. If one vehicle can travel at a time on this road, of course you need a control mechanism to see whether the road is empty or occupied  If the road (bus line) is occupied then you will wait random time and check it and when you find the road is empty then use the road  If a new block of land is available then that will also get connected to the same shared road. So that land can use the same road

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Bus Topology
 On the road a bus can be used to transport people and in comparison with networks it carries data packets instead of people in the bus  To prevent one vehicle occupying the road all the time with out any passenger getting down, when the bus reaches the end there is no turning point but simply destroy it  In Bus topology the bus wire must end at a terminator which absorbs electrical signals, so that it will not bounce or reflect back and forth on the bus line
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Bus Topology
► Advantages

 Cables required on the bus topology are very less compared to other topologies  Adding or removing a node is relatively easy  Cost is low

of the bus line

► Disadvantages

 Single point failure (entire network is out if there is a break down in the main bus cable)  Isolation problem is difficult (identifying which machine caused the problem)  Require terminators at the both ends
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Star Topology
► Uses

central hub ► All nodes are connected to the central hub ► If any node wants to communicate with another first it will communicates with the central node and then central node will communicates with all nodes ► Some times central node acts like a repeater for the data flow
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Star Topology
► Advantages

► Disadvantages

 If there is a fault it can identify easily  Easy to install  No hassle when adding new or removing a node form the network  Breakdown in a wire will not affect the other nodes

 In any case central nodes is down whole network is down  Requires more cables than a linear topology  Cost is high
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Ring Topology
► In

this topology one node to another is attached in a close circular loop ► The name ring topology is given because of this reason ► Information is passed around the ring until it reaches the final destination ► Each station must pass the information to an adjacent station ► Biggest disadvantage of this topology is if one station goes down the entire network goes down
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Ring Topology
► Advantages

 Each repeater duplicates the data signal so that very little signal degradation occurs
► Disadvantages

 Little expensive than other topologies

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Hybrid Topology
► When

two or more basic topologies are combined and make a one network, then we called this combined topology as a hybrid topology ► When we consider different topologies they have their own strengths and weaknesses ► When we combined and make a hybrid topology we can achieve maximum effectiveness
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Hybrid Topology
► Advantages

 Advantages of different topologies can be combined together for more benefits. Traffic can be customized
► Disadvantages

 Node or peripherals cannot be placed into another with out appropriate hardware changes

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Tree Topology
► If

we extent the start topology with the bus topology then we can consider it as a tree topology ► In the tree topology it does not use single central node, but uses bus back born to connect a group of start networks

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Tree Topology
► Advantages

 Segments can work independently  Several kinds hardware and software  No single central node failure
► Disadvantages

 Segment goes down if the main cable to that segment is broken  More difficult to configure and wire  Length of the segment depends on the cable type
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Complete Topology (mesh)
► All

nodes connected each other in a mesh or complete topology ► Unlike other topologies mesh topology can accommodate information flow even on e link down, because there are many other links connected to that ► This topology is not widely used in LAN’s ► But commonly used in WAN’s where high reliability is more important and relatively small number of nodes
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Complete Topology (mesh)
► Advantages

 Does not depends on the single node  High performance and reliability
► Disadvantages

 Suitable for small number of nodes  Cost is high

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Irregular Topology
► In

irregular topologies we cannot find any standard pattern to the link and nodes ► The wiring and configuration is inconsistent. Irregular topology is due to poorly planed network or networks in the early stages of construction

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Types of Networks
 Local Area Networks (LAN)  Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)  Wide Area Network (WAN)

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Local Area Networks
► Local

area network, as name implies, is geographically distributed in a small area ► Computers, serves and other peripherals area interconnected in a small building or a room ► In local area networks it allows many users to share common resources like printers, scanners and of course data sharing
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Metropolitan Area Networks
► MAN is bigger than LAN ► Usually MAN covers an area

small number of buildings ► Compared to a LAN, MAN provides high speed network facility to share the regional resources. Optical fiber is used as the back born ► Man is used to connect business to business. Some times MAN is not owned by a single business unit ► Some times a single service provider who provides service to the different organizations
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of a city or even a

Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Wide Area Networks
► ► ►

► ►

As name implies wide area network covers geographically a large area For example the largest WAN is the Internet WAN facilities are usually provided by the telecommunication companies or we some times referred them as Internet Service Providers One of the important point in WAN is, it provides reliable fast and safe communication between two or more places with low delays and for low prices For a large organization dispersed around the world can use WAN to get interconnected the branches and also to the rest of the world WAN may include physical networks such as Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN), X.25, and T1 networks

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Layering Architecture of networks
Early days different companies and different vendors of computer systems had their own internetworking technologies ► In worst case even they were not able to interconnect two versions of the same vendor’s computers ► For an expanding company it was a problem as they have to rely on one computer vendor ► Adding new fleet of computers and other peripherals was problematic for them ► Money spending on computer hardware was too expensive to bear ► Mean while need of more computers and resource sharing increased rapidly

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Layering Architecture of networks
► Therefore

the need of standards in data communication arises ► To fulfill the requirements International Standard Organization ISO, introduced Open System Interconnection OSI, reference model which can be used to communicate among different computer and even among different architectures
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Layering Architecture of networks
► OSI

reference model is based on layered architecture
       Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data link Layer Physical Layer
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Application Layer
User applications are using this layer when they want to send messages ► Many applications use the protocols defined in this layer ► As an example when a user needs to surf the Internet then the relevant protocol used in the web browser is HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) ► If a user wants to send an email then the protocol used is SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) ► Like wise there are defined protocols in the application layer ► In any system which is according to the OSI reference model can understand what protocol it used and acts accordingly

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Application Layer
► Like

a director of company A, the user has nothing to do with the underlying technical details but use the application freely ► Application layer will allow the user to work with his requirements. Once user starts the application it will parcels the message in a data envelop and passes it to the next layer which is Presentation Layer
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Presentation Layer
► Syntaxes

and semantics of the information to be transferred are checked in this layer ► Different computer system has different representation of data inside a computer when representing character, number and other data types ► Converting data in computer specific standard to network standard is done by this layer ► Data compression and data encryption is also done in this layer
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Session Layer
► ►


► ►


► ►

The main task of the session layer is to keep track of session between user applications in different machines Also session layer is responsible for managing dialog control Dialog control means the mechanism used to control the traffic, half duplex or full duplex In half duplex traffic can travel in one direction at a time and its session layer who keeps track of whose turn is it For some protocols, it is essential that both sides do not attempt the same operation at the same time To manage these activities, the session layer provides tokens that can be exchanged Only the side holding the token may perform the critical operation Another service of the session layer is synchronization. In any case if the transmission is crashed, rather than starting form the scratch it is better to keep checkpoints and start again form the nearest checkpoint which will save time money and effort
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Transport Layer
► ► ► ► ►

The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from above, split it up into smaller units if need be pass to the network layer, and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end Furthermore, all this must be done efficiently and in a way that isolates the upper layer form the inevitable changes in the hardware technology The transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the upper layer The most popular type of transport connection is an error free point to point channel that delivers messages or bytes by order in which they were sent However the other possible kinds of transport services are the transporting of isolated messages with no guarantee about the order of the delivery and the broadcasting of messages to multiple destinations The type of the service is determined when the connection is established

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Transport Layer
► The

transport layer is a true end to end layer; all the way form the source to the destination ► In other words a program on the source machine carries on a conversation with a similar program on the destination machine using the message headers and control messages
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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Network Layer
► Every

device that communicates over a network has associated with it a logical address, sometimes called a layer three address ► For example, on the Internet, the Internet Protocol (IP) is the network layer protocol and every machine has an IP address ► Note that addressing is done at the data link layer as well, but those addresses refer to local physical devices ► In contrast, logical addresses are independent of particular hardware and must be unique across an entire internet work

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Data link Layer
► The

data link layer is often conceptually divided into two sub layers: logical link control (LLC) and media access control (MAC) ► This split is based on the architecture used in the IEEE 802 Project, which is the IEEE working group responsible for creating the standards that define many networking technologies (including all of the ones mentioned above except FDDI) ► By separating LLC and MAC functions, interoperability of different network technologies is made easier

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

Physical Layer
► The

details of operation of cables, connectors, wireless radio transceivers, network interface cards and other hardware devices are generally a function of the physical layer (although also partially the data link layer; see below)

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Internet Technologies – Networking Technologies

End of Lesson 5

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