Lumber (American English)[1] or timber (British English)[2] is a collective term for harvested wood that has been manufactured

into boards and planks !his process is part of something called wood production "umber is predominantl# used for structural purposes but has man# other uses as well "umber is classified as hardwood or softwood "umber is supplied either rough or finished Besides pulpwood$ rough lumber is the raw material forfurniture%making and other items re&uiring additional cutting and shaping 't is available in man# species$ usuall# hardwoods$ but it is also readil# available in softwoods such as white pine and red pine because of their low cost [citation needed] Finished lumber is supplied in standard si(es$ mostl# for the construction industr#$ primaril# softwood from coniferous species including pine$ fir and spruce(collectivel# known as )pruce%pine%fir)$ cedar$ and hemlock$ but also some hardwood$ for high%grade flooring Contents [show] !erminolog#[edit] 'n the *nited +ingdom and other ,ommonwealth ,ountries such as Australia and -ew .ealand$timber is a term used for sawn wood products$ such as floor boards$ whereas generall# in the *nited )tates and ,anada$ it refers to standing or felled trees$ before the# are milled into boards referred to as lumber /!imber/ is also used there to describe sawn lumber not less than 0 inches (121 mm) in its smallest dimension [2] An e3ample of the latter is often partiall# finished lumber used in timber% frameconstruction 'n the *nited +ingdom the word lumber has several other meanings$ including unused or unwanted items Remanufactured lumber[edit] See also: Timber recycling Remanufactured Lumber refers to secondar# or tertiar# processing4cutting of previousl# milled lumber !he term specificall# refers to lumber cut for industrial or wood packaging use "umber is cut b# ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usuall# processed b# a primar# sawmill 5esawing is the process of splitting 1 inch through 12 inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full length boards 6or e3ample$ splitting a ten foot 237 into two ten foot 137s is considered resawing Plastic lumber[edit] Further information: Plastic lumber, Fiber-reinforced composite, and Wood-plastic composite )tructural lumber ma# also be produced from rec#cled plastic and new plastic stock$ but its introduction has been strongl# opposed b# the forestr#industr# [7] Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength$ durabilit#$ and fire resistance [0] 8lastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a /class 1 flame spread rating of 20 or less$ when tested in accordance with A)!9 standard E :7$/ which means it burns slower than almost all treated wood lumber [;] <imensional lumber[edit] Dimensional lumber is a term used for lumber that is finished4planed and cut to standardi(ed width and depth specified in inches E3amples of common si(es are !" (pictured) (also t#o-by-four and other variants$ such as four-by-t#o in the *+$ Australia$ -ew .ealand)$ !$$ and "!" !he length of a board is usuall# specified separatel# from the width and depth 't is thus possible to find 2=7s that are four$ eight$ or twelve feet in length 'n the *nited )tates and ,anada the standard lengths of lumber are ; feet (1 :2 meters)$ : (2 77)$ 1> (2 >0)$ 12 (2 ;;)$ 17 (7 21)$ 1; (7 ::)$ 1: (0 7?)$ 2> (; 1>)$ 22 (; 11)$ and 27 feet (1 22 meters) 6or wall framing$ /stud$/ or /precut/ si(es are available$ and commonl# used 6or an eight$ nine$ or ten foot ceiling height$ studs are available in ?2 0@: inches

(220 cm)$ 1>7 0@: inches (2.anada lies in the north part of the continent 'ts capital is Bttawa 9uch of .anada !his is because about 7> percent of .anada also are lumberAacks during the winter season since crop production comes to a standstill . cm)$ and 11.anada and the# are the number one e3porter of wood products "umbering in .anada is c?vered with thick forests !heses are found in the north around Cudson Ba# and in the 5ock# 9ountains Cere the summers are short and warm$ but the winters are long and cold -ow covers the ground or si3 or seven months in the #ear !he most important trees of these forests are the 8ine and 6ir !he# have tall$ straight trunks !heir side branches are sloping !his helps the heav# snow to slide off !he leaves are like sharp$ green needles Even in winter the trees o not lose their leaves !he wood of these trees is soft 't is eas# to cut )ome is used to make houses$ furniture and matches But most of the wood is used for making paper for newspapers and maga(ines !he cutting own of trees is one mainl# in winter !his work is called "umbering !he men who cut down the trees are called "umberAacks !he# live in camps in the forests 'n the camp there are man# log%cabins or huts !he men sleep in some of these cabins !hen there is a kitchen and dining%room 'n other cabin the men can watch television$ listen to music or read when the# have finished their work But their lives are difficult and lonel# !he "umberAacks use large saws worked b# electricit# After trees are felled$ side branches are cut off !hen the trunk is cut into several pieces called logs !he logs are dragged across the snow b# tractors !he# are left on the ice of the fro(en rivers Dhen spring comes it becomes warmer$ the ice in the rivers melt and the logs float down the river !he lumberAacks work is not #et over !he# must see that the logs get safel# to the saw mills )ometimes the rivers are so crowded with logs that pile up$ one on top of the other !his is called a "og%Eam !he lumberAacks have to climb over the logs to free them !he logs then move down the stream again !his is a ver# dangerous Aob 'f the lumberAack falls into the water$ he can be crushed b# the moving logs !he saw mills re built on the banks of the rivers At the mills the bigger logs are cut into planks !he smaller ones are crushed to make wood pulp !his pulp is used for making paper Dhen winter comes to an end and he logs reach the mills the lumberAacks work is over !he# return to their families and homes <uring the short summer the# become farmers and fishermen Dhen inter comes again$ the# go back o their lumber camps in the forests and start to cut down the trees . 0@:inches (2?. cm) !he term /stud/ is used inconsistentl# to specif# length$ though$ so where the e3act length matters$ one must specif# the length e3plicitl# "umbering is ver# widespread occupation in the countr# of .anada is done in the winter months !his is because the ground is fro(en and covered in snow$ which makes the logs much easier to heave across the land 9ost farmers in ..anada is covered in coniferous forests About one third of all of the lumber and timber in the world$ comes out of .