Passive fire protection

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Fire resistance rated !all assembly !ith fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent "#$ cable coating. Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is an integral component of the three components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slo! the spread, through use of fire resistant !alls, floors, and doors %amongst other examples&. PFP systems must comply !ith the associated 'isting and approval use and compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes.

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# (tructural fire protection ) *ain characteristics + ,xamples - .egulations / 01ld0 versus 0ne!0 2 3ountries !here certification is optional 4 (ee also 5 .eferences 6 ,xternal links

Structural fire protection
Fire protection in a building, offshore facility or a ship is a system that includes:

Active fire protection, !hich can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression.

Passive Fire Protection measures are intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of origin. @uring this process. Fire prevention includes minimi7ing ignition sources. *ore items than . floors and electrical circuits re:uired to have a fire resistance rating& or ca.##6. <( . PFP measures can also include intumescents and ablative materials. The point is. ho!ever. fire doors. 1rgani7ation into smaller fire compartments. the temperature on the unexposed side of an endothermic fire barrier tends to rise rapidly. concrete and gypsum !allboard. consisting of one or more rooms or floors. The use of endothermic materials is established and proven to be sound engineering practice. leading to collapse. To accomplish these aims. ho!ever. thus limiting the spread of fire and smoke for a limited period of time. They must be organised into systems. Main characteristics The aim for Passive Fire Protection systems is typically demonstrated in fire testing the ability to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or belo! either #-8 93 %for !alls. that !hatever the nature of the materials. !hich is considered the critical temperature for structural steel. 1nce the hydrates are spent. on the basic test standards for !alls and floors. such as fire dampers. Fire testing involves live fire exposures up!ards of ##88 93. @uring fire testing of concrete floor slabs. such as @B= -#8) Part . The chemically bound !ater inside these materials sublimes. above !hich it is in . common endothermic building materials include calcium silicate board. limiting building damage and providing more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge. and emergency procedures including notification for fire service response and emergency evacuation. For instance. they on their o!n bear no rating. !hich includes compartmentalisation of the overall building through the use of fire resistance rated !alls and floors.= #+2#: #666 > <( . !hich is !hy test laboratories insist on measuring !ater content of concrete and mortar in fire test specimens. etc.eopardy of losing its strength. as . in most countries. Aypsum !all board typically loses all its strength during a fire. depending on the fire resistance rating and duration one is after. Too much !ater can be a problem. 3oncrete slabs that are too !et. as !ell as educating the occupants and operators of the facility.• • Passive Fire Protection.or the 3anadian =ational <uilding 3ode.= #+2. //8 93.): #666 or ?(T* . (maller components.ust fire exposures are typically re:uired to be tested to ensure the survivability of the system under realistic conditions. before running any fire tests. the unexposed side cannot exceed the boiling point of !ater. !ater can be seen to boil out of a slab. many different types of materials are employed in the design and construction of systems. This is based. !hich bear a rating !hen installed in accordance !ith certification listings or established catalogues. prevents or slo!s the spread of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces. ship or structure concerning operation and maintenance of fire related systems for correct function. such as <( -42: Part )): #654. follo! suit in the main intentions of the basic standard for !alls and floors. !ill literally explode in a fire..

xceptions to that particular rule of thumb are fire dampers %fire resistive closures !ithin air ducts. for instance. <ecause of the relatively lo! thickness of this intumescent coating %usually in the +/8 to 488 micrometer range&. excluding grease ducts& and fire door closers. intumescent coatings are preferred aesthetically and performance !ise. are tested to determine the fire resistance rating of the final assembly. can also be seen as a system. Passive fire protection measures. and there it is difficult to monitor for corrosion. Bt forms part of a fire resistance rated !all or floor. The building itself. D. . The thickness of this intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used. ? certification listing provides the limitations of the rating. as there is the possibility of !ater seeping into it %because of the porous nature of vermiculite&. and anti corrosive nature. #.g. ?n installed firestop. The PFP system !ill only delay this by creating a layer of char bet!een the steel and fire. and fire doors. *oreover if the environment is corrosive in nature. as a !hole.. ). referred to as 0section factor0 and expressed in m #.determined the local building code and fire code. PFP systems are highly recommended in infrastructure pro. Bt should be noted that in the eventuality of a fire. . the steel structure !ill eventually collapse once the steel attains the critical core temperature %around //8 degrees 3elsius or 5/8 degrees Fahrenheit&. Passive Fire Protection means do not typically re:uire electric or electronic activation or a degree of motion. Bntumescent fireproofing is a layer of paint !hich is applied along !ith the coating system on the structural steel members. but is very crude and aesthetically unpleasant. in order to function. fire !alls. Bntumescent coatings are applied as an intermediate coat in a coating system %primer. PFP systems can provide fire ratings in excess of #)8 minutes. mostly a very thick layer. Examples . !hich s!ell. 3ontrary to active fire protection measures. usually expressed in terms of hours of fire resistance %e. ?s the name suggests. open and shut in order to !ork. !hich must move. as !ell as all intumescent products. C. #E.ects as they can save lives and property. Passive Fire Protection %PFP& remains silent in your coating system till the eventuality of a fire.hour&. the structural steel members are covered !ith vermiculite materials. Bn vermiculite fire protection. such as firestops. @epending upon the re:uirement. then the vermiculite option is not advisable. intermediate. is a system that is based upon a product certification listing. +. PFP in a building can be described as a group of systems !ithin systems. nice finish. and topFfinish coat&. thus move. There are mainly t!o types of PFP : intumescent fire protection and vermiculite fire protection. For calculation of @FT %dry film thickness& a factor called HpFA %heated perimeter divided by cross sectional area&. This is a cheaper option as compared to an intumescent one. and this !all or floor forms part of a fire compartment !hich forms an integral part of the overall fire safety plan of the building. is used.

.acketing& • spra" fireproofin! %application of intumescent or endothermic paints. The lo!ered rating is then referred to as a fire protection rating. • fire-resistance rated floors • occupanc" separations %barriers designated as occupancy separations are intended to segregate parts of buildings. • closures %fire dampers& (ometimes firestops are treated in building codes identically to closures. !here. • fire-resistance rated alls • Fire alls not only have a rating. • cable coatin! %application of fire retardants. electrical or .This B beam has a fireproofing material sprayed onto it as a form of passive fire protection. to reduce flamespread and smoke development of combustible cable .2 mm& sheet metal.& Bn =orth ?merica. so long as the fire separation is not an occupancy separation or fire!all. both for firestops.ither !ay. apartments on one side and stores on the other side of the occupancy separation&. grease ducts are made of minimum #2 gauge %#. or fibrous or cementitious plasters to keep substrates such as structural steel. they are also designed to sub divide buildings such that if collapse occurs on one side. as a trade off. • firestops • !rease ducts %These refer to ducts that lead from commercial cooking e:uipment such as ranges. it is ordinary #2 gauge duct!ork !ith an exterior layer of purpose made and certified fireproofing. unless they contain plastic pipes and regular closures. !hich are either endothermic or intumescent. !here different uses are on each sideG for instance. all !elded. !hereby the ducting is either inherently manufactured to have a specific fire resistance rating. this !ill not affect the other side. 1. =orth ?merican grease ducts must comply !ith =FP?62 re:uirements. 3anada de rates closures. and certified openings for cleaning. for instance a ) hour closure is acceptable for use in a + hour fire separation. • Fire-resistant !lass glass using multi layer intumescent technology or !ire mesh embedded !ithin the glass may be used in the fabrication of fire resistance rated !indo!s in !alls or fire doors. deep fryers and double decker and conveyor e:uipped pi77a ovens to grease duct fans. They can also be used to eliminate the need for sprinklers.

have been demonstrated in testing by 1tto ArafKinstitut to be torn open and rendered inoperable !hen the cable tray expands. #e!ulations The most important goal of PFP is identical to that of all fire protection: life safet". @ifferences include the hose stream tests. . intumescent epoxy.urope: <( .xceptions include nuclear facilities and marine applications. *icroTherm enclosures %boxes or !raps made of fireproofing materials. @urasteel %cellulose fibre reinforced concrete and punched sheet metal bonded composite panels&. heat and smoke&. pushes in and then collapses. thermocoupling and reporting re:uirements remain uniform !ithin each country. =uclear facilities. must also ensure the nuclear reactor does not experience a nuclear meltdo!n. Propert" protection and continuit" of operations are usually secondary ob. This is mainly accomplished by maintaining structural integrity for a time during the fire. and limiting the spread of fire and the effects thereof %e. Bn this case. calcium silicate. vessel skirts. !hereas 0softseals0.ach of these test procedures have very similar fire endurance regimes and heat transfer limitations.= 2825 Aermany: @B= -#8) Inited Jingdom: <( -42 3anada: I'3 (#8# Inited (tates: ?(T* . !hich tend to hold the penetrating cable tray in place. li:uefied petroleum gas %'PA& vessels. typically made of rock!ool and elastomeric toppings.= #+2=etherlands: =. !hereas Aermany includes a very rigorous impact test during the fire for fire!alls. . valves. resulting in the favouring of firestop mortars. firestops and more. !hich are uni:ue to 3anada and the Inited (tates. including fire resistive !raps and tapes to protect speciality valves and other items deemed to re:uire protection against fire and heatHan analogy for this !ould be a safe& or the provision of circuit integrity measures to keep electrical cables operational during an accidental fire. fixing the reactor may be more important than evacuation for key safety personnel.xamples of testing that underlies certification listing: • • • • • • .##6 . Aermany is uni:ue in including heat induced expansion and collapse of ferrous cable trays into account for firestops.g. /88 93 for structural steel elements to maintain operability of the item to be protected& fireproofin! claddin! %boards used for the same purpose and in the same applications as spray fireproofing& *aterials for such cladding include perlite. bulkheads or decks belo! either #-8 93 for electrical items or ca.• • mechanical services. (pin offs from these basic tests cover closures. as evacuation may be more complex or impossible. gypsum.ectives in codes. Furnace operations. .. vermiculite. both buildings and ships.

The interior fire timeFtemperature curve is referred to as 0.inheitstemperaturkurve L standard timeFtemperature curve& or the 0building elements0 curve. ?n up to date fire protection plan. fire alarm systems. !hich is enforced by the fire prevention officers of the municipal fire department. one differentiates bet!een 0old0 and 0ne!0 barrier systems. !hich burn hotter and faster. Bn order to kno! !hether or not oneMs building is in compliance !ith fire safety regulations. (uch revie!s by the ?uthority Naving Jurisdiction %?NJ& also help to prevent potential problems that may not be apparent to a building o!ner or contractors. through testing performed in governmental laboratories such as those maintained by 3anadaMs Bnstitute for .etfire0 test. during the construction of buildings. are typical re:uirements for demonstration of compliance !ith applicable la!s and regulations. !hich has been used to some extent in the IJ and =or!ay but is not typically found in common regulations. it is helpful to kno! !hat systems one has in place and !hat their installation and maintenance are based upon. fire detectors. fire sprinklers.ect to regulatory scrutiny. $%ld$ versus $ne $ Aenerally. etc. to achieve :uantified fire resistance ratings. 01ld0 systems have been tested and verified by governmental authorities including @B<t ")$. The most severe. 3hanges to fire protection systems or items affecting the structural or fire integrity or use %occupancy& of a building is sub. a revie! by the local fire prevention officer. These organisations each publish in codes and standards.nforcement for compliance !ith building codes is typically the responsibility of municipal building departments. fire extinguishers. or. !all and floor assembly details that can be used !ith generic. Aermany "-$ and the . of all fire exposure tests is the <ritish 0. such as office buildings. fireproofing. ?rchitects routinely refer to these details in dra!ings to enable contractors to build passive fire protection barriers of certain ratings. containing a complete inventory and maintenance details of all fire protection components. the <ritish (tandards Bnstitute %<(B& and the =ational .esearch 3ouncilMs Bnstitute for . !hereas in interior applications.Bn exterior applications for the offshore and the petroleum sectors. ? contemplated change to a facility re:uires a building permit. and most rarely used.esearch in 3onstruction. 1nce construction is complete. if the change is very minor. standardised components. fire protective systems must conform to the re:uirements of building code that !as in effect on the day that the building permit !as applied for.esearch in 3onstruction "+$. !hich then publishes the results in 3anadaMs =ational <uilding 3ode %=<3&. Typically. the building must maintain its design basis by remaining in compliance !ith the current fire code. !hereas the high temperature variety is called the hydrocarbon curve as it is based on burning oil and gas products. The 0old0 systems are sometimes added to.TJ0 %. factories and residential. . the fire endurance is based upon experiences gained from burning !ood. including firestops. 'arge and very common deficiencies in existing buildings include the disabling of fire door closers through propping the doors open and running rugs through them and perforating fire resistance rated !alls and floors !ithout proper firestopping. the fire endurance testing uses a higher temperature and faster heat rise.

by comparison.udgment. This led to a congressional en:uiry. publish their 0old0 systems in respective standards. The most highly publicised example of PFP systems !hich !ere not sub. the :uestion of ho! one can be sure. though not a legislative or regulatory re:uirement. significant press coverage and a large amount of remedial !ork on the part of the industry to mitigate the problem. !hich !as brought to light by !histleblo!er Aerald W. See also . <ro!n. product certification is the key to the success and legal defensibility of passive fire protection barriers. but contrary to =orth ?merica and Aermany. !hereby certification. !ho notified the =uclear . that !hat !as tested is identical to that !hich has been bought and installed is a matter of personal . alternate :uality control certifications of specific installation companies and their !ork is available.ect of certification and !ere declared inoperable by the ?uthority Naving Jurisdiction is the &hermo-'a! scandal. the proof that the manufacturer has not substituted other materials apart from those used in the original testing is based on trust in the ethics or the culpability of the manufacturer. While in =orth ?merica and in Aermany. The Inited Jingdom is an exception to this. @B=-#8) Part %Aermany& and <(-42 %Inited Jingdom&. and other countries !hich do not re:uire certification. building authorities do not re:uire !ritten proof that the materials that have been installed on site are actually identical to the materials and products that !ere used in the test. as the test results are not communicated in the form of uniformly structured listings. (till. although not testing. 0=e!0 systems are typically based on certification listings. Countries here certification is optional Fire tests in the IJ are reported in the form of test results. apart from faith in the vendor.egulatory 3ommission of the inade:uacy of fire testing for circuit integrity measures in use in licensed nuclear po!er plants. !hereby the installed configuration must comply !ith the tolerances set out in the certification listing. There is no kno!n case a similar instance for PFP systems !hich !ere under the follo! up regime of organisations holding national accreditation for product certification. The test report is also often interpreted by engineers. such as @B<t or Inder!riters 'aboratories.IJ. is optional. Bn the IJ.