Preface: Over the past several years, the construction industry has seen enormous changes. From an industry steeped in conservative practices and narrowly scoped services, construction has moved to the forefront of the design and construction profession. From general contracting to construction management to project management and program management, the method of servicing the industry has evolved to be more varied and comprehensive. This requires students alike understand the many aspects of the world of owners, designers, tenants, regulatory agencies, community agencies and subcontractor. Each participant brings political, professional and personal motivation to the process, and each has the ability to place constraints on the project. To effectively navigate in this environment, the successful project manager must recogni e the role of each participant, understand the nature of the project itself, and effectively use management tools to bring the project forward in a timely and cost effective manner. !n this project, we have decided to choose "uala #umpur $ity $enter %"#$$& as our group scope of study. This project will e'plore the people involved in the design and construction process, the principal phases of a project, the bidding and procurement process and the tools required to effectively manage the people and the project. Objectives: Objectives of this project are( i. ii. iii. iv. to e'plore the people involved in the design and construction of "#$$ to e'plore the principal phases during "#$$ construction to know the bidding and procurement process related to "#$$ to evaluate the tools required to effectively manage the people and the project. CHAPTER II


I tr!"#cti! s: The )etronas Twin Towers were designed to be the centrepiece of a larger comple' called the "uala #umpur $ity $entre %"#$$&, a mi'ed*use development with a site area of +,.+- acres, which includes the towers, two other office towers, underground parking and service facilities. The project site is well located in the heart of the commercial district of the city, the ./olden Triangle0. Each of the twin towers is eighty*eight storeys high and contains 1+2,333 square metres of floor space. 4ising ,-1 metres, the towers were certified the world0s tallest buildings by the $ouncil of Tall 5uildings and 6rban 7abitat in +889. The two towers are connected by a sky bridge at the forty*first and forty*second floors : the sky lobby levels : to facilitate inter*tower communication and traffic. ; multi*storey shopping and entertainment galleria connects the office towers at their bases, integrating the entire comple'. Other public functions within the comple' include the )etroleum <iscovery $entre, an art gallery, an 29- * seat concert hall and a multimedia conference centre. T$e Site: The most highly publici ed of =alaysia0s recent large projects, the "uala #umpur $ity $enter %"#$$&,occupies the most central location in downtown "uala #umpur on the former site of the >elangor Turf$lub, at the heart of what has been called the ?/olden Triangle.@ This prime location had remainedrelatively unbuilt throughout the development of the center city. Originally the location of 5ritish cricketfields, the site was later developed as a horse track. The +33*acre site for the tower comple' occupies the northwest end of the "#$$ development at theintersection of two of the most important streets in "uala #umpur, Aalan4amlee and Aalan;mpang. Thetwo towers, each with 1.B- million sq. ft. of office space, will house the world headquarters of the)etronas $orporation. !n addition to the )etronas Towers, the first stage of construction for the "#$$project, called the Corth Dest <evelopment, includes a variety of other smaller buildings. The fifty*story ;mpang

Tower and thirty*story Esso Tower together will provide +.B million sq. ft. of office space, while a+.- million sq. ft. shopping center will bring retail activity to much of the ground area of the development.; + million sq. ft. hotel will occupy another thirty*eight*story tower in the Corth Dest <evelopment. TheCational >ymphony 7all will occupy a space immediately beneath the towers. ;n 23,333 sq. ft. mosque,a utility plant that will service the entire district, and more than fifty acres of park space are also includedin this first phase of construction. !n >eptember +881, the site for the )etronas Towers was moved 133 ft. to the southwest after the resultsof more thorough geotechnical studies were known. The e'istence of a subterranean porous limestonecliff, which dropped in elevation from near the surface to a depth of more than B8- ft. over the span of thesite, made the location of piles e'tremely difficult in the original location.

Pr!ject Ti%e&i e: Pr!cess 'ear

.ssociates win international competition • .*acre north*west "#$$ landmark development and .<esign +883 "#$$ development master plan • 4edevelopment of +3B acres of >elangor Turf$lubinitiated • 99 acres of new public areas.-33 tons of reinforcement steel per tower • First use of high*strength concrete %/rade 23& in =alaysia • >tructural system designed to withstand +B.33.kilometre* per*hour winds $ommencement of sky bridge • Total H-3 tons spanning 93 metres at +H3 metres above 4 $onstruction Aanuary. .133 cubic metres continuously over fifty*four hours Foundations • Foundation works reach +-3 metres below ground level >uperstructure works G 23..million sqft.pril.333 square metres of mi'ed use development .ugust. including a -3*acre park to be provided )etronas take a majority stake in "#$$ development • $esar )elliE .ugust.+88B .33 underground parking bays $ommencement of e'cavations • #argest concrete pour for raft foundation( +B.+881 >chematic revised design • 4evised north*west "#$$ landmark development master plan Aanuary.+88B <evelopmentFfinal design • Final design approval $ommencement of project planning • >cheme proposes( • Twin eighty*eight*storey.+88- . cineple' and restaurants • -.ppointment of design consultant team • )lans for +.+881 . si'*level retail mall.+88B .+88+ <ecember.+88. Auly.333 cubic metres of super high* strength concrete • +2.-1*metre*high towers and sky bridge • +.pril.

.+882 .3 metres per second First batch of )etronas personnel moved in • Total projected occupancy is .ugust.-33 per day Opening of >uria "#$$ Opening of <ewanFilharmonik Opening celebration ceremony =arch.+889 October.street level Aanuary.+889 $ompletion Aanuary.+889 Fit*out of interiors • $ommencement of fitting out the interiors with furniture Aacking up of pinnacles • The spire of Tower One was jacked up on 9 =arch +889 • The spire of Tower Two was jacked up on ++ =arch +889 Elevators • Fifty*eight sets of high*speed double*decker lifts travel up to 9.+888 5 .ugust.+882 .+88H =ay.-33 per tower • Iisitor population +.

and the professionali ation of the construction industry. then organi ed an invited international competition for the design of the building that would house the national headquarters of the )etronas $orporation. a group consisting of )etronas and a handful of other investors.& acted as the local project manager and coordinated the early phases of the project0s development. 6 . $arter. The industry is changing. <esigners and contractors can come together to offer services under one company heading. !nteractions among the people on the job can determine whether the project succeeds or fails. was awarded the master planning study for the new urban development. Co longer are the roles of individuals distinct and understood by all participants. 5ecause of the sophistication of some modern projects. "#$$ %7oldings& >dn. Thus. conflicts arise because of financial pressures.CHAPTER III PRO(ECT PARTICIPANTS I tr!"#cti! : The people in construction cover a wide range of skills and e'perience. 5hd. The firm of $ollegis. !nitial project decisions. From apprentice carpenters to company e'ecutives. Firms were invited based on their e'perience with large projects and their international reputations. including the choice of the site. and safety is always concern. it is important to understand who these people are and what their motivations will be when they come to job. were made locally and involved the prime minister directly. the one thing that they share is their passion for the built environment. owners desire to minimi e risk. The building industry is a tough one( risks are high. these roles are shifting and merging. 5oth can act as representatives of the owner. Owners can have large in*house design and construction groups. T$e Or)a i*ati! s !f t$e Pr!jects: The "uala #umpur $ity $enter 5hd. and Iail.. working conditions are often harsh. %"#$$ 5hd.

@ )elli0s team. !n addition to their responsibility as local project architects. #ehrer =c/overn had recently completed the $anary Dharf project in #ondon with $esar )elli and . the selection of . Even )elli0s office had been working under an informal letter of agreement. remained largely intact at the endof this reorgani ation.ssociates from Toronto resultedfrom the unusual nature of the work environment. $esar )elli won the design competition and was chosen as ?design consultant@ for the project. #ehrer =c/overn stepped in and took control of the early stages of the project.damson .ssociates.ssociates. .ssociates. and they later joined .ssociates in Cew 7aven. 5ruce >chlait er. . to join them as their international counterpart in the role of project managers. the production architect. team had very little e'periencewith projects of this scale. and $esar )elli and . chose #ehrer =c/overn. team comprised of many of the top architects in =alaysia had been organi ed by "#$$ 5hd.ssociates.ccording to >chlait er. members of this team rotated into the office of $esar )elli and . to be the local ?architect of record@ for the )etronas building. a subsidiary of the #ondon*based 5ovis !nternational. there had been no formal contracts. and the contract for the production architect was reawarded. the project manager from #ehrer =c/overn.To this point. !n >eptember +88+.rchitectural <ivision "#$$ 5hd. This temporary firm was made up of roughly si'ty architects and was named the . The #ehrer =c/overn team0s first task was to draft and prepare contracts for allparties. "#$$ 5hd. ?De0d learned from our e'perience with the $anary Dharf project that it was prudent for an aggressive developer to step in and reevaluate the initial consultant teams and then take an active role in the reappointment of consultants andsuppliers. Aohn 5urgee. . 7 . noted. 5ecause the developer on the "#$$ 5hd.They included "ohn )ederson Fo'. to help with the initial design phases. Following the selection of $esar )elli and .ldo 4ossi. $onnecticut. "#$$Js desire for highly computeri ed elevator testing capabilities led to a changein the elevator consulting team. which had been assembled for the competition. ""> from Aapan. The processof selecting a production architect for the project involved inviting several firms to present proposals forproduction services. to help produce the construction documents for the project.damson . 7elmutAahn.

"uala #umpur . =ilsomEDilke.ssociates. "uala #umpur $onsultants >T6<!O>. Cew 7aven.rchitectural <ivision. <avid $oon.ssociates.!. >an Francisco Dalker /roup. Cew Lork >hen."uala #umpur Flack N "urt . >teven =archetti. 4obertoEspejo. Cew LorkM 4anhill 5ersekutu>dn. Pers! I v!&ve" i KLCC Desi) i ) a " C! str#cti! Pr!cess: Owner .The fact that "#$$ 5hd. would be taking responsibility for the stamping of the drawings while at the same timelooking for a ?mentoring@ relationship meant that fle'ibility would be required of the production architect. Toronto 5almori .ssociates.l. Aane Twombly. Ceil )runier. "risti 7awkins. )eter Follett. <avid $hen.ssociate architect #andscape design ( ( ( 5erhad . 4obert Carracci.ssociates $esar )elli F. !nc. %$ollaborating <esigner& Aon )ickard . 4ussell 7olcomb. $onnecticutM C4 . Ilad>imionescu. Cew Lork !srael 5erger E ..rchitect*of*record .damson .Ks architectural division.ssociates. Fred $larke F.coustics ( ( ( ( ( ( Thornton*Tomasetti Engineers. 7eather Loung. Enrique )elli. >ophie 7arvey. >elangor >tructural engineers ( =E) engineers !nterior designer 4etail #ighting $urtain wall . =ark Outman. $C!. 5hd.!. asproject architects.lison 7ome. 5hd. .l. <ean Ober. 5hd. $esar )elliE . Cew Lork 7oward 5randstonE )artners.picella. Aerome del Fierro. <avid >trong..rchitect <esign principal )roject principal <esign team leader )roject manager <esigners ( ( ( ( ( ( ( "uala #umpur $ity $entre 7oldings >dn. /regg Aones. Edward <ionne. #arry Cg . . Cew Lork 8 . 5A >iegel. Aohn . Tenaga>dn. Cew LorkM "T..

$onstruction $o.rup Aururunding.ssociates. #td. #td. !nc. >yarikat Aasatera>dn. Cashville Ove . 5hd.rup and )artners. 6"M . Toronto #erch 5ates E . $alifornia Techcord $onsulting /roup. $algary Emery Iincent.5hd. 7a ama $orporation F A.ssociates. =elbourne 4olf Aensen E . <eerfield. #td.<ong Engineering E $onstruction $o. !llinois Dilbur >mith . =itsubishi $orporation $ontractors Tower One $ontractors Tower Two ( >"A joint venture>amsung Engineering E $onstruction $o. =anchester.7o 7up $onstruction >dn. >ingapore $entral )arking >ystems..Iertical transportation( E'terior maintenance ( >ecurity /raphics #ife safety Traffic )arking >iteFcivil Dind*tunnel testing ( ( ( ( ( ( ( "at <rago $ompany.ssociates. #td. 9 . Temecula. "uala #umpur 4owan Dilliams <avies and !rwin %4D<!&. /uelph Ontario ( =ayjaus %=alaysia Aapan 6s& joint venture ==$ Engineering E$onstruction $o.

Then the project enters the designFbuild phase. !t is then built. !f projects were managed more carefully during the initiation stage. !t starts out as an idea. . and a project is born. . no matter what the contractual arrangement. facility can last for hundreds of years. To answer this initiation phase. we might have fewer problems in the final stage. =ost attention and effort during a project is focused on the end point or final delivery. I itiati! P$ase: !nitiation phase is the first stage for most projects. it is turned over to the owner as a finished facility and is occupied.constractors and also consultants. we will look what the objectives behind the decision taken before because it answer our questions why government awarded this project to international company 10 . but the period in which it is actually designed and built is very small. =any people are involved in the life cycle of a building. need to work in harmony to fulfill the many functions that must be performed. The idea is combined with money. The project is developed as drawings and specifications.TH I tr!"#cti! : The life of a facility goes through many phases. $onstruction professionals are hired to carry out the actual assembly and erection process. First are those who analy e the need for the facility and decide whether it is economically and programmatically feasible. maintained and repaired as it ages and eventually dies. .rchitects are hired to design it.CHAPTER I+ PRO(ECT GRO.ll parties. Dhen it is complete. "#cc construction management as we knew had a big collaboration of internationals agencies.

+ st floor from each tower.For "#$$. one of the objectives in the construction of "#$$ were to create an engineering decision that will challenge local industries. Otherwise. Other e'ample regarding this was a decision to frame a buiding of this scale using a high*strength concrete that had never been implemented at any construction in =alaysia. This is due to success of $hicago Tower implemented the same type of concrete. #ast but not least was the irregular condition of the soils demanded the use of detailed geotechnical studies to carefully si e and position each aspect. they want to create innovative engineering and construction strategies like a proposal to built a skybridge that connected . they want to create a technology that can be use to pump up the mi' to this height which led to testing of two different concrete delivery system. 11 .!t consists of . Thus.St#"-: Feasibility study is an advance assessment towards a project to make a rational decision whether the project should proceed or not. 5ecause of their decision to use high strength concrete. Furthermore. Technical * The best two contractor from korean and japan were need to present their technical capacities include labour and technologies aspect. 5ased on the Dawasan 1313 at the beginning . they also meant to develop local industries to permeated all levels of the international design and construction process. what had been done at initiation phase was to decide to whom should the tender be awarded to. . it been decided that they wanted a combination of local and international firms in bidding.major aspects( i.long with this initiation phase. Feasibi&it. government tried so hard to push forward local contractors and also building industry members.1th and .

* ii. On the other hand.* !n pumping up the concrete. to lift concrete to an intermediate pumping platform.breaks the world record for the highest continuous pump. it can also attract tourists from all over the world and at the same time increase the our tourism industry.a research found that it can attract multinational companies to allocate their office in both towers since "#$$ itself located at a very strategic location.Furthermore.ustralia was chosen to provide on*site batching plant. . 5ut. 12 . at that time. after carefully searching.their contribution through money spending also make our country able to provide a proper financing for "#$$ iii.each of them had presented the best technology they can provide for this construction.feasibility studies also shown that it can increase international investors on shopping center located at the base of the tower. Economical * * it is related what is the return after the completion.ccording to their decision of using the high strength concrete.The "orean team had use the powerful /erman*enngineered pums. * . =alaysia economic growth had reach at its peak time when we also in a line to increase outside investors. 4egarding where to money came from is a bit too private and confidential for public e'pose. Aapanese team had use the imported technology of the high*speed hamper hoise from 6>. Fortunately. a supplier from . at that time. backup plan had been use that was support from local production of the structural concrete helped avoiding any delays. * not just that. These aspects of technical preparation made the team confident to proceed this project Financing * total cost of "#$$ construction at that time was is a problem to find a supplier that can provide on*site batching plant.2 billion.

it also strengthen Tun =ahathir0s name as a good leader that not only can lead malaysia towards a better economic growth. v. iv. 5rief design $oncept design >chematic design <esign development $onstruction documents 13 . Options for the main system elements are selected and developed to create concept design drawings and related documents.iv. iii.but we0re capable to invest in such projects * otherwise. >ubsequently.)roject design stage involves( i. "#$$ construction bring a good impact for our country name. $onsideration of the interfaces between different elements using multi*disciplinary reviews is key to successful integration.lthough we are still catogori ed as a developing country. was e'pected to open more job chances to our people for them to grow in line with the economy and facilities. a studies shown that it can increaseFstrengthen the economic institution for the return from investors. * in social aspect. the design elements shall be developed and integrated to provide the build and operate design solution.but also towards a world class facilities. Desi) !f t$e Pr!ject: This stage develops the selected option as a single costed business solution. !nstitution * * for this it is more relate to what institution will get benefits the most from the project. )olitical and social benefits * in political aspects. v.

This temporary firm was made up of roughly si'ty architects and was named the . . members of this team rotated into the office of $esar )elli and . the delicacy of local wooden screens and the richness of traditional weaving methods offered inspiration for the design of the buildings. large pewter sculptural element. . members of )elli0s team. . when $esar )elli won the design competition and was chosen as ?design consultant@ for the )etronas Twin Tower project. This also increased the surface area of the towers.ssociates in Cew 7aven. to be the local ?architect of record@ for the )etronas building. !n addition to their responsibility as local project architects.mong numerous discoveries. Tile patterning and wall stenciling is refer to these local sources. including senior associates Aon )ickard and #awrence Cg. To try to define a more purely =alaysian design sensibility. 14 . !t was a building that have the identity of =alaysia and have a symbol to somehow distill the culture of =alaysian. <espite the initial stated desires of the local design team to look to western precedents as symbols of the modernity for )etronas Twin Tower and the prime minister wanted to convey in the project.rchitectural <ivision "#$$ 5hd. to help with the initial design phases. ma'imi ing views from the interior while simultaneously using the te'turing to break down the perceived scale from the e'terior. $esar )elli0s office attempted to define a new typology more closely linked with the specifics of the tropical climate and the richness of the =alaysian culture. The use of the rotating !slamic eight*pointed star as a formal generator for the buildings0 plan created a repetitive patterning in the curtain wall that is reminiscent of the geometrical forms of !slamic art. The ancient songketweavings were also a notable inspiration. team comprised of many of the top architects in =alaysia had been organi ed by "#$$ 5hd. traveled e'tensively throughout the region to gain e'perience and e'posure to =alaysia0s people and their crafts. hangs above the main space of the towers0 entry hall.The design processes of "#$$ start on >eptember +88+. $onnecticut. which draws its patterning and formal logic from the delicacy of the silk and golden threads of songketweavings.

connected by the skybridge at levels forty*one and forty* two. which )elli refers to as ?cosmic pillars@ and )ickard has called ?columns of light.ssociates.The e'istence of the e'ternal louvers has also reportedly improved the psychological character of the interior spaces by offering a level of reassurance to inhabitants.The glass that was used. The use of stainless steel as a cladding material was also unique for a project of this scale. allowed the tower to become quite transparent. members of the "#$$ architectural division rotated into the Cew 7aven office of $esar )elli and . Throughout the initial design phases. This transparency allowed the human scale to be perceived from outside the building. The eighty*eight story towers. 15 . some staying for as long as a year. >tainless steel louvers that projected past the surface of the building were carefully engineered to shade the window surfaces while ma'imi ing views from the interior.@ owe much of their lightness to the integrated use of clear glass and stainless steel in the cladding system. define a space that )elli describes as a portal that ?symboli es the threshold between the tangible and the spiritual worlds. which had a slight green tint because of its low*E coating. based on the rotating !slamic 2*point star. Figure Typical #ower Floor )lan. The towers.

but most typically resulting from contracting or subcontracting project scope. the constructions of the project begin. approving variations and organising the inspections.Pr!c#re%e t P$ase: )rocurement is defined as the overall process of finding and purchasing the materials called for in the contract and hiring the best subcontractors to build the project. <esign * The towers were designed by the architectural firm of $esar )elli and . )rocument phase for "#$$ project adopting the <esign and 5uild procument method. The basic concept of <esign and 5uild approach is for the organisation requiring the project to be contracted with a single organisation that would be responsible for design. 16 . stability and rationality * all important principles of !slamO. This geometric figure has been described by architects as symbols of Ounity.>ometimes the result of company teaming arrangements. The pattern consists of two rotated squares. monitoring construction. with circle infills where the squares intersect. engineering and commissioning. )elli chose a geometric pattern common to =uslim heritage. The stages in the construction phase of building project including organising the necessary consents. <ue to the prevalent !slamic culture of =alaysia. <etails about procurement phase for "#$$ designing and construction project are discussed in $hapter I. making progress payments. procurement. The construction phase is consists of three phase whice are ( i. harmony.ssociates. )rocurement phase focuses on that part of the projectKs scope of work which will be bought from another organi ation. C! str#cti! P$ase: Once the procurement process has been completed.

twelve*month contract for the foundation of the entire project mandated a 4= +13.  The foundation system of the towers consists of a .33 per day fine if completion deadlines were not met. The 4= -1 =illion. while getting smaller and smaller in circumference.3 meters to +3. lime stone bedrock. more than twice the weight bearing capacity of "enny 7ill soil. to control predicted settlement under different thickness of "enny 7ill foundation underlain by limestone. and many involved with the process have noted the similarity of the construction methods employed by the two teams.-*meter*thick piled raft supported on rectangular friction piles % barrettes & varying in depth from . "enny 7ill . The two teams are 7a ama $orporation from Aapan for the construction of Tower + and >amsung $ET and "ukdong Engineering E $onstruction from "orea for Tower 1. where the buildings would sit on a concrete mat anchored to soil.  E'cavation at the early stages of construction revealed major problems with the . a French*owned company based in 7ong "ong and a local firm. . $onsequently. 5oth 17 . Each tower will also e'ert +.333*metric*ton weight of each tower was to be spread over a large concrete slab. it was decided to move the towers about 93* meter south*east. not bedrock.3*story circular bustles attached to each building for additional office space. There are also two smaller. ii.+.metres. The B33. making it much more e'pensive and difficult to build the foundations as planned. $onstruction * Foundation )rofiling  The contract was awarded on =arch +88B. The foundation contracting team consists of <ragagesetTravau')ubliques. 5achy*>oletanche>dn5hd and First Cationwide Engineering >dn 5hd.. * >tructural >ystems  Two separate construction teams were employed for two towers. The limestone bedrock below the towers turned out to slope steeply to one side. enough to cause the foundation to fail.3 kilo)ascal of pressure.The circular pattern rises consistently to the top of the building. by concrete friction piles.

 Each tower is supported by a ring of si'teen cylindrical columns of high* strength reinforced concrete. architect. also made by structural concrete. placed on the inner corners of the star*shaped plan to form a . but the taper as they rise through the floors. >tructural steel was used for typical long span floor beams supporting concrete*filled metal deck slabs. P*cool recovery0 system is used to save energy. and each of the curved or pointed bays cantilevering beyond the perimeter columns is steel*framed. as are twelve smaller perimeter columns and ring beams around each . which took place every Dednesday. The cores create two virtually ?solid@ walls running north*south and east* west. . The columns are nearly 1. enhancing the building0s svelte profile. $oncrete outrigger beams tie the perimeter columns to the cores at the thirty*eighth and fortieth levels. Throughout the construction of the towers.n advanced .soft*tube0. as well as sloping towards the center of the towers. * =echanical >ystems  The mechanical systems incorporated in the )etronas Towers are unprecedented in =alaysia. members from each team were permitted to enter the construction site of the other team only during scheduled tour. The e'tensive construction supervision provided by the engineers.bustle0. and management teams was also an acknowledge conduit for information transfer between the towers. . This tours are well attended and tremendous amount of information was e'changed during these encounters.t the centre of each tower is an appro'imately 1B*by*1B*metre concrete core.dvanced fiber*optic networks are in place to facilitate data transmission. The core and cylindrical tube frame system is constructed entirely of in*situ high*strength concrete. carefully organi ed elevator system was needed given the height of the towers.teams are referred as Team Aapan and Team "orea. meters in diameter at the base of the building. 18 . with the columns linked by slightly arched ring beams. to provide additional stiffness to the structure. .. .

a principal of Flack and "urt . a dessicant in the wheel absorbs humidity from the inflow air and discharges it into the e'haust air to help minimi e the load on the building0s dehumidification equipment.  The consistent heat and humidity of this tropical city necessitated an innovative cooling system for the )etronas Towers. The inability of fire apparatus to navigate the traffic of the city center made it essential that any fire in the comple' could be controlled locally.@+.. To meet this demand. Flack and "urt incorporated energy recovery wheels into the air handling system. 19 .The +1* ft. ?its application in an office building near the equator is unique. Corman "urt . unique fire control system was also developed to respond to the specific needs of such a tall building and the limitations of the "uala #umpur infrastructure. To minimi e the cost of cooling the inflow air. The heat from the incoming e'terior air is transmitted through the wheel into the cooler e'haust air. the consulting mechanical engineering firm of Flack and "urt stressed the importance of a high turnover rate of fresh air. >imultaneously. noted that although this technology had been available for almost twenty years. and smoke e'haust systems have been integrated into the building. To maintain a high level of air quality within the project. pressuri ation.  The fire control system needed to be developed in accordance with the highly specific demands placed upon it by the height of the towers and the congestion of downtown "uala #umpur. The e'ceedingly warm climate of "uala #umpur made this an e'pensive proposition. e'tensive sprinkler.*diameter wheels rotate slowly as the supply and e'haust air streams pass over them. This system reportedly drops the humidity of the supply air from 83 percent to H3 percent and reduces the fresh air cooling load by as much as -3 percent.

ll parking was removed from beneath the towers and more backup fire controls were added. Florida 20 . inches per floor. had to be accommodated by the panel connections. This commitment aligned with the secondary goals of information transfer. The skybridge came to be seen as a key path for emergency egress between the towers. calculated to be as much as . it was important to incorporate pressuri ed safe ones throughout the comple'..  The locally manufactured stainless steel curtain wall system consisted of large low*E coated glass panels held in a stainless steel frame.5ecause of the difficulty of egress in towers of this scale. a number of changes were made to the buildings security and safety systems that were already under construction.9*ft. The large*scale investment in machinery and personnel that 7armon had already committed to projects in =alaysia made the company a clear choice for the curtain wall contracts. !nter*story drift. and a number of facilities organi ed and constructed for the )etronas project have continued production following the completion of the towers. were relocated away from the building. The panels were designed and produced to navigate three slope changes that occur because of the stepping back of the tower profiles. 5efore the production of the B+. * $ladding  The fabrication of the e'terior cladding system was carried out locally by a limited partnership organi ed by 7armon. located on the premises of the towers. three full*scale 9-. >tainless steel louvers projected out from the surface of the panels to help eliminate solar gain from high sun angles. . a curtain wall fabricator from =innesota.*square panels were tested e'tensively at $onstruction 4esearch #aboratories in =iami.333 panels to be used in the towers. !n the wake of the Oklahoma $ity terrorist bombing. Emergency generators.

m long and weighs about H-3 tonnes. >tructures Engineering <esign The structural system selected utilises a Ktwo*hinge archK springing from supports at level 18 and rising at 9B degrees to support a pair of parallel two*span continuous bridge girders at #evel . while both girder and blocks slide on pads.+.  The girders are pinned on the arch crown. the legs change slope.  $ontinuous e'pansion joints provided through the level . . fle'ing the two main girders. which stays centered between the Towers. as window panel movement is then limited to each half*span rather than cumulating over the whole girder length.. The two*hinge arch supporting the bridge has rotational pins %spherical bearings& at the end of each leg or Kspring pointK and at the top or KcrownK of the arch %bearings&. The bridge mid*point sinks or rises.s the Towers move together or apart. the spherical bearings rotate at spring points and the legs fle' at their top end. meters double*decked skybridge is located at levels . 21 . The main bridge girders have a rotational %centering& pin directly over the arch crown to permit the crown to rise and fall as the Towers move closer or further apart.1 joining the sky lobbies situated in both towers. The bridge is -2.* >kybridge  The skybridge is an essential functional component linking the Twin Towers to facilitate movement between the two towers.1 and .+ and . The -2. )roviding e'pansion joints at mid*point reduces the effect of girder fle'ure on bridge gla ing..B structure.  The arch is a centering device. The mid*span centering pin and two girder slip pads accommodate this movement.  The structure of the two*level bridge is conventional framing constructed of structural steel with beams moment*connected to columns which bear on the level .+ continuous girders. facade and roof to each side of the bridge mid point. equalising joint movement at both Towers.

1. or when they KtwistK. two end blocks and the centre section. The centre section of the skybridge frame.9 metres long and weigh about 93 tonnes each The five sections of each set of legs were completely assembled and checks on the whole dimension. !n the event that it loses its arch support. the whole assembly was painted and the e'ternal building maintenance equipment for the legs installed.metres in width and nine metres in height. the bridge structure would not collapse but deflect and stay in position.1 and . * .  >kybridge #egs • The two inclined legs are appro'imately . .B were constructed in metal decking.ssembly of >kybridge  Fabrication • The skybridge was fabricated and shop assembled by >amsung 7eavy !ndustries of >outh "orea. measuring . over . The fully assembled bridge was then dismantled and shipped to "uala #umpur in .9. . tonnes&.fter the roof level concrete slab was placed. was assembled at the concourse level.+ metres in length.merican >ociety for Testing and =aterials %. the skybridge was pre* assembled into five main components comprising the two legs.  $entre >ection • The B3H parts of the frame for the centre section of the skybridge were fully assembled and bolted. The fabrication works complied with some of the most stringent industry standards and codes such as those maintained by the . the arch spring points twist on the spherical bearings and bridge end bearings slide in opposing directions guided by Ksliding keeperK blocks on bridge center line.!>$&. The centre sectionKs internal floors and roof at level . To facilitate putting it into place. 22 . 5ritish >tandard %5>&.-1. camber and alignment were made before bolting.8B pieces %. Dhen the Towers move side*to*side in opposite directions. and .+.merican !nstitute of >teel $onstruction %.>T=&.

23 .B metres long and weigh about B3 tonnes each. . * )innacle  The two +-3*ton stainless steel pinnacles were fabricated off*site and installed upon completion of the structural frame of each tower. This pendulum operated dampers were field tested and inserted to the centre section of the legs just prior to final assembly.fter the whole dimension and alignment of the end blocks were checked.  End 5locks • 5oth end blocks of the skybridge were assembled at concourse level with main girders.Tuned mass dampers have been engineered for the legs.  #ifting of >kybridge • I># 7eavy #ifting. cross beams and hori ontal bracing. These dampers have been designed after a complete wind tunnel test to accommodate the comfort level by dampening any effects of unusual wind conditions and possible long term fatigue due to resonance of the legs. ?De were concerned that having the mesh ball attached to the pinnacle as it was hoisted would complicate the installation. they were ready to be lifted. was appointed for the lifting of the skybridge studies and preparation for the lifting was carried out for more than a year in several countries including the 6nited >tates and >outh "orea. The two end blocks are appro'imately 2.%Fig. There are nine main steps in the lifting of the skybridge.lan Caspinski compared the installation techniques employed by the two teams when he said. Therefore. The installation was a clear e'ample of the competition between the teams as well as the opportunity for information transfer. +-& . The "orean team installed the ball prior to hoisting. we chose to install the ball after the pinnacle had been set in place. a specialist in this field. simulating various wind and weather conditions including those based on actual load data over the past -3 years.

high*speed elevators can cause earaches. Dith each tower boasting 18 double*deck elevators moving at speeds between B. This prompted the builders to design high*speed double*deck elevators.fter actual construction is complete. the designers were concerned with speed along with the effects that such elevators have on passengers. and time to have single elevators traveling directly from the bottom to the top of the building.* Elevator  !n office buildings the si e of the )etronas Towers. and. To further increase effectiveness. high winds that cause the building to sway can also have an adverse effect on the elevatorKs cable system. Ha "Over P$ase: .. it is inefficient in terms of money. but servicing different floors. it is important that there be an efficient elevator system that can handle the large numbers of people that use the elevators simultaneously. the elevators each carry 19 people and are designated to service only even or odd numbered floors.  The organi ation of double*deck system involves two elevators occupying one elevator shaft. the project must be turned over to the owner for use during the rest of its economic life.  Dhen building these shuttles. >tudies have shown that during long descents. Turnover is also a legal process during which the building becomes the legal property and responsibility of the owner.1 through 22. <esigners have also learned that if an elevator has been stationary for a while. therefore. The bottom elevator travels from the ground floor to the sky lobby on the forty first floor. the elevatorsK speed should not e'ceed 1333 feet per minute. 24 . >ince the towers are each 22 stories high.and H meters per second. while the top shuttle services floors . there are shorter waiting times and less traffic. space.

333 square metres of floor space %gross building area& in each of the towers. On . On =ay +882. This result in total projected occupancy is around . a si'*storey shopping and entertainment comple' to include two department stores. the opening celebration ceremony was held on B+ st . O. the functional requirements were to provide 1+2. =ahathir =ohammad.ccording to the architect0s report. .33 cars. These personnel occupy the Tower + as Tower + was established as the main office of )etronas. cinemas..-33 per day.ugust +88H by the )rime =inister.-33 per tower. >uria "#$$ is opened. Each of the two towers contains eighty*eight storeys.. thus causes the average visitor population for about +. all the facilities were opened such as the park. the orchestra hall named <ewan Filharmonik )etronas was opened. Finally. Tower One houses the )etronas 7eadquarters0 offices and facilities. =ore allocated shops outlet were provided. . as well as a concert hall. the art gallery and etc.Once the construction is completed by the end of October +889. shops. while Tower Two accommodates local and international private tenants. 25 .t Aanuary +88H the first batch of )etronas personnel moved in. Dhile Tower 1 will have some allocated office space for )etronas >ubsidiaries companies and office space for rental purposes. 5y time. the $ertificate of Fitness was issued by the local authorities in this case the <ewan 5andaraya "uala #umpur %<5"#&. a speciali ed library and an interactive science discovery centre. restaurants. a five*storey shopping comple'. !t is the period in which the building is put to the use for which it was intended. <ato0 >eri <r.ugust +882.erati! !f t$e Faci&it-: This phase is the responsibility of the owner andFor tenant of the building and usually do not involve either architect or the construction professional. "#$$ 7oldings0 offices and some vacant spaces. as well as a four*storey underground car park for -. an art gallery. interactive scientific e'hibition.

rising forty*four storeys. smaller circular .bustle0 or anne'. the =alaysian )etroleum $lub %=)$& and e'ecutive dining rooms. 26 . Organi ed around this interchange are shared facilities such as the surau %prayer room&. The towers are connected at the forty*first and forty*second levels storeys by a sky bridge to facilitate communication and traffic between the towers. was added to each of the towers in order to provide more usable space..

there must be an intention to create legal relationships. !n construction.CHAPTER + BIDDING AND PROCURE/ENT I t!"#cti! : 5id can be defined as an offer to perform the work described in contract document at a specified cost. contract is a written agreements signed by the contracting parties mainly an owner and a contractor which bind them. contractors are more able to choose which project to bid on. defining relationships and obligations. it must at least have these aspects( i. contractis defines as a promise or set of promises between parties which the law will enforce. vi. iii. <eciding to bid on a project is not a trivial matter for a construction company since significant time and cost are incurred in preparing a bid. ii. For a contract to be valid. . the contract must be legal it must not be contrary to public interest it may be written or verbal it may be signed or sealed the parties must have the capacity to contract C! str#cti! !f KLCC Bi""i ) a " Pr!c#re%e t Pr!cess: The client. The company0s main motivation is to receive a good return on its investment. iv. the )etronas $orporation. !n a strong economic market. had a tremendous amount of knowledge about bidding processes inthe petroleum industry that they transferred quite directly into their strategy for selecting contractors andsuppliers for the project. =otivation to bid varies depending on a number of factors. 27 . v.

.lthough the appointment of the architectural team. the committee conducted a preliminary?normali ing process@ to ensure that the numbers made sense prior to their review. The steeringcommittee was presented with the final results of the review board0s investigation of the commercialproposals. and contracts were awarded accordingly. 5ecause all technical questions had been asked in the first review. Thefirst package. the members of the review board were given the equipment they would need toanaly e the technical proposal. . Every bidding company was asked to submit two entirely separate and highly detailed bid packages. highly organi ed process set out the guidelines for this technicalreview. called the ?technical proposal. prior to the arrival of #ehrer=c/overn. The initial request for proposals gave a very strict set of guidelines for contractors that wereplanning to submit bids.fter signing in. 28 .lthough compliance with these guidelines was mandatory.@ was used to determine the capability of the company tocomplete the work satisfactorily. had involved a relatively informal negotiating process. . The teams were instructed to prepare three separate sets of bid documents. Iery strict guidelines structured the commercial bids so that they could be fairly and efficiently judged. including( <o they have the necessary e'perienceQ 7ow have they organi ed with a local partnerQ!s this a good pairingQ . the competitive bidding for the big* ticketcontracts was a highly formal and controlled undertaking.fter the first round. called the ?commercial proposal.@ was evaluated. )erhaps the most interesting of the bidding processes involved the construction contract for the twotowers.ny firms that were judged incapable of the work werethen omitted from the second stage of the bidding they financially stable and capable of carrying out the work %verified by a letterfrom their lending institutions&Q <o they have the technical capability to complete the contracted workQ. about ten questions wereasked. this round could focus entirely on the numbers.. The technical review board then submitted a technical review booklet tothe steering committee with its recommendations. To determine this. the second package.They were asked to submit a bid for the entire project and then a separate bid focused specifically on theconstruction of one tower. .

from $harlotte. A.. Turner$onstruction from the 6nited >tates played a limited role on what came to be known as the "orean team. a joint venture of three firms. The Tower Onecontract was awarded to a team that included 7a ama $orporation and =itsubishi $orporation fromAapan. "uk <ong Engineering and $onstruction from "orea. >amsung Engineering and $onstruction.ccording to 5ruce >chlait er.two were eliminated after the review of the technical proposals. Aones $onstruction $ompany. Corth $arolina. !n addition to these three companies. This bidding process was used to evaluate competitors for a wide range of other contracts. Each of the construction teams had their own suppliers and local fabricators for structural steel.the makeup of the international teams and the care with which local contractors were integrated into thegroup was an important factor in the final decision. The contract for Tower Two and the skybridge was awarded to >"F. The long*leaditems. This would come to be known as the Aapanese team. There was an inspection of the fabricators0 operations to assess their capacity to meetthe quality and quantity e'pectations of "#$$. Theproject management team decided that they didn0t want one really large contracting group setting thepace and quality level for a project of this scale.The ?sitewide buys@ of these important components allowed for the necessary consistency between thetowers and also provided cost savings for the owners. #ehrer =c/overn was careful to avoid puttingthemselves in the critical path between the contractors and their suppliers for the shorter lead time itemslike the structural steel and concrete. and the local =alaysian ==$ Engineering and $onstruction $ompany.. Of the nine international teams that submitted bids. The evaluation of the commercial bidsrevealed that there were only nominal benefits from contracting the entire project to one team. concerns about the depth of financialresources that the project would require supported their decision to split the contract. #ehrer =c/overn. like the elevators and curtain wall panels. !n addition. and thelocal construction company >yarikat Aasatera>dn. !mportduties on prefabricated steel could be avoided by importing the raw materials and performing the requiredfabrication locally. 5hd. 29 .. the project manager from #ehrer =c/overn. were contracted out using this type of bidding process. !nc.

aconcrete company from . The grade 23 high*strengthconcrete specified for much of the buildings0 structural system had never been produced in =alaysia. #ehrer =c/overn0s e'perience from the $anary Dharf project as well as their assessment of thecongestion of local roadswhich only appeared to be worsening as the project progressedled them toreali e that it would be necessary to produce the required concrete on*site. 30 .percent by notusing the on*site facility. "#$$ and #ehrer =c/overn put the concrete supply job to bid and )ioneer. !nstead of a contract alicensing agreement was drawn up. was chosen. #ehrer =c/overn set up an agreement that the contractors coulduse any supplier of concrete as long as they could demonstrate cost savings e'ceeding . !twas therefore important that the engineers and project management teams be able to maintain a highlevel of quality control. !n most cases.and Thornton*Tomasetti.ustralia.some alterations were made as a result of these inspections to assure that e'pectations could be met. 5oth teams were supplied by )ioneer. in partnership with a local firm.

the architect may provide the client with a construction management company. Refere ces: 31 . commercial and some high end residential projects. On retail. $onstruction management is aimed at meeting a clientKs requirement in order to produce a functionally and financially viable project The importance of construction management in construction is to eliminate higher costs and to eliminate any delay as well as value engineering. The right construction management can also help ensure the health and safety of all the workers involved in the project. almost all the time.CHAPTER +I CONCLUSSION $onstruction management is the overall planning. <epending on the si e of the construction project. the general contractor may provide this service. and control of a project from beginning to completion. coordination.

comFenFwmFc'FQidS+33+H1 http(FFwww. /alal Education.ward for . 133B. /alal .Frederick E.skyscraperpicture.greatbuildings.!nc.htm http(FFwww.myF>howcaseF)TTFpsRpttRoverview. )etronas Offices Tower.comFkualalumpur. "uala #umpur.html http(FFwww. =alaysia. >piro ) $onstruction )roject =anagement. 7arvard <esign >chool.netFstructuresFdataFinde'.klcc. "uala #umpur.cfmQ!<Ss33333-B http(FFwww.. !nternational $ooperation and !nformation Transfer in the 4eali ation of the Dorld0s Tallest and Cancy E.structurae. Cew "han . =alaysia. 1331. The )etronas Tower.comFbuildingsF)etronasRTowers.htm http(FFwww.petronastwintowers. =ass .Aoyce.rchitecture0 http( 32 . 133.