Stainless Steel Stainless steels are high-alloy steels that have superior corrosion resistance than other

steels because they contain large amounts of chromium. Stainless steels can contain anywhere from 4-30 percent chromium, however most contain around 10 percent. Stainless steel must contain at least 10.5% chromium to provide adequate resistance to rusting. And, the more chromium the alloy contains, the better the corrosion resistance. However, it is important to remember there is an upper limit to the amount of chromium the iron can hold. By definition, stainless steel must contain a minimum of 50% iron. Stainless steels can be divided into following basic groups based on their crystalline structure: 1. Ferritic 2. Martensitic 3. Austenitic 4. Duplex 5. Precipitation-hardened steels: a combination of austenitic and martensitic steels. Ferritic grades Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic non heat-treatable steels that contain chromium but not nickel. They have good heat and corrosion resistance, in particular sea water, and good resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. Ferritic stainless steels are resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking, and have high strength. Grades like SEA-CURE stainless have the highest modulus of elasticity of the common engineering alloys, which makes them highly resistant to vibration. Their mechanical properties are not as strong as the austenitic grades, however they have better decorative appeal. Martensitic grades Martensitic grades are magnetic and can be heat-treated by quenching or tempering. They contain chromium but usually contain no nickel, except for 2 grades. Martensitic stainless steels are used in bearing races for corrosion proof bearings and other areas where erosioncorrosion is a problem. Martensitic steels are not as corrosive resistant as austenitic or ferritic grades, but their hardness levels are among the highest of the all the stainless steels. Austenitic grades Austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic non heat-treatable steels that are usually annealed and cold worked. Some austenitic steels tend to become slightly magnetic after cold working. Austenitic steels have excellent corrosion and heat resistance with good mechanical properties over a wide range of temperatures. All the austenitic stainless steels are derived from the 18Cr-8Ni stainless steels. The other grades are developed from the 18–8 base by adding alloying elements to provide special corrosion resistant properties or better weldability. For example, 1. Adding titanium to Type 304 makes Type 321, the workhorse of the intermediate temperature materials. 2. Adding 2% molybdenum to Type 304 makes Type 316, which has better chloride corrosion resistance.

Even when the ductility is adequate. and an austenite matrix with islands of ferrite characterizes the higher nickel range. hence the name Duplex Stainless Steel.3. Duplex stainless steels exist in a narrow nickel range of about 4-7%. The major weakness of the austenitic stainless steels is their susceptibility to chloride stress corrosion cracking. When the matrix is ferrite. the alloys are resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking. The metallurgy of duplex stainless steels is much more complex than for austenitic or ferritic steels. notably in heat treatment. Therefore. The high strength also comes with lower ductility than austenitic grades. High strength. is ruled out for duplex grades. higher forces are required to form the material. The chromium nickel ratio can be modified to improve formability. Adding more chromium gives Type 310 the basis for high temperature applications. a sink. The advantage of high strength immediately becomes a disadvantage when considering formability and machinability. for example in tube bending. In addition to ferrite and austenite. grade 1. for example. There is one exception to the normal rule of poorer machinability. Duplex grades These alloys are characterized by having both austenite and ferrite in their microstructure.4162. good corrosion resistance and good ductility characterize them. Two of the most important phases are illustrated in the diagram below: Sigma phase 475 degree embrittlement . One alloy. A ferrite matrix with islands of austenite characterizes the lower nickel grades. Carpenter 7-Mo PLUS‚® has the best corrosion resistance against nitric acid of any of the stainless steels because of its very high chromium content and duplex structure. When the matrix is austenitic. the alloys are sensitive to chloride stress corrosion cracking. any application requiring a high degree of formability. duplex steels can also form a number of unwanted phases if the steel is not given the correct processing. This is why 3 day conferences can be devoted just to duplex! This factor means that they are more difficult to produce at the mill and to fabricate.

e.2 0.25 5 1. They are somewhat soft and ductile in the solution-annealed state. This restriction reduces the potential range of applications even further. their strength more than doubles and they become very hard.4062/ S32202 1.3 3.2 0. Although the worst temperature is 475 deg C. EN No/UNS 1.5 4. The more highly alloyed the steel.3 0.4501/ S32760 1.5 2. 1000ºF (540ºC). A typical test temperature is minus 46 deg C for offshore oil and gas applications.4507/ S32520/ S32550 Grade 2101 LDX DX2202 RDN 903 2304 2205 2507 Zeron 100 Ferrinox 255/ Uranus 2507Cu Type Lean Lean Lean Lean Standard Super Super Super Cr 21. 475 degree embrittlement is due to the formation of a phase called α′ (alpha prime).2 - W 0.2 3. At the other end of the scale.4410/ S32750 1. but when subjected to a relatively low precipitation hardening temperature.5 Approx Composition Mo N Mn 0.10 0.5 1.4162/ S32101 1.7 7 7 6.4462/ S31803/ S32205 1.8 4. Minus 80 deg C is the lowest temperature that is normally encountered for duplex steels.8 5.4362/ S32304 1. Unlike austenitic steels duplex steels exhibit a ductile-brittle transition in the impact test. The metallurgical structure of the common grades is martensitic. This leads to a limitation on the maximum service temperature for duplex steels. the higher the probability of sigma phase formation. loss of impact toughness.7 - Cu 0.25 0.27 0. 5 23 20 23 22 25 25 25 Ni 1.4482/ S32001 1. but some of the special high . The formation of sigma phase is most likely to occur when the cooling rate during manufacture or welding is not fast enough. it can still form at temperatures as low as 300 deg C. superduplex steels are most prone to this problem. Therefore.22 0.3 0.Both of these phases lead to embrittlement.5 Precipitation Hardening grades These steels are the latest in the development of special stainless steels and represent the area where future development will most likely take place.1 4 3.17 0.5 0.7 1.11 0. there is a restriction on the low temperature use of duplex stainless steels compared to austenitic grades. i.

Table VII lists the characteristics and some examples of these alloys.75 8.02 Mn 1 1 2 P 0.015 0.Increases resistance to mineral acids Produces tightly adhering high temperature oxides Increases resistance to chlorides Provides resistance to sulfuric acid Precipitation hardener together with titanium and aluminum Austenite former .5 0. small precipitates form. Aerospace and military applications have dominated the applications in the past. copper.5 Ni Mo - 0.4016 0.045 0.1 Stainless Steel Alloying Elements and Their Purpose Alloy element Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Manganese Sulfur Purpose Oxidation Resistance Austenite former . The primary use of precipitation hardening steels is where high strength and corrosion resistance are required.0 11.0/ 10. it takes much more force to cause the cards to move. the cards in the deck easily move in response to the force. which are compounds of aluminum.11 17. If the block of steel is given the low temperature aging treatment.Precipitation hardener Carbide former and strengthener Titanium Niobium Aluminum Carbon . Now.Precipitation hardener Deoxidizer .Improves resistance to chlorides Improves weldability of certain austenitic stainless steels Improves the machinability of certain austenitic stainless steels Stabilizes carbides to prevent formation of chromium carbide Precipitation hardener Carbide stabilizer .5 5. These precipitates provide resistance to strain exerted on the structure. When a force is placed upon the cards.04 S N Cr 16.Combines with sulfur Increases the solubility of nitrogen Austenite former .0/ 18. or molybdenum.4301 0. Composition of stainless steels Structure Ferritic Martensitic Austenitic Duplex C Si Grade EN No. 430 1.5/ 19.4006 0.15 1 1. The strengthening mechanism comes from the formation of submicroscopic precipitates.07 1 1.18 22.1 0. the material is much stronger. The precipitates are so small they can be observed only at extremely high magnifications with special electron microscopes. but new uses in instrumentation and fluid control are being found.001 0.nickel grades are austenitic.4462 0. so. similar to placing sea sand on the surface of the cards.5/ 13.03 - 0.04 0. Their action may be understood by the analogy of a deck of cards to a block of steel.6 3.015 0.08 1 410 304 2205 1. titanium.

000 53.000 Alloy 255 S32550 110.000 28.000 80. Maximum Strength Type 410 S41000 190.000 30.000 220.000 29. Reducing simply dissolves the metal without a change in valence or a release of hydrogen in the process.500.000. and those resistant to a mixture of the two in the center.000 29.000 Type 316 S31600 75. Corrosion resistance increases as you move up the chart.000 65.000.000 150.000.000 SEA-CURE S44660 90.000. and are themselves.000 29.000 30.500.000 29.000 270.000 25.000 29.000.000 Type 409 S40900 55.000 Duplex Stainless Steels Alloy 2205 S31803 90.000 32.000 7Mo PLUS S32950 90.000 200.000.000 Precipitation Stainless Steels 17-7 PH S17700 210.000 Type 316L S31603 70.000 70.000. psi Yield strength.Alloy UNS number Ultimate Strength.000 Type 420 S42000 240.000 17-4 PH S17400 190.000 28.000 Type 440C S44050 280.000 190. reduced in the process.000 Type 439 S43035 60.000.000 30.000 31.000 25.000. .000 27. This chart divides the alloys into three classes: those resistant to oxidizing acids on the left.000.000 29.500.000 Type 304L S30403 70.000.000 Hardness typical Ferritic Stainless Steels Type 430 S43000 60.000 29.000 29. psi Elongation.000 Custom 455 S45500 230. % minimum 20 20 20 25 15 5 2 35 35 30 35 50 25 20 15 5 8 10 Modulus of elasticity 29.000 30.000 29.000 29.000 75. Oxidizing acids are those acids that oxidize the metals they come in contact with. This chart indicates relative corrosion resistance.000 Austenitic Stainless Steels Type 304 S30400 75.000 170.000.000 28.500.000.000 AL-6XN N08367 112.000 Martensitic Stainless Steels.000 “Y” of corrosion 85 RB 90 RB 85 RB 95 RB 41 RC 55 RC 60 RC 80 RB 75 RB 80 RB 80RB 90 RB 30 RC 30 RC 32 RC 48 RC 45 RC 48 RC A useful tool in determining corrosion resistance is the "Y" of corrosion shown in Figure 1.000 30.000.000 30. those resistant to reducing acids on the right.

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4482/ S32001 1.4509/ S43932 1.4301/ S30400 1.4401/ S31600 1.4521/ S44400 Type Ferritic Typical PREN 18 Austenitic 19 Ferritic Duplex 19 22 Austenitic 24 Ferritic 24 316L 2.Grade 430 304 441 RDN 903 316 444 EN No/UNS 1.4162/ Duplex 26 .4435 Austenitic 26 Mo 2101 1.5 1.4016/ S43000 1.

4410/ 2507 S32750 1.LDX S32101 1.4462/ 2205 S31803/ S32205 Zeron 1.4539/ 904L N08904 1.4547/ 6% Mo S31254 Duplex Duplex 26 27 Austenitic 34 Duplex Duplex 35 41 Duplex 41 Duplex 43 Austenitic 44 .4501/ 100 S32760 Ferrinox 1.4362/ 2304 S32304 1.4507/ 255/ S32520/ Uranus S32550 2507Cu 1.4062/ DX2202 S32202 1.