Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II, IMECS 2011, March 16 - 18, 2011, Hong

Kong

New Control Strategies for a Two-Leg Four-Switch STATCOM
Tsao-Tsung Ma, Member, IEEE
and continuous compensating capability. Of the known FACTS devices, the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) being a new generation of reactive power compensating devices has been widely used in various power system control [3]-[10]. The hardware of a STATCOM is similar to the shunt branch of the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and can be controlled to provide concurrent real and reactive compensations with an external electric energy source adding to the dc bus. In the literature, a number of feasible hardware configurations have been proposed for the STATCOM to perform various reactive power and voltage control functions in power systems embedded with distributed generators; however, most of them are designed on a 3-leg 6-switch (3L-6S) structure operated either by SPWM or multi-module and multi-level techniques [11]-[15]. To achieve a cost-effective design without sacrificing the control performances some possible topologies with advanced controllers with fast-response features are still call for investigations. This paper presents the design of a space vector pulse width modulated (SVPWM) two-leg four-switch (2L-4S) STATCOM to provide satisfactory performances in performing various reactive power flow control functions during steady-state and transient operations of power systems. Comprehensive simulation studies carried out in the Matlab/Simulink environment and results of various power flow control examples are presented to show the successful design of the 2L-4S STATCOM and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. II. STATCOM PRINCIPLES AND ITS CONTROLLERS A. STATCOM Review In a conventional STATCOM system, the internal 3 phase inverter normally constructed by a 3-leg and 6-switch configuration provides the main control functions via connecting its output voltage with a controllable magnitude and phase angle in shunt with the compensated power system through a transformer. In this paper, a simple three-phase converter constituted by 2-leg and 4-switch is adopted to perform both the reactive power and voltage compensation tasks [16]-[18]. This arrangement can provide an alternative topology for STATCOM with lower system cost; however, the related controllers must be properly designed to achieve a satisfactory performance. Fig. 1 shows a simple test power system with the proposed 2-leg and 4-switch STATCOM configuration. As shown in Fig. 1, the STATCOM is connected to a utility distribution system at the load terminal. The utility system is represented by a three-phase voltage source behind series RL elements in each phase. The load is a three-phase, passive RL load. In a STATCOM system, the voltage acts essentially as a controllable synchronous ac voltage source. In addition to the dc voltage regulator, the
IMECS 2011

Abstract—Voltage control and fast reactive power compensation are two important functions concerning FACTS application in the modern power systems. It has been well accepted that the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is the most versatile and powerful FACTS device that can provide effective means for controlling reactive power flow and improving the voltage stability of power networks. However, the STATCOM circuitry has complex and coupled system dynamics which require advanced controllers to achieve satisfactory performances. This paper presents the design of a space vector pulse width modulated (SVPWM) two-leg four-switch STATCOM to provide satisfactory performances in performing various reactive power flow control functions during steady-state and transient operations of power systems. For comparative purposes, two topologies, i.e., 2-leg 4-switch (2L-4S) and 3-leg 6-switch (3L-6S) based STATCOM are investigated in this study. Simulation studies carried out in the Matlab/Simulink environment are firstly described. Typical results are then presented to verify the feasibility of the 2L-4S STATCOM and the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Index Terms—power system voltage control, flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), space vector pulse width modulation

I. INTRODUCTION the trend of deregulating power industry and W installing more distributed generators, the future power system needs to provide sufficient, stable, secure, economic,
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and high-quality electric power to various load centers. It is envisaged that flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) devices or controllers are going to play a critical role in operating the new type of power systems under such a complex operating environment [1]-[2]. The basic concept drawn from the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) terminology emerges as a remedy to release the extremely transmission system tension. It needs the aid of modern power electronics and advanced control techniques to successfully replace the conventional mechanical controlled apparatuses in systems. By doing so, FACTS technology has been expected to offer two main advantages: (1) to bring the transfer capability of transmission line approaching its thermal limit without violating the stability criteria and (2) to re-assign power flows at will and on a real-time basis so as to facilitate an ideal electricity market. Besides, FACTS can also enhance the stability of the power system with its fast control characteristics
Manuscript received December 8, 2010; revised January 10, 2011. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan, R.O.C. through: NSC 99-2221-E-239-038. Tsao-Tsung Ma is with the Dept. of Electrical Engineering, CEECS, National United University, Taiwan, R.O.C. (phone: +886-37-381369; fax: +886-37-327887; e-mail: tonyma@nuu.edu.tw; tonyma@ieee.org).

ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1 ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

θ m ( t )= ω t + α m . it is desirable to obtain the model of STATCOM in the utility d-q frame. and θv and θi are the phase angles for phase voltage respectively. To transfer the abc variables to a d-q frame. where the v and i are the peak values of phase voltage and phase current respectively. The STATCOM variables in the abc frame can be transferred to the d-q frame by Clark transformation. Schematic representation of the test power system with a 2-leg and 4-switch STATCOM. the output reactive power of a STATCOM is controlled by the magnitude of q-axis current component of the proposed two-leg four-switch (2L-4S) STATCOM. (6) f qdos = Kf abcs The transformation matrix K is defined as 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ⎛ ⎢cos θ s cos ⎜ θ s − 3 ⎟ cos ⎜ θs + 3 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 2 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎥ ⎛ ⎛ K = ⎢sin θ s sin ⎜ θs − ⎟ sin ⎜ θs + ⎟ 3 3 ⎠ 3 ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎝ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ (7) Substituting abc variables from (1) to (5) into (6). Rs } LS = diag { Ls . In (1). For thedc-side circuit of the STATCOM. and The Vml is the amplitude of load terminal voltage. the control of each current component regulating the corresponding power components ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1 ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print). Rs . RS = diag { Rs . 2011. (5) − 3 Am ⎡ iqs sin (α m − α ) ⎤ ⎛v ⎞ p ⎜ dc ⎟ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 3 C ⎢ ⎣ + ids cos (α m − α ) ⎥ ⎦ (11) αm are respectively the amplitude and angle modulation indices. ω Under steady-state and balanced three phase conditions. It is important to note that if a dc source can be added to the STATCOM the control of real and reactive power on the connected point of transmission line can be achieved by adjusting the voltage with an appropriate magnitude and angle of the inverter. v dc is the dc bus voltage.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II. In this study.18. the voltage equations (8) of the STATCOM in the d-q frame are obtained using (7): Fig. Since va and phase current ia the dynamic model of an electrical power system is traditionally developed in a d-q frame. as desired. the STATCOM terminal voltages can be expressed as follows: 2π ⎡ ⎛ ias sin (θ m ) + ibs sin ⎜ θ m − ⎢ 3 −1 ⎝ idc = Am ⎢ ⎢ 3 2π ⎞ ⎛ ⎢ + ics sin ⎜ θ m + 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠ ⎥ (10) ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ sin θ m (t ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎡ vas (t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ v (t ) ⎥ = 1 A v ⎢sin(θ t − 2π ) ⎥ ( ) m dc m ⎢ bs ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ( ) v t ⎢ ⎣ cs ⎦ 2π ⎥ )⎥ ⎢sin(θ m ( t ) + 3 ⎦ ⎣ where. Ls . 1. and Using abc variables from (10) and the transformation equation (6). Thus. 1. a transformation matrix is selected such that the voltage and current components of STATCOM are proportional to its real and reactive power components respectively. Hong Kong three-phase inverter can independently generate or absorb controllable reactive power as desired and thereby provides independent shunt reactive compensation for the system. Am and is the system frequency. we have Vabcs = [Vas Vbs Vcs ] T (2) (3) ⎛v p ⎜ dc ⎝ 2 ⎞ 1 ⎟ = ( idc ) ⎠ C (9) and the dc-side current can be mathematically expressed as iabcs = [ias ibs ics ] T T Vabcl = [Val Vbl Vcl ] (4) Considering only the fundamental components of the switching functions of the converter switches. IMECS 2011. ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online) 3 3 v i cos (θ v − θ i ) = ( v qiq + vd id ) 2 2 3 3 Q = v i sin (θ v − θ i ) = ( v q iq − v d id ) 2 2 P= (12) (13) IMECS 2011 . March 16 . the three phase active power and reactive power of the STATCOM may be expressed in terms of d-q quantities as (12) and (13). . B. the ac-side voltage equations of the STATCOM can be expressed as: ⎡sin (αm − α ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 Amvdc ⎢cos (α m − α )⎥ = RS iqdos + Lsp (iqdos ) 3 ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 0 1 0 ⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ + ω -1 0 0 Ls iqdos + v ml ⎢1 ⎥ (8) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣0⎥ ⎦ v abcs = RS iabcs + Ls p ( iabcs ) + v abcl (1) The P in the above equation is a derivative operator. STATCOM Mathematical Model From Fig. the d-q model of the dc circuit can be obtained as (11). Ls } .

T and V ref in first section can be expressed as Vref = T1 T V1 + 2 V2 = Vα α + Vβ β T T (19) D. the angle and the corresponding section data of the desired voltage signal can be obtained. the T1 and T2 in other sections can be readily derived. V2 = V20 − V30 T1 = − 2 V3 = V30 − V10 . (17) and (19). V2 (1.1) V1 (0. Topology structure of three-phase voltage source inverter Using Vα and Vβ. In addition.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II. which are set to “1” when the switch is closed and “0” when it is open.1) 3 T2 1 T Vdc . Using the above vector definitions one may split the αβ plane into four (I to IV) sectors as shown in Fig. 2011.0) θ = tan −1 ⎜ Calculating TX . 3. 2 the switching status is represented by binary variables q1 to q4. the switches in one inverter branch are controlled complementary. V3 (1. the voltage components are given by T 2 T Vβ . These vectors are phase shifted of π /2 from each other.18. TY = Vdc 2 Vα 3 (24) 1 (q1 + q2 − 1)Vdc Vβ = 2 With the similar method. Hong Kong C. TY can be calculated as follows.q 2 )V dc 2 TX = 2 (16) (17) T Vβ . Fig. 2. Vα and Vβ can be calculated as expressed in (22). the desired voltage can be mathematically expressed as: V ref = V1T1 + V 2 T 2 + V 3T3 + V 4 T 4 T2 V T 2 (18) Vα α q1 + q 3 = 1 q2 + q4 = 1 (14) (15) T1 V1 T V β β V ref Combinations of switching S1-S4 result in 4 general space vectors V1 -V4 as shown in Fig. V2 = −V4 Consequently.Vβ = − Vdc 1 2 T T 2 (22) Fig.4. ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1 ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print). The components αβ of the voltage vectors are gained from abc voltages by using Clark’s transformation. V1 = V10 −V20 . T2 = − Vα Vdc 3 Vdc (23) Vα = 3 (q 1 . the following relations can be derived. Voltage vectors of the SVPWM in first section. Voltage SVPWM Controllers for the Voltage Source Inverter The modeling steps of a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithm are described in this subsection. Modelling of SVPWM Control Patterns Calculating the Section Data of Vref: Fig. Basic voltage space vectors for 2L-4S inverter Also. According to the space vector technique.4. IMECS 2011. 3. March 16 . From (16). therefore: Let V ref represents the reference voltage being synthesized by the 2L-4S inverter within a switching period of length. From Fig. the T1 and T2 can be obtained as follows. ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online) IMECS 2011 .0) V1 = - 1 3 Vdc β . The combinations of the states of the switches originate four different vectors and the related parameters in the αβ plane are given in Table 1 and 2. Section(1): 270~0 degrees. 4. From Fig. V2 = Vdc a 2 2 (21) Vα = V4 (0. According to the system setup shown in Fig. 3.TY: ⎛ Vβ ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ Vα ⎠ (20) TX.

6 0.9 1 Fig. The STATCOM is placed at the load bus to support the voltage. 5.5 0 0. 5 shows the control system block diagram of the proposed P-Q controllers and the STATCOM circuits.2700 T1 T2 -TX -TY -TX TY Ty Tx -Ty Tx To make an easier representation of the PWM operations. Hong Kong Switch Sequence: In normal operations. This simple system is chosen in order to evaluate the power flow control performances of the proposed new STATCOM configurations with two basic control strategies.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II.5 0 0.00 00 . 7 to 9 show a set of typical simulation results. control of the STATCOM active and reactive currents can be achieved by respectively varying the active and reactive components of the internal inverter voltage. The overall control system and parameters 1. * Vdc Fig.1 0. controls and the nonlinear power network. a triangle wave with proper frequency is used to compare with Taon . 1 comprises a voltage source (a synchronous generator with an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is used). VAR 0. Fig. The amplitude of the triangle wave represents modulated period T while the frequency of the triangle wave can be chosen based on the capability of IGBT used. Table 2. 6.900 900 . one for the real power (or equivalently the dc voltage) and the other for reactive power regulation. The control system block diagram of the proposed P-Q controllers 2 1. in which the control results concerning (1) reactive power regulations and (2) PCC voltage regulations under load disturbances (two-steps in load changes) with the proposed SVPWM methods are presented.e.5 0 -0. 7.18. IMPLEMENTATION OF STATCOM P-Q CONTROLLERS As mentioned previously.5 -2 -2.5 -1 -1. 7. 5 (PI and decoupled controllers) is used to perform the P&Q power flow control functions. the control scheme shown in Fig.2 0.2 0. 2011.5 1 P Q IV. March 16 . As well known. in a normal operation two sets of separate controllers are used for controlling the STATCOM. 2700 .900 Tbon Tcon S3 S4 1800 .1800 Taon Tbon III.00 Tcon Tbon 900 . two variables CMPR1 and CMPR2 can be used in section I to IV as shown in Table 2. The power system shown in Fig.7 0.1 is simulated in a Matlab/Simulink environment. i.3 0.1 0. which is connected to a load bus W .8 0.5 Time(s) 0. Fig. Tbon and Tcon .4 0. The detailed control structure for the proposed STATCOM and the related system parameters are shown in Fig. In Fig.4 e2 VPCC * iqs 0. Table 1. (b) The effects of reactive power regulations (two-steps in Q command changes) on the real power (the blue line) with the proposed SVPWM controller. The T1 and T2 in all sections S1 S3 S2 2700 .7 0.1800 S4 1800 .5 x 10 7 Fig.3 0.9 1 Fig.5 -1 D2 V * PCC − ωLs -1.2700 Tbon Taon through a transmission lines. ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online) IMECS 2011 . 6. Simulink model tool is a commercial grade transient simulator of electric networks with the capability of modeling complex power electronics.5 VAR * vqs Vdc D1 ωLs 0 -0. the single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) power system as shown in Fig.8 0. ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1 ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print).5 x 10 7 Q Q* 1 e1 * ids * vds 0. (a) Reactive power regulations (two-steps in Q command changes) with the proposed SVPWM controller.5 Time(s) 0. 6.6 0. IMECS 2011. reactive power and voltage regulations. The comparator values in various sections Sections Values CMPR1 CMPR2 S1 S2 00 . TEST POWER SYSTEMS AND RESULTS For identifying and controlling the dynamics of the power system and the 2-leg 4-switch STATCOM. 2.

5 2 1. (b) The terminal voltages of the STATCOM in P-Q regulations (two-steps in P-Q command changes) with the proposed SVPWM controller. 1.5 VAR(pu) 0 -0. 2.5 0.7 0.18.6 Time(s) 0.8 0.5 -1 -1. 9. Hong Kong 2. (a) The P-Q regulation results (two-steps in P-Q command changes) with the proposed SVPWM controller. IMECS 2011.85 9.7 0.5 V(pu) 0 -0.5 2 x 10 4 Fig.5 -1 -1.2 0.7 0.6 0.4 0. (B) PCC Voltage with the 2L-4S STATCOM in operation.7 0.9 1 -2 0 0.05 10 DC Voltage on the two capacitors 9. VAR 0 -0.8 0. 9.05 (B) (I) V(pu) 1 ( II ) 10.3 0. Vdc* Vdc 1.4 0.5 -1 Q -1.6 0.8 0. (a) The PCC Voltage regulation results (two-steps in load changes) with SVPWM controller: (A) PCC Voltage uncontrolled. 8.1 0.8 1 Fig.5 -2 -2.5 0.5 P Q (A ) 1 P 0. 9.6 Tim e(s) 0.5 Time(s) 0. (d) The dc voltage of the STATCOM in reactive power regulations (two-steps in Q command changes) with the proposed SVPWM controller.1 0.8 0.5 0 0 0.3 0.1 0.5 0 -0.4 0.15 10.9 9.5 -1 -1. (b) The corresponding P-Q results in PCC voltage regulations (two-steps in load changes. (c) The corresponding terminal voltages of the STATCOM in PCC voltage regulations (two-steps in load changes).8 0. ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online) IMECS 2011 . 7.4 0.1 0.8 1 Fig. 8. ISBN: 978-988-19251-2-1 ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print).3 0.9 1 0.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol II.2 0.95 0 0.6 Time(s) 0.4 0.5 -1.5 -1 x 10 7 Fig.5 0. 2011.5 1 (I) ( II ) (A) 1.5 Time(s) 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.5 -2 -2.2 0.2 0.5 0 0.3 0.9 1 Fig.5 W .6 0.3 0.5 0.5 0 -0.4 Time(s) 0.5 Time(s) 0.5 1 3-Phase Voltage 0.8 0.1 DC(V) 10. 2 1.2 0.5 -2 -2. March 16 .6 0.7 0.9 1 0.2 0.1 0.9 1 0.05 (A ) (I) V(pu) 1 ( II ) 0. Fig.5 1 0.2 0. (c) The terminal voltages of the STATCOM in reactive power regulations (two-steps in Q command changes) with the proposed SVPWM controller.95 0 0 0. 2.9 1 Fig.3 0.4 T im e(s) 0.2 0.5 1 3-Phase Voltage 0.5 x 10 4 1.8 0 0. 7.95 9.1 0.5 2 1.

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