2) Design considerations: Parking lots have their own special type of engineering.

When designed and constructed properly, they can be an attractive part of the facility that is safe and more importantly usable to its maximum capacity. Together with providing appropriate levels of parking it is also essential for it to be user friendly. This section of the report justifies how the chosen design structure fits around the car park requirements providing effective support. Pedestrians The needs of pedestrians should be taken into account when designing a car park. This includes both those who have parked and those accessing the development on foot. Spacious and enough pedestrian access to and around the car park spaces has been provided on every floor. Pedestrian desire lines have been identified and access has then been provided along these routes rather than simply relying on the vehicular route. Provisions have been made so that they can walk easily and safely around the car park. Lifts and staircases have been provided for comfortable movement between floors. Fire escapes have been provided in case of an emergency. Movement Users will drive in from the side street on a downwards gradient onto the oneway curved ramp structure. At the base of the ramp structure they will collect their tickets from the barrier arm, which will then rise allowing them to drive onto the ramp. Each floor consists of a detector that shows the number of spaces before the users leave the ramp. This also implies that the cars will have to drive on one floor to get a guaranteed space. The car park will have one basement floor, one ground level floor with disabled parking and exit onto the side street through the pedestrian area marked on plan, and three upper floors. A clear headroom of 2.3m has been provide between each floor. Structural One-way curved ramp structure:The ramp structure from outside to inside has a 0.25m thick concrete wall, 0.6m structural clearance and is 3.65m wide. Straight ramp sections are 5m long, whereas curved ramp sections have 9m outer radii and the centre of the driving area is at 7.175m radius. The total driving distance considered on curved ramp section is 22.54m. Therefore the total distance on one loop is 55.08m with a gradient of 1:18.5. Floor plan: The ground floor has 143 normal and 30 disabled user stalls. Whereas, there are 188 stalls on every other floor. Therefore there are a total of 925 spaces on all the five floors. Each of the normal stall is 2.4m*4.8m as specified for mixed use.

Whereas, the disabled stalls are 3.6m*4.8m as specified by standards. The total bin width provided is 15.6m. Clearly demarcated one-way aisles are provided 6m wide, with exception of short areas marked on the drawing. These short areas are 5.2m wide straight sections and hence no maneuvering or turning skills are required for parking. Side walls: Partial concrete walls on the edge of the open car park structure will provide the bracing required by acting as an implied tie and strut. These walls are 0.175m thick and 0.75m high, providing an open area between them and the roof. This helps save materials reducing costs and also provides effective ventilation. Columns: Uniformly sized columns of 0.35*0.35*3m are positioned at the rear of the space and 0.6m from front. This allows rooms for cars to turn into spaces and leaves enough room to open their doors. Foundations: A total of 174 Pad foundations of area 500*500mm and depth 200mm have been provided. Pad foundations help minimize the cost of concrete necessary and at the same time reduces the excavation needed when compared to other foundations.