Testing Techniques & Levels of Testing.

Day 3-Session 1 Lavanya.M

Static Testing Static testing, the review, inspection and validation of development requirements, is the most effective and cost efficient way of testing. Dynamic Testing Testing that is commonly assumed to mean executing software and finding errors is dynamic testing Black Box Testing or Functional White Box Testing or Structural

Testing Techniques

Black Box Testing White Box Testing

White Box Techniques
Statement coverage : Execute each & every statement of the code is called Statement coverage. Decision Coverage : Execute each decision direction at least once Conditional Coverage : Execute each & every condition. Loop coverage : Execute each & every loop.

Black Box Testing Techniques
Equivalence Partitioning

Boundary Value Analysis

Error Guessing

Equivalence partitioning
Equivalence Partitioning: An approach where classes of inputs are categorized for product or function validation. This usually does not include combinations of input, but rather a single state value based by class. For example, with a given function there may be several classes of input that may be used for positive testing. If function expects an integer and receives an integer as input, this would be considered as positive test assertion. On the other hand, if a character or any other input class other than integer is provided, this would be considered a negative test assertion or condition. E.g.: Verify a credit limit within a given range(1,000 – 2,000). Here we can identify 3 conditions
1. 2. 3.

< 1000 Between 1,000 and 2,000 >2000


Boundary Value Analysis

BVA is different from equivalence partitioning in that it focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. This means that if function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001. BVA attempts to derive the value often used as a technique for stress, load or volume testing. This type of validation is usually performed after positive functional validation has completed (successfully) using requirements specifications and user documentation

BVA (Boundary Value Analysis )( Here we can define for Size and Range) Size: three Range:

Min Pass Min-1 Fail Min+1 Pass Max Pass Max-1 Pass Max+1 Fail


16 to 80

Error Guessing Based on the Functionality, and the experience of the Tester. They will have a intuition. E.g.: Date Input – February 30, 2000 Decimal Digit – 1.99.

Levels of Testing
Unit Testing Integration Testing System Testing Acceptance Testing

Unit Testing
Require knowledge of code
– High level of detail – Deliver thoroughly tested components to integration

Stopping criteria
– Code Coverage – Quality

Integration Testing
– Bottom-up, start from bottom and add one at a time – Top-down, start from top and add one at a time – Big-bang, everything at once

Simulation of other components
– Stubs receive output from test objects – Drivers generate input to test objects

System Testing
Functional testing
– Test end to end functionality, Testing against complete requirement. – Requirement focus
• Test cases derived from specification

Use-case focus
• Test selection based on user profile

Acceptance Testing
User (or customer) involved Environment as close to field use as possible Focus on:
– Building confidence – Compliance with defined acceptance criteria in the contract

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