You are on page 1of 14

Testing Techniques & Levels of


Day 3-Session 1
Static Testing
Static testing, the review, inspection and
validation of development requirements, is the most effective and
cost efficient way of testing.
Dynamic Testing
Testing that is commonly assumed to mean
executing software and finding errors is dynamic testing

Black Box Testing or Functional

White Box Testing or Structural

Testing Techniques

Black Box Testing

White Box Testing
White Box Techniques
Statement coverage : Execute each & every
statement of the code is called Statement
Decision Coverage : Execute each decision
direction at least once
Conditional Coverage : Execute each & every
Loop coverage : Execute each & every loop.
Black Box Testing

Equivalence Partitioning

Boundary Value Analysis

Error Guessing
Equivalence partitioning
Equivalence Partitioning: An approach where classes of inputs are
categorized for product or function validation. This usually does not
include combinations of input, but rather a single state value based by
class. For example, with a given function there may be several classes
of input that may be used for positive testing. If function expects an
integer and receives an integer as input, this would be considered as
positive test assertion. On the other hand, if a character or any other
input class other than integer is provided, this would be considered a
negative test assertion or condition.
E.g.: Verify a credit limit within a given range(1,000 – 2,000). Here we can
identify 3 conditions
1. < 1000
2. Between 1,000 and 2,000
3. >2000

Boundary Value Analysis

BVA is different from equivalence partitioning in that it

focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually out of
range as defined by the specification. This means that if
function expects all values in range of negative 100 to
positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and
positive 1001. BVA attempts to derive the value often used
as a technique for stress, load or volume testing. This type
of validation is usually performed after positive functional
validation has completed (successfully) using
requirements specifications and user documentation
BVA (Boundary Value Analysis )( Here we can define
for Size and Range)
Size: three

Min  Pass Age

Max Pass 16 to 80
Error Guessing
Based on the Functionality, and the
experience of the Tester. They will have a
E.g.: Date Input – February 30, 2000
Decimal Digit – 1.99.
Levels of Testing

Unit Testing

Integration Testing

System Testing

Acceptance Testing
Unit Testing
Require knowledge of code
– High level of detail
– Deliver thoroughly tested components to
Stopping criteria
– Code Coverage
– Quality
Integration Testing
– Bottom-up, start from bottom and add one at
a time
– Top-down, start from top and add one at a
– Big-bang, everything at once
Simulation of other components
– Stubs receive output from test objects
– Drivers generate input to test objects
System Testing
Functional testing
– Test end to end functionality, Testing against
complete requirement.
– Requirement focus
• Test cases derived from specification
Use-case focus
• Test selection based on user profile
Acceptance Testing

User (or customer) involved

Environment as close to field use as
Focus on:
– Building confidence
– Compliance with defined acceptance
criteria in the contract